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SPE 3rd Ed.

Solution Manual Chapter 4


New Problems and new solutions are listed as new immediately after the solution number. These new
problems are: 4A6, 4A13, 4C10, 4C16, 4D6, 4D9, 4D13, 4D15, 4D18, 4E4, 4E5, 4H1 to 4H3.
4A1.

Point A: streams leaving stage 2 (L2, V2)


Point B: vapor stream leaving stage 5 (V5)
liquid stream leaving stage 4 (L4)
Temp. of stage 2: know K y 2 / x 2 , can get T from temperature-composition graph or
DePriester chart of K = f(T,p).
Temp. in reboiler: same as above (reboiler is an equilibrium stage.)

4A2.

a. Feed tray = .6, z = 0.51 (draw y = x line), yF =0.52, xF = 0.29.


b. Two-phase feed.
c. Higher

4A6.
4A7.
4A13.

4A14.

New Problem in 3rd Edition. Answer is a.


See Table 11-3 and 11-4 for a partial list.
New Problem in 3rd Edition.
A. Answer is b
B. Answer is a
C. Answer is a
D. Answer is a
E. Answer is b
F. Answer is a
G. Answer is b
If feed stage is non-optimum, the feed conditions can be changed to have an optimum
feed location.

4B2.

a. Use columns in parallel. Lower F to each column allows for higher L/D and may be sufficient
for product specifications.
b. Add a reboiler instead of steam injection. Slightly less stages required and adds 1 stage.
c. Make the condenser a partial instead of a total condenser. Adds a stage.
d. Stop removing side stream. Fewer stages are now required for the same separation.
e. Remove the intermediate reboiler or condenser and use it at bottom (or top) of column. Fewer
stages, but all energy at highest T (reboilers) or lowest T (condenser) for same separation.
Many other ideas will be useful in certain cases.
4C7. Easiest proof is for a saturated liquid feed. Show point z, y D satisfies operating equation.
Solution: Op. Eq.

Substitute in

yD V
But

q 1.0, V

Lz
D, L

L V x
yD , x

L V 1 xB
z

L V xB
F, L V

y D D Fz Bx B
Which is external mass balance.

B
QED.

70

Can do similar for enriching column for a saturated vapor feed.


4.C10. New Problem in 3rd Edition. If we consider , the latent heat per mole to be a positive quantity,
then QR V . With CMO and a saturated liquid feed V V (1 L / D) D , and then

QR / D
4.C16.

(1 L / D) .

New Problem in 3rd Edition. Define a fictitious total feed FT , z T , h T

FT

F1

F1z1

F2 , z T

F2 z 2

, hT

F1h F1

F2 h F2

FT
FT
Intersection of top & bottom operating lines must occur at feed line for fictitious feed F T.
(Draw a column with a single mixed feed to prove this.)
This feed line goes through y x z T

with slope
where

FT

qT

qT

qT 1

H mix

hT

H mix

h mix

and H mix , h mix are saturated

vapor and liquid enthalpies at feed stage of column with


mixed feed.

Given p, L/D, saturated liquid reflux, x D , x B

z0

opt feed locations, z1 , z 2 , F1 , F2 , h F1 , h F2

z2
y

zT
z1
Plot top op line. Plot all 3 feed lines. Draw

xB

line from point A to y = x = x B to obtain

x
b.)

Does

qT

q1F1

op. line. Connect pts B & C to get


q 2 Fbot.
2

FT

middle op. line.

71

check q T

H mix

hT

H mix

h mix

F1h F1

H mix

F2 h F2
FT

H mix

F1

F2 H mix

h mix

F1H F1

H mix

F2 h F2

h mix FT

where H mix & h mix are vapor and liquid enthalpies on feed stage of mixed column

F1 H mix
H mix

qT

h F1

F2

h mix

H mix

h F2

H mix

h mix

FT
Usual CMO assumption is >> latent heat effects in either vapor or liquid.
H mix h F1
H mix h F2
Then
q1 and
q2
H mix h mix
H mix h mix
F1q1 F2 q 2
Thus q T
if CMO is valid.
FT
4D1.

a. Top op line: y
Intersects y

When x

xD

L
V

x D and

L D

1.25

1 L D

2.25

0.5555

0.9

0, y

b. Bottom op line: y

xD

0.4

1 x B , and

Plot See diagram

V B

V B 1

V
V
V B
2
V
V
Intersects y = x = xB = 0.05
1 0.5 / 2
@y 1 x
0.683 this is convenient point to plot
32
c. See diagram for stages. Optimum feed stage is #2 above partial reboiler.
5 equilibrium stages + PR is more than sufficient.

72

d. Feed line goes from y = x = z = 0.55 to intersection of two operating lines.


q
Slope
1.0 or q 0.5 .
q 1
This is a 2 phase feed which is liquid & vapor.
4D2. New Problem in 3rd Edition. Part a.

b.
c.

zE

.6

Slope

F V

1 V/F

.63

1.703
V
V
V F
.37
From Table 2-1, at 84.1 C y .5089
H hF
liquid at 20C
and 40 mole % ethanol.
q
H h
The pressure in Figure 2-4 is very close to 1.0 atm, thus it can be used, but must convert to wt
frac.

73

Basis 1kmol feed.

.4 kmole E
.6 kmol Water
From Figure 2-4

H
q

Alternate Solution:

40 mole %E

.6 MW

46

0.63 wt frac.

10.8 kg

18

398 kcal kg , h

18.4 kg

total

29.2 kg

75, h F 20 C

10

398 10

1.20
398 75
q
1.2
Slope
6
q 1
.2
40 mole % ethanol boils at 84.1C (Table 2-1).
Then if pick reference as saturated liquid at 40 mole %
h F Cp,40%liq 20 84.1

h
d.

.4 MW

0,

63 wt%, H

40%E

398 kcal kg , h

CPvapor

y E CPEvapor

65, h F

398

kcal
kg

C p vapor 120 84.1

y w CPw ,vapor

Assume only 1st and 2nd terms in C P equations are significant.


From Problem 2.D9
CPvapor .4 14.66 0.03758T .6 7.88 .0032T
kcal/kmol T is C
which simplifies to
120

For linear

CPvapor

10.592 0.16952T

C p dT is equal to CPvapor @ Tavg

84.1

Tavg

84.1 120 2 102.05 . Then C Pv ,avg


398

hF

398 15.149

q
e.

f.

Flash

kcal

hF

V
F

kg

10.592

12.32 120 84.1

15.147

398 65

333

f, L

13 12 , slope

.7,

12.32

kcal
kmol

kcal 1 kmol
kmol 27.2 kg

413.15 kcal kg

398 413.15
L L

0.16952 102.05

0.045.
F

12

q q 1

13

12
13 12

1 12

1 V F

.3

V F

.7

13

See graph for feed lines.

74

Graph for 4.D2

75

4.D3*.

a. Basis 1 mole feed.


0.4 moles EtOH 46 = 18.4 kg EtOH
0.6 moles H2O 18 = 10.8 kg H2O
Total = 29.2
wt frac 18.4 / 29.2 0.63 wt frac EtOH
Calculate all enthalpies at 0.63 wt frac. Hv = 395, HL = 65 (from Figure 2-4). hF is liquid at
200C. Assume Cp,liq is not a function of T. Estimate,
46.1
23
h h L 60 C h 20
kcal
C P ,liq .63 wt frac ~
0.864
T
60
20
80
kg C
Then h F

h L 200
q

Hv

CPL 200 60
hF

.864 200 60

h L 60 C

395 167.1

0.691,

46.1 167.1

0.691

2.24
Hv hL
395 65
q 1
0.309
b. From Figure 2-4 at 50 wt% ethanol Hv = 446 and hL = 70. Since CMO is valid obtaining both
enthalpies at 50% wt is OK. The feed is a liquid
h F C P,liq TF Tref
CP,liq 250 0

CP,liq CP,EtOH z EtOH CPw z w in Mole fractions


Basis 100 kg solution
50 kg EtOH 46.07=1.085 kg/kgmole

50 kg W 18.016 2.775 kg moles


Total 3.860 kg moles
Avg M.W. 100 3.86 25.91 kg/kgmole
Thus, zW = 0.719 and zE = 0.281
CP,liq
37.96 .281
18.0 .719 23.61
C P,liq in kcal kg C
hF
q

hF

4.D4*. a.

Hv

hL

446 70

H CPv 350 50

q q 1

0.911 . Then,

228
0.58

25 300

H hF

L L F where L

L L

25.91

Hv

q
q

MWAVG

250 C
kg C
h F 446 228

Slope

slope

23.61

kcal

H h
q q 1 0.6. y

b.
c.

0.911

CP

4.D4a

y=x

25 300
z

1.5

0.6 is intersection.

L 0.6F. Then q

feed
line

L 0.6F L / F

.5
.6
0.6, and

.7

1.5

F where L

L F 5. q

L F5 L F

1 5 , slope

q q 1

16

76

4.D5*.

h liq

fL

h reflux

3100 1500

h liq

17500 3100

L0

L0 D

1.1

V1

L0 D 1

2.1

H vap

1 fc

L1
V2
Alternate Solution

L1

L1
V2

4D6.

qL0

L1

0.524

1.1111 .524

1 f c L 0 V1

For subcooled reflux,


Then,

L 0 V1

0.1111

0.55

.111 .524

L1

H h0

17500 1500

L0

H h1

17500 3100

1.111

1.1111 L0
L1 D

L1

1.111 L0

L1 D L1 D 1 D
L1 1.222
0.55
V2 2.222

New Problem in 3rd Edition.

1.111 1.1

a) 175

F1

F2

1.2222

B D

85 75 .6 100 0.4
0.1 B 0.9D
Solve simultaneously.
D 84.375 and B 90.625 kmol hr
b) Feed 1. q1 1, vertical at y x z1 0.6
Feed 2.

60% vapor = 40% liquid q 2

Slope feed line


Bottom Op. Line

q2

0.4

q2 1

.06

L V x

Slope
L

Middle

Lx
When

0, y

F2

L V

0.4
2 3 through y

z2

L V 1 x B . Through y

V B 1
V B

0.4

xB

32

B V

F2 z 2
F2 z 2

Bx B
Bx B

Vy

L
V

F2 z 2

, Slope L V
V
Also intersects bot. op. line and Feed line 2.
Do External Balances and Find D & B. Then V
V/B B

Bx B
V

2B 181.25

L V B 271.875
At feed 2, L .4F L or L L 0.4F 271.875 40 231.875
V V 0.6F 181.25 60 241.25
L V 0.961
40 9.625
x 0, y
0.126 Plot Middle Op Line.
241.25

77

V
Know that y x
Also, L

F1

xD
V
x D and gives through interaction Middle and Feed line 1.

231.875 75 156.875 and V

L V 156.875 241.25

241.25 ; thus,

0.65

c) See graph.
Graph for 4D6.

78

4.D7*. a. Plot top op. line: slope

L
V

.8 , x

.9. Step off stages as shown on Figure.

V
B

2 , x y x B 0.13. Step off stages


V
(reboiler is an equil stage). Find y2 = 0.515.
c. Total # stages = 8 + reboiler
Optimum feed plate = 7 or 8 from top. Plot feed line. Goes through x = y = z = .3, and
intersection of two operating lines.
9
q
gives q = 0.692.
slope
4 q 1
b. Plot bottom op. line:

slope

1 1

xD

4.D8*. The equilibrium data is plotted and shown in the figure.


q 0.692 and q q 1
9 4

From the Solution to 4.D7c,

a. total reflux. Need 5 2/3 stages (from large graph) 5.9 from small diagram shown.
.9 .462
b. L V min
0.660 (see figure)
.9 .236
L V min
L D min
1.941
1 L V min
c. In 4.D7, L D act

L V
1 L V

.8
.2

L Dact
Multiplier
Multiplier = 4/1.941 = 2.06

L D

min

79

d. Operating lines are same as in Problem 4.D7. Start at bottom of column. Reboiler is an
equilibrium contact. Then use E MV AB AC 0.75 (illustrated for the first real stage)
Stage 1 is the optimum feed stage. 11 real stages plus a partial reboiler are sufficient.

4D9.

New Problem in 3rd Edition.


a)
F1 F2 D B

F1z1

F2 z 2

100 F1

Dx B

Bx B

F1 .42

Solve simultaneously, B 113.68, F1


b)

L D
L

1
2

80 B

F1

B 20

18 .66 80

0.04 B

93.68

L D

12

1 L D

32

D 40, V L D 120
D
V V 120
Saturated Liquid Feed
L L F1 40 93.68 133.68, L V
c) Top Op. Line Normal: y
Through y
Bottom Normal: y

L V x

1.114

1 L V xD

x D , Slope 1 3, y intercept

L V x

L V 1 x B , through y

Also through intersection, F2 feed line and middle op. line.

2
3

.66

.44

xB

Feed line F2 slope

L F2

.7

VF2

.3

80

Middle

Slope

0, y

Dx D

xD

F1z1

F1z1

80 .66

93.68 .42

0.11212
V
120
d)Opt. Feed F2 stage 1 from bottom, Opt feed F1 , Stage 2. 4 stages + PR more than sufficient.
Also,

(or do around bottom)


V
V
L V . Through intersection feed line F1 and top op. line.

L V x

Graph for 4D9.

81

4.D10*. Operating Line y

L V x

x D , where

Thus, operating line is y = .8x + .192


y
a. Equilibrium is x
or x1
1
y

L D

1 L D

.8

y1
1.79 .76y1

Start with y1 = .96 = x D


Equilibrium:

x1

Operating:

y2

Equilibrium:

x2

Operating:

y3

y1

.96

1.76 .76y1

1.76 .76 .96

.8x .192 .8 .9317


y2

x
y

1.0
1.0

.192

1.76

.76 .93736

.8x 2 .192 .8 .89476

.9
.9406

0.93736

.93736

1.76 .76y 2

b. Generate equilibrium data from: y

0.9317

.192

0.89476

0.9078

1.76x

1 .76x
.8
.7
.8756 .8042

.6
.7253

.5
.6377

.4
.5399

Plot equilibrium curve and operating line. (See Figure). Slope = L/V = .8, y intercept (x = 0)
= 0.192, y = x = x D = 0.96. Find x 6 = 0.660.

4.D11. a) Same as 4.D2 part g. q = 1.0668, slope feed line = 15.97.


b) Top y
L V x 1 L V x D goes through y = x = x D = 0.99

L V

L D
1 L D

Feed line: Slope

0.6969 @ x = 0

q q 1 ,

y = (1-L/V) x D = (1-0.6969) 0.99 = 0.300

0.6

82

Bottom Op line:

yV Lx Sy M,S Bx B
But y M,S 0 (Pure steam)
With CMO B L

V
S

L
V

L
V

xB

y= 0, x = x B . Also goes through intersection of feed line and top op.line.


Stages: Accuracy at top is not real high. (Expand diagram for more occupancy).
As drawn opt. Feed = #6. Total = 9 is sufficient,
c.

L V

min

Slope

L
D

0.99 0.57
0.99 0
L V

min

1 L V

Actual L/D is 3.12 this value.

0.4242
0.4242

min

1 0.4242

0.73684

83

4.D12. L V

L
V

L D
1 L D
1

L
V

Bottom slope

34

slope. Top op line goes throug y

xD @ x
L V

0, y

.25 .998

1245167

1044168

1.19

xD

0.998

0.2495
From Soln to 3.D9 or
from graph. 1.169

Feed line is vertical at z = 0.6. Can also plot top and feed lines, and then find bottom from 2
points y 0, x x B & intersect top & feed .
For accuracy Use expanded portions near distillate & near bottoms.
From Table 2-7 from (x = .95, y = .979)
Draw straight line to (x = 1.0, y = 1.0)
From (x = 0, y = 0) draw straight line to (x = 0.02, y = 0.134)
or (x = 0.01, y = 0.067)
Opt feed = # 9 from top. Need 13 equilibrium stages.

84

85

4.D13. New Problem in 3rd Edition. a.)

b.) See figure.

See Figure

0.665 0.95
0.30 0.95

MIN

L V

0.4385

0.4385

0.7808
D MIN V L 1 L V 0.5615
L
L
L D
1.5616
c.)
2.0 L D MIN 1.5616 ,
D
V 1 L D 2.5616
L

y intersect 1

yD

0.3709 . Top operating line y


Goes through y

Bottom y

L
V

L
V

0.6096
L

V
x yD

V
0.95

yD

1 xB

Goes through y

x x B & intersection top operating line & feed line.


Feed Line: Vertical (saturated liquid, q = 1). Through y x z 0.3
Plot & Step off stages. Optimal feed = 5 below PC. 6 + PC + PR more than sufficient.
0.85 0.025
d.) Slope bottom: See figure for parts c & d. L V
1.941
0.45 0.025
1
1
V B V L V
1.0625 .
L V 1 0.941

86

Graph for problem 4.D13.

87

4.D14a.

88

New S.S.

External M.B. S = B
Sys = BxB . Since yS = 0 (pure water)
xB = 0

S
4.D14b.

Two approaches to answer. Common sense is all methanol leaks out and x MA

McCabe-Thiele diagram: This is enriching column with z


horizontal feed line is at x

x M,b

y intercept

L
V

1 L V yD

Bottom operating line

0 . Intersection top op. line and

0 , which is also a pinch point. Thus x M,d

4.D15. New Problem in 3rd Edition. Saturated liquid. q


Top operating line y

ys

y D , Slope

q
q 1

L D

1 L D

1 3 0.6885
L V x

1,

0.

0.2295 and y

0 also.

, feed line vertical @ z

L V 1 x B goes through y

.3 .

yD

xB

And goes through interaction feed line and top operating line. See graph.
Optimum feed is stage 2 below partial condenser. Partial condenser + Partial reboiler + 3
equilibrium stages are more than enough to obtain separation.

89

Graph for problem 4.D15.

90