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CH26B Process Dynamics and Control I

Semester 2/2003


CH26B Process Dynamics and Control I

1. [35 marks] Consider the chemical reactor shows in the figure 1. The reaction
occurring in the reactor is: A B, where ra kVC a0.5 . The following assumptions
are adequate to the system: The flow rates and volume are constants and the reactor is
a. Formulate the model for the dynamic response of the concentration of A in the
reactor Ca(t) and linearize the equation in (a).
b. Solve the linearized equation analytically for a step change (A/s) in the inlet
concentration of A, Ca0 and Sketch the dynamic behavior of Ca(t) graphically.
c. Develop the linearized model whether the reactor becomes in non-isothermal,
e.g. include the jacket (Q=UAj(T-Tj)) and NOT FORGET Arrhenius equation

k e


Figure 1. Isothermal reactor.

2. [30 marks]
a. In the control strategy shows in the figure 2, the circle with a C within
represents a controller. The first letter indicates the variable process being
measured. The dashed line is connected to the valve being manipulated. The
controller applies the feedback principle. In this figure AC means concentration
controller. Based on the last question, Discuss why did not we control the
reactant concentration of B by adjusting the coolant flow rate?

Figure 2. CSTR control system

b. Discuss whether each the following control system allows to control the
pressure in the enclosed vessel.

CH26B Process Dynamics and Control I

Semester 2/2003

c. The graph below describes an open-loop response a reactor temperature to

a step equal to 0.45 L/min. Estimate the transfer function.

3. [35 marks]. For the following second-order process with numerator dynamics,
k p (as 1)
G p (s)
( 1 s 1)( 2 s 1)
a. Calculate and whether a=-20 min, kp=1C/Lmin, 1= 3 min and

2=15min and estimate the behaviour of the system graphically.

b. Design the proportional controller using Ziegler-Nichols.

4 s 3s 1
The tuning parameters used are kc=5 and i=0.2. Is the closed loop system
d. As a process engineer, you decide to develop a first order+ time delay
process using a step test. The process is initially a steady state, with an
input flow 5 gpm and a output of 0.75 mol/L. You make a step increase of
0.5 gpm at 3:00 pm and do not observe any change until 3:07 pm. At 3:20
pm, the value of the output is 0.83 mol/L. You become distracted and do
not have a chance to look at the output variable again until you leave for
happy hour at a local watering hole at 6:30 pm. You note that the output
has ceased to change and has achieved a new steady state value of 0.85
mol/L. What is the values of the process parameters (with units)?. Show
your work.
c. A PI controller is used on the second order system Gp ( s )