Prediction of Fatigue Failure in a Camshaft Using the Crack Method

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Prediction of Fatigue Failure in a Camshaft Using the Crack Method

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Fatigue Overview
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- RP-C203 Fatigue.pdf
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- Lawn - Fracture of Brittle Solids - Chapter 1
- 5 Effect of Heat Treatment
- Frac to Graphy

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modelling method

G. Wang a,*, D. Taylor a, B. Bouquin a, J. Devlukia b, A. Ciepalowicz b

a

b

Rover Group, Gaydon Test Centre, Warwick, UK

Received 30 April 1999; accepted 26 June 1999

Abstract

Camshafts made of grey cast iron and used in Rover vehicles were tested under cyclic bending and torsion and

modelled using FE. A new technique known as crack modelling was used to predict the fatigue limit. The method

uses a linear elastic nite element analysis to derive an equivalent stress intensity factor (K ) for stress concentrations

in components. K is calculated without introducing a crack into the component: the stress eld around the

maximum stress point is examined and compared to that for a standard centre-cracked plate. This component was a

challenge for the technique because it involved a blunt notch and local surface eects. Fatigue limits were

successfully predicted for two dierent designs and two loading modes, but some inaccuracies remain which suggest

modications to the theory. # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fatigue limit; Stress concentrations; Finite element analysis; Surface layers; Cast iron

1. Introduction

Fatigue failure in components usually initiates at stress concentrations: geometric features such as

holes, grooves and corners, and despite some local plasticity, high-cycle fatigue behaviour is essentially a

linearelastic problem. Traditional methods show poor accuracy when applied to high-gradient stress

concentrations (e.g. sharp notches and small notches) and to materials of low notch-sensitivity (e.g. cast

irons). The crack modelling approach deals with this problem by modelling the notch as a crack. This

allows the calculation of an equivalent stress-intensity factor (K ), enabling standard fracture mechanics

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +353-1-6081976; fax: +353-1-6795554.

E-mail address: wangg@tcd.ie (G. Wang).

1350-6307/00/$ - see front matter # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 1 3 5 0 - 6 3 0 7 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 1 5 - 1

190

methodology to be used. Fatigue is assumed to occur if the cyclic value of K exceeds the crack

propagation threshold.

Previous papers [1,2] have reported the application of this method to components of complex

geometry, which were subjected to bending and, recently [3], torsion. The present paper considers a

component which presented two challenges for the method. Firstly, failure occurred from a relatively

blunt notch, whose stress-concentration factor, Kt, was approximately 2, so it was not clear whether this

type of notch could be usefully modelled using fracture mechanics; secondly, the as-cast component was

known to have a hard surface layer which appeared to improve its fatigue strength. It was therefore

necessary to extend the crack modelling method to include this eect.

2. Experimental details

Tables 1 and 2 show the material properties and composition of the material, which was a typical

grey cast iron. The threshold stress intensity factor at R=1 was found previously [4] to be

DKth=15.94 MPa m1/2.

Fig. 1 shows a general view of the camshaft component, which contained a number of geometric

features. The component was clamped at one end as shown, and loaded either in bending or torsion

(both at R=1), to produce failure at a chosen location, as shown in the detail in Fig. 1. Two designs

were tested: the rst had an as-cast notch, 1 mm deep, 1.5 mm root radius; in the second design,

machining was used to remove the cast surface, deepening the notch to 1.75 with 1.63 mm root radius.

The Kt factors for these notches were 2.1 in bending (for both notch depths) and 1.6 for the as-cast

notch in torsion. The S/N data for the material was obtained using standard hourglass specimens loaded

in axial tension/compression at R=1. Vickers hardness was measured using macro- and micro-indents,

to record its variation as a function of distance from the surface.

3. Results

Figs. 24 show test results in the form of Wohler curves, plotting applied load range for the

component tested in bending (Fig. 2), torque range for the torsion testing (Fig. 3) and stress range for

the plain specimens (Fig. 4). The material fatigue limit, dened at 107 cycles, was 190 MPa. The results

Table 1

Mechanical properties of grey cast iron

Young's modulus

Poisson's ratio

Yield stress

Ultimate strength

170 GPa

0.29

202 MPa (s0.2)

249 MPa

Table 2

Composition of grey cast iron (% weight)

C

Mn

Si

Ni

Cu

Cr

3.3

0.09

1.5

1.8

0.07

0.2

0.03

0.05

191

Fig. 1. Camshaft component, showing loading and detail of the notch which caused failure.

showed a degree of scatter which is typical for this material, giving variations on the load (or stress) axis

of 1020% from the mean.

Fig. 5 shows hardness results; it is clear that, despite some scatter, the micro-indent hardness of the

as-cast component was higher near the surface, especially within 1 mm, whereas this was not the case

for the machined component or for the macro-indent hardness readings. The average Vickers-hardness

on the as-cast surface was 395.5. The average value in the bulk was 326.6. This dierence appeared to

arise due to a change in the amount and morphology of the cementite phase; it was thus detected by the

Fig. 2. Camshaft bending test results: (a) as-cast notch; (b) machined notch.

192

micro-indents, which were always placed in the matrix (pearlite/cementite) and not in the graphite

nodules. The average value for the machined condition was 319.3, which is not signicantly dierent

from the as-cast bulk value.

193

Fig. 5. Vickers-hardness of camshaft: (1) micro hardness on the machined surface; (2) macro hardness on the machine surface; (3)

micro hardness on the as-cast surface; (4) macro hardness on the as-cast surface.

ANSYS software was used to create a nite element model; a quarter model was used (Fig. 6) because

the component is axially symmetrical apart from the cam lobes which do no carry much stress. The

bending and torsion loading was treated as a symmetrical or asymmetrical load, respectively. The

models were meshed using 3-D parabolic tetrahedral elements. Element size close to the notch was

about 0.75 mm.

A linear elastic analysis was used. In each case the highest stress occurred at the notch tip. Fig. 7

shows the rst principal stress plotted as a function of distance, r, measured from the notch tip along a

Fig. 6. The nite element model, showing in detail the mesh around the notch tip. The arrow shows the line on which the stress

distance curve was measured.

194

Fig. 7. FEA results: sr curves for each case at the experimental fatigue limit.

straight line drawn in the direction perpendicular to the rst principal stress direction at the tip (see Fig.

6). The loading in each case corresponds to the experimental fatigue limit of the component.

5. Prediction of fatigue limit

5.1. The crack modelling method

The crack modelling method has been described in detail elsewhere [1,2,5]. It is based on the

Westergaard equation which gives the stress-distance (sr ) function for a crack of length aw in tension

at a stress sw in an innite plate:

s sw =1 aw =aw r2 1=2 :

The values of sw and aw in Eq. (1) can be varied to obtain a best t with the sr curve taken from a

component (as in Fig. 7). Then the appropriate K value is given by:

p

2

K sw paw :

This method assumes that if the equivalent stress intensity range, DK, found by applying Eq. (2), is less

than the threshold value of the material, fatigue failure will not occur. A post-processor was written in

Visual Basic to interface with ANSYS software, allowing the value of K to be calculated automatically.

Previous publications [2,3,5] have discussed the choice of direction on which to measure the sr curve

and the start and end points of the curve.

Table 3 shows predictions of the fatigue limit of the component (expressed in terms of applied load

range); here the crack modelling method is compared with predictions made simply by using the

maximum stress at the notch (i.e. the hot-spot stress). It is clear that the use of maximum stress

underestimates the performance of the component considerably. It is possible to modify this hot-spot

prediction by using empirical factors which depend on root radius (e.g. Peterson [6]) or on local stress

gradient (e.g. Siebel and Stieler [7]). Such factors are commonly used in industry but are unreliable

because they are highly material-dependent and not mechanistically based. Another commonly used

method is the `local-strain approach' in which performance is based on notch-root plastic strain. This

also gives improved predictions but requires a lot of specialised material data such as cyclic stressstrain

curves and elasticplastic FEA. The crack modelling method is advocated instead of the above methods

because it requires relatively little data and a simple elastic FE analysis, and because it is grounded in

195

Table 3

Prediction of fatigue limit: without considering the surface eect

Load

Exp. data

Bendinga (kN)

Bendingb (kN)

Torsiona (Nm)

a

b

1.50

3.10

510

Dsmax (MPa)

DP

Error %

DP

Error %

408.00

672.00

360.00

0.70

0.88

269.17

53.43

71.73

47.22

13.10

23.40

16.20

1.83

2.11

501.81

21.68

31.88

1.60

Camshaft in as-cast form.

the well-known methods of fracture mechanics. In this case the crack modelling prediction was an

improvement over the maximum-stress prediction in all three cases, but signicant errors remained,

especially for the as-cast case in bending. Table 4 shows a revised prediction in which a correction factor

was introduced to allow for the surface eect noted above.

This correction was made by using the methodology of Murakami and Endo [8,9], who proposed a

generalised method for the analysis of small surface defects and notches. They proposed that, for steels,

the fatigue limit could be predicted by assuming that the notch was a crack: the size parameter they

used was `area' dened as the area of the defect projected normal to the stress axis. They proposed

equations for the fatigue limit and threshold for notches in all steels, as follows:

p

Ds 1:43Hv 120 area1=6 ,

p

DKth 3:3 103 Hv 120 area1=3 :

Here Hv is the Vickers micro-hardness. Since in a case such as the present one where the notch

geometry is kept constant and the hardness changes, both the threshold and the fatigue limit should

increase in proportion to (Hv+120) which, given the hardness values quoted above, implies an increase

of a factor of 1.15 for the as-cast case. This increase applies to the maximum-stress method as well as to

the crack-modelling method.

Table 4

Prediction of fatigue limit: including the surface eect

Load

Bendinga (kN)

Bendingb (kN)

Torsionb (Nm)

a

b

Exp. data

1.50

3.10

510

Camshaft in as-cast form.

Dsmax (MPa)

DP

Error %

DK (MPa m1/2)

DP

Error %

408.00

672.00

360.00

0.70

1.01

309.54

53.43

67.49

39.31

13.10

23.40

16.20

1.83

2.43

577.09

21.68

21.66

13.15

196

6. Discussion

As Table 4 shows, this method, along with the correction for surface hardness, has the eect of

bringing all the predictions to within about 20% of the experimental values. This is quite satisfactory,

since one would expect errors of at least 10% in the experimental results, the FE analysis and the basic

material data. However, it is interesting to note that the prediction for torsion loading is relatively nonconservative, whereas that for bending (as-cast) is conservative. This implies that the method

overestimates the fatigue strength in torsion, and this problem is one which merits further investigation.

This analysis has also demonstrated that, in some cases, the crack-modelling method can be applied

to very blunt notches. Previous papers [5,10] discussed the range of validity of the method: following

Smith and Miller [11] it is assumed that this fracture-mechanics approach will be valid for relatively

sharp notches, with the maximum-stress method being valid for blunter ones. However, for a material

such as cast iron, which has a particularly low notch-sensitivity, the crack-modelling method will have a

greater range of validity, being preferred for many of the stress concentrations which are found on

components.

7. Conclusions

1. The crack-modelling method, which predicts fatigue limits of stress concentrations using a fracturemechanics approach, was able to predict the behaviour of an automotive camshaft component in two

dierent design cases under both bending and torsion loading.

2. Failure occurred from a very blunt notch (Kt=1.62.1) but even so the crack-modelling method gave

better predictions than a method using the maximum notch-root stress. This implies that the method

is suitable for a very wide range of features in materials of low notch-sensitivity, such as this grey

cast iron.

3. A simple method based on hardness measurements was successful in allowing for the existence of a

hardened surface layer. This provides some support for the approach of Murakami and Endo.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Enterprise Ireland and Materials Ireland for funding provided to one of

the authors (G. Wang).

References

[1] Taylor D. Crack modelling: a technique for the fatigue design of components. Engineering Failure Analysis 1996;3(2):12936.

[2] Taylor D, Ciepalowicz AJ, Rogers P, Devlukia J. Prediction of fatigue failure in a crankshaft using the technique of crack

modelling. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 1997;20(1):1321.

[3] Taylor D, Zhou W, Ciepalowicz AJ, Devlukia J, Mixed-mode fatigue from stress concentrations: an approach based on

equivalent stress intensity, Int J Fatigue 1999;21:1738 (in press).

[4] Taylor D, Hughes M, Allen D. Notch fatigue behaviour in cast irons explained using a fracture mechanics approach. Int J

Fatigue 1996;18(7):43945.

[5] Taylor D, Lawless S. Prediction of fatigue behaviour in stress-concentrators of arbitrary geometry. Eng Fract Mechanics

1996;53:92939.

[6] Peterson S. Notch sensitivity. In: Sines G, Waisman JL, editors. Metal fatigue. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. p. 293306.

197

[7] Siebel E, Stieler M. Dissimilar stress distributions and cyclic loading. Z Ver Deutsch Ing 1955;97:12131.

[8] Murakami Y, Endo M. Eects of hardness and crack geometries on DKth of small cracks emanating from small defects. J Soc

Mater Sci Japan 1986;35(395):9117.

[9] Murakami Y, Kodama S, Konuma S. Quantitative evaluation of defects of non-metallic inclusions on fatigue strength of high

strength steels. Int Journal of Fatigue 1989;11:2918.

[10] Taylor D, O'Donnell M. Notch geometry eects in fatigue: a conservative design approach. Engineering Failure Analysis

1994;1:27587.

[11] Smith RA, Miller KJ. Prediction of fatigue regimes in notched components. Int J Mech Sci 1978;20:2016.

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