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Educational Modules in Process Design and

Operability
AIChE Annual Meeting
Session on CACHE Corporation
November 17, 2008

Thomas E. Marlin
Department of Chemical Engineering
And McMaster Advanced Control Consortium
www.macc.mcmaster.ca

McMASTER
UNIVERSITY
1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7
Copyright 2007 by Thomas Marlin

GOALS OF THE PRESENTATION


Provide a (not the) definition of operability
- A taxonomy of issues
Demonstrate that operability is not a collection
of tricks
- Improves teaching of fundamentals
- Motivates students to learn/apply
Whet your appetite, refer to WEB site for
expanded coverage
Introduce project to develop and share
educational materials

Too
little
time!

DESIGN IS NOT FOR A SINGLE POINT


BECAUSE OF VARIABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY
L
2

Feed
composition

LAH
LAL

To flare

Production rate

Reaction
kinetics

LC
1

FC
1

This is not
obvious
Must be in
Design
Specification

TC
2

Efficiency

TC
1

F
4
fuel
T
10
T
12

Temperature

T
11

T
13

Pressure drop

Key Operability
issues

1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

3. Reliability

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions
6. Dynamic
Performance

IS THIS PROCESS
OPERABLE?
Key Operability
Topics
1. Operating window

Feed tank

2. Flexibility/controllability

LC
1

3. Reliability Feed-effluent
FC
1

exchanger

4. Safety & equipment protection


5. Operation during transitions
6. Dynamic Performance
7. Efficiency

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

8. Monitoring & diagnosis


Packed catalyst bed, exothermic reactions

Key Operability
issues

Key Challenge

1. Operating
window

How do we enable students to solve


complex problems with multiple
objectives?

2. Flexibility/
controllability

3. Reliability

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions

Provide superstructure for knowledge

Link to technology basics

Show compelling, practical examples (within the


students grasp)

Provide supporting professional skills

Encourage (require) students to investigate,


discover and evaluate issues in real processes

6. Dynamic
Performance

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

Key Operability
issues

RELIABILITY

1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

What aspects contribute to reliability?


L
2

LAH
LAL

To flare

LC
1

3. Reliability
FC
1

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions
6. Dynamic
Performance

TC
2

F
4
fuel
T
10
T
12

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

TC
1

T
13

* Copyright by CCPS/American Institute of Chemical Engineers and copied with the permission of AIChE

T
11

Key Operability
issues

1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

3. Reliability

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

RELIABILITY
Diversity
L
2

By-pass valves

LAH
LAL

LC
1

FC
1

5. Operation
during
transitions

TC
2

TC
1

F
4

6. Dynamic
Performance

fuel
T
10

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

T
11

T
12
T
13

Parallel pumps

Hot spot

Key Operability
issues

1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

SAFETY & EQUIP. PROTECTION


Layers of Safety Protection
EMERGENCY/COMMUNITY RESPONSE

3. Reliability

CONTAINMENT

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

RELIEF

5. Operation
during
transitions
6. Dynamic
Performance

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

Safety Instrumented System


ALARMS
BPCS

Concentrate
on the first
four layers
Stay close to
the process

Key Operability
issues

SAFETY & EQUIP. PROTECTION


What aspects contribute to safety?

1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

L
2

LAH
LAL

To flare

LC
1

3. Reliability
FC
1

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions
6. Dynamic
Performance

TC
2

F
4
fuel
T
10
T
12

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

TC
1

T
13

* Copyright by CCPS/American Institute of Chemical Engineers and copied with the permission of AIChE

T
11

Key Operability
issues

SAFETY & EQUIP. PROTECTION

Alarm
1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

Safety Relief *
L
2

LAH
LAL

To flare

SIS for low flow


rate

LC
1

3. Reliability
FC
1

4. Safety &
equipment
protection
TC
2

5. Operation
during
transitions

F
4

6. Dynamic
Performance

fuel
T
10
T
12

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

TC
1

Fail closed valve

T
13

Temperature
control

* Copyright by CCPS/American Institute of Chemical Engineers and copied with the permission of AIChE

T
11

Key Operability
issues

SAFETY & EQUIP. PROTECTION

1. Operating
window

HAZOP method provides a


structured manner for safety
analysis (using qualitative analysis)

2. Flexibility/
controllability

Note the specific location

3. Reliability

Unit: ________Fired heater____________________


Node:___air pipe after compressor and valve_

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions
6. Dynamic
Performance

Guide Word

Deviation
Low pressure in the
fuel pipe node

lower

Parameter: __Pressure____________________
Cause
Stoppage of power
to motor or turbine
turning the
compressor

Consequence
Uncombusted fuel in
the fire box danger
of explosion

SIS based on the


rotation of motor
shaft *

Uncombusted fuel
wasted fuel

Principles
FC

feed

Engineering practice
TC

7. Efficiency

Break of coupling
between motor and
compressor
Failure of
compressor, e.g.,
breakage of blades
Closure of air valve
due to failure
Any of the above

(plus danger from


flying metal)

product

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

Action

air
fuel

Closure of air valve


due to poor decision
by operator

SIS based on
rotation of
compressor shaft*

Fail open valve


SIS that measures
the flow of air after
the pipe and
activates the
shutdown if the flow
if too low
Air flow controller
with ratio to fuel
flow

Key Operability
issues

OPERATION DURING TRANSITIONS


Disposition of effluent
during start-up

1. Operating
window
L
2

2. Flexibility/
controllability

LAH
LAL

To flare

(recycle, flare, storage, )


LC
1

3. Reliability
FC
1

4. Safety &
equipment
protection
TC
2

5. Operation
during
transitions

F
4

6. Dynamic
Performance

fuel
T
10

Heating required
during start-up

T
13

T
11

Extra sensor with


large range
T
12

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

TC
1

Key Operability
issues

EFFICIENCY & PROFIT

1. Operating
window
L
2

2. Flexibility/
controllability

3. Reliability

Minimize heating using fuel,


while keeping by-pass open

LAH
LAL

LC
1

FC
1

4. Safety &
equipment
protection
TC
2

5. Operation
during
transitions

F
4

TC
20
fuel

6. Dynamic
Performance

T
10
T
12

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

TC
1

Operate at highest
conversion without
excess temperature

T
13

T
11

>
TY
15

Key Operability
issues

1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

MONITORING & DIAGNOSIS


Systematic
Problem
Solving
Method!

Feed tank

FC
1
P3
T4

TC
3

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions
6. Dynamic
Performance

7. Efficiency

Process
Trouble
Shooting

Air
Intake

T7

F
7

C.W.

2. Define
3. Explore
Hypothesis

F
2

Fuel
oil

1. Engage

Product
tank

Initial inform ation

Diagnostic Action

T sensor drift

Neutral

Fuel valve is stuck open

Disprove
(Tem perature would
increase)
Disprove
(previous changes were
controlled)

Check with tem perature at


exit of reactor
Place flow controller in
m anual and m ake sm all
change to controller output
________________

4. Plan

5. Implement

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

FC
5

V300

3. Reliability

Feed
causing T decrease
6.rate
Evaluate
(TC too slow)

FISHBONE DIAGRAM FOR


MONITORING & DIAGNOSIS

Key Operability
issues

1. Operating
window

Delta pressure sensor calibrated incorrectly (reading


higher level than actually exists)
Connection point (tap) blocked/corroded (level
measurement is constant)

2. Flexibility/
controllability

Sensor
error

TC-5 poorly tuned (oscillating and


creating too much vapor overhead)
Too much
liquid into the
tank

3. Reliability

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions

High
level in
V-30
Valve
malfunction
Too little liquid
leaving the
tank

Increased feed rate (level controller will lower


level in time)
Increased propane feed (level controller will
lower level in time)

Reflux or product flow valve failed closed (safe)


Reflux or product flow valve stuck , not responding
to control signal
Power loss (motor failure or coupling break)

6. Dynamic
Performance

7. Efficiency

Steam valve fails open (unsafe)

Poor
feedback
control

Pump
malfunction

Caviation
Vortex (unlikely with high level)
Magnitude of feedback controller gain (Kc) is too small

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

Distillate liquid product valve saturation

INSTRUCTORS EXPERIENCES

Any problem-based teaching style will likely satisfy needs

Heavy load to develop

Operability involves generic topics that are applicable to


essentially any process (would have to be modified for
product design). See sample projects from previous years.

Ammonia reactor and separation loop


Milk powder evaporators and fluid bed
drier
Municipal water purification plant
Desalination plant by reverse osmosis
Ice cream production

Penicillin production (reactor and


separation)
Refrigeration and cooling tower plant
Boiler feed water treatment and storage
Kraft pulp digester
Wine production

STUDENTS EXPERIENCES
The Good

Students enjoyed the problem solving tasks


(e.g., HAZOP and Trouble Shooting)

Defined diverse projects & found good operability issues

The Bad

Difficulty recognizing causes of variability and


uncertainty

Challenge to work backwards: effect

The Ugly

To much (open-ended) work!

cause

Educational Modules in Process Design and


Operability

Integrate Robust design/process operability in the


capstone design course

No instructor has experience with all issues

Limited educational material is available that is accessible to


undergraduates

Project to establish a portal


for robust design/ process
operability, with
educational materials for
public use

Key Operability
issues

1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

Educational Modules in Process Design


and Operability
For each topic
A Chapter in pdf format

3. Reliability

Class materials (powerpoint, tutorials)


4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions

Cogent process examples for undergraduates


Links to resources for problem solving

6. Dynamic
Performance

To integrate materials
7. Efficiency

An introductory chapter
8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

Several process examples

Key Operability
issues

1. Operating
window

2. Flexibility/
controllability

3. Reliability

Educational Modules in Process Design


and Operability
our
y
r
ks fo
n
a
Th tion
atten

4. Safety &
equipment
protection

5. Operation
during
transitions
6. Dynamic
Performance

We would appreciate comments, criticism,


suggestions at any time, now or by email.

7. Efficiency

8. Monitoring &
diagnosis

Expanded copy of white paper and power point lessons are available at

www.pc-education.mcmaster.ca/operability_home.html