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All About Permanent Teeth

By Naghman Zuberi on Friday, April 13, 2012 at 10:48am

Maxillary Central Incisor (#8 And #9)

4 lobes
3 facial
mesial: mesial marginal ridge and mesial part of labial surface
distal: distal marginal ridge and distal part of the labial surface
labial: labial ridge (not very prominent)
1 lingual
lingual: cingulum

Eruption of deciduous: 10 months
Eruption of permanent: 7-8 years
Calcification initiation: 3-4 months
Interproximal contacts: (And heights of contour)
mesial: incisal 1/3
distal: junction of incisal 1/3 and middle 1/3
All contacts are centered faciolingually.
Heights of contour:
Buccal / labial / facial: junction of incisal 1/3 and middle 1/3 (one source claims
Cervical 3rd)
lingual: cervical 1/3
Embrasures between the two Max central incisors is smaller than between Max
central and laterals.
Single root; single pulp canal; root is longer than crown. Most likely tooth to
have 1 root
Facial view: pulp chamber with 3 pulp horns; cone-shaped with blunt apex
pointing slightly distal

Lingual view: cone-shaped, tapers distally slightly

Cross-sectional view: (triangular) mesial aspect longer
Pulp cavity is flattened mesiodistally
Facial / labial / buccal:
Outline is trapezoidal
Labial surface is smooth and convex in the cervical 3rd
anatomical crown is longer than wide (also wider at incisal edge)
mesial outline is relatively straight or only slightly convex
distal outline is more convex than mesial outline
incisal outline is straight
mamelons present on newly erupted teeth (rounded terminations of 3 labial
mesioincisal angle is a right angle; Distoincisal angle is more rounded
CEJ curved convex toward apex
Slight developmental depressions and ridges (distolabial and mesiolabial
These teeth are wider mesio-distal than bucco-lingual.
Outline is trapezoidal
Mesial and distal marginal ridges are present
Lingual fossa is present, and is bounded by incisal ridge, mesial and distal
marginal ridges, & cingulum
Occasionally a lingual pit is present
Outline is triangular or wedge-shaped
Facial outline is curved slightly, flat incisally
Lingual outline is concavoconvex (concave at incisal and convex at cervical)
Tooth bisects longitudinally
Cervical line is concave toward root (convex to incisal)
Mesial curvature of the CEJ is greater than the curvature on the distal
aspect the CEJ on the MESIAL surface is has the GREATEST cervical
curvature of any tooth in the mouth!
Similar to mesial except:
Crown appears thicker in the incisal 1/3 (due to arch shape)
CEJ curvature is less the mesial
Triangular outline

Tooth is wider facially than lingually

Incisal edge bisects the faciolingual diameter on line with root center
Incisal surface slopes toward the lingual
Point of convexity is at cingulum distal to its center
mesial and distal contact points centered labiolingually
mesiofacial and distofacial line angles are more prominent than ML and DL line
DF is more rounded than MF
Developmental depressions and ridges seen on labial surface
Mesial and distal marginal ridges are present
Maxillary Lateral Incisor (#7 And #10)
eruption of deciduous: 11 months
eruption of permanent: 8-9 years
calcification initiation: 10-12 months
Interproximal contacts:
Mesial-distal contact points
mesial: junction of incisal and middle 1/3
distal: middle 1/3
(Both are centered facio-lingually)
Heights of contour:
facial: cervical 1/3
lingual: cervical 1/3
single (similar to max. central incisor); 1 pulp canal; 1 chamber; pointed toward
distal; 2 pulp horns
-root is as long or longer than the max. central incisor and CEJ is
convex toward apex
cross-section of root: ovoid shape
Root is cone shaped and tapers apically root tip pointed and equally as long as
Embrasures: The incisal embrasure between Max lat and canine is the
largest incisal embrasure.
Varies in form more than any other tooth (exception 3rd molars)

[ex: peg-shaped laterals, dens in dente, twisted roots, etc]

Most frequently congenitally absent anterior tooth
Similar to max. central incisor except smaller in dimensions, (except root length),
More rounded, more pronounced mesial & distal marginal ridges, lingual fossa is
(One text states this tooth has the largest lingual fossa)
Tooth is wider MD than BL.
Outline is trapezoidal
Compared to Max Centrals:
labial surface more convex, smaller in dimensions,
and incisal outline is more rounded (than max. central incisor)
Mesial outline is slightly convex; mesioincisal angle is slightly rounded
Distal outline is more rounded than the max. central incisor; DI angle is more
rounded than MI
One text states the DI line angle of max lat incisor is the most convex
of any max perm teeth.
Labial surface is more round or convex than the max central.
Outline is trapezoidal.
Lingual fossa is deeper than max central (often get a pit in depth of fossa). (Is
actually deepest of all anterior teeth)
Prominent mesial and distal marginal ridges
pronounced cingulum
Deep developmental grooves (Has a distolingual developmental groove) distal
to cingulum
Tooth tapers lingually
Outline is triangular.
labial outline is slightly convex
lingual outline is concavoconvex

most markedly concave on the lingual surface (of all incisors)

Greatest curvature / height of contour of the labial / lingual outline =

cervical 3rd
Incisal surface/edge is angled lingually
cervical curvature curves incisally (less than max. central incisor)
line through center of root bisects the incisal surface

Outline is triangular.
appears wider than the mesial view
Distal aspect curves more lingually than the mesial to conform to occlusal arch
cervical line curvature is less than mesial (~ 1mm less)
A developmental groove may be present on the distal of crown extending down
Outline is ovoid.
Contour is more convex because cingulum is so much bigger
Crest of the cingulum is slightly distal to the center of the tooth.
DL line angle is more rounded than ML angle
Both of these line angles more rounded than the max. central incisor
Mesial and distal contact areas are centered labiolingually
Incisal surface/edge is angled lingually
Mandibular Central Incisor (#24 And #25)
eruption of deciduous: 8 months
eruption of permanent: 6-7 years
calcification initiation: 3-4 months
Interproximal Contacts:
mesial-distal contact points are at same levels
mesial: incisal 1/3
distal: incisal 1/3
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: cervical 1/3
Single (very narrow mesiodistally); curves distally in some cases; (ovoid or round)
Root is longer than crown length
Usually 1 pulp canal (may have 2 - called Facial and Lingual pulp
Broader FL (than MD)
Root may have broad developmental depression along its length (deeper on
distal than on mesial)
Root tapers apically near the middle 3rd

Only symmetrical tooth in mouth
1st succedaneous 2th to erupt.
Smallest adult tooth Smallest MD dimension of any crown.
Sets in jaw with root apices facial and crowns lingual
Wider FL than MD
Outline is trapezoidal.
incisal outline is straight (mamelons present when first erupt)
crown approximately twice as long as wide
mesial and distal outlines are straight to the contact point and then taper
(narrow) to cervix
mesioincisal and distoincisal line angles are sharp (90)
no developmental depressions
labial surface is flat in incisal 1/3 and becomes more convex cervically
Outline is trapezoidal.
Slightly concave incisally but no distinct lingual fossa
Mesial and distal marginal ridges are only minor elevations
Cingulum is much less distinct than in the maxillary incisors
no developmental grooves

Outline is triangular.
Labial outline is convex, height of contour is cervical 3rd
Incisal edge lies lingual to line bisecting the root
Mesial CEJ curves incisally about 1 mm more than on the distal
Broader labiolingually than mesiodistally
Upon wearing of the tooth, the incisal edge will angle to the facial.
The cervical line extends 1mm more apically on the lingual (than the labial)
lower in the back
The crown may have a concavity below the middle 3rd above the cervical line.
differs from mesial:
cervical lines curves incisally 1 mm less than on mesial;
developmental depression on distal of root is more marked than on mesial

Outline is ovoid.
symmetry of tooth is obvious (mesial and distal 1.2 are almost identical)
incisal edge is at right angles to a line bisecting the crown labiolingually (incisal
edge lies lingual to center of tooth)
tooth converges lingually the MD width of facial bigger than MD width of lingual
contact areas centered FL-ly
Mandibular Lateral Incisor (#23 And #26)
eruption of deciduous: 13 months
eruption of permanent: 7-8 years
calcification initiation: 3-4 months
Interproximal contact points:
mesial: incisal 1/3
distal: incisal 1/3 (more cervical)
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: cervical 1/3
(ovoid or round) 1 pulp canal
similar to mand. central incisor but slightly larger
depression on the distal is deeper than on the mand. central incisor
Larger than central incisor (wider crown MD than the central incisor)
All extra width appears to be added to the distal aspect of
the tooth
Long axes are positioned with root apices facially and crowns lingually.
Larger than the mandibular central incisor
Most likely (along with mand central) of all incisors to have both mesial
and distal concavities.
incisal edge slopes downward distally
distal crown height is often shorter than the mesial crown height
Mesioincisal angle is sharp (90)
Distoincisal angle is rounded

Lingual aspects match the lingual surface of the mandibular central
Mesial and Distal:
Outline is triangular.
Mesial and distal aspects are quite similar
Distal developmental depression on the root is more marked than on the mesial
Incisal edge is lingual to a line bisecting the root
incisal edge slopes labially
more of facial surface of tooth is visible from the distal due to lingual twist of
the distal part of the crown
from the mesial, the distoincisal tip is visible
incisal edge lingual to the center of the tooth
tooth is not symmetrical: distal part of the crown appears to be curved lingually
as if the distal part is twisted on the root
DF line angle is positioned more lingual
Maxillary Canine (#6 And #11)
eruption of deciduous: 19 months
eruption of permanent: 11-12 years
calcification initiation: 4-5 months

Interproximal contact points:

mesial: junction of incisal 1/3 and middle 1/3
distal: middle 1/3
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: cervical 1/3
Embrasures: The incisal embrasure between max canine and lat incisor is
the largest incisal embrasure.
Single root with 1 pulp canal; narrow MD, wide FL
Facial view: Conical; long and narrow mesiodistally; apex curves in apical 1/3
(mostly distally), root is convex on labial surface

Lingual view: Narrower than facial; smooth and convex; developmental

depressions on the mesial and distal (more prominent on distal)
Mesial view: Conical; broad FL from cervivcal line to (1/2 2/3) length, Mesial
developmental depression present; cusp tip labial to root bisect.
Distal view: Definite concavity between contact and cervical line, Cervical line is
flatter than mesials but it curves towards the incisal edge; distal marginal ridge
is heavier and more irregular in outline; developmental depression on root is
more pronounced than mesials.
Cross-section: ovoid; gets more ovoid as you get closer to apex (having only one
pulp horn)
The maxillary canine is the tooth with the longest single root.

cornerstone of the arch

very important from an esthetic and functional aspect
often last remaining tooth in the arch
guide mandibular movements
canine eminence (bone under gums) helps support the facial musculature
long roots stable: support bridges, dentures, etc.
thickest FL root
Larger than mandibular canine
Longest tooth in arch (27+ mm)
Thinner MD and thicker FL than the mandibular canine. This is broadest (FL)
single rooted tooth.
The axis is nearly vertical.
geometric form is trapezoidal
Labial / Facial:
Is a 5 sided figure (but is called trapezoidal) from the facial.
Cusp height of crown is 1/3 of crown height (incisal margin=1/3 total crown
Cusp tip is on line with the center of root (well-centered tooth)
The mid-facial lobe includes the cusp tip.
Mesial cusp ridge is shorter and less sloped than the distal cusp ridge.
Mesioincisal angle is more incisal and less rounded than distoincisal angle
Cervical line curves apically
Mesial and distal outline is concave cervical to contact point
Smooth with no developmental grooves
Shallow mesiofacial and distofacial depressions where the 3 labial lobes joined
(MF and DF depression)
Relatively prominent facial ridge of middle labial lobe
Mesial surface of crown is nearly parallel to long axis of root.

The mesial to facial ridge is convex relative from facial to mesial

The distal to facial ridge tconcavity in cervical 3rd (when viewed from the
incisal aspect)
Crown and root narrower lingually than labially
Greater CEJ curvature on lingual side than labial.
Distinct mesial and distal marginal ridges
Prominent convex cingulum more pronounced than the mandubular canine.
Lingual ridge---ridge from cusp tip and blends into incisal portion of cingulum
Mesiolingual and distolingual fossa are present between the lingual and marginal
Mesial and distal marginal ridges are more bulky than the mandibular canine.
(triangular or wedge-shaped)
Extremely wide faciolingually in cervical 1/3 of both crown and root
Labial outline is slightly convex, with height of contour in the cervical 3rd
lingual outline is convex in cingulum area and slightly concave in incisal portion
Cervical line curves toward the incisal edge
All mesial surface profile is convex except the part cervical to contact point
prominent mesioincisal angle
When viewed from the mesial aspect, the cusp tip is facial to the center line.
Similar to mesial aspect except:
Developmental depression on root (more pronounced)
Definite concavity between contact point and cervical line;
Slightly flatter cervical line cervical line extends more incisally on mesial side.
Distal marginal ridge is heavier & more irregular in outline
labiolingual dimension is greater than mesiodistal dimension
mesial and distal contact points centered faciolingually
cusp tip is labial to center of crown
prominent facial and lingual ridge, and distolingual and mesiolingual fossae
Mandibular Canine (#22 And #27)
eruption of deciduous: 20 months
eruption of permanent: 9-10 years
calcification initiation: 4-5 months
Recall: root development is 1/2 at time of eruption.

Interproximal contact points: (heights of contour)

mesial: incisal 1/3
distal: middle 1/3
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: cervical 1/3
Single root often curved to mesial (typically)
1 pulp horn; mostly 1 pulp canal, sometime has 2; sometimes bifurcated root
because developmental depression splits at apical end;
Root curvature -if present- is mesial (unusual)
-more prounouced distal root concavity than that on mesial
-root is shorter by 1-2 mm than max. canine
cross-section: ovoid; gets more ovoid as you get closer to apex - in cross section,
the root is flattened in a mesiodistal direction
Most likely anterior tooth to have 2 roots or 2 root canals/bifurcation
Compared to max canine: narrower MD, mesial & distal ridges are not as bulky,
cusp height is shorter.
more symmetrical crown than max. canine
general shape when viewed from the facial or lingual aspect is a pentagon
FL measurement is greater than MD measurement
Develops from 4 lobes 3 labial (middle best developed forming cusp) and one
Labial / Facial:
Cusp height is 1/5 of crown height, as opposed to 1/3 in maxilla
Crown is narrowed MD than the maxillary canine. (Is broader FL though)
Crown is as long or longer incisogingivally than max. canine
Mesial cusp arm is shorter than distal cusp arm
Mesial outline is straight and in line with mesial outline of the root
Distal outline is convex and overhangs the root (crown appears bent distally on
Similar to max. canine except not as pronounced/developed
Lingual aspect is relatively flat & smooth;
Less developed (relative to maxillary) cingulum and mesial & distal marginal
ridges and mesiolingual & distolingual fossa.

Crown and root narrow lingually (Wedge shape, and much surface can be seen.)
Cervical 1/3 narrower (where is base of crown), incisal portion is thinner (MD),
labial is less curved than max. canine (cing etc)
Lingual outline is more concave than max. canine due to less prominent cingulum
Cusp tip is lingual to line bisecting root from proximal view (Duh)
Continuous convex facial surface from incisal to apical end, when viewed from
the proximal aspect
when viewed from the a proximal point, a line bisecting the root will pass buccal
to the cusp tip
curvature of CEJ is less on distal than on mesial
distal developmental depression is deeper than on mesial
labial outline is less convex and facial ridge is less developed than maxillary
canine (does not bulge out as much)
mesial and distal marginal ridges are less developed than max. canine (Marginal
ridges are lingual structures)
Cusp tip is slightly lingual
Mesial cusp arm is inclined slightly lingual

Crown is smaller
Incisal margin = 1/5 crown length
Lingual Surface is flatter
Less prominent anatomical features
More symmetrical crown

Crown is larger
Marked convergence toward cervical area
Incisal margin = 1/3 of crown height
All anatomical features -ridges, fossae etc more prominent
Marked asymmetry when viewed from incisal
The cusp tip of the mandibular canine develops from the middle labial lobe.
Maxillary First Premolar (#5 And # 12)

eruption of deciduous: (Replaces max 1st molar eruption of permanent: 10-11 years
calcification initiation: 1.5 - 2.5 years
Interproximal contact points:
mesial: middle 1/3 (Interproximal contacts are offset buccal)
distal: middle 1/3 (Interproximal contacts are offset buccal) Located
just a bit more cervical than the mesial.
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: middle 1/3
single root (50%)
only premolar with bifurcated roots (50%---2 canals fused together) (Buccal and
The root trunk is long, about 1/2 to 2/3 total length of root. (recall root trunk is
root between bifurcation and CEJ)
broad buccolingually, narrow mesiodistally
mesial developmental depression
buccolingual section: 2 pulp canals, 2 pulp horns (buccal is larger)
MD section resembles canine
transverse section: kidney-shaped (cervical CS) because of mesial concavity
Outline is roughly trapezoidal, and is generally convex.
only permanent tooth where mesial cusp arm is longer and straighter than distal
cusp arm (shorter and more curved)
mesial concavity below contact point
prominent buccal ridge associated with developmental depressions
The mesial and distal lobes are less developed
crown tapers lingually (lingual part narrower than buccal, and is smoothly
lingual cusp located mesially and is 1 mm shorter & more pointed than buccal
cusp, so the buccal cusp is visible from this aspect.
ML cusp arm is shorter than DL cusp arm, so it Points toward mesial
No developmental depressions visible on the lingual side.

Outline is trapezoidal.
Cusp tip is located within confines of root surfaces
mesial cusp ridge is longer than its distal cusp ridge - only tooth where
mesioincisal is longer than the distoincisal
Both cusps are visible, and the buccal cusp is 1 mm taller, straighter, & less
pointed than lingual cusp (more convex)
mesial concavity is below contact point (middle 1/3) allows easy distinguish from
mesial developmental depression / concavity present, note maxillary second
premolars dont have this
mesial marginal ridge developmental groove is present. (This distinguish from
max. second premolar)
few differences from mesial (absence of mesial concavity, mesial developmental
depression, marginal ridge developmental groove)
Less curvature of the cervical line (when compaed to mesial) is observed
Outline is hexagonal.
BL dimension is greater than the MD
The buccal and lingual cusps are each composed of 4 ridges
crown wider on the buccal than on the lingual
Mesial and distal developmental pits and triangular fossa are present
mesiobuccal cusp ridge is longer than distobuccal cusp ridge
mesiolingual cusp ridge is shorter than distolingual cusp ridge
mesial and distal marginal ridges are present, central developmental groove is
present on occlusal surface
Mesial marginal developmental groove located on occlusal surface
buccal triangular ridge and lingual triangular ridge both end at central fossa, and
they are not angled straight
mesiobuccal cusp ridge & mesial marginal ridge form almost a 90 angle; distal:
acute angle (
When compared with the maxillary second premolar, the central groove is longer
with less supplemental grooves.
MB and DB supplemental developmental grooves are present.
Maxillary Second Premolar (#4 And #13)
eruption of deciduous: Deciduous 2nd maxillary molar replaces
eruption of permanent: 10-12 years

calcification initiation: 2-2 years

Interproximal contact points: (same as height of contour)
mesial: middle 1/3
distal: middle 1/3
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: middle 1/3
Single root is typical; 40% have 2 canals
Root length is same as in max 1PM
broad BL, narrow MD
no developmental groove depression!
buccolingual section: 2 pulp horns of equal height (usually 1 canal)
mesiodistal section: resembles canine (same as max. first premolar)
transverse section: oval shaped, cigar shaped pulp cavity
Resembles maxillary first premolar---more rounded, less angular, more variation,
similar to max. first premolar
Less prominent than 1PM: MB and DB line angles, buccal cusp ridge, buccal
developmental depressions less prominent than 1PM
MB cusp ridge is shorter than DB cusp ridge
Buccal cusp not as long as in 1PM buccal cusp ridge is not as obvious.
The buccal developmental grooves are not as well developed as in the 1PM.
Lingual cusp is longer than that of max 1PM, so as a result, less of buccal cusp is
visible when viewed from the lingual (compared to the 1st premolar)
Buccal and lingual cusps are approximately equal in size
buccal and lingual cusps are shorter than maxillary first premolar
buccal and lingual cusp tips are further apart
no mesial marginal ridge developmental groove, no mesial developmental
depression this is max 1PM stuff.

similar to mesial. CEJ is more straight.
Shape is rounded or oval
MB and DB line angles are more rounded
Less lingual convergence
The central groove is shorter (mesial and distal marginal ridges are wider)
Has more supplemental grooves than the 1st maxillary premolar (wrinkled
Mandibular First Premolar (#21 And #28)
eruption of deciduous: NO DECIDUOUS
eruption of permanent: 10-12 years
calcification initiation: 1.5 2.5 years
Interproximal contact points:
mesial: middle 1/3
distal: middle 1/3 (broader than mesial)
Heights of contour:
buccal: junction of middle 1/3 and cervical 1/3
lingual: middle 1/3
Single root
rounded, curves distally grooved longitudinally (mesial groove more marked)
may be bifurcated, but rare
Shape is trapezoidal
prominent buccal ridge
well-developed middle buccal lobe
mesial cusp arm is shorter than distal cusp arm
mesial outline is straight/slightly concave
distal outline is slightly concave
cervix is much narrower mesiodistally than the crown width at the contact points
lingual cusp is small and may resemble canine cingulum
crown and root taper from buccal to lingual

occlusal surface slopes lingually in a cervical direction

mesial and distal outlines are concave from cervical margin-contact areas
only premolar that has a mesiolingual developmental groove (demarcates lingual
lobe from mesiofacial lobe---separates mesial marginal ridge from lingual cusp)
root tapers to pointed apex
more developmental depressions or grooves mesially on root
Shape is rhomboidal.
buccal outline is very curved/convex
lingual outline is much less convex
buccal cusp tip is centered over the midline of the root
lingual cusp tip on a line with lingual border of root
distance from CEJ to lingual cusp tip is 2/3 distance from CEJ to buccal cusp tip
only tooth in which the mesial marginal ridge is at a lower level than the distal
marginal ridge (slopes cervically from buccal to lingual & not perpendicular like
most other teeth)
distal marginal ridge almost at right angles to the long axis of tooth
root shallow developmental depression but not groove
mesio- and disto- buccal line angles prominent yet rounded
mesial and distal contacts centered labiolingually
buccal and lingual triangular ridges joined together to form a single ridge called
the transverse ridge [separates mesial occlusal fossa from distal occlusal fossa]
(buccal triangular ridge larger than lingual triangular ridge)
distal occlusal fossa is larger than mesial occlusal fossa
cusps separated by a central groove as in maxillary premolars
Mandibular Second Premolar (#20 And #29)
eruption of deciduous: NO DECIDUOUS
eruption of permanent: 10-13 years (usually erupt after the maxillary canine but
may occur along with it)
calcification initiation: 1.5 2.5 years
Interproximal contact points:
mesial: middle 1/3
distal: middle 1/3

Heights of contour:
buccal: junction of middle 1/3 and cervical 1/3
lingual: middle 1/3
Single root that curves distally
root apex is more blunt and longer than mandibular first premolar
2 types of Mandibular 2nd premolar exist:
1)3 cusp type [1 facial & 2 lingual] (5 lobes) --- most common
buccal cusp > mesiolingual cusp > distolingual cusp
2)2 cusp type (4 lobes)
resembles mandibular first premolar
buccal cusp is shorter and less pointed than that of mand. first premolar
differs from crown of mand. first premolarlingual lobes are better developed
3 cusp type---2 lingual cusps (mesiolingual and distolingual cusps) are separated
by lingual groove
Shape is rhomboidal
differences from mand. first premolar
-crown and root are wider buccolingually than mand. first premolar
-buccal cusp tip is not as lingually placed
-lingual and buccal cusps are more equal in size
-mesial marginal ridge is at right angles to the long axis of the tooth
-no mesiolingual developmental groove
can only see 2 cusps from this view
Similar to mesial except that distal marginal ridge is at a lower levelcan see all 3
3 cusp type (most common, forming a Y-shape more common)
2 lingual cusps and 1 buccal

developmental grooves separate cusps to form a Y-shape on occlusal (mesial,

distal, & lingual)
central pit---where the 3 grooves meet
mesial triangular fossa and distal triangular fossa
large mesiolingual groove that separates the mesial marginal ridge from the
lingual cusp.
2 cusp type (H-shaped and U-shaped---U-shaped is least common)
outline is rounded
lingual convergence of mesial and distal marginal ridgeslingual cusp well
mesiolingual and distolingual line angles are rounded
central developmental groove, mesial and distal developmental fossa
may or may not have mesial and distal developmental pits
General Characteristics of
Member of incisal classification of teeth
Used to cut or incise food
2 in maxillary arch
Succedaneous teeth (replaces primary tooth)
4 lobes (3 facial and 1 lingual---mesiolabial, middle labial, distolabial, and lingual
Erupts at 7-8 years of age

General Characteristics of
supplements the central incisor in function
varies in form more than any other tooth in the mouth except for 3rd molars
-peg-shaped laterals, dens in dente, twisted roots, etc.
most frequently congenitally absent anterior tooth
roughly same anatomy as maxillary central incisor except things more

General Characteristics of

used to incise or cut food

4 in number: 2 central and 2 laterals
have smaller mesiodistal diameters than any other teeth (mandibular central
incisor is the smallest tooth)
mandibular incisors are broader buccolingually than mesiodistally (opposite to
maxillary incisors)
4 lobes (3 labial and 1 lingual)

General Characteristics of
single pointed cusp (cuspids)
designed to tear, pierce, and hold food
teeth with longest and thickest (faciolingually) roots---stable
teeth form cornerstone of arch
very important teeth from an esthetic and functional aspect
often last remaining tooth in arch
prominent ridge of bone on the labial aspect---canine eminence
help support facial musculature
loss of canine teeth changes shape of face in this area
guiding teeth: mandibular canine slide along lingual surface of maxillary canine
and guides mandible
long roots: good anchors or support for prostheses
develops from 4 lobes (3 labial and 2 lingual) [middle labial lobe is best

General Characteristics of
4 in maxillary arch
occlusal surface
2 cusps: lingual (functional cusp) and facial (non-functional cusp)
do not refer to as bicuspids
succedaneous teeth (replace deciduous molars)
develop from 4 lobes (B, MB, and DB) and (1 lingual) [well developed middle
facial lobefacial cusp]
central developmental groove is demarcation between lingual and facial lobes
maxillary first premolar is bigger than maxillary second premolar
maxillary premolars are more similar than the mandibular premolars

cusps are approximately the equal in size

crowns are centered over the root with a slight if any lingual inclination
maxillary first premolar normally has 2 roots
height of contour of lingual profile is at midportion of crown
maxillary first premolar: mesial marginal ridge developmental groove

General Characteristics of
succedaneous teeth (replace deciduous molars)
misleading to refer to them as bicuspids
mandibular first premolar develops from 4 lobes (3 facial and 1 lingual) 2 cusps
mandibular second molar develops from 4 or 5 lobes (3 facial and 1-2 lingual)23 cusps
mandibular second premolar is bigger than mandibular first premolar
lingual cusp(s) are less prominent than the buccal cusp
crowns are marked with lingual inclination
mandibular first premolar has one root
height of contour of lingual profile is closer to cusp tip
mandibular first premolar: mesiolingual developmental groove
2 cusp premolar
4 lobes

3 cusp premolar
5 lobes


General Characteristics of
3 roots----2 buccal, 1 lingual (the largest)

4 cusps----3 major cusps, 1 smaller cusp (1st molar has 5th cusp)
ML cusp is the largest
ML, MB, and DB cusps form a triangle----trigon or primary cusp triangle
DB cusp is the smallest and decreases in size from the first to the third molar
crowns are broader BL than MD
DB cusp is connected to ML cusp by an oblique ridge
crown relatively short occluso-cervically

General Characteristics of
largest mandibular teeth
variations in numbers of cusps
-generally 5 cusps in 1st, 4 cusps in 2nd
teeth broader mesiodistally than buccolingually
1st molar has 5 lobes and 5 cusps
2nd molar has 4 lobes and 4 cusps

All teeth are trapezoidal in shape from the buccal aspect
In most teeth, the distal contact point is positioned more cervically than mesial
contact point (even if it is located in the same 1/3 of tooth)
All teeth are broad on facial and narrow on lingual
All teeth have a greater buccolingual dimension than mesiodistal
mandibular molars
maxillary incisors (central and lateral)
All teeth are shorter as you go anterior to posterior because distal marginal ridge
is usually shorter than mesial marginal ridge EXCEPT: mandibular first premolar
Mesial marginal ridge is usually perpendicular for most
teeth EXCEPT: mandibular first premolar (slopes cervically from buccal to
ALL maxillary molars (permanent 1-3 and primary 1-2) have oblique ridges

Deciduous Dentition Chronology:

First sign of tooth development:
6-7 weeks (in utero)
Calcification begins:
13-16 weeks (in utero)
Calcification of all teeth have begun:
18-20 weeks
Primary dentition completed:
2.5 - 3 years
Completion of root development for primary dentition: 1.5 yr after eruption
mandibular central incisor.8 months
maxillary central incisor10 months
maxillary lateral incisor.11 months
mandibular lateral incisor13 months
maxillary first molar.16 months (generally before mandibular
first molar)
mandibular first molar16 months
Maxillary canine..19 months
mandibular canine.20 months
mandibular second molar..27 months
maxillary second molar29 months

Permanent Dentition Chronology:

Calcification initiation:
(1st part to calcify is the crown)
Incisors - 3-4 months
except: maxillary lateral incisor: 10-12 months
Canines: 4-5 months
Premolars: 1.5 2.5 years
max. 1st : 1 - 1 years max. 2nd : 2- 2 years
mand. 1st: 1 - 2 years
mand. 2nd: 2 - 2 years
1st molars: BIRTH
2nd molars: 2-3 years

max.: 2 - 3 years
3rd molars: 7-10 years
max.: 7-9 years

mand.: 2 - 3 years
mand.: 8 10 years

Calcification complete: [1/2 time of eruption]+1 year

Root development complete: 2-3 years after eruption
mandibular first molar..6 years
maxillary first molar.6 years
mandibular central incisor..6-7 years
maxillary central incisor..7-8 years
mandibular lateral incisor..7-8 years
maxillary lateral incisor8-9 years
mandibular canine9-10 years
(often erupts at same time as or earlier than mandibular 1st premolar)
mandibular first premolar.10-12 years
maxillary first premolar..10-11 years
(mandibular first premolar erupts before maxillary first premolar)
maxillary second premolar.10-12 years
mandibular second premolar11-12 years
maxillary canine.11-12 years
mandibular second molar....11-13 years
maxillary second molar..12-13 years
(usually erupt after maxillary canine, but may occur along with it)
mandibular third molar..17-21 years
(mandibular third molar erupts before maxillary third molar)
maxillary third molar..17-21 years
Maxillary First Molar (#3 And #14)
eruption of deciduous: 16 months (generally before the mandibular first molar)
eruption of permanent: 6 years (generally after the mandibular first molar)

calcification initiation: BIRTH

Interproximal contact points:
mesial: middle 1/3 (offset to buccal)
distal: middle 1/3 (offset to buccal)
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: middle 1/3
3 roots: 2 buccal and 1 lingual (Mesiobuccal, Distobuccal, Lingual)
Roots are splayed (wider than crown width)
L (13 mm) > MB (12 mm) > DB (12mm)
Lingual=1 canal
MB=1 (or 2 canals 50% of time)
DB=1 canal
buccal view: 3 roots visible---MB: straight curves distally at apex; DB: smallest; L:
root trunk is 1/3 length of root; point of bifurcation is 4 mm apical CEJ; roots twice
as long as crown (whole root is 12 mm)
lingual view: 3 roots visible---lingual root is longest and in line with lingual
groove; shallow depression on lingual aspect from terminus of lingual groove to
the center of the lingual groove to the center of the lingual root until the middle
1/3 of root
Levels of bifurcations:
mesial : 3 mm apical to CEJ
buccal: 4 mm apical to CEJ
distal: 5 mm apical to CEJ
Shape is roughly trapezoidal.
parts of the 4 major cusps are visible
mesial profile: convex and flat; distal profile: convex, spheroidal (obtuse
MB cusp > DB cusp
DB cusp is more pointed that MB cusp
MB and DB cusp are separated by buccal developmental groove
can be difficult to remove calculus and restore tooth because of concavity at the
cervical area on the distal surface of the DB cusp
2 visible cusps (ML and DL)

ML and DL cusps separated by lingual groove (ends in the middle of the lingual
ML cusp = 3/5 mesiodistal width of tooth
-ML broader and the longest and the largest
-ML cusp has Cusp of Carabelli

crown constricts toward distal (buccal aspect is visible from distal)
3 roots visible
bifurcation is about 5 mm apical to CEJ
distal root smoothly rounded
DB concavity around the cervical area
-DL is spheroidal
Shape is trapezoidal.
tooth converges occlusally (maximum BL width is at cervix)
only MB and ML cusp are visible
cervically to contact area, shallow concavity which extends to the mesial area of
the root trunk
mesiobuccal and lingual roots visible
-MB root is broad BL, hides DB root
-lingual root is narrow BL (banana-shaped) 50% curves buccally
-level of bifurcation = 3 mm apical to CEJ
Shape is rhomboidal.
acute angles = MB and DL
obtuse angles = ML and DB
crown wider buccolingually than mesiodistally
mesial aspect > distal
only tooth which broadens toward the lingual
ML cusp largest > MB > DB > DL > fifth cusp of Cusp of Carabelli
ML, MB, and DB cusps are from the primary molar triangle (trigon)
oblique ridge = distolingual cusp ridge of the ML cusp and the triangular ridge of
the DB cusp
-oblique ridge is the same level in center as the marginal ridges
2 major fossae
-central fossa lies in the center of the trigon mesial to the oblique
ridge, roughly triangular
-distal fossa distal to oblique ridge, roughly linear
2 minor fossa

-mesial triangular fossa

-distal triangular fossa
central pit: central developmental groove, buccal groove, transverse groove of
the oblique ridge
distal pit: distal oblique groove, lingual groove
Maxillary Second Molar (#2 And #15)
eruption of deciduous: 29 months
eruption of permanent: 12-13 years
calcification initiation: 2 -3 years
Interproximal contact points:
mesial: middle 1/3 (offset to buccal)
distal: middle 1/3 (offset to buccal)
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: middle 1/3
crown is smaller, shorter, more rhomboidal than maxillary 1st molar
2 occlusal types:
rhomboidal (resembles 1st molar)---most common
heart-shaped (resembles 3rd molar)---when DL is absent
roots are as long or longer, distally inclined
DL cusp is smaller
DB cusp is less developed
No cusp of Carabelli
crown is shorter and narrower mesiodistally
DB cusp is smaller
roots are more parallel and inclined to distal
MB root apex is in line with buccal groove
DL cusp is much smaller
lingual root is narrower mesiodistally
lingual root distal inclination
-apex lines up with DL cusp tip

no Cusp of Carabelli
similar to max. 1st molar but shorter crown height
same BL width as the max. 1st
roots do not diverge as much----confined within crown width
crown converges towards the distal
DB and DL cusps are smaller and much of the occlusal surface and ML cusp
all 3 roots visible
Shape is more rhomboidal.
MB, ML cusps are well-developed
BL dimension similar to 1st, MD smaller
DB and DL cusps less developed ---tooth constricts towards the distal
crown converges towards the lingual
more variable pit and groove anatomy
some have no DL cusp---heart-shaped

Maxillary Third Molar (#1 And #16)

eruption of deciduous: NO DECIDUOUS
eruption of permanent: 17-21 years (generally after maxillary 3rd molar)
calcification initiation: 7-9 years
most variable tooth anatomy in dentition
smaller MD and cervico-occlusally, less developed than the max. 2nd
may resemble 1st or 2nd molar
DL cusp is poorly developed or absent
1 lingual cusp usually
heart-shaped occlusal usually
roots are shorter and usually fused (3)
Mandibular First Molar (#19 And #30)

eruption of deciduous: 16 months (generally after the maxillary first molar)

eruption of permanent: 6 years (generally before the maxillary first molar)
calcification initiation: BIRTH
Interproximal contact points:
mesial: middle 1/3
distal: middle 1/3
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3
lingual: middle 1/3
2 roots---mesial root curves distally and the distal root points in a distal direction
(roots are broad labiolingually)
buccal view: 2 roots (mesial and distal)
-bifurcation is 3 mm apical to CEJ
-roots are wider MD on buccal than on lingual
-developmental depressions on mesial and distal aspects of each root and
buccally on root trunk from CEJ to furcation (hour-glass shape)
Shape is trapezoidal.
5 cusps visible (lingual cusps is taller than the buccal cusps)
MB cusp > DB cusp > distal cusp
2 grooves
-MB developmental groove shorter and terminates in middle 1/3 of
tooth, mesial to the bifurcation
-DB developmental groove terminates in cervical 1/3 near DB line
cervical line curves apically
mesial outline is convex and concave; distal outline is convex and straight
concavity is small at the CEJ
3 cusps visible (ML, DL, and distal)
ML > DL (wider and taller)
lingual developmental groove separating ML and DL cusps
mesial and distal aspects of the crown visible due to lingual convergence
2 roots: longer on lingual than buccal (+ 1mm) because CEJ is more coronal
CEJ is 4mm from bifurcation (bifurcation is in line with lingual groove)
root narrows faciolingually
Shape is rhomboid.
2 cusps (MD and ML) and 1 root (mesial) are visible
distal portion of tooth is NOT visible
-mesial of tooth is broader BL than distal

-mesial cusps are taller/higher than distal cusps

tooth converges distolingually
crown has a lingual tilt in relation to its root axis
MB cusp in line with buccal 1/3 mesial root
lingual cusp tip in line with lingual 1/3 of the root
blunt root apex that lies under MB cusp; slight mesial developmental depression
on root
cervical line curves occlusally----1 mm; cervical line is higher lingually than
more tooth visible---can see all cusps (tooth is shorter and narrower to distal)
distal marginal ridge is shorter and dips cervically
DB developmental groove ends on distal surface at distobuccal line angle---can
see DB groove
distal cusp makes up the distal contact
Shape is hexagonal or 6 sided.
MD width of crown is greater than BL
crown is wider BL on mesial aspect (tapers distally)
crown is wider MD on buccal aspect (tapers lingually)---because the 3rd cusp is
on buccal
MB > ML > or = DL > DB > D
most buccal surface visible
tooth narrows mesiodistally
1 major fossa = central fossa----circular, centrally placed between cusp ridges
boundaries of central fossa
-distal slope of MB cusp
-mesial and distal slopes of DB cusp
-mesial slope of distal cusp
-distal slope of ML cusp
-mesial slope of DL cusp
2 minor fossae = mesial triangular fossa and distal triangular fossa (base of
triangle at marginal ridge)
developmental grooves
-central developmental groove (mesial marginal ridge, distal marginal
-mesiobuccal developmental groove (MB from DB cusp)
-distobuccal developmental groove (DB cusp from distal cusp)
-lingual developmental groove
can have central pit at base of fossa
-mesial and distal pit

Mandibular Second Molar (#18 And #31)

eruption of deciduous: 27 months
eruption of permanent: 11-13 years
calcification initiation: 2 -3 years
Interproximal contact points:
(more cervical than mand. 1st molars)
mesial: middle 1/3
distal: middle 1/3
Heights of contour:
buccal: cervical 1/3 (not as pronounced)
lingual: middle 1/3
smaller than mandibular 1st molar
4 cusps (MB, ML, DB, DL)----no distal or 5th cusp
2 roots (mesial and distal root)---roots are not as broad buccolingually
roots are not as widely separated as in the 1st mandibular
Shape is trapezoidal.
crown is shorter and narrower than the first molar
4 cusps visible (MB, DB, ML, and DL)
-lingual cusps are taller and more pointed than buccal cusps
buccal developmental groove separates 2 buccal cusps
cervical line points toward bifurcation
roots closer, more parallel, inclined distally
root trunk is shorter
Shape is trapezoidal.
crown converges to lingual but less than the 1st molar
CEJ higher on lingual than on buccal
can only see 2 cusps (lingual cusps)
similar to 1st molar except:

buccal curvature and buccal cervical ridge are less pronounced

cervical line is less curved
mesial root more pointed apex
buccal height of contour (cervical 1/3) is not as pronounced
no distal cusp
can see more of occlusal surface
Shape is rectangular.
no distal cusp---rectangular
DB cusp is more prominent
all 4 cusps relatively equal in size
cross-shaped developmental grooves (central, lingual, and buccal grooves)
-central groove runs mesiodistally
more supplemental grooves---wrinkly appearance

Mandibular Third Molar (#17 And #32)

eruption of deciduous: NO DECIDUOUS
eruption of permanent: 17-21 years (generally before maxillary 3rd molar)
calcification initiation: 8-10 years
maxillary and mandibular 3rd molars are most variable teeth in mouth----mandibular 3rd molar is the second most variable tooth in mouth
usually similar to other mandibular molars
-most of mandibular 3rd crowns are oversized
-most maxillary 3rd molars are undersized
mandibular 3rd molars are commonly impacted
crown tends to be larger and have more cusps
-4 cusps---cross-shaped
-5 cusps---Y-shaped
-6 cusps
2 cusps and 2 roots (shorter)

Similar to buccal
root shorter and more tapered
similar to mesial but narrower
more rounded