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Define Trigonometrical Levelling.

What is the effect of curvature and refraction in Trigonometrical Levelling?
Derive the expression of correction for curvature and refraction in Trigonometrical Levelling.
Define Axis-signal correction. What is the formula for calculation of axis-signal correction?
What is the expression for calculating the Horizontal distance between two stations, if the
Geodetic distance between the stations is known?
Describe the methods by which the difference of elevation of two stations may be determined.
Correct the observed altitude for the height of signal and refraction from the following data:
Observed Altitude
: +3 12 48
Height of the Instrument: 1.585 m
Height of Signal
: 4.343 m
Horizontal Distance
: 3787.14 m
Find the difference in level between the two points A and B and the refraction correction from the
following data:
Horizontal Distance between A and B : 6882.384 m
Angle of Elevation of B at A
: 1 50 20
Angle of Depression of A at B
: 1 51 10
Height of Signal at A
: 4.145 m
Height of Signal at B
: 3.597 m
Height of Instrument at A
: 1.463 m
Height of Instrument at B
: 1.554 m
Two stations A and B are situated at a distance apart of 2896.819 m. The angle of depression of
B at A is 5 10 and the depression angle of A at B is 7 48. The heights of signal at A and B are
respectively 3.90 m and 3.22 m and the heights of instrument at A and B 1.463 m and 1.554 m
respectively. Calculate the difference of level of A and B and the refraction at the time of
Two stations A and B are situated at a distance apart of 3541.776 m. The following observations
were recorded:
Height of Signal at A
: 1.517 m
Height of Instrument at A
: 1.463 m
Angle of Elevation from A to B : 2 12 20
Reduced Level of A
: 1420.50 m
Height of Signal at B
: 3.938 m
Height of Instrument at B
: 1.512 m
Angle of Depression from B to A: 2 2 30
Determine the Reduced Level of B

11. Name the important factors in selecting a survey station.

12. Name the factors upon which the Height of Signal and Instrument above the ground depends
upon in Geodetic Survey.
13. What is meant by Satellite Station and Reduction to Centre? What is the reason for using a
Satellite Station in Triangulation Survey?
14. What is meant by Eccentricity of Signals? How would you correct the observations when made
upon an Eccentric Signal?
15. Define EDM Instruments. What are the types of EDM Instruments? Give examples.

16. Two stations A and B are 80 km apart. The Elevation of an Instrument at A is 40 m above mean
sea level. The Line of Sight crosses a portion of the Sea. Compute the minimum elevation
required for the Signal at B, given that m= 0.08 and mean Radius of the Earth= 6370 km.
17. The Elevations of two proposed Triangulation Stations A and B, 100 km apart, are respectively
140 m and 416 m above mean sea level. The Elevation of the intervening peak at C, 60 km from
A, which is likely to obstruct the line of sight is 150 m. Ascertain if A and B are intervisible, and if
not, find the height required for the Scaffold at B so that the line of sight may clear C by 3 m.
18. The Elevations of two stations A and B are 92.5 m and 142 m above mean sea level respectively,
and the distance between them is 50 km. The intervening ground may be assumed to have a
uniform elevation of 75 m. Determine the minimum height of the signal required at B in order that
the line of sight may nowhere be less than 2 m above the surface of the ground.
19. Two proposed Triangulation Stations A and D are 120 km apart, and their respective elevations
above mean sea level are 282 m and 1105 m. The Altitudes of two peaks B and C on the profile
between them are respectively 375 m and 640 m and the distances AB and AC are 47 km and 83
km respectively. Find whether the stations A and D are intervisible. If not, compute the height of
the Scaffold at D in order that the line of sight may clear the obstacle by 3 m taking A as ground
20. From an Eccentric Station E, 24.24 from C, the following angles were measured to three
Triangulations Stations A, B and C, The stations B and E being on opposite sides of AC.
AEB = 62 32 40
AEC = 78 24 30
The approximate lengths of AC and BC were 4705.5 m and 5695.8 m respectively. Find the angle
21. What is the Method of Least Squares in Survey Adjustment?
22. What is the Method of Correlates?
23. Define the following:
Most probable Value of a Quantity and True Value of a Quantity
Direct Observation and Indirect Observation
Weight of an Observation and Weighted Observations
Independent and Conditioned or Dependent Quantity
True Error and Residual Error
Conditional Equation and Normal Equation
24. The following are the observed values of A, B and C at a station, the angles being subject to a
condition that A + B = C.
A= 20 10 32.2; B= 40 32 18.8; C= 60 42 53.6.Find the most probable values of A, B and C.
25. Find the most probable values of the angles A, B and C of the triangle ABC from the following
observation equations:
A= 58 24 36; B = 52 12 43; C = 69 22 45
26. Given the following observations at a station O:
AOB (A) = 87 34 22 weight 2;
BOC (B) = 98 42 18 weight 3,
COD (C) = 102 26 9 weight 4,
DOA (D) = 71 17 4 weight 1.
Find the most probable values of A, B, C and D.
27. Find the most probable values of the angles A and B and the summation angle A+B from the
following observations:
A = 42 20 34.4 weight 1,
B = 36 18 25.2 weight 2,
A+B = 78 38 50.3 weight 3.

28. Find the most probable values of A, B and C from the following observations closing the horizon:
A = 28 24 28.4 weight 2;
B = 32 14 16.3 weight 1;
C = 229 21 11.8 weight 2;
A+B = 60 38 50.7 weight 1;
B+C = 331 35 37.8 weight 3.
29. Find the most probable values of the angles A, B and C from the following observations at a
station P.
A = 35 22 25.6 weight 1;
B = 38 20 7.7 weight 1;
A+B = 73 42 32.5 weight 1;
A+B+C = 148 6 45.4 weight 1;
B+C = 112 44 29.1 weight 2.
30. Adjust the following angles of the triangle ABC.
A = 52 35 32; B = 70 46 22; C = 56 38 13
31. Define the following Astronomical; terms:
The Celestial Equator and the Celestial Poles
The Zenith and The Nadir
Equinoctial Points and Solstices
The Vertical Circle and The Prime Vertical
The Latitude and The Longitude
The Altitude and The Azimuth
The Declination and The Polar Distance
The Hour Angle and The Right Ascension
32. Explain the Napiers Rule of Circular Parts.
33. Explain briefly the various Coordinate Systems adopted in Astronomical Surveying.
34. What are the Circumpolar Stars? Define Culmination.
35. What is meant by- (i) a Sidereal Day (ii) Apparent Solar day and (iii) Mean Solar Day?
36. Why is Sidereal Time of such great use in connection with Astronomical observations?
37. State the relation between Siderial Time, Right Ascension and Hour Angle.
38. What are the two most common methods of determining the True Meridian? Explain.
39. (a) Determine the difference of Latitude between two places A and B, given that their Latitudes
are: (i) A, 35 42 N; B, 62 55 N (ii) A, 28 16 N; B, 46 33 S
(b) Determine the difference of Longitude between two places C and D from their following
Longitudes: (i) Longitude of C= 46 W; Longitude of D = 64 W (ii) Longitude of C = 3744 W;
Longitude of D = 6318 E (iii) Longitude of C = 5827 E; Longitude of D = 13836 W
40. Calculate the distance in nautical miles between E and F along the parallel of latitude, given that
Latitude of E, 2312 S, Latitude of F, 2312 S, Longitude of E, 12022 W and Longitude of F,
162 35 E.
41. (a) Find the Zenith distance at the upper culmination of the stars from the following data:
(i) Latitude = 45 30 N, Declination= 20 15 N
(ii) Latitude = 58 15 N, Declination= 18 30 N

(iii) Latitude = 35 45 N, Declination= 64 32 N

(b) Find the Zenith distance at the lower culmination of the following stars, given that
(i) Latitude = 42 15 N, Declination= 50 45 N
(ii) Latitude = 48 17 S, Declination= 62 12 S
42. The Altitude of a star at the upper and lower culminations are 76 23 and 20 31, both
culminations being on the north side of the Zenith of the place. Find the Declination of the star
and the Latitude.
43. (a) In India the standard meridian is 82 30E. Find the Standard Time corresponding to Local
Mean Time 7h 23m 32s at a place in Longitude 68 36E.
(b) Find the Sidereal Time Interval corresponding to 6h 12m 30s Mean Time.
(c) Find the Mean Time Interval corresponding to Sidereal Time Interval of 8h 24m 36s.
44. (a) Find the Greenwich Meridian Time (G.M.T) corresponding to the following Local Mean Time
(L.M.T) (i) 8h 45m 15s p.m. at a place in Longitude 48 32W (ii) 3h 32m 20s a.m. at a place in
Longitude 62 4520E
(b) Find the Local Apparent Time (L.A.T) of an observation at a place in Longitude 82 12E
corresponding to Local Mean Time (L.M.T) 11h 25m 40s, the equation of time at Greenwich
Mean Noon (G.M.N.) being 3m 6.52s, subtractive from apparent time and decreasing 0.27s per
(c) Find the Local Meridian Time (L.M.T) of observation at a place corresponding to Local
Apparent Time (L.A.T). of observation 14h 20m 42s on July 1939, the equation of time at
Greenwich Meridian Noon (G.M.N) on that date being 6m 12.32s additive to apparent time and
increasing 0.14s per hour.
45. (a) Find the Local Sidereal Time (L.S.T) at a place in Longitude 72 10E at 8h 40m p.m., the
Greenwich Sidereal time (G.S.T) of Greenwich Meridian Noon (G.M.N) being 6h 42m 32s.
(b) Find the Local Sidereal Time (L.S.T) at 11.30 a.m. Standard Time on Feb 15, 1953, in a place
of Longitude 4h 32m E, the Longitude of the Standard Meridian being 5h 30m E and the
Greenwich Sidereal Time (G.S.T) of Greenwich Mean Meridian (G.M.M) 9h 38m 48.66s
46. Find the Right Ascension (R.A) of the mean sun at 4.45 a.m. on August 10, 1953 in a place in
Longitude 78 30W and also the Right Ascension (R.A) of the meridian of the place, given that
S.T. at G.M.M. on the given date is 21h 12m 42.51s
47. To determine the index error of a Theodolite a church spire was sighted and the Face left and
Face Right observations were 15 4850 and 15 4720 respectively. A Face Right observation
on the suns lower limb was then made and the altitude was found to be 36 4025. The semidiameter of the sun at the time of observation was 1559.78. Find the true altitude of the sun.
48. Determine the Altitude of the star, the Azimuth of the line AB, the Local Mean Time of observation
from the following data, the star being observed at western elongation:
Latitude of station A
= 50 45 N
Longitude of station A = 54 10 W
Mean Horizontal angle of the star to the right of the referring object B = 95 2047
Declination of the star = 62 451 N
Right Ascension of the star = 10h 59m 59s
G.S.T of G.M.N = 6h 12m 20s
49. (a) The meridian altitude of a star was observed to be 72 3010 on a certain day, the star lying
between the pole and the zenith. The declination of the star was 56 4038 N. Find the Latitude
of the place.
(b) An observation for Latitude was made at a place in Longitude 76 4030 W. The meridian
altitude of the suns lower limb was observed to be 46 3820, the sun being south of Zenith.
Suns declination at Greenwich Apparent Noon (G.A.N) was +23 1537.6 increasing 7.03 per
hour, and the correction for semi-diameter, 1546.19. Find the Latitude of the place.

50. Find the Latitude of the place from the following data:
Longitude of the place = 110 15 W
Altitude of the suns upper limb = 45 1124
L.M.T observation
= 2.40 p.m
Date of Observation
= Dec 13, 1939
Suns declination at 0h Dec.13= 23 422.2 S increasing to S at 10.804 per hour
Equation of Time at 0h Dec.13= +6m 19.82s, decreasing at 1.177s per hour
Suns semi-diameter = 1516.34
51. Define Photogrammetry.
52. Explain in brief the two classes of Photogrammetry.
53. Under what situations Photographic Surveying is suitable?
54. Describe the principle of the method of Terrestrial Photogrammetry.
55. Describe the principle of the method of Stereo-Photogrammetry.
56. What is meant by the radial assumption? Describe the Radial Line method of plotting from aerial
57. State briefly the advantages of air photography for mapping. What are its limitations?
58. What is understood by parallax measurement in relation to air survey?
59. Explain in detail about stereoscopic vision and stereoscopies.
60. Define (i) Principal Point (ii) Plumb Point (iii) Isocentre (iv) Principal Line on an air photograph.
61. Explain how a stereo pair of vertical aerial photographs is base lined and arranged for viewing
under a stereoscope.
62. Name the factors on which the flying height depends on?
63. Write short notes on:
(a) Principles of Photo Interpretation
(b) Controlled and Uncontrolled mosaics
64. Deduce an expression for height distortion and show that tilt distortion is radial from the Isocentre.
65. Explain with a neat diagram how the height of an object appearing on an overlapping vertical
photograph can be determined from x-coordinates of the image of the top and bottom of the
object. Are there any assumptions made in the derivation of the formula?
66. In a Photo Theodolite survey, two stations A and B were chosen such that AB was running from
west to east and measured 250 m long. Photographs were taken orienting the photo Theodolite in
the direction of the third station C. Work out the co-ordinates and R.L. of point D which appeared
in both the photographs from the following observations:
<BAC = 50 and <ABC = 46
In the photograph from A, D was 12 mm to the left of the vertical line and 6 mm above the
horizontal line while in the photograph from B it was 15mm to the left of the vertical line.
Focal length of the camera lens is 150mm.
R.L. of the camera axis at A is 51.20m
67. To determine the focal length of the camera, the following observations were made with a photo
Theodolite. Three stations P, Q and R were chosen such that<PQR = 2354, PQ=80m, RQ=70m
A Photo Theodolite was set up at Q and on a photo print the measured coordinates of P and Q
were as given below:
Station P - 80mm to the left of the vertical line and 16mm above the horizontal line.
Station Q- 85mm to the right of the vertical line and 18mm below the horizontal line.
Determine: - (i) The focal length of the camera lens and (ii) difference in level between stations P
and R.
68. A Photo Theodolite having a lens of focal length 200mm was used at two stations A and B located
at the ends of the base line AB measuring 250m, station B being 5.2m higher than the station A.
A tower 45m in height located at C was observed from A and B on the vertical line of the camera.

In the photo-print from A, its top was 27mm and its base 6mm above the centre while in the photo
print from B its top was 25mm and its base 2.5mm above the centre. Determine the lengths and
directions of AC and BC and the level of the lower base assuming the R.L. of A as 100.00m.
Comment on the observations.
69. Two photographs were taken with a Photo Theodolite from stations C and D 120 m apart, the line
of collimation being 90 to PQ in each case. A point M appears on the photograph from C,
49.5mm to the right of the vertical line and 30mm above the horizontal line, while on the
photograph from D it appears 76.2mm to the left of the vertical line and 18mm above the
horizontal line. D is East of C. Calculate the co-ordinates of M and the difference in level of the
two collimation planes, if the focal length of the camera is 150mm.
70. Calculate the aeroplane flying height to obtain the average scale of the photograph equal 1/7200.
Ground surface elevations vary from 160 to 430m. Focal length of the camera lens is 153mm.
71. The scale of the photograph is 1 cm= 100m. The photograph size is 23 cm x 23 cm. Determine
the number of photographs required to cover an area of 150 if the longitudinal overlap is
60% and the side overlap is 30%.
72. An image of the top of the hill is 96mm from the principal point of the photograph. The elevation of
the top of the hill is 500m and the flying height is 4000m above datum. Calculate the relief
73. The flight map shows the base position of 1000m high mountain peak at 8cm from the flight line at
the anticipated scale of photography. If the flying altitude is 6000m above the datum, estimate the
relief displacement of the image of the peak and its distance from the edge of the print having a
size of 23 cm x 23 cm.
74. A line 2500m long lying at an elevation of 450m measures 9.55cm on a vertical photograph. The
focal length of the camera is 21 cm. Determine the scale of the photograph for the area having an
elevation of 1000m.
75. A line AB measures 10.92cm on a photograph taken with a camera having a focal length of 20cm.
The same line measures 2.85cm on a map drawn to a scale of 1/50000. Calculate the flying
height of the aircraft if the average altitude of the ground is 320m.
76. The co-ordinates of two points P and Q having ground elevations of 200m and 500m above
datum respectively, measured on the photo print taken with a camera having focal length of 20cm
are as given below:
Point p = Coordinates X, +3.32 cm and Y, +1.85cm
Point q = Coordinates X, -2.04 cm and Y, +4.12 cm
The flying altitude is 3000m above datum.
Determine the length PQ.
77. Image of two objects on a pair of photographs have a parallax difference of 1.52mm and an
average photograph base of 95.43mm. Compute the difference in elevation of the two objects if
the flying height is 3600m above the average ground level.
78. The average photographic base of a pair of overlapping photographs is 92.54mm and the flying
height is 5000m above the ground. Work out the parallax difference for a contour interval of 10m.
79. A photographic survey was carried out at a flying height of 4500m. Focal length of the camera
was 150mm and photographic plate size was 23 cm x 23 cm and the longitudinal overlap was
60%. What will be the error in height measurement if the error in parallax measurement is
80. In a pair of overlapping photographs the mean distance between principal points both lying on the
datum is 72.35mm. Flying height is 750m above the datum. The camera focal length is 150mm.
In the common overlap, a television tower 60m in height with its base at the datum surface is
observed. Determine the parallax difference between top and bottom of the tower.
81. Define Remote Sensing. How does it differ from Photogrammetry?

82. What are the advantages of Remote Sensing?

83. Describe the various classifications of Remote Sensing Systems.
84. What is the first method of Remote Sensing? What is its use?
85. Explain in brief the characteristics of aerial photography that make it popular.
86. Name the factors that are considered by the interpreter in Photo Interpretation.
87. Explain the Non-photographic Systems in Remote Sensing.
88. In how many ways the Satellites can be grouped? Explain.
89. What are the various applications of Remote Sensing?
90. Write short notes on:
(a) Satellite Remote Sensing
(b) Remote Sensing in India
91. Define Global Positioning System (G.P.S.). What is its use?
92. Discuss the basic concept of G.P.S..
93. Explain the major segments of G.P.S
94. What are the applications of G.P.S? Explain working of any one application.
95. Discuss the G.P.S. Satellite frequencies.
96. What do you understand by Geographic Information System (G.I.S)?
97. What are the applications of G.I.S?
98. How data is represented and captured in G.I.S?
99. Describe the Raster to Vector translation of Data Structure in G.I.S.
100. Write short notes on:
(i) Spatial and Data Analysis in G.I.S.
(ii) Data output and Cartography in G.I.S.
(iii) OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Standards