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ElectricitySectorMatrix

Country:UgandaStatus:Feb.27,2014

Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

ElectricitySectorPolicy
ElectricityAct,1999;allowedforIndependentPowerProducers(IPPs),
createdtheElectricityRegulatoryAuthority(ERA)andtheRural
ElectrificationFund(REF)with5%levyonallbulkelectricity.

ElectricitySectorunbundled(yes/no), Yes,since2001.TheformerUgandaElectricityBoard(UEB)wassplitup
sincewhen?
intothreeseparatecompanies.

ElectricityAct(name,year)

Regulationoftheelectricitysector;
mandate;organization,autonomy
status

Masterplans/LeastCostPower
DevelopmentPlans/capacity
expansionplan

Gridexpansionplans

ElectricityRegulatoryAuthority(ERA)since2000;setsthetariffs,issues
feasibilityandinstallationpermitsandoperationlicenses;publishes
annualsectorperformancereports;ERAsetsperformanceparametersin
licenses,suchasgridlosses,collectionandconnectiontargets,
investmenttargetsetc.
NationalEnergyPolicyapprovedin2002;LeastCostGenerationPlan
developedbyERAfor20132018.

AHydropowerDevelopmentMasterPlanhasbeendevelopedwith
supportfromJICA.

HydropowerplantsInpreparation:
KarumaHPP:600MW(UEGCL)
IsimbaHPP:183MW(UEGCL)
AyagoHPP:600MW(UEGCL)
Thefirsttwoaretreatedasdevelopmentprojectsandfundedfromthe
EnergyFund.

SeveralnationaltransmissionlinesatEPCdevelopmentstage,plus
internationalconnections:UgandaKenya,UgandaRwanda.

www.era.or.ug

Mapsdetailingthetransmission
networktopologyin2009,2015,
2020and2025canbefoundin

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks
MEMD,TheDevelopmentofa
PowerSectorInvestmentPlanfor
Uganda,January2011.

Yes,e.g.BujagaliHPPinoperationsince2012,andexcesselectricityfrom
sugarfactoriesKakiraSugarWorks(totalinstalled20MW)andKinyara
SugarWorks(totalinstalled7MW).SugarCorporationofUgandaLtd
IPPsallowed/operating?
(SCOUL)willprovideexcesselectricityafterrehabilitationcurrently
undertaken.
ARenewableEnergyPolicyhasbeenelaboratedbyMEMDin2007,with
REelectricitysharetargets
themainobjectiveofincreasingtheuseofmodernrenewableenergyto
61%ofthetotalprimaryenergyconsumptionbytheyear2017.
StandardPowerPurchaseAgreementestablishedinMarch2005;
StandardizedPPAshavebeenestablishedforhydropowerprojectsby
ERA.

Feedintariffs(FiT)inplacesince2007,firstonlycoveringbagasse
cogenerationandhydropower(REFITPhaseI,20072009),limitedsuccess
duetotariffsbasedonavoidedratherthangenerationcostsanddueto
notcreditworthinessofstateutilityUMEME,inchargeofpurchasingthe
electricity.SubsequentlyreviewofREFITin2010andincreaseoftariffs
PowerPurchaseAgreements;Feedin
basedonupdatedlevelisedcostsofproduction,startingJanuary2011.
tariffs

GETFiThasbeendevelopedjointlybyGoU,ERA,KfWandDeutsche
Bank.GETFiTwillpayapremiumontopoftheexistingFiTandis
expectedtoattractinvestmentofapprox..125MWinphase1andeven
moreinphase2.PhaseIwasstartedendofMay2013andwillsupport
about15REelectricityprojectswithbetween1and20MWfollowinga
tenderprocess.Apartfromthis,theWorldBankoffersaPartialRisk
GuaranteeandDeutscheBankincollaborationwithlocalcommercial
bankswillprovideprivatedebt/equityfinancing.

MEMD,TheRenewableEnergy
Policy,2007

HeinrichBllStiftung/World
FutureCouncil,PoweringAfrica
throughfeedintariffs,February
2013

ERA,UgandaRenewableEnergy
FeedinTariff(REFIT),Phase2,
Guidelines,Revised15th
November2012

DeutscheBank,GETFitPlus,April
2011

DeutscheBank,PolicyPaper,Get
FiTinUganda,November20,2013

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks
ERAsPerformancein2012/13
andBusinessPlanfor2013/14

Wheelingpolicy

ERAwilldevelopwheelingpolicy.

Futuresectorreform

Severalreformsandadjustmentstogeneralruralelectrification
programmeexpectedtobephasedinuntil2016,includingestablishment ERAsPerformancein2012/13
ofsimplifiedmodelofservicedeliveryinruralareas.ElectricityActtobe andBusinessPlanfor2013/14
reviewedandamended.

Utilities
GENERATION
UgandaElectricityGenerationCompanyLtd(UEGCL)s:
KiiraHPP200MW(commissioned2000/2003/2007)
NalubaaleHPP180MW(commissioned1954;refurbished19911997)
Bothplantsnotfullyavailableduetodroughtsandothereffects.
BothpowerstationswerehandedoverinApril2003toEskomUganda
Ltd(EUL)subsidiaryofEskomSouthAfricaundera20yearconcession
agreementforoperationandmaintenance.Ownershipoftheasset
remainedwithUEGCL.

Mainutilities(s=stateowned;
ThermalPowerPlants(basedon100%importedHFO):
p=private;m=mixed),shareholders
ElectroMaxxLtdTororo:50MW(since2012)
JacobsenUgandaPowerPlantLtdNamanve:50MW

OtherHydropower:
BujagaliEnergyLtd(BEL)250MWm
CommissionedinAugust2012.PublicPrivatePartnershipbetween
GovernmentofUganda,theAgaKhanFundforEconomicDevelopment
andSitheGlobal.TheyformedBELtoownandoperatethepowerplant
ona30yearconcession,afterwhichtheplantwillbetransferredtoGoU.

www.uegcl.co.ug

Wikipedia:ListofPowerStations
inUganda

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

AfricaEMS(EnergyManagementSystems)MpangaLtd18MW
(commissionedFeb.2011)p
TronderPowerLtdBugoye13MW(commissionedin2011)p
KaseseCobaltCompanyLtd(KCCL)9.9MWp
KilembeMinesLtd5MWp
EcoPowerIshasha6.5MWp
HydromaxLtdBuseruka9.0MWp

Totalinstalledcapacity:683MW,peakdemandabout400450MW
(2012)

GISmapofpowerstations:http://www.gisuganda.de/EnergyGIS/
Generation(GWhproducedinyear
Noinformationyet.
.)
Generationtype(coal,hydro,wind
)andcapacitiesofmainutilities
(MW)

LargeHydro(Nalubaale,Kiira,Bujagali):630MW(notfullyavailable)
SmallHydro:65MW
StandbyHFOThermalPowerPlants:100MW

Generationbyfuelsource(GWh)in
Noinformationyet.
year

Peakload(MW)inyear

About525MWinJune2012.

Needstobeverified.

UgandaElectricityTransmissionCompanyLtd.(UETCL)Onlycustomer
mandatedbytheGovernmentofUgandatobuyandtransmitpowerin
thecountry.Ownsthetransmissionmainsofabove33kVandactsas
systemoperator.

www.uetcl.co.ug

TRANSMISSION

Utility(ies)

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

LengthandcapacityofHVlines

Noinformationyet.

Electricitytrade(export/import)

Minoramountswereexportedtoneighboringcountriesin2012,e.g.57

GWhtoTanzania,andsmallamountstoKenya,DRofCongoandRwanda.

DISTRIBUTION

Utilities

UmemeLtd,operatesunderaconcessionwithastructuralmonopolyon
thedistributionofelectricityacrossUganda,distributing99%of
electricityinUgandathroughasinglebuyermodel.Umemetookoverthe
distributionandsupplyfromUgandaElectricityDistributionCompany
Ltd(UEDCL)underconcessionfor20years,commencing1March2005.
UEDCLcontinuestoownthedistributionnetworkthathasbeenleasedto
UmemeunderthePrivatisationAgreements.Umemepurchases
electricityfromUETCL.Majorshareholderofthestocklistedcompanyis
ActisLPP,aprivateequitymanagerofinvestmentfundsspecializingin
emergingmarkets,withCDCGroupbeingthelargestinvestor.

Othersmalldistributoris:FerdsultEnergyServices(www.ferdsult.net),
operatinginsouthwestUganda.

www.umeme.co.ug

www.uedcl.co.ug

Umeme,Annualreport2012

LengthofMVandLVlines

Umeme:Approx.25,000kmintotal,concentratedinthesoutheastof
Uganda.Ofthose11,100kmMVlinesand14,900kmLVlines(2012)

Umeme,Annualreport2012

Developmentofongridcustomer
base

Umeme:
55,000newconnectionsin2012(+12%against2011)
305,000customersin2008,513,000attheendof2012.

Domestic468,461
Commercial42,355
IndustrialMedium1946
IndustrialLarge367

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

StreetLighting369
ElectricitypurchasedbyUmemefromUETCL:2,622GWhfor597,000bn
Ushs.(2012)

SalesbyUmemetoendusers:1,937GWh(2012);increaseof12%against
2011(1,735GWh)

NumberofconsumersofUmeme:513,500(endof2012)

Umemerevenueof834billionUshsin2012fromcustomersales(upby
SalesinGWhandlocalcurrencyin 88%against2011duetoincreasedendusertariffs).72%ofsales
revenuesfromgovernment,commercialandindustrialconsumers,28% Umeme,Annualreport2012
year(perconsumeroftariff
fromdomesticconsumers.
sector)

Salesbysector2012:
Domestic

455GWh235bnUshs
Commercial
230GWh111bnUshs
Industrialmediumsize 338GWh180bnUshs
Industriallargesize
913GWh307bnUshs
Streetlighting
1GWh1bnUshs

Percapitapowerdemandwasonlyaround70kWh/ain2009.
Demandisgrowingatmorethan10%/a,demandtrendmayoutstrip
supplybeforeendof2014.AccordingtothecurrentNational

Demandforecastnationalgrid(MW)
DevelopmentPlan,demandisexpectedtoreach1,520MWby2015and
wouldfarexceedinstalledcapacitybythen.

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

Tariffs/costcoverage/subsidies

Electricitytariffs

Tariffswereraisedbyaverage52%inJanuary2012,primarilydueto
removalofsectorsubsidies.TariffswerepartlydecreasedinJanuary
2014.

TariffsasofJan.2014forenergy:
Domestic:

520.4Shs/kWh
Commerce:
474.4Shs/kWh
MediumIndustry:
452.0Shs/kWh
Largeindustrial:
310.4Shs/kWh
Streetlights:
488.8Shs/kWh

Fixedmonthlychargeare3,360Shsfordomesticandcommercial
customers.

ERA,Statementonthe2014
Electricityendusertariffs

Lifelinetariffsinplace

Yes,Shs150/kWhforthefirst15kWheverymonth.

Tariffscostcovering?Tariffincreases
planned?

Tariffsarenotcostcovering.Forthermalpower,costreflectivetariff

wasestimatedat964UShsperkWh,whiletheendusertariffisfarlower.

Levelandsourceofsubsidies

NoGovernmentsubsidyprovidedfortariffs,bute.g.capacitypayment
forHFOthermalpowerplants(Shs.59.5billionin2014).Between2006
2011,aboutUS$900millionwerespentonsubsidiesforthermalpower
plants.Infiscalyear2011/12alone,GovernmentbudgetedUshs.417
billionforelectricitysubsidies.

Financialsituationofmainutilities

Noinformationyet.

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

Performance:Losses/efficiencies/servicereliability
Generationefficiency
Transmissionlosses,trendsand
targets

Distributionlosses(technical/non
technical

Noinformationyet.Generationmainlywithhydropower.
Transmissionlossesabout4%(2011).

Transmissionneedssubstantialrefurbishmenttoreducepowerlosses.
Distributionlosses:26.1%in2012(downfrom27.3%in2011),targetof
14.7%for2018,followingagreementbetweenUmemeandERA.
AccordingtoUmeme,halfofgridlossesduetothephysicalstateofthe
gridandhalfareduetoillegalconnections.Incomparison:distribution
losseswere38%in2005.
UmemeisimplementingapilotprojectsupportedbyAFD,KfWand
otherstorefurbishthegridandinstallprepaidmetersindistrictswith
highestgridlossrates.

ERA,AnnualReport2010/11

ERAengagedconsultantin2010/11toadviceondistributionlossesand
noncollectionrates.ReductiontargetinUmemeLtddistributionlosses
of20%in2014(downfrom23%in2013).

Noncharged/paidrevenues

Averagehoursofblackouts,targets
forimprovedperformance

CollectionrateofUmeme94%(2012),downfrom98.9%in2011dueto
increasedtariffs;17,000prepaidmeterswereinstalledattheendof
2012.
Thenumberofblackoutsandtheneedforloadsheddinghasbeen
reducedduetothefullcommissioningoftheBujagaliHPPin2012.But
furtherpowershortcutsexpectedinthenearfutureduetostrongly
growingelectricitydemand(about10%/a).

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

Energyaccessandoffgridelectrification

Electrificationrate(urban/rural)

Electrificationtargets

About12%ofthepopulationhasaccesstoelectricity.Totalconnections
ongrid:513,000(2012);lessthan5%ofruralpopulation=about180,000
customers;targetinRuralElectrificationStrategyandPlan20012010of
10%wasclearlyfailed;investmentbyprivatesectorengagementhas
beenlowsofar;currentruralelectrificationprovidersaretoosmallwith
predominantlydomesticcustomers,lowconsumptionperconnection
andlowrevenuelevels.EveninKampala,lessthan40%ofhouseholds
areconnectedtothegrid.

Inperiod20012012over400gridextensionprojects,butwithconsumer
connectionrateswellbelowplannedlevels(insteadof400,000new
consumersonly).Insteadof80,000projectedsolarPVinstallations,
only7,000wereactuallyinstalledundergovernmentsponsoredprojects.
NationalDevelopmentPlanwantstoachievefullelectrificationby2035.
IndicativeRuralElectrificationMasterPlan(IREMP)wascompletedin
2008.TheIREMPhasmappedthewholecountryonthebasisofallgrid
connectableloadcentresandprioritizedprojectsintranchestobe
implementedinsequencedperiods.

Universalelectrificationby2040;displacementofkerosenelightinginall
Ugandanhomesby2030;ruralelectrificationtargetof22%by2022;on
gridservicestoprovideapprox.1.28millionnewconnectionsby2022,
andoffgridservicesabout140,000newinstallationsofsolarPVsystems
andminigriddistributionconnections.

AnnualruralelectrificationplanstobedevelopedbyREAandadopted
byREB.Investmentrequirements20132022aboutUS$920million,plus
US$millionforcapacitybuilding,plusUS$30forfinancingneeds,

GoU,RuralElectrificationStrategy
andPlan20132022,September
2012

NationalDevelopmentPlan
2010/112014/15

MEMD,SustainableEnergyforAll,
CountryRapidAssessementand
GapAnalysisUganda,June2012

GoU,RuralElectrificationStrategy
andPlan20132022,September
2012

GoU,NationalBudgetFramework
PaperFY2013/14FY2017/2018

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

RuralElectrificationAgencyinplace?

Statusandplansforoffgridrural
electrification

Operatorsofisolatedgridsetc.

Explanation
subsidiesonconnectionsfees,housewiring,purchaseofappliancesetc.

Ushs25.73bnwereforeseenfortheRuralElectrificationProgrammein
fiscalyear2013/14.

GridDevelopmentPlaninplace.
Yes,RuralElectrificationAgency,since2001(ElectricityStatutory
InstrumentNo.75/2001asmandatedbySection65oftheElectricityAct),
alongwithRuralElectrificationBoard;centralizedauthorityforplanning
andimplementingtheresourcerequirementsoftheruralelectrification
programme.AlsoRuralElectrificationFund.
Preferencegiventoenergyservicesofferedintandemwithongrid
electrificationservicesinconcessionterritories.

Over30,000PVsystemsinstalled.

TheEnergyforRuralTransformation(ERT)projectwascarriedoutintwo
phases,endinginFebruary2009andJune2013resp.Theobjectivewas
toincreaseaccesstoenergyandinformationandcommunication
technologiesinruralUganda.UnderERTImarketdevelopmentand
outputbasedgrantswereprovidedtoprivatecompaniestoinstallPV
systemsonhouseholds.UnderERTIIthePVTargetedMarketApproach
(PVTMA)wasinstitutedtoprovideconsumerswithcreditfacilitiesand
subsidiestoenablefasteracquisitionofsolarsystems.TheUganda
EnergyCreditCapitalisationCompanyLtd.(UECCC)wasputinplaceto
offercredittorenewableenergyprojectssothattheycanreachfinancial
closureandactualconstruction.
WestNileRuralElectrificationCompanyWNERECo,operatesundera
20yearconcessioncontracttosupplypowertotheWestNileregion

UgandaRuralElectrificationCompanyLtdURECL

ReferencesandRemarks

www.rea.or.ug

PresentationbyJamesBaanabe,
CommissionerEnergyResources,
MinistryofEnergyandMineral
Development,August1,2012

ueccc.or.ug

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

Regulationforsettingupisolated
grids,incl.microgrids(concession
territoriesinplace?)

Ruralelectrificationservicesandinfrastructureshallbemanagedbyduly
licensednongovernmentalconcessionholders;serviceterritory
expansionplansregularlyupdatedbyREA;electricitytariffsdetermined GoU,RuralElectrificationStrategy
andapprovedbyERA;enhancedsupportprovidedforsmalldistributed
andPlan20132022,September
powergeneration;specialrulesandregulationwillallowfordirect
2012
purchaseofelectricityfromgeneratorsorengageinownsmallscale
powerplants.

PolicyforBoPelectricitysupply(low
levelelectrification)

Noinformationyet.

EnergyEfficiency

DemandsideManagement
programmes

EnergyEfficiencyactivities

Umemecarriedoutacompetitivetenderingprocessforbulkpurchasing
of800,000CFLsusingtheWorldBankssInternationalCompetitive
BiddingapproachinJuly2006.600,000ofthoselampsfordistributed

freeofchargetohouseholdsandsmallcommercialconsumers.Therest
waskeptasreplacementforfailinglampsorsoldatthepurchasingprice.
EnergyefficiencymeasureswerecarriedoutwithintheEnergyAdvisory
ProjectsupportedbyGTZ.Householdsweresensitizedonenergysaving
measures,energyauditswerecarriedoutinindustries.

TheMinistryofEnergyinconjunctionwiththeUgandaCleaner
ProductionCentresupportedbyUNIDOcarriedouttrainingonEnergy
Management.AnEnergyEfficiencyDirectorywasdeveloped,published
andcirculatedamongpotentialsusersofenergy.AnEnergyEfficiency
GuideforInstitutionswaspreparedandpublished.Itprovided
informationregardingefficientuseofenergyinestablishmentslikehotels
andcommercialbuildings.

SectorspecificEEprogramswerelaunchedforTeaFactoriesandSmall

ElectricitySectorMatrix
Topic

Explanation

ReferencesandRemarks

andMediumscaleindustries.AguideonEnergymanagementforthe
teaindustryhasbeendraftedtoenablethosecompaniesreducetheir
energyconsumptionandbills.ERAhaspublishedhintsonefficient
electricityusageforhouseholds.RegularannualEEweeksaretaking
place.

AnEEandConservationBillhasbeendevelopedbytheEnergyMinistry
(June2011),butnotbeenapprovedbytheCabinetyet.

AnEEStrategyandInvestmentPlan20102020hasbeendevelopedby
MEMDandGTZ(nowGIZ)andwasreleasedinSeptember2009,but
cannotbeformallyimplementedwiththeabsenceoftheEEand
conservationlaw.

MinimumEnergyPerformanceStandardshavebeendevelopedfor5
appliances(refrigerators,aircon,motors,CFLsandfreezers.

OtherIssues

Author:DetlefLoy