Shear Wall Design Manual
AS 36002009
Shear Wall Design Manual
AS 36002009
For ETABS ® 2013
ISO ETA032913M31 Rev.2
Proudly developed in the United States of America
October 2013
Copyright
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Contents
Shear Wall Design
1 Introduction
1.1 Notation 
12 
1.2 Design Station Locations 
18 
1.3 Default Design Load Combinations 
18 
1.3.1 Dead Load Component 
19 
1.3.2 Live Load Component 
110 
1.3.3 Wind Load Component 
110 
1.3.4 Earthquake Load Component 
110 
1.3.5 Combinations that Include a Response Spectrum 110
1.3.6 Combinations that Include Time History Results 
111 

1.3.7 Combinations that Include Static Nonlinear Results 
112 

1.4 Shear Wall Design Preferences 
113 

1.5 Shear Wall Design Overwrites 
113 

1.6 Choice of Units 
113 

2 Pier Design 

2.1 
Wall Pier Shear Design 
22 
i
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
2.1.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 
22 

2.1.2 Determine the Require Shear Reinforcing 
23 

2.2 Wall Pier Boundary Elements 
24 

2.2.1 
Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements 
24 

2.3 Wall Pier Flexural Design 
26 

2.3.1 Designing a Simplified Pier Section 
26 

2.3.2 Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section 
213 

2.3.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio 
223 

2.3.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section 
224 

3 Spandrel Design 

3.1 Spandrel Flexural Design 
31 

3.1.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments 
32 

3.1.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing 
32 

3.2 Spandrel Shear Design 
310 

3.2.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity 
311 

3.2.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing 
312 
Appendix A Supported Design Codes
Appendix B Shear Wall Design Preferences
Appendix C Design Procedure Overwrites
Appendix D Analysis Section and Design Sections
Bibliography
ii
Chapter 1 Introduction
This manual describes the details of the shear wall design and stress check algorithms used by the program when the user selects the AS 36002009 design code. The various notations used in this manual are described in Section 1.1.
The design is based on loading combinations specified by the user (Section 1.2). To facilitate the design process, the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.
The program performs the following design, check, or analysis procedures in accordance with AS 36002009 requirement. AS 360009 Appendix C1 Note recommends using NZS 310106 code for designing structure with seismic loading when ductility factor (μ) is greater than 3. B y default, wall design combinations involving seismic load always uses the NZS 310106 code re gardless the magnitude of ductility factor. The term “seismic” used in this chapters refers to NZS 310106 standard.:
Design and check of concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads (Chap ter 2)
Design of concrete wall piers for shear (Chapter 2)
Design of concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure (Chapter 3)
11
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
Design of concrete wall spandrels for shear (Chapter 3)
Consideration of the boundary element requirements for concrete wall piers using an approach based on the requirements of Section 11.4.6.5 in NZS 310106 code (Chapter 3)
1.1
Notation
Following is the notation used in this manual.
A
A
A
_{c}_{v}
_{g}
_{h}_{}_{m}_{i}_{n}
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, mm ^{2}
Gross area of concrete, mm ^{2}
Minimum required area of distributed horizontal reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel, mm ^{2} / mm
A
A _{s}_{c} Area of reinforcing steel required for compression in a pier edge member, or the required area of tension steel required to balance the compression steel force in a wall spandrel,
Area of tension reinforcing steel, mm ^{2}
_{s}
A
A
_{s}_{c}_{}_{m}_{a}_{x}
_{s}_{f}
mm ^{2}
Maximum area of compression reinforcing steel in a w all pier edge member, mm ^{2}
The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing
the 
concrete compression force in the extruding portion of 
the 
concrete flange of a Tbeam, mm ^{2} 
A
A
A
_{s}_{t}
_{s}_{t}_{}_{m}_{a}_{x}
_{v}
Area of reinforcing steel required for tension in a pier edge member, mm ^{2}
Maximum area of tension reinforcing steel in a w all pier edge member, mm ^{2}
Area of reinforcing steel required for shear, mm ^{2} / mm
12
Notation
Chapter 1 Introduction
A
_{v}_{d}
Area of diagonal shear reinforcement in a coupling beam,
mm ^{2}
Minimum required area of distributed vertical reinforcing steel required for shear in a wall spandrel, mm ^{2} / mm
A _{s}_{w} The required area of tension reinforcing steel for balancing the concrete compression force in a rectangular concrete beam, or for balancing the concrete compression force in the concrete web of a Tbeam, mm ^{2}
A' _{s}
A
_{v}_{}_{m}_{i}_{n}
Area of compression reinforcing steel in a spandrel, mm ^{2}
B _{1} , B _{2}
Length of a concrete edge member in a wall with uniform thickness, mm
C _{c}
C _{f}
C _{s}
C _{w}
D/C
DB1
DB2
E _{s}
IPmax
Concrete compression force in a wall pier or spandrel, pounds
Concrete compression force in the extruding portion of a T beam flange, pounds
Compression force in wall pier or spandrel reinforcing steel, pounds
Concrete compression force in the web of a Tbeam, pounds
Demand/Capacity ratio as measured on an interaction curve
for a wall pier, unitless
Length of a userdefined wall pier edge member, mm. This
can be different on the left and right sides of the pier, and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier.
Width of a userdefined wall pier edge member, mm. This
can be different on the left and right sides of the pier, and it also can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier.
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel, MPa
The maximum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section, unitless
Notation
13
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
IPmin
L
L
L
_{B}_{Z}
_{w}
_{s}
LL
The minimum ratio of reinforcing considered in the design of a pier with a Section Designer section, unitless
Horizontal length of the boundary zone at each end of a wall pier, mm
Horizontal length of wall pier, mm. This can be different at the top and the bottom of the pier
Horizontal length of wall spandrel, mm
Live load
M _{n}
M*
M* _{c} In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing, the fac tored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel, Newtonmm
M* _{f} In a wall spandrel with a Tbeam section and compression reinforcing, the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in the extruding portion of the flange and the tension steel, Newtonmm
Nominal bending strength, newtonmm
Factored bending moment at a design section, Newtonmm
M* _{s} In a wall spandrel with compression reinforcing, the fac tored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the tension steel, Newtonmm
M* _{w} In a wall spandrel with a Tbeam section and compression reinforcing, the factored bending moment at a design section resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression in the web and the tension steel, Newtonmm
OC 
On a w all pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the capacity associated with the point considered 
OL 
On a wall pier interaction curve the "distance" from the origin to the point considered 
14
Notation
Chapter 1 Introduction
N _{b}
N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}
N _{m}_{a}_{x}
The axial force in a wall pier at a balanced strain condition, Newton
Equivalent axial force in the left edge member of a wall pier used for design, pounds. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier.
Limit on the maximum compressive design strength speci fied by AS 36002009, Newton
N _{m}_{a}_{x} Factor Factor used to reduce the allowable maximum compressive design strength, unitless. The AS 36002009 specifies this factor to be 1.0. This factor can be revised in the prefer ences.
N _{n}
N _{0} Nominal axial load strength of a wall pier, Newton
Nominal axial strength, Newton
N _{o}_{c}
N _{o}_{t}
The maximum compression force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one, Newton
The maximum tension force a wall pier can carry with strength reduction factors set equal to one, Newton
N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}
Equivalent axial force in the right edge member of a wall pier used for design, pounds. This may be different at the top and the bottom of the wall pier.
N*
NC _{m}_{a}_{x}
NT _{m}_{a}_{x}
Factored axial force at a design section, Newton
Maximum ratio of compression steel in an edge member of a wall pier, unitless
Maximum ratio of tension steel in an edge member of a wall pier, unitless
R _{L}_{W} Shear strength reduction factor as specified in the concrete material properties, unitless. This reduction factor applies to lightweight concrete. It is equal to 1 for normal weight con crete.
RLL
Reduced live load
Notation
15
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
T _{s}
V _{u}_{c}
V _{n}
V _{u}_{s}
Tension force in wall pier reinforcing steel, Newton
The portion of the shear force carried by the concrete, New
ton
Nominal shear strength, Newton
The portion of the shear force in a spandrel carried by the shear reinforcing steel, Newton
V* Factored shear force at a design section, Newton
WL Wind load
a Depth of the wall pier or spandrel compression block, mm
a _{1}
Depth of the compression block in the web of a T beam,
mm
Width of the compression flange in a Tbeam, mm. This can be different on the left and right ends of the Tbeam.
c Distance from the extreme compression fiber of the wall pier or spandrel to the neutral axis, mm
Distance from bottom of spandrel beam to centroid of the bottom reinforcing steel, mm. This can be different on t he left and right ends of the beam.
d _{r}_{}_{b}_{o}_{t}
b _{s}
d _{r}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p}
d _{s}
d _{s}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{r}_{e}_{l}
f _{y}
f _{y}_{s}
Distance from top of spandrel beam to centroid of the top reinforcing steel, mm. This can be different on the left and right ends of the beam.
Depth of the compression flange in a Tbeam, mm. This can be different on the left and right ends of the Tbeam.
Depth of spandrel beam minus cover to centroid of reinforc ing, mm
Yield strength of steel reinforcing, Newton per square mm. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations.
Yield strength of steel reinforcing, Newton per square mm. This value is used for shear design calculations.
16
Notation
Chapter 1 Introduction
f' _{c}
f' _{c}_{s}
f' _{s}
h _{s}
p
_{m}_{a}_{x}
p
_{m}_{i}_{n}
t _{w}
t _{s}
_{Σ}_{D}_{L}
_{Σ}_{L}_{L}
_{Σ}_{R}_{L}_{L}
Concrete compressive strength, Newton per square mm. This value is used for flexural and axial design calculations.
Concrete compressive strength, Newton per square mm. This value is used for shear design calculations.
Stress in compression steel of a wall spandrel, Newton per square mm.
Height of a wall spandrel, mm. This can be different on the left and right ends of the spandrel.
Maximum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Section Designer section that is designed (not checked), unitless.
Minimum ratio of reinforcing steel in a wall pier with a Section Designer section that is designed (not checked), unitless.
Thickness of a wall pier, mm. This can be different at the top and bottom of the pier.
Thickness of a wall spandrel, mm. This can be different on the left and right ends of the spandrel.
The sum of all dead load cases
The sum of all live load cases
The sum of all reduced live load cases
_{α} The angle between the diagonal reinforcing and the longitu dinal axis of a coupling beam
γ Unitless factor defined in Section 10.6.2 of AS 36002009
_{ε} Reinforcing steel strain, unitless
_{ε} _{s}
_{ε}_{'} _{s}
Reinforcing steel strain in a wall pier, unitless
Compression steel strain in a wall spandrel, unitless
_{φ} Strength reduction factor, unitless
Notation
17
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
_{φ}
_{φ}
_{φ}
_{φ}
_{b}
_{c}
_{v}_{n}_{s}
_{v}_{s}
_{σ} _{s}
Strength reduction factor for bending, unitless. The default value is 0.8.
Strength reduction factor for bending plus high axial com pression in a concrete pier, unitless. The default value is 0.6.
Strength reduction factor for shear in a nonseismic pier or spandrel, unitless. The default value is 0.75.
Strength reduction factor for shear in a seismic pier or span drel, unitless. The default value is 0.6.
Reinforcing steel stress in a w all pier, Newton per square
mm.
1.2 Design Station Locations
The program designs wall piers at stations located at the top and bottom of the pier only. To design at the midheight of a pier, break the pier into two separate "halfheight" piers.
The program designs wall spandrels at stations located at the left and right ends of the spandrel only. To design at the midlength of a spandrel, break the spandrel into two separate "halflength" piers. Note that if you break a spandrel into pieces, the program will calculate the seismic diagonal shear re inforcing separately for each piece. The angle used to calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing for each piece is based on the length of the piece, not the length of the entire spandrel. This can cause the required area of di agonal reinforcing to be significantly underestimated. Thus, if you break a spandrel into pieces, calculate the seismic diagonal shear reinforcing separately by hand.
1.3 Default Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations automatically created by the program for con crete shear wall design are given by Equations 1 through 10 (AS 1170.002, 4.2.2(a) to (f)).
1.35ΣDL 
Eqn. 1 
1.2ΣDL + 1.5(ΣLL + ΣRLL) 
Eqn. 2 
18
Design Station Locations
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.2ΣDL + 0.6ΣLL + 0.4ΣRLL + 1.0WL 
Eqn. 3 
1.2ΣDL + 0.6ΣLL + 0.4ΣRLL  1.0WL 
Eqn. 4 
0.9ΣDL + 1.0WL 
Eqn. 5 
0.9ΣDL − 1.0WL 
Eqn. 6 
1.0ΣDL + 0.6ΣLL + 0.3ΣRLL + 1.0E 
Eqn. 7 
1.0ΣDL + 0.6ΣLL + 0.3ΣRLL − 1.0E 
Eqn. 8 
1.0ΣDL + 1.0E 
Eqn. 9 
1.0ΣDL −1.0E 
Eqn. 10 
In Equations 1 through 10,
ΣDL =
The sum of all dead load (DL) load cases defined for the model.
ΣLL = The sum of all live load (LL) load cases defined for the model. Note that this includes roof live loads as well as floor live loads.
ΣRLL = 
The sum of all reducible live load (RLL) load cases defined for the model. 

WL 
= 
Any single wind load (WL) load case defined for the model. 
E 
= 
Any single earthquake load (E) load case defined for the model. 
1.3.1 Dead Load Component
The dead load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all dead loads multiplied by the specified factor. Individual dead load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combina tions.
See the description of the earthquake load component later in this chapter for additional information.
Default Design Load Combinations
19
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
1.3.2 Live Load Component
The live load component of the default design load combinations consists of the sum of all live loads, both reducible and unreducible, multiplied by the specified factor. Individual live load cases are not considered separately in the default design load combinations.
1.3.3 Wind Load Component
The wind load component of the default design load combinations consists of the contribution from a single wind load case. Thus, if multiple wind load cases are defined in the program model, each of Equations 3 through 6 will contribute multiple design load combinations, one for each wind load case that is defined.
1.3.4 Earthquake Load Component
The earthquake load component of the default design load combinations con sists of the contribution from a single earthquake load case. Thus, if multiple earthquake load cases are defined in the program model, each of Equations 7 through 10 will contribute multiple design load combinations, one for each earthquake load case that is defined.
The earthquake load cases considered when creating the default design load combinations include all static load cases that are defined as earthquake loads and all response spectrum cases. Default design load combinations are not created for time history cases or for static nonlinear cases.
1.3.5 Combinations That Include a Response Spectrum
In the program all response spectrum cases ar e assumed to be earthquake load cases. Default design load combinations are created that include the re sponse spectrum cases.
The output from a response spectrum is all positive. Any program shear wall design load combination that includes a response spectrum load case is checked for all possible combinations of signs on the response spectrum val ues. Thus, when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel, the response spectrum contribution of shear to the design load combination is considered once as a positive shear and then a second time as a negative shear. Similar ly, when checking moment in a wall spandrel, the response spectrum contri
110
Default Design Load Combinations
Chapter 1 Introduction
bution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as a positive moment and then a second time as a negative moment. When check ing the flexural behavior of a twodimensional wall pier or spandrel, four possible combinations are considered for the contribution of response spec trum load to the design load combination. They are:
+N and +M
+N and −M
−N and +M
−n and −M
where N is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier. Simi larly, eight possible combinations of N, M2 and M3 are considered for three dimensional wall piers.
Note that based on the above, Equations 7 and 8 are redundant for a l oad combination with a response spectrum, and similarly, Equations 9 and 10 are redundant for a load combination with a response spectrum. For this reason, the program creates default design load combinations based on Equations 7 and 9 only for response spectra. Default design load combinations using Equations 8 and 10 are not created for response spectra.
1.3.6 Combinations that Include Time History Results
The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any time history results. To include time history forces in a design load combination, define the load combination yourself.
When a design load combination includes time history results, the design can be for the envelope of those results or for each step of the time history. The type of time history design can be specified in the shear wall design prefer ences (Appendix B).
When envelopes are used, the design is for the maximum of each response quantity (axial load, moment, and the like) as if they occurred simultaneous ly. Typically, this is not the realistic case, and in some instances, it may be unconservative. Designing for each step of a time history gives the correct correspondence between different response quantities, but designing for each step can be very time consuming.
Default Design Load Combinations
111
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
When the program gets the envelope results for a time history, it gets a max imum and a minimum value for each response quantity. Thus, for wall piers
it gets maximum and minimum values of axial load, shear and moment; and
for wall spandrels, it gets maximum and minimum values of shear and mo ment. For a design load combination in the program shear wall design mod ule, any load combination that includes a time history load case in it is checked for all possible combinations of maximum and minimum time histo
ry design values. Thus, when checking shear in a wall pier or a wall spandrel, the time history contribution of shear to the design load combination is con sidered once as a m aximum shear and then a s econd time as a m inimum shear. Similarly, when checking moment in a wall spandrel, the time history contribution of moment to the design load combination is considered once as
a maximum moment and then a second time as a m inimum moment. When
checking the flexural behavior of a wall pier, four possible combinations are considered for the contribution of time history load to the design load combi nation. They are:
N max and M max
N max and M min
N min and M max
N min and M min
where N is the axial load in the pier and M is the moment in the pier.
If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it,
that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histo
ries, regardless of what is specified for the Time History Design item in the preferences.
1.3.7 Combinations That Include Static Nonlinear Results
The default shear wall design load combinations do not include any static nonlinear results. To include static nonlinear results in a design load combi nation, define the load combination yourself.
If a design load combination includes a single static nonlinear case and noth
ing else, the design is performed for each step of the static nonlinear analysis.
Otherwise, the design is performed only for the last step of the static nonline ar analysis.
112
Default Design Load Combinations
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.4 Shear Wall Design Preferences
The shear wall design preferences are basic properties that apply to all wall pier and spandrel elements. Appendix B identifies shear wall design prefer ences for AS 36002009. Default values are provided for all shear wall de sign preference items. Thus, it is not required that preferences be specified. However, at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable.
1.5 Shear Wall Design Overwrites
The shear wall design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those piers or spandrels to which they are assigned. The overwrites for piers and spandrels are separate. Appendix C identifies the shear wall overwrites for AS 36002009. Note that the available overwrites change depending on the pier section type (Uniform Reinforcing, General Reinforcing, or Simpli fied T and C). Default values are provided for all pier and spandrel overwrite items. Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifi cally assigned; that is, to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed.
1.6 Choice of Units
For shear wall design in this program, any set of consistent units can be used for input. Also, the system of units being used can be changed at any time. Typically, design codes are based on one specific set of units.
The AS 36002009 code is based on NewtonMillimeterSecond units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this manual correspond to Newtonmmsecond units unless otherwise noted.
Shear Wall Design Preferences
113
Chapter 2 Pier Design
This chapter describes how the program designs each leg of concrete wall piers for shear when the AS 36002009 option is selected for the design code. Note that in this program you cannot specify shear reinforcing and then have the program check it. The program only designs the pier for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required. The shear design is performed at stations at the top and bottom of the pier.
This chapter also describes how the program designs and checks concrete wall piers for flexural and axial loads when the AS 36002009 option is selected. First we describe how the program designs piers that are specified by a Simpli fied Section. Next we describe how the program checks piers that are specified using Section Designer. Then we describe how the program designs piers that are specified using Section Designer.
AS 360009 Appendix C1 Note recommends using NZS 310106 code for de signing structure with seismic loading when ductility factor (μ) is greater than 3. By default, wall design combinations involving seismic load always uses the NZS 310106 code regardless the magnitude of ductility factor. The term “seismic” used in this chapters refers to NZS 310106 standard.
21
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
2.1 Wall Pier Shear Design
The wall pier shear reinforcing is designed for each of the design load combi nations. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular wall pier section for a particular design loading combination.
1. Determine the factored forces N*, M* and V* that are acting on the wall pier section.
2. Determine the shear force, V _{u}_{c} , that can be carried by the concrete.
3. Determine the required shear reinforcing to carry the balance of the shear force.
Step 1 needs no further explanation. The following two sections describe in de tail the algorithms associated with the Steps 2 and 3.
2.1.1 Determine the Concrete Shear Capacity
Given the design force set N*, M* and V* acting on a wall pier section, the shear force carried by the concrete, V _{u}_{c} , is calculated as follows.
a) where
V
uc
b) where
V
uc
H w
L w
≤1.0 ,
=
0.66
−
0.21
H
w
L
w
0.8
R
LW
Lt
w
w
H w
L w
>1.0 ,
=
_{}
0.05
+
0.1
H
w
L w
− 1
0.8
R
LW
Lt
w
w
where V _{u}_{c} may not be greater than
V uc
= 0.17
R LW
(
0.8
Lt w w
)
.
22
Wall Pier Shear Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
Note that these equations are identical to equations in Section 11.5.4 in Chapter 11, Section 11.10.6 of AS 36002009 with the AS dimension "d" set equal to
0.8*L _{w} . The term R _{L}_{W} that is used as a multiplier on all
chapter is a shear strength reduction factor that applies to lightweight concrete. It is equal to 1 for normal weight concrete. This factor is specified in the con crete material properties.
f ′ terms in this
2.1.2 Determine the Required Shear Reinforcing
2.1.2.1 Seismic and Nonseismic Piers
Given V* and V _{u}_{c} , the preceding equation (AS 36002009 11.5.5) provides the required shear reinforcing in area per unit length (e.g., square mm per mm) for both seismic and nonseismic wall piers (as indicated by the "Design is Seis mic" item in the pier design overwrites). Note that additional requirements for seismic piers are provided later in this section.
A
w
=
Abs ( V
*)
− V
φ uc
f
ys
(0.8
L
w
)
where,
V
u
,max
^{=}
a)
For walls
Abs ( V
*)
H
w
L
w
φ
≤1.0
must not exceed 0.2
R
LW
f
c
′
(
0.8
Lt
w
w
)
in accordance
with AS 36002009 Section 11.5.3.
, A _{w} shall be the lesser of the ratios of either the vertical
reinforcement area or the horizontal reinforcement area to the cross sectional area of the wall in the respective direction.
b)
For walls
H
w
L
w
>1.0
, A _{w} shall be the ratio of the horizontal reinforcement
area to the crosssectional area of wall per vertical meter.
Wall Pier Shear Design
23
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
In the preceding equation, the term φ is equal to φ _{v}_{n}_{s} for nonseismic piers and to φ _{v}_{s} for seismic piers. The φ (phi) factors are specified in the shear wall design preferences.
2.2 Wall Pier Boundary Elements
This section describes how the program considers the boundary element re quirements for each leg of concrete wall piers using AS 36002009 when seis mic loading is present in the design combination. The program uses an ap proach based on the requirements of Section 11.4.6.5 of NZS 31012006.
Note that the boundary element requirements are considered separately for each design load case that includes seismic load.
2.2.1 Details of Check for Boundary Element Requirements
The following information is available for the boundary element check:
The design forces P*, V*, and M* for the pier section.
The height of the entire wall, h _{w} , length of the wall pier, L _{w} , the gross area of the pier, A _{g} , and the net area of the pier, A _{c}_{v} . The net area of the pier is the ar ea bounded by the web thickness, t, and the length of the pier. (Refer to Fig ure 25 later in this chapter for an illustration of the dimensions L _{w} and t.)
The area of steel in the pier, A _{s} . This area of steel is calculated by the pro gram or it is provided by the user.
The material properties of the pier,
The symmetry of the wall pier (i.e., is the left side of the pier is the same as the right side of the pier). Only the geometry of the pier is considered, not the reinforcing, when determining if the pier is symmetrical. Figure 21 shows some examples of symmetrical and unsymmetrical wall piers. Note that a pier defined using Section Designer is assumed to be unsymmetrical, unless it is made up of a single rectangular shape.
f ′ and f _{y} .
c
24
Wall Pier Boundary Elements
Chapter 2 Pier Design
Figure 21
Example Plan Views of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Wall Piers
Using this information, the program calculates three quantities that are used to determine the boundary zone requirements. These quantities are:
C _{c}
C
φ ow
When the neutral axis depth C in the potential yield regions of a wall, comput ed for the appropriate design forces for the ultimate limit state, exceeds C _{c} (NZS 11.4.6.5) a boundary zone is required.
C
c
where
≥
0.1
φ
ow
L
w
λ
(NZS Eqn. 1125)
C _{c}
λ
φ ow
=
the critical neutral axis depth
= 1.0 for limited ductile region
= 2.0 for ductile plastic region
= wall over strength factor is defined as
φ ow
= ratio of the m oment of resistance at overstrength to moment resulting from specified earthquake actions, where both moments refer to the base section of wall.
Wall Pier Boundary Elements
25
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
If boundary elements are required, the program calculates the minimum re
quired length of the boundary zone at each end of the wall, L _{B}_{Z} , in accordance with the requirements of Section 11.4.6.5(b) in NZS 31012006. The code re
quires that L _{B}_{Z} shall not be less than _{c} _{'} = trates the boundary zone length L _{B}_{Z} .
and c/2 . Figure 22 illus
c −
0.7
c
c
Figure 22: Illustration of Boundary Zone Length, L _{B}_{Z}
2.3 Wall Pier Flexural Design
For both designing and checking piers, it is important to understand the local axis definition for the pier. Access the local axes assignments using the Assign menu.
2.3.1 Designing a Simplified Pier Section
This section describes how the program designs a pier that is assigned a simpli fied section. The geometry associated with the simplified section is illustrated in Figure 23. The pier geometry is defined by a length, thickness and size of the edge members at each end of the pier (if any).
26
Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
Figure 23: Typical Wall Pier Dimensions Used for Simplified Design
A simplified T and C pier section is always planar (not threedimensional). The dimensions shown in the figure include the following:
The length of the wall pier is designated L _{w} . This is the horizontal length of the wall pier in plan.
The thickness of the wall pier is designated t _{w} . The thickness specified for left and right edge members (DB2 _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t} and DB2 _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} ) may be different from this wall thickness.
DB1 represents the horizontal length of the pier edge member. DB1 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier.
DB2 represents the horizontal width (or thickness) of the pier edge member. DB2 can be different at the left and right sides of the pier.
Wall Pier Flexural Design
27
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
The dimensions illustrated are specified in the shear wall overwrites (Appendix C), and can be specified differently at the top and bottom of the wall pier.
If no specific edge member dimensions have been specified by the user, the program assumes that the edge member is the same width as the wall, and the program determines the required length of the edge member. In all cases, whether the edge member size is userspecified or programdetermined, the program reports the required area of reinforcing steel at the center of the edge member. This section describes how the programdetermined length of the edge member is determined and how the program calculates the required rein forcing at the center of the edge member.
Three design conditions are possible for a simplified wall pier. These condi tions, illustrated in Figure 24, are as follows:
The wall pier has programdetermined (variable length and fixed width) edge members on each end.
The wall pier has userdefined (fixed length and width) edge members on each end.
The wall pier has a programdetermined (variable length and fixed width) edge member on one end and a userdefined (fixed length and width) edge member on the other end.
28
Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
Design Condition 1
Wall pier with uniform thickness and ETABSdetermined (variable length) edge members
Design Condition 2
Wall pier with userdefined edge members
Wall pier with a userdefined edge member on one end and an ETABS determined (variable length) edge member on the other end
In all three conditions, the only reinforcing designed by ETABS is that required at the center of the edge members
Figure 24: Design Conditions for Simplified Wall Piers
2.3.1.1 Design Condition 1
Design condition 1 applies to a wall pier with uniform design thickness and programdetermined edge member length. For this design condition, the design algorithm focuses on determining the required size (length) of the edge mem bers, while limiting the compression and tension reinforcing located at the center of the edge members to userspecified maximum ratios. The maximum ratios are specified in the shear wall design preferences and the pier design overwrites as Edge Design PCMax and Edge Design PTMax.
Consider the wall pier shown in Figure 25. For a given design section, say the top of the wall pier, the wall pier for a given design load combination is de signed for a factored axial force N* _{}_{t}_{o}_{p} and a factored moment M* _{}_{t}_{o}_{p} .
The program initiates the design procedure by assuming an edge member at the left end of the wall of thickness t _{w} and width B _{1}_{}_{l}_{e}_{f}_{t} , and an edge member at the right end of the wall of thickness t _{w} and width B _{1}_{}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} . Initially B _{1}_{}_{l}_{e}_{f}_{t} = B _{1}_{}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} =
t w .
The moment and axial force are converted to an equivalent force set N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} and N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} using the relationships shown in the following equations. (Similar equations apply at the bottom of the pier.)
Wall Pier Flexural Design
29
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
^{C} L Wall Pier Plan

^{P} 
lefttop 
P
utop ^{M} utop 
^{P} 
Left edge member 
Right edge member 


P
^{M} ubot ubot 

^{P} 
leftbot 
^{P} 
pier
Bottom
Wall Pier Elevation
Figure 25: Wall Pier for Design Condition 1
210
Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
N lefttop
=
N
*
top
M
*
top
2
+
(
LB
w
−
0.5
1left
−
0.5
B
1 − right
)
N righttop
=
N
*
top
2
−
M
*
top
(
LB
w
−
0.5
1left
−
0.5
B
1right
)
For any given loading combination, the net values for N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} and N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} could be tension or compression.
Note that for dynamic loads, N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} and N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} are obtained at the modal level and the modal combinations are made, before combining with other loads. Also for design loading combinations involving SRSS, the N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} and N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} forces are obtained first for each load case before the combinations are made.
If any value of N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} or N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} is tension, the area of steel required for ten sion, A _{s}_{t} , is calculated as:
A
st
N
^{=} φ
b
f
ys
.
If any value of N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} or N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} is compression, for section adequacy, the area of steel required for compression, A _{s}_{c} , must satisfy the following relationship.
Abs
() N =
(
N
max
Factor
)
φ [α
c
2
′ (
f
c
A
g
−
A
sc
) +
f
ys
A
sc
]
where N is either N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} or N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} , A _{g} = t _{w} B _{1} and the N _{m}_{a}_{x} Factor is defined in the shear wall design preferences (the default is 0.80). In general, we recom mend that you use the default value. From the preceding equation,
A
sc
=
Abs ( N Factor) ϕ
max
)
(
N
c
−α f ′ A
2
c
g
f
ys
−α f ′
2
c
.
If A _{s}_{c} calculates as negative, no compression reinforcing is needed.
The maximum tensile reinforcing to be packed within the t _{p} times B _{1} concrete edge member is limited by:
A
st
max
=
NT
max
t
w
B
1
.
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211
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
Similarly, the compression reinforcing is limited by:
A
sc
max
=
NC
max
t
w
B
1
.
If A _{s}_{t} is less than or equal to A _{s}_{t}_{}_{m}_{a}_{x} and A _{s}_{c} is less than or equal to A _{s}_{c}_{}_{m}_{a}_{x} , the program will proceed to check the next loading combination; otherwise the program will increment the appropriate B _{1} dimension (left, right or both, depending on which edge member is inadequate) by onehalf of the wall thick ness to B _{2} (i.e., 1.5t _{w} ) and calculate new values for N _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} and N _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} resulting in new values of A _{s}_{t} and A _{s}_{c} . This iterative procedure continues until A _{s}_{t} and A _{s}_{c} are within the allowed steel ratios for all design load combinations.
If the value of the width of the edge member B increments to where it reaches a value larger than or equal to L _{w} /2, the iteration is terminated and a failure con dition is reported.
This design algorithm is an approximate but convenient algorithm. Wall piers that are declared overstressed using this algorithm could be found to be adequate if the reinforcing steel is userspecified and the wall pier is accurately evaluated using interaction diagrams.
2.3.1.2 Design Condition 2
Design condition 2 applies to a wall pier with userspecified edge members at each end of the pier. The size of the edge members is assumed to be fixed; that is, the program does not modify them. For this design condition, the design al gorithm determines the area of steel required in the center edge members and checks if that area gives reinforcing ratios less than the userspecified maxi mum ratios. The design algorithm used is the same as described for condition 1; however, no iteration is required.
2.3.1.3 Design Condition 3
Design condition 3 applies to a wall pier with a userspecified (fixed dimen sion) edge member at one end of the pier and a variable length (program determined) edge member at the other end. The width of the variable length edge member is equal to the width of the wall.
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Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
The design is similar to that which has previously been described for design conditions 1 and 2. The size of the userspecified edge member is not changed. Iteration only occurs on the size of the variable length edge member.
2.3.2 Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Section
When you specify that a General Reinforcing or Uniform Reinforcing pier section is to be checked, the program creates an interaction surface for that pier and uses that interaction surface to determine the critical flexural demand/ capacity ratio for the pier. This section describes how the program generates the interaction surface for the pier and how it determines the demand/capacity ratio for a given design load combination.
Note: In this program, the interaction surface is defined by a series of PMM interac tion curves that are equally spaced around a 360degree circle.
2.3.2.1 Interaction Surface
In this program, a threedimensional interaction surface is defined with refer ence to the N, M2 and M3 axes. The surface is developed using a series of in teraction curves that are created by rotating the direction of the pier neutral axis in equally spaced increments around a 360degree circle. For example, if 24 NMM curves are specified (the default), there is one curve every 15 degrees (360°/24 curves = 15°). Figure 26 illustrates the assumed orientation of the pier neutral axis and the associated sides of the neutral axis where the section is in tension (designated T in the figure) or compression (designated C in the fig ure) for various angles.
Note that the orientation of the neutral axis is the same for an angle of θ and θ+180°. Only the side of the neutral axis where the section is in tension or compression changes. We recommend that you use 24 interaction curves (or more) to define a threedimensional interaction surface.
Each PMM interaction curve that makes up the interaction surface is numeri cally described by a series of discrete points connected by straight lines. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain about the neutral axis on the section of the pier. Details of this process are de scribed later in the section entitled "Details of the Strain Compatibility Analy sis."
Wall Pier Flexural Design
213
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
T 
Interaction curve is for a neutral axis parallel to this axis 

Pier section 



2 

a) Angle is 0 degrees 


Interaction curve is for a neutral axis parallel to this axis 


3 


Pier section 


2 

C 
T 
a) Angle is 180 degrees
Figure 26: Orientation of the Pier Neutral Axis for Various Angles
By default, 11 points are used to define a NMM interaction curve. This number can be changed in the preferences; any odd number of points greater than or equal to 11 can be specified, to be used in creating the interaction curve. If an even number is specified for this item in the preferences, the program will in crement up to the next higher odd number.
Note that when creating an interaction surface for a twodimensional wall pier, the program considers only two interaction curvesthe 0° curve and the 180° curveregardless of the number of curves specified in the preferences. Fur thermore, only moments about the M3 axis are considered for twodimensional walls.
2.3.2.2 Formulation of the Interaction Surface
The formulation of the interaction surface in this program is based consistently on the basic principles of ultimate strength design given in Sections 10.6.2 of AS 36002009. The program uses the requirements of force equilibrium and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment strength (N _{n} , M2 _{n} , M3 _{n} ) of the wall pier. This nominal strength is then multiplied by the
214
Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
appropriate strength reduction factor, φ, to obtain the design strength (φN _{n} , φN2 _{n} , φN3 _{n} ) of the pier. For the pier to be deemed adequate, the required strength (N*, M2*, M3*) must be less than or equal to the design strength, as indicated in the following equation.
(P*, M2*, M3*) ≤ (φP _{n} , φM2 _{n} , φM3 _{n} )
The effect of the strength reduction factor, φ, is included in the generation of the interaction surface. The strength reduction factor, φ, is defined as given be low (AS 2.3(c), Table 2.3):
Strength reduction 

Type of action effect 
factor (φ) 

(a) 
Axial force without bending 

(i) 
Tension 
0.8 

(ii) 
Compression 
0.6 

(b) 
Bending without axial tension or compression where: 

(i) 
for members with Class N reinforcement only 
0.6 ≤ (1.19 − 13k _{u}_{o} /12) ≤ 0.8 0.6 ≤ (1.19 − 13k _{u}_{o} /12) ≤ 0.64 

(ii) 
for members with Class L reinforcement only 

(c) 
Bending with axial tension 
φ +[(0.8 − φ)(N _{u} /N _{u}_{o}_{t} )] 

φ 
is obtained from(b) 

(d) 
Bending with axial compression where: 
0.6 

(i) 
N _{u} ≥ N _{u}_{b} 
0.6+ [(φ − 0.6)(1 − N _{u} /N _{u}_{b} )] 

(ii) 
N _{u} < N _{u}_{b} 
φ 
is obtained from(b) 

(e) 
Shear 
0.7 

(f) 
Torsion 
0.7 
M _{u}_{d} is the reduced ultimate strength of the crosssection in bending where k _{u} =
0.36, and tensile force has been reduced to balance the reduced compressive forces (AS
8.1.5).
Note: Strength reduction factors are specified in the shear wall design preference (Appendix B).
The strength reduction factors φ _{c} and φ _{b} can be revised in the preferences and the overwrites (Appendix C).
The theoretical maximum compressive force that the wall pier can carry, assuming the φ _{c} factor is equal to 1, i s designated N _{o}_{c} and is given by the following equation:
Wall Pier Flexural Design
215
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
N _{o}_{c} = [α _{2} f' _{c} (A _{g} − A _{s}_{t} ) + f _{y}_{s} A _{s}_{t} ].
The theoretical maximum tension force that the wall pier can carry, assuming the φ _{b} factor is equal to 1, is designated N _{o}_{t} and is given by the following equa tion
N ot = f ys A st .
If the wall pier geometry and reinforcing is symmetrical in plan, the moments associated with both N _{o}_{c} and N _{o}_{t} are zero. For unsymmetrical geometry or rein forcing, there will be moments associated with both N _{o}_{c} and N _{o}_{t} .
The AS 36002009 limits the maximum compressive design strength, N _{u}_{o} in the following equation (AS 10.6.3).
N _{u}_{o} = φ[α _{2} f ' _{c} (A _{g} − A _{s} ) + f _{y}_{s} A _{s}_{t} ]
where φ =0.60 for axial compression without bending (AS 2.3, Table 2.3).
Note: The number of points to be used in creating interaction diagrams can be speci fied in the shear wall preferences and overwrites.
As previously mentioned, by default, 11 points are used to define a single in teraction curve. When creating a single interaction curve, the program includes the points at N _{b} , N _{o}_{c} and N _{o}_{t} on the interaction curve. Half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between N _{b} and N _{o}_{c} at approximately equal spacing along the φN _{n} axis. The other half of the re maining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between N _{b} and N _{o}_{t} at approximately equal spacing along the φN _{n} axis.
Figure 27 shows a plan view of an example twodimensional wall pier. Notice that the concrete is symmetrical but the reinforcing is not symmetrical in this example. Figure 28 shows several interaction surfaces for the wall pier illus trated in Figure 27.
216
Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
Figure 27: Example TwoDimensional Wall Pier With Unsymmetrical Reinforcing
Figure 28 : Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 27
Note the following about Figure 28:
Because the pier is twodimensional, the interaction surface consists of two interaction curves. One curve is at 0° and the other is at 180°. Only M3 moments are considered because this is a twodimensional example.
In this program, compression is negative and tension is positive.
Wall Pier Flexural Design
217
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
The 0° and 180° interaction curves are not symmetric because the wall pier reinforcing is not symmetric.
The smaller interaction surface (drawn with a heavier line) has the strength reduction factor, as specified by AS 36002009.
The dashed line shows the effect of setting the N _{m}_{a}_{x} Factor to 1.0.
The larger interaction surface has both the strength reduction factor and the N _{m}_{a}_{x} Factor set to 1.0.
The interaction surfaces shown are created using the default value of 11 points for each interaction curve.
Figure 29 shows the 0° interaction curves for the wall pier illustrated in Figure 27. Additional interaction curves also are added to Figure 29.
Figure 29: Interaction Curves for Example Wall Pier Shown in Figure 27
The smaller, heavier curve in Figure 29 has the strength reduction factor as specified in AS 36002009. The other curve, which is plotted for φ = 1.0, all have N _{m}_{a}_{x} Factors of 1.0. The purpose of showing these interaction curves is to explain how the program creates the interaction curve. Recall that the strength
218
Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
reduction factors 0.6 and 0.8 are actually φ _{c} and φ _{b} , and that their values can be revised in the overwrites as required.
2.3.2.3 Details of the Strain Compatibility Analysis
As previously mentioned, the program uses the requirements of force equilibri um and strain compatibility to determine the nominal axial load and moment strength (N _{n} , M2 _{n} , M3 _{n} ) of the wall pier. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain on the section of the wall pier.
Figure 210 illustrates varying planes of linear strain such as those that the pro gram considers on a wall pier section for a neutral axis orientation angle of 0 degrees.
In these planes, the maximum concrete strain is always taken as −0.003 (AS 10.6.1(d)) and the maximum steel strain is varied from −0.003 to plus infinity. (Recall that in this program compression is negative and tension is positive.) When the steel strain is −0.003, the maximum compressive force in the wall
Wall Pier Flexural Design
219
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
pier, N _{o}_{c} , is obtained from the strain compatibility analysis. When the steel strain is plus infinity, the maximum tensile force in the wall pier, N _{o}_{t} , is ob tained. When the maximum steel strain is equal to the yield strain for the rein forcing (e.g., 0.00207 for f _{y}_{s} = 460 MPa), Nu _{b} is obtained.
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of α _{2} f' _{c} (AS 8.1.3(b)), as shown. The interaction algorithm pro vides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the rein forcement in the compression zone. The depth of the equivalent rectangular block, a, is taken as:
and,
a = γk _{u} d
α =
2
1.0
γ=
1.05
−
−
0.003
0.007
f
f
^{'}
c
^{'}
c
where,
where,
0.67 ≤α _{≤} _{0}_{.}_{8}_{5}
2
_{0}_{.}_{6}_{7} _{≤}_{γ}_{≤} _{0}_{.}_{8}_{5}
(AS 8.1.3(b))
(AS Eqn. 10.6.2.5(1))
(AS Eqn. 10.6.2.5 (2))
The effect of the strength reduction factor, φ, included in the generation of the interaction surface varies as follows:
Bending with axial tension = φ +[(0.8 − φ)(N _{u} /N _{u}_{o}_{t} )] where,
0.6 
≤ φ = (1.19 − 13k _{u}_{o} /12) ≤ 0.8 
for members with Class N reinforcement only 
0.6 
≤ φ = (1.19 − 13k _{u}_{o} /12) ≤ 0.64 
for members with Class L reinforcement only 
Bending with axial compression:
φ = 0.6
φ = 0.6 + [(φ − 0.6)(1 − N _{u} /N _{u}_{b} )] for N _{u} < N _{u}_{b}
for N _{u} ≥ N _{u}_{b}
Default values for φ for various actions are provided by the program, but those values can be overwritten using the Preferences.
The maximum compressive axial load is limited to 0.75N _{u}_{o} where
N _{u}_{o}
=
φ [α _{1}
α
1
=
f ′
c
1.0
(A _{g} − A _{s}_{t} ) + f _{s}_{y} A _{s}_{t} ]
−
0.003
f ′
c
where,
0.72≤α
1
_{≤} _{0}_{.}_{8}_{5}
(AS 10.6.2.2)
(AS 10.6.2.2)
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Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
where φ = 0.60 for axial compression without bending (AS 2.2.2(ii), Table
2.2.2).
Figure 211 illustrates the concrete wall pier stressstrain relationship that is obtained from a strain compatibility analysis of a typical plane of linear strain shown in Figure 210. In Figure 211 the compressive stress in the concrete, C _{c} , is calculated using the following equation.
C _{c} = α _{2} f' _{c} γk _{u} dt _{w}
Figure 211: Wall Pier StressStrain Relationship
In Figure 210, the value for maximum strain in the reinforcing steel is assumed. Then the strain in all other reinforcing steel is determined based on
Wall Pier Flexural Design
221
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
the assumed plane of linear strain. Next the stress in the reinforcing steel is cal culated using the following equation, where ε _{s} is the strain, E _{s} is the modulus of elasticity, σ _{s} is the stress, and f _{y}_{s} is the yield stress of the reinforcing steel.
σ _{s} = ε _{s} E _{s} ≤ f _{y}_{s} .
The force in the reinforcing steel (T _{s} for tension or C _{s} for compression) is cal culated using the following equation where:
T _{s} or C _{s} = σ _{s} A _{s} .
For the given distribution of strain, the value of φN _{n} is calculated using the fol lowing equation.
φN _{n} = φ(ΣT _{s} − C _{c} − ΣC _{s} ) ≤ N _{m}_{a}_{x} .
In the preceding equaton, the tensile force T _{s} and the compressive forces C _{c} and C _{s} are all positive. If φN _{n} is positive, it is tension, and if it is negative, it is compression. The term N _{m}_{a}_{x} is calculated using the preceding equation.
The value of φM2 _{n} is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 2 axis. Similarly, the value of φM3 _{n} is calculated by summing the moments due to all of the forces about the pier local 3 axis. The forces whose moments are summed to determine φM2 _{n} and φM3 _{n} are φN _{n} , φC _{c} , all of the φT _{s} forces and all of the φC _{s} forces.
The φN _{n} , φM2 _{n} and φM3 _{n} values calculated as described in the preceding para graph make up one point on the wall pier interaction diagram. Additional points on the diagram are obtained by making different assumptions for the maximum steel stress; that is, considering a different plane of linear strain, and repeating the process.
When one interaction curve is complete, the next orientation of the neutral axis is assumed and the points for the associated new interaction curve are calculat ed. This process continues until the points for all of the specified curves have been calculated.
Again, note that for twodimensional pier design, M2 is ignored.
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Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
2.3.3 Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio
Refer to Figure 212, which shows a typical twodimensional wall pier interac tion diagram. The forces obtained from a given design load combination are N* and M3*. The point L, defined by (N*, M3*), is placed on the interaction diagram, as shown in the figure. If the point lies within the interaction curve, the wall pier capacity is adequate. If the point lies outside of the interaction curve, the wall pier is overstressed.
Figure 212: TwoDimensional Wall Pier Demand/Capacity Ratio
As a measure of the stress condition in the wall pier, the program calculates a stress ratio. The ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (ex tended outward if needed) intersects the interaction curve. The demand/capa city ratio, D/C, is given by D/C = OL / OC where OL is the "distance" from point O (the origin) to point L and OC is the "distance" from point O to point C. Note the following about the demand/capacity ratio:
If OL = OC (or D/C = 1), the point (N*, M3*) lies on the interaction curve and the wall pier is stressed to capacity.
If OL < OC (or D/C < 1), the point (N*, M3*) lies within the interaction curve and the wall pier capacity is adequate.
Wall Pier Flexural Design
223
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
If OL > OC (or D/C > 1), the point (N*, M3*) lies outside of the interaction curve and the wall pier is overstressed.
The wall pier demand/capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the wall with respect to the capacity of the wall.
The demand/capacity ratio for a threedimensional wall pier is determined in a similar manner to that described here for twodimensional piers.
2.3.4 Designing a General Reinforcing Pier Section
When a General Reinforcing pier section is specified to be designed, the pro gram creates a series of interaction surfaces for the pier based on the following items:
The size of the pier as specified in Section Designer.
The location of the reinforcing specified in Section Designer.
The size of each reinforcing bar specified in Section Designer relative to the size of the other bars.
The interaction surfaces are developed for eight different ratios of reinforcing steelareatopierarea. The pier area is held constant and the rebar area is mod ified to obtain these different ratios; however, the relative size (area) of each rebar compared to the other bars is always kept constant.
The smallest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design preferences as Section Design IPMin. Similarly, the largest of the eight reinforcing ratios used is that specified in the shear wall design prefer ences as Section Design IPMax.
The eight reinforcing ratios used are the maximum and the minimum ratios plus six more ratios. The spacing between the reinforcing ratios is calculated as an increasing arithmetic series in which the space between the first two ratios is equal to onethird of the space between the last two ratios. Table 1 illustrates the spacing, both in general terms and for a specific example, when the mini mum reinforcing ratio, IPmin, is 0.0025 and the maximum, IPmax, is 0.02.
After the eight reinforcing ratios have been determined, the program develops interaction surfaces for all eight of the ratios using the process described earlier
224
Wall Pier Flexural Design
Chapter 2 Pier Design
in the section entitled "Checking a General or Uniform Reinforcing Pier Sec tion."
Next, for a given design load combination, the program generates a demand/ capacity ratio associated with each of the eight interaction surfaces. The pro gram then uses linear interpolation between the eight interaction surfaces to determine the reinforcing ratio that gives an demand/capacity ratio of 1 (actually the program uses 0.99 instead of 1). This process is repeated for all design load combinations and the largest required reinforcing ratio is reported.
Design of a Uniform Reinforcing pier section is similar to that described herein for the General Reinforcing section.
Table 21 The Eight Reinforcing Ratios Used by the Program
Curve
Ratio
Example
_{1} 
_{I}_{P}_{m}_{i}_{n} 
0.0025 

2 
IPmin + 
IPmax − IPmin 
0.0038 

14 

3 
IPmin + 7 3 IPmax − IPmin 
0.0054 

14 


4 
IPmin + 4 
IPmax − 14 IPmin 
0.0075 

IPmax − IPmin 

5 
IPmin + 6 
14 

0.0100 

6 
25 IPmin + 3 
IPmax − IPmin 

0.0129 

14 

7 
IPmin + 11 
IPmax − 14 IPmin 

0.0163 

_{8} 
_{I}_{P}_{m}_{a}_{x} 
0.0200 
Wall Pier Flexural Design
225
Chapter 3 Spandrel Design
This chapter describes how the program designs concrete shear wall spandrels for flexure and shear when AS 36002009 is the selected design code. The program allows consideration of rectangular sections and Tbeam sections for shear wall spandrels. Note that the program designs spandrels at stations located at the ends of the spandrel. No design is performed at the center (mid length) of the spandrel. The program does not allow shear reinforcing to be specified and then checked. The program only designs the spandrel for shear and reports how much shear reinforcing is required.
AS 360009 Appendix C1 Note recommends using NZS 310106 code for designing structure with seismic loading when ductility factor (μ) is greater than 3. B y default, wall design combinations involving seismic load always uses the NZS 310106 code regardless the magnitude of ductility factor. The term “seismic” used in this chapters refers to NZS 310106 standard.
3.1 Spandrel Flexural Design
In this program, wall spandrels are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. Effects caused by any axial forces, minor direction bending, torsion or minor direction shear that may exist in the spandrels must be investigated by the user independent of the program. Spandrel flexural reinforcing is designed
31
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
for each of the design load combinations. The required area of reinforcing for flexure is calculated and reported only at the ends of the spandrel beam.
The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcing for a particular wall spandrel section for a particular design loading combination at a particular station.
Determine the maximum factored moment M*.
Determine the required flexural reinforcing.
These steps are described in the following sections.
3.1.1 Determine the Maximum Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcing for spandrels, the factored moments for each design load combination at a particular beam station are first obtained.
The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and the maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the design load combinations.
3.1.2 Determine the Required Flexural Reinforcing
In this program, negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.
In this program, positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a r ectangular section, or as a Tbeam section. Indicate that a spandrel is to be designed as a Tbeam by specifying the appro priate slab width and depth dimensions are provided in the spandrel design overwrites (Appendix C).
The flexural design procedure is based on a simplified rectangular stress block, as shown in Figure 31. The following assumptions are used for the stressed block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1.2).
The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.003 (AS
8.1.3(a)).
32
Spandrel Flexural Design
Chapter 3 Spandrel Design
A uniform compression compressive stress of α _{2} f ′ _{c} acts on an area (AS 8.1.3(b)) bounded by
– The edges of the crosssections,
– A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the consid ered loading and located at a distance γk _{u} d from the extreme compres sive fiber where
α =
2
1.0
−
0.003
γ=
and
1.05
−
0.007
k
u
≤ 0.36.
f
f
^{'}
c
^{'}
c
where,
where,
0.67 ≤α
2
_{≤} _{0}_{.}_{8}_{5}
_{0}_{.}_{6}_{7} _{≤}_{γ}_{≤} _{0}_{.}_{8}_{5}
(AS
(AS
8.1.3(1))
8.1.3(2))
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a _{m}_{a}_{x} , is given by
a max
= γkd
u
where
k
u
≤
0.36
(AS 8.1.5)
Figure 31 Rectangular Spandrel Beam Design, Positive Moment
It is assumed that the compression depth carried by the concrete is less than or equal to a _{m}_{a}_{x} . When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at a _{m}_{a}_{x} , the program calculates an area of compression reinforcement assuming that the
Spandrel Flexural Design
33
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
additional moment is carried by compression reinforcing and additional tension reinforcing.
The procedure used by the program for both rectangular and Tbeam sections is given in the subsections that follow.
3.1.2.1 Rectangular Beam Flexural Reinforcing
Refer to Figure 31. For a rectangular beam, the factored moment, M _{u} , is resisted by a couple between the concrete in compression and the tension in reinforcing steel. This is expressed in the following equation.
M * =
Cd ^{}
c
spandrel
−
a
2
^{}
where C _{c} = α _{2} φ _{b}
and h _{s} − d _{r}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} for negative bending.
f ′ at _{s}
c
and d _{s}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{r}_{e}_{l} is equal to h _{s} − d _{r}_{}_{b}_{o}_{t} for positive bending
That equation can be solved for the depth of the compression block, a, yielding the following:
ad =−
spandrel
The program uses the previous equation to determine the depth of the
compression block, a. The depth of the compression block, a, is compared with
a max .
3.1.2.1.1 Tension Reinforcing Only Required
If a ≤ a _{m}_{a}_{x} , no compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates the area of tension reinforcing using the following equation.
A
s
=
M *
φ
b
f
ys
d
spandrel
−
a
2
.
The steel is placed at the bottom for positive moment and at the top for negative moment.
34
Spandrel Flexural Design
Chapter 3 Spandrel Design
Note: The program reports the ratio of top and bottom steel required in the web area. When compression steel is required, those ratios may be large because there is no limit on them. However, the program reports an overstress when the ratio exceeds 4%.
3.1.2.1.2 Tension and Compression Reinforcing Required
If a > a _{m}_{a}_{x} , compression reinforcing is required and the program calculates required compression and tension reinforcing as follows.
The depth of the concrete compression block, a, is set equal to a = a _{m}_{a}_{x} . The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by the following:
C c
=
α 2
′
fa
t
cs max
The moment resisted by the couple between the concrete in compression and the tension steel, M _{u}_{c} , is given by the following equation.
M
*
c
=φ
Cd ^{}
bc
spandrel
a max
−
2
^{}
.
Therefore, the additional moment to be resisted by the couple between the compression steel and the additional tension steel, M* _{s} , is given by
M
*
s
=
**−
MM
c
.
The force carried by the compression steel, C _{s} , is given by the following equa tion:
C
s
=
M *
s
d
spandrel
−
d
r
.
Referring to Figure 31, the strain in the compression steel, ε' _{s} , is given by the following equation:
ε
s
′
=
0.003 _{(} c
−
d
r
^{)} .
c
The stress in the compression steel, f ' _{s} , is given by the following:
f
s
′
′
= ε=
ss
E
0.003
(
Ecd
s
−
r
^{)}
c
.
Spandrel Flexural Design
35
Shear Wall Design AS 36002009
The term d _{r} in the preceding equations is equal to d _{r}_{}_{t}_{o}_{p} for positive bending and
equal to d _{r}_{}_{b}_{o}_{t} for negative bending, and the term c is equal to
a
max
γ.
The total required area of compression steel, A' _{s} , is calculated as follows:
′
A =
s
C
s
φ
(
f
bs
′
−α
2
f
c
′
)
.
The required area of tension steel for balancing the compression in the concrete web, A _{s}_{w} , is:
A sw
=
M *
c
φ
b
f
ys
d
spandrel
−
a
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