0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

303 Ansichten26 SeitenChap 01

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Chap 01

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

303 Ansichten26 SeitenChap 01

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

Linear Equations in

Two Variables

1.1 Introduction

You are already familiar with linear equations in two variables. The general form of a linear

equation in two variables x and y is

ax + by + c = 0, a 0, b 0,

a, b and c being real numbers. A solution of such an equation is a pair of values, one for x

and the other for y, which makes the two sides of the equation equal. Recall that every

linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions. All these solutions are represented

by points on a certain line.

In this chapter, by an equation we shall mean a linear equation in two variables unless

stated otherwise. We often study more than one equation in the same two variables at the

same time. When we do so, the equations under consideration are said to form a system of

equations or simultaneous equations. For example,

and

2x 3y + 4 = 0

x + 7y 1 = 0

We shall restrict ourselves to a pair of linear equations in two variables. Each equation

of the pair has infinitely many solutions. We shall examine several methods of finding

common solutions of these equations, if these solutions exist.

1.2 Graphical Solutions of a Linear Equation in Two Variables : Review

Recall that to find a solution of a linear equation in two variables, we assign any value to one

of the two variables and then determine the value of the other variable from the given

equation. Thus, taking x = 1 in

x y + 5 = 0,

2....................................................................................................................................................

MATHEMATICS

x = 1, y = 6,

and a point (1, 6) in the Cartesian plane.

Having obtained two solutions of a given equation, we plot the corresponding points, say, P

and Q. The line PQ through these points is related with the given equation in the following

manner:

1. Every solution x = r, y = s of the given equation determines a point (r, s) that lies on this line.

2. Every point (m, n) lying on the line PQ, determines a solution x = m, y = n of the given

equation.

The line PQ is known as the graph of the given equation. It is customary to say that the

line PQ represents the given equation.

Recall that:

1. We can add/subtract any number on both sides of the equation without affecting the

equation and its solutions.

2. We can multiply or divide both sides of an equation by a non-zero number without affecting

the equation and its solutions.

1.3 Graphical Solution of a Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

y=

2x

+1

So far you have studied a single linear equation in two variables. Such an equation represents

a simple relationship between two quantities.

Y

For example, suppose that the price of an

orange is Re 1 more than the cost of 2

bananas. Let x and y respectively denote, Q(1,6) 6

in rupees, the price of 1 banana and 1

B(2,5)

orange. Then we have

y = 2x + 1

1 A(0, 1)

2

1 O

1

2

5

(1, 3)

y=

+2

0

1

3x

of a banana and the cost of an orange is

given by a linear equation in two variables.

The graph of equation (1), i.e., the line AB

representing equation (1) is shown in

Fig.1.1. We use the following solutions to

plot AB:

x

y

(1)

P(3, 0)

3 4

Fig. 1.1

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................

In our daily life, we often come across a relationship between two quantities that are

expressible by an equation such as (1). Again, out of practical considerations, we are interested

in several such equations simultaneously. For example, suppose that it is known in case of

the above example of bananas and oranges that 3 bananas and 2 oranges together cost Rs 9.

Then in addition to equation (1) above, x and y must satisfy the following equation also:

3x + 2y = 9

(2)

The graph of equation (2) or the line PQ representing the solutions of equation (2) is also

shown in Fig. 1.1. We use the following solutions to plot the line PQ:

x

if a banana costs Rs a and an orange costs Rs b, then the cost of

an orange will be Re 1 more than the cost of 2 bananas. (A)

Similarly, a point ( p, q) on the line PQ tells us that

if the cost of a banana is Rs p and that of an orange is Rs q, then

3 bananas and 2 oranges would together cost Rs 9.

(B)

The situation demands that both the conditions (A) and (B) must be satisfied

simultaneously. In other words, we want a pair of prices (x, y) that satisfies both the

equations (1) and (2) at the same time. Thus, we are looking for a point (m, n) which lies on

both the lines AB and PQ. This requires that

x = m, y = n

must be a solution of equation (1) as well as that of equation (2), i.e., x = m, y = n must be a

common solution of both the equations (1) and (2).

From Fig.1.1, we notice that the point (1, 3) lies on both the lines AB and PQ. This

means that

x = 1, y = 3

is a solution of both the equations (1) and (2). So, if we take the cost of a banana to be Re

1 and that of an orange to be Rs 3, then

1 orange costs Re 1 more than 2 bananas

and also

3 bananas and 2 oranges together cost Rs 9.

4....................................................................................................................................................

MATHEMATICS

Finding common solutions of two or more equations is an important task in the study of

algebra because it helps us in finding solutions to numerous practical problems. Clearly, by a

common solution of two (or more) equations in x and y, we mean

a pair of values, one for x and the other for y, which satisfy both

(all) the equations simultaneously.

The equations under consideration are said to form a system of equations. Finding a

common solution is described as solving the system of equations.

Let us consider an example to see how to obtain a common solution of two given equations.

Let us find a common solution of the following equations:

and

xy=0

x+y=2

(1)

(2)

Now, each of (1) and (2) has infinitely many solutions. We have to find a solution,

x = x0 , y = y0

say, which satisfies both (1) and (2), if such a solution exists at all.

If we can find any two solutions of (1), we can have a clue to all its solutions by drawing

its graph. We observe that

x = 0, y = 0 and x = 2, y = 2

and P(2, 2) and draw the line passing through the

points O and P(Fig.1.2).

Every point on the line OP provides a solution of

equation (1). For example, the point (3, 3) lies on

OP. Verify that x = 3 and y = 3 is a solution of (1);

( 1, 1) lies on OP and we find that x = 1, y =

1 is a solution of (1). Now the question is : which

of the infinitely many solutions of (1), if at all,

is also a solution of equation (2)?

0

=

y

x P(2, 2)

2

1

O (0,0)

1

2

Fig. 1.2

Obviously, we cannot test each and every solution of (1) to see if it is a solution of (2) or

not. So we shall have to think of something practical. One good idea is to plot the lines

representing equations (1) and (2) in the same Cartesian plane and with the same axes.

Then we shall be able to spot the common solution(s), if any. Let us find any two solutions

of equation (2).

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................

x

0

0

y=

2

same graph as in Fig.1.2 and get Fig.1.3. Let us

draw the line AB. Notice that every point on line

OP provides one solution of equation (1), so also

every point on line AB provides one solution of

equation (2). What about the point T(1, 1) which is

common to both the lines OP and AB? Since T lies

on OP, x = 1 and y = 1 is a solution of equation (1).

x+

2 B(0, 2)

1

1

y=

P(2, 2)

T(1, 1)

A(2, 0)

O (0,0) 2

3

is a solution of equation (2) also.

Fig. 1.3

Thus, we have got a common solution of equations (1) and (2). We express this by saying

that x = 1, y = 1 is a solution of the system of equations

and

xy=0

x+y=2

Having found one common solution, let us try to determine whether there exists any other

common solution. Observe that if x = a, y = b is a common solution, then the point (a, b)

must lie on both the lines AB and OP. Since two given distinct lines can intersect in at the

most one point, there is no other common solution.

Let us recapitulate what we have learnt. To find a common solution of two given equations,

we follow the procedure given below:

1. Find two solutions of each of the equations, plot the points corresponding to these solutions

and draw the lines representing the given equations by joining corresponding points.

2. The point of intersection of the lines provides the unique common solution (unless the

lines are parallel or coincident).

Example 1 : Find common solution (if any) of the pair of equations

2x + 3y = 6

4x + 6y = 24

(1)

(2)

Solution : The first step is to find two solutions of each of the given equations in order to

draw the lines representing these equations. Recall that in order to find a solution, we

generally give the values 0, + 1, + 2 etc. to either variable and determine the other variable.

6....................................................................................................................................................

MATHEMATICS

This helps us in getting two convenient (integral) solutions. Doing so, we get the following

solutions:

Equation (1) :

x

y

0

2

3

0

Equation (2) :

x

y

0

4

6

0

Plotting the points A(0, 2) and B(3, 0), we get the line AB representing equation (1) (Fig.1.4).

Similarly, we get the line PQ through P(0, 4) and Q(6, 0). This represents equation (2).

Y

P(0, 4)

3

A(0, 2)

4x

+6

y=

1

1 O

1

24

B(3, 0)

3

4

Q(6, 0)

5 6

2x

+3

y=

6

Fig. 1.4

To get a common solution, we have to locate the common point, i.e., the point of intersection

of these two lines. However, the lines AB and PQ are parallel and, therefore, do not meet

at any point. We conclude that equations (1) and (2) do not have a common solution.

Now consider the lines represented by the following equations :

x+ y=3

(3)

7x + 7y = 21

(4)

This time, when we try to draw the graphs of the equations, we end up with the same line,

i.e., the lines are coincident. So, how many common points do we have? Surely every point

is a common point. Hence, every point on the line determines a common solution. Thus, the

system of equations (3) and (4) has infinitely many common solutions.

We may now summarise the behaviour of lines representing a system of two linear

equations in two variables and the existence of common solutions as follows:

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................

In this case, the equations have a unique common solution.

B. The lines may be parallel.

In this case, the equations have no common solution.

C. The lines may be coincident.

In this case, the equations have infinitely many common solutions.

Remark : Generally, we are interested in finding the common solution because of practical

considerations. Therefore, we shall mainly be interested in case (A) where the equations

have a unique solution.

Example 2 : Solve graphically the system of equations

and

5x y 7 = 0

xy+1=0

(1)

(2)

Solution : Let us draw the graphs of equations (1) and (2). To do this, we find two solutions

of each of the equations (1) and (2).

Y

0

7

1

2

x

y

1

0

0

1

3

P(1, 0)

equation (1). Every point on PQ gives us a solution of

equation (2). We observe that there is a point T (2, 3)

common to the lines AB and PQ. Therefore, this point

gives a solution to both of the equations (1) and (2).

Hence, the solution of equations (1) and (2) is

0 T(2, 3)

Q(0, 1)

2

AB through the points (0, 7) and (1, 2) is the graph

of equation (1). Similarly, the line PQ through the

points P(1, 0) and Q(0, 1) is the graph of equation

(2) (Fig. 1.5).

1

y+

1

2

3

4

5

B(1, 2)

7=0

xy+1=0:

x

y

5x y

5x y 7 = 0 :

6

7 A(0, 7)

x = 2 and y = 3.

Fig. 1.5

Verification : Putting x = 2 and y = 3, we find that

both equations (1) and (2) are satisfied. This checks the solution.

8....................................................................................................................................................

MATHEMATICS

Remarks :

1. Verification is a must, if you are using the graphical method.

2. Try to locate the integer solutions so that you may plot the points in correct position.

Example 3 : Show that the following system of equations has no solution:

2x + 3y 1 = 0

(1)

3

y2=0

2

(2)

x+

Solution : Since we are supposed to show that no solution exists, perhaps the given

equations represent parallel lines. Let us draw the lines and find out. The following tables list

two suitable solutions of each of equations (1) and (2):

2x + 3y 1 = 0 :

x+

3

y2=0:

2

x

y

2

1

5

3

(1)

(2)

Plot the points A(2, 1) and B(5, 3). Draw the line AB. This represents equation (1). Plot

the points P(2, 0) and Q( 1, 2). Draw the line PQ. This represents equation (2). It can be

seen that AB and PQ are parallel lines. Since AB and PQ do not intersect (Fig. 1.6) and so

have no common point. Therefore, the given system of equations has no solution.

Note : Finding a solution of a system of equations means finding the unique common solution

of the equations constituting the system, if it exists, otherwise specifying whether these

equations have no common solution or have infinitely many distinct common solutions.

Q(1, 2)

2

1

P(2, 0)

1 O

2 3 x

5

+ 3

2

x

1 A(2, 1)

+3

2 y

y

2=

1=

0

2

0

3

B(5, 3)

Fig. 1.6

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

Example 4 : How many distinct solutions, if at all, does the following system of equations

possess?

9x 7y + 1 = 0

2x

(1)

14

2

y+

=0

9

9

(2)

9

, we see that it can be re-written as follows :

2

9x 7y + 1 = 0

But this is the same as equation (1). Hence the lines represented by (1) and (2) are coincident.

Therefore, equations (1) and (2) have all their solutions common. So, the system has infinitely

many distinct solutions. In other words, the equations (1) and (2) of the system have infinitely

many distinct common solutions.

Example 5 : Draw the graphs of the equations

2x y = 8

8x + 3y = 24

and

(1)

(2)

Determine the vertices of the triangle formed by the lines representing these equations and

the x-axis. Shade the triangular region so formed.

Solution : We tabulate below two solutions of each of the given equations.

8x + 3y = 24 :

x

y

0

8

3

0

8 P(0, 8)

3y =

24

A(3, 2)

6

5

4

3

2

1

8x +

get the line AB representing equation (1) (Fig. 1.7).

Plotting the points P(0, 8) and Q(3, 0), we get line PQ

that represents equation (2), as shown in Fig. 1.7.

Now,

1. AB and PQ intersect in the point P(0, 8).

2. AB intersects the x-axis at B( 4, 0).

3. PQ intersects the x-axis at Q(3, 0).

Thus, the vertices of the triangle are (0, 8), ( 4, 0)

and (3, 0). The required shaded region is shown in

Fig. 1.7.

4

0

3

2

x

y

2x

2x y = 8 :

5 3 2 1 O 1 2

B(4, 0) 1

2

Fig. 1.7

Q(3, 0)

X

4

10.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

EXERCISE 1.1

Solve those of the following systems of linear equations graphically which have a unique solution.

For others, state whether there is no solution or there are infinitely many solutions:

1. x 4y + 14 = 0

3x + 2y 14 = 0

2.

x+y=3

2x + 5y = 12

3. 3x 5y + 1 = 0

4.

2x + 7y = 14

35

5x +

y = 25

2

4x + 6y = 9

2x + 3y = 11

2x y + 3 = 0

5. 3x + 2y = 8

2x 3y = 1

6.

7. x 2y = 5

2x 4y 10 = 0

8.

2x 3y = 5

3x + 4y + 1 = 0

4x y = 4

and

4x + y = 12.

Determine the vertices of the triangle formed by the lines representing these equations and the

x-axis. Shade the triangular region so formed.

10. Determine the vertices of the triangle formed by the lines representing the equations

x + y = 5, x y = 5 and x = 0.

In the previous section, we learnt how to solve a system of two linear equations in two

variables graphically. It is true that anything visual has a certain appeal, but as we realised,

it was often a trial-and-error method of finding solutions of an equation.

It was hard to find integer solutions in order to draw the required lines. The price for

non-integer solutions was lack of precision and accuracy in plotting the relevant points. Even

in case we could locate integer solutions for individual equations, the point of intersection

7 11

could have been something like 11 , 13 . You can appreciate that it would not be possible to

To avoid such disadvantages of graphical method, we shall now discuss two algebraic

methods which yield correct results and do not keep us guessing or depending on a trial-anderror method.

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................ 1 1

You know how to solve a linear equation in one variable. Suppose, we take the first of the

given linear equations in two variables x and y, and pretend that x is a constant and not a

variable. Then we can look upon this equation as a linear equation with a single variable y.

We can then solve it for y. Of course, the value so obtained will contain x. For example, let

us consider the system of equations

and

2x y = 3

4x y = 5

(1)

(2)

y = 2x 3

(3)

4x (2x 3) = 5

(4)

Now y has been eliminated from (2). The resulting equation (4) is a linear equation in x

alone. Simplifying (4), we get

2x + 3 = 5

or

x=1

Substituting this value of x in (1), we get

2y=3

or

y=1

Thus, the given system of equations has the solution

x = 1 and y = 1.

Remarks :

1. You may verify that x = 1, y = 1 satisfy the given equations.

2. Equation (3) is the same as equation (1) (re-written). Therefore, to get the value of y,

after x had been obtained, we could have substituted x = 1 in equation (3) directly.

This method of solving a system of linear equations is known as the method of elimination

by substitution. Elimination, because we got rid of y or eliminated y from the second

equation, and Substitution, because we substituted the value of y in the second equation.

Example 6 : Solve the following system of linear equations using elimination by substitution :

3x + 2y = 14

(1)

x + 4y = 7

(2)

Solution : We shall eliminate x by substituting its value from one equation into the other.

We notice that x has coefficient 1 in equation (2). Let us re-write (2) as follows:

x = 4y 7

(3)

12.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

Now x has been expressed in terms of y. Let us substitute this value of x from (3) in the

equation (1). This gives

3 (4y 7) +2y = 14

(4)

Now (4) is a linear equation in y; x has been eliminated. Simplifying (4), we get

or

14y 21 = 14

14y = 35

or

y=

5

2

x = 4y 7

=4

5

7

2

=3

Thus, the solution of the system is

x = 3 and y =

5

2

5

, we find that both the equations (1) and (2) are

2

1.4.2

There is another method of eliminating one variable which is sometimes more convenient

than the above method. Suppose we wish to solve

23x 17y + 11 = 0

(1)

and

31x + 13y 57 = 0

(2)

Now expressing x in terms of y would involve division by 23 or 31. Expressing y in terms

of x would involve division by 17 or 13. Since multiplication is more convenient than division,

we shall convert the division process into a multiplication process. Multiplying the first equation

by 13 viz., coefficient of y in (2), and second by 17 viz., coefficient of y in (1), we get an

equivalent system of equations.

The new system has the advantage that y has the same numerical coefficient 1713 in

both the equations. If we add these new equations, the terms containing y cancel out as

these have opposite signs and the same numerical coefficient. (If they had the same sign, we

would have subtracted one from the other). Thus, y has been eliminated. We can now

proceed as before, and solve the system. This method of elimination is called elimination by

equating coefficients for obvious reasons.

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................ 1 3

Example 7 : Solve the following system of equations using the elimination method by equating

coefficients :

11x 5y + 61 = 0

(1)

3x 20y 2 = 0

(2)

Solution : Let us multiply equation (1) by 3 and equation (2) by 11. This gives

and

(3)

33x 220y 22 = 0

(4)

205 y + 205 = 0

y=1

or

3x 20 ( 1) 2 = 0

or

3x = 18

or

x=6

x = 6 and y = 1.

Verification : Substituting x = 6 and y = 1 in the given equations, we find that both the

equations are satisfied. Hence, the solution is correct.

Remark : If we multiply each equation by the coefficient of x in the other equation and

subtract one equation from the other, then x gets eliminated. Solving for y and substituting

the value of y in one equation, we get the value of x. But depending upon the given equations,

there might be an easier way. Here, we could have multiplied equation (1) by 4 and then

subtracted the equation so formed from equation (2). This would have eliminated y. The

solution would have been simpler. Try such labour saving devices whenever you can.

EXERCISE 1.2

Solve each of the following systems of equations by eliminating x (by substitution) :

1.

x+y=7

2x 3y = 11

4. 3x 5y = 1

5x + 2y = 19

2.

x+y=7

12x + 5y = 7

3. 2x 7y = 1

4x + 3y = 15

5. 5x + 8y = 9

2x + 3y = 4

6. 3x y = 3

7x + 2y = 20

7. 7x + 11y 3 = 0

8x + y 15 = 0

8. 3x + 4y 7 = 0

2x+y+2=0

14.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

9. 2x + 7y 11 = 0

3x y 5 = 0

10. 2x + y 17 = 0

17x 11y 8 = 0

Solve the following systems of equations by elimination method (by equating coefficients of x or of y):

11. x 5y = 11

2x + 3y = 4

14. 3x + 5y = 7

11x 13y = 9

12. 4x 3y 8 = 0

6x y

13. 7x 8y 11 = 0

29

=0

3

15. 3x + 2y =

8x 7y 7 = 0

11

3

7x + 5y =

31

3

16.

2x y = 11

5x + 4y = 1

17. 6x + 5y = 2

5x + 6y = 9

18. 4x + 7y = 20

21x 13y = 21

19. 2x + 3y = 0

21.

3x + 4y = 5

31x + 13y 57 = 0

15 2

+ = 17

u v

1 1 36

+ =

u v 5

1

11 7

=1

22.

v u

[Hint: Write

= x,

1

v

= y. ]

9 4

=6

v u

7

11

uv, u + 3v =

uv

2u + v =

3

3

[Hint: Divide both sides by uv.]

The algebraic method of solving a system of linear equations by the method of elimination by

substitution is effective only when the system has a unique solution. We shall now describe

another algebraic method of solving a system of linear equations that is applicable in all

cases. It tells us beforehand whether the system has a unique solution, no solution or infinitely

many solutions.

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................ 1 5

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0, a1 0, b1 0,

a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0, a2 0, b2 0

(1)

(2)

where the coefficients are real numbers. Let us eliminate y by substitution. From (1), we

have

y=

1

(c1 + a1 x)

b1

[b1 0 given]

a2 x + b2 b (c1 +a1 x) + c2 = 0

1

or

or

or

or

a2 x

b2 c1 b2 a1 x

+ c2 = 0

b1

b1

b c

b a

a 2 2 1 x + 2 1 + c2 = 0

b

b

1

(b1a2 b2 a1 ) x + (b2 c1 + b1c2 ) = 0 [Multiplying both sides by the non-zero number b1]

(3)

(a1b2 a2b1)y = c1a2 c2a1

(4)

Look at (3) and (4), each of which is a linear equation in a single variable (one in x and one

in y). It is tempting to divide (3) and (4) by a1b2 a2b1, and get the values of x and y. A word

of caution is in order here! We can divide only by a non-zero number. So we distinguish

between these two cases:

Case I : a1b2 a2b1 0

In this case dividing (3) and (4) by a1b2 a2b1, we get the values of x and y as

and

x=

b1c2 b2 c1

a1b2 a 2 b1

y=

c1a 2 c2 a1

a1b2 a 2 b1

x

1

=

b1c2 b2 c1 a1b2 a2b1

(5)

16.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

y

1

=

c1a2 c2 a1 a1b2 a2 b1

and

(6)

x

y

1

=

=

b1c2 b2 c1 c1a 2 c2 a1 a1b2 a 2 b1

(7 )

Thus in Case I, x and y can be obtained by using (7) as a formula. In the beginning, the

following aid to memory may be used in writing (7). [Later on, with practice, you will write

these relations mechanically in your own way!]

The given equations may be re-written as

a1 . x + b1 . y + c1 .1= 0

a2 . x + b2 . y + c2 .1= 0

and

Now think of

b1, b2, as coefficients of y,

c1, c2, as coefficients of 1,

and write as follows :

x

y

1

a1

b1

c1

a2

b2

c2

Adjoin the first two columns of coefficients to the end and get

x

y

1

a1

b1

c1

a1

b1

a2

b2

c2

a2

b2

Now draw arrows as shown below:

x

a1

b1

c1

a1

a2

b2

c2

a2

b1

a1

b1

c1

a1

b2

a2

b2

c2

a2

(Denominator for x)

(Denominator for y)

Fig.1.8(a)

Fig.1.8(b)

b1

a1

b1

c1

a1

b1

b2

a2

b2

c2

a2

b2

(Denominator for 1)

Fig.1.8(c)

In each case, the down-arrow ( ) shows the term with a plus sign and the up-arrow( )

shows the term with a minus sign. Thus, we get

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................ 1 7

x

b1c2 b2 c1

y

c1a 2 c2 a1

1

a1b2 a 2 b1

Put the equality signs and you have got the relations (7) :

x

y

1

=

=

b1c2 b2 c1 c1a2 c2 a1 a1b2 a 2 b1

Since the denominators have been obtained by cross-multiplying the coefficients, this method

is known as the method of cross-multiplication for solving a system of linear equations.

Once the above scheme is understood, we can consolidate Figs. 1.8(a) to 1.8(c) as follows:

b1

c1

a2

c2

b2

a1

b1

b2

Fig. 1.9

Warning : You must be careful in applying formula (7). Often the equations are given not as

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0

(A)

and

a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0

but as

and

}

}

a1 x + b1 y = c1

a2 x + b2 y = c2

(B)

If we write the equations not as (A) but as (B), then Fig. 1.9 should be replaced by the

following:

b1

b2

c1

c2

a1

a2

b1

b2

Fig. 1.10

2x 3y + 1 = 0

3x + 4y 5 = 0

Solution : Look at Fig.1.9. We begin writing the coefficients of y (bs), followed by constant

terms (cs), followed by the coefficients of x (as) and ending with the coefficients of y.

18.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

3

y

1

3

4

Fig. 1.11

x

y

1

=

=

(3) (5) 4 1 1 3 (5) 2 2 4 3 (3)

or

x

y

1

=

=

15 4 3 (10) 8 (9)

or

x

y

1

=

=

11 13 17

x=

11

13

and y =

17

17

You may verify that these values of x and y satisfy the given equations. Hence, our solution

is correct.

Case II : a1b2 a2b1 = 0.

In this case, we cannot divide equations (3) and (4) by a1b2 a2b1 to get the values of x

and y. If

a1b2 a2b1 = 0,

then

a 1b 2 = a 2b 1

or

a1 b1

=

a2 b2 [Since a2 0, b2 0, division by a2, b2 is allowed.]

Let

a1 b1

=

=k

a 2 b2

Then

Possibility 1 : c1 = kc2

Here, equation (1) reduces to

ka2x + kb2 y + kc2 = 0 [Since a1 = ka2, b1 = ka2 and c1 = kc2]

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................ 1 9

or

k(a2 x + b2 y + c2) = 0

or

a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0,

[As k

0]

which is the same as equation (2). Thus, every solution of one equation is a solution of the

other also. Hence, the system has infinitely many solutions.

Possibility 2 : c1 kc2

Here, equation (1) gives

ka2x + kb2 y + c1 = 0

or

k (a2 x + b2 y) + c1 = 0

or

k ( c2) + c1 = 0

or

c1 = kc2,

[From equation (2)]

The discussion of this section can be put together as follows:

Rule A: The system of equations

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0

a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0

(A)

i.e., if

a1

b

1

a2

b2

a1

b1

Rule B : If a = b = k, say then the system (A)

2

2

(i) has infinitely many solutions provided c1= kc2 .

(ii) has no solution, if c1 kc2.

In this chapter, we shall restrict ourselves to the system of equations coming under

Rule A i.e., the case in which a1b2 a2b1 0.

Example 9 : Solve the following system of equations by cross multiplication method :

6x y = 3

7x + 4y = 9

Solution : Here a1 = 6, b1= 1, a2= 7 and b2= 4.

Therefore, a1b2 a2b1 = 6 4 7 ( 1)

= 31 0

Hence, the given system of equations has a unique solution.

20.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

x

y

1

=

=

(1)(9) (4)(3) (3)(7) (9)(6) (6)(4) (7)(1)

or

x

y

1

=

=

9 12 21 54 24 (7)

or

x

y

1

=

=

21 33 31

x=

or

x

3

Fig. 1.12

21

33

and y =

31

31

4x + ay + 5 = 0

2x + 3y + 7 = 0

has exactly one solution ?

Solution : Here a1 = 4, a2 = 2, b1 = a, b2 = 3.

a1b2 a2b1 = 4 3 2 a

= 12 2a

Now

12 2a 0

a6

or

Therefore, for all values of a except 6, the given system of equations will have exactly

one solution.

EXERCISE 1.3

Solve the following systems of equations by using cross multiplication method :

1. 2x + 3y = 7

6x 5y = 11

2.

3x 5y = 20

7x + 2y = 17

3. 7x 2y = 3

3

11x y = 8

2

4.

6x + 5y = 11

5. 4x + 7y = 10

6.

10x

35

y = 25

2

9x + 10y = 21

4x +

2

y 1 =0

3

6x y + 2 = 0

LINEAR EQUATIONS

7.

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................ 2 1

5

3

x + y 1 = 0

3

5

3

5

x y+2=0

5

3

Find the values of p for which the following systems of equations have exactly one solution :

8. px + 2y = 5

3x + y = 1

9.

px + 3y = 7

2x y = 6

10. 9x + py 1 = 0

3x + 4y 2 = 0

11. 7x 5y 4 = 0

14x + py + 4 = 0

12. ax + by a + b = 0

bx ay a b = 0

13. x + y (a + b) = 0

ax by (a2 b2) = 0

a(x + y) b(x y) (a2 + ab + b2) = 0

15.

x y

+ 2=0

a b

16.

ax by + b2 a2 = 0

17.

x y

=0

a b

ax + by = a2 + b2

x y

+ =a+b

a b

y

b2

=2

18. ax + by = c

bx + ay = 1 + c

(a + b) (x + y) = a2 + b2

As remarked earlier, the interest in solving systems of linear equations lies in the fact that

several types of practical problems may be reduced to solving a system of linear equations.

Let us solve some such problems.

Example 11 : If twice the sons age in years is added to the age of his father, the sum is

90. If twice the fathers age in years is added to the age of the son, the sum is 120. Find

their ages.

Solution : Let us assume that the age of son = x years

and

the age of father = y years

22.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

As given, twice the age of son + age of father = 90

or

2x + y = 90

(1)

x + 2y = 120

(2)

3x + 3y = 210

or

x + y = 70

(3)

x + (x + y) = 90,

and

(x + y) + y = 120,

or

x = 20

and

y = 50

Note: You may solve equations (1) and (2) by any method you like. Further, you are advised

to verify the solution (s) so obtained with given conditions.

Example 12 : The sum of a two-digit number and the number obtained by interchanging the

digits of the number is 110. The digits of the number differ by 6. How many such numbers

are there? Find all of them.

Solution : Let the tens and units digit in the number be x and y respectively. Thus, the

number in the expanded notation may be written as

10x + y

(Original number)

When the digits are reversed, x becomes the units digit and y becomes the tens digit. This

number in expanded notation is

10y + x

(10x + y) + (10y + x) = 110

or

11(x + y) = 110

or

x + y = 10

(1)

either

xy=6

(2)

or

yx=6

(3)

LINEAR EQUATIONS

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................ 2 3

x = 8 and y = 2.

In this case, we get the number 82.

If y x = 6, then solving (1) and (3),

x = 2 and y = 8.

In this case, we get the number 28.

Thus, there are two such numbers, 82 and 28.

You may verify that both 82 and 28 satisfy the given conditions in this problem. When the

problem has more than one answer, obtain all the answers.

Example 13 : If the numerator of a fraction is multiplied by 2 and its denominator is

6

. If instead, we multiply the denominator by 2 and increase the

7

1

numerator by 2, it reduces to . What is the fraction (in lowest form)?

2

increased by 2, it becomes

Solution : Let the numerator and the denominator of the fraction be n and d respectively, so

that the fraction is

n

. According to the given conditions,

d

2n

6

n+2 1

=

=

and

d +2 7

2d

2

n

3

n+2

= and

=1

d +2 7

d

7n = 3(d + 2) and n + 2 = d

Substituting d = n + 2 from the second equation in the first, we get

or

or

or

7n = 3{(n + 2) + 2}

7n = 3n + 12

4n = 12

n=3

d=n+2=5

Verification :

3

.

5

23 6

3+ 2 5 1

= and

=

= , as given.

5+2 7

2 5 10 2

24.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

Example 14 : Mala purchased 5 chairs and 2 tables for Rs 1625. Reshma purchased

2 chairs and 1 table for Rs 750. Find the cost per chair and per table.

Solution : Assume that a chair costs Rs x and a table costs Rs y. Then 5 chairs will cost

Rs 5x and 2 tables will cost Rs 2y. Thus, the total amount spent by Mala will be

Rs 5x + Rs 2y or Rs (5x + 2y).

Since the amount spent by Mala is Rs 1625, therefore

5x + 2y = 1625

(1)

2x + y = 750

(2)

Now (1) and (2) give us a system of linear equations in two variables. Solving the system,

we get

x = 125 and y = 500

Thus, the cost of a chair is Rs 125 and that of a table is Rs 500.

Some Useful Hints for Solving such Problems :

1. Identify the unknown quantities about which some information is supplied. Give these

quantities a variable name like x, y, p, q, and so on.

2. See, which of the above variables need to be determined.

3. Concentrate on each phrase of the problem one by one. Write the equation in terms of

the variables which this phrase suggests.

4. Now solve the equations and determine the variables asked for in the problem.

EXERCISE 1.4

1.

Ram is three times as old as Rahim. Five years later, Ram will be two-and-a-half times as old as

Rahim. How old are Ram and Rahim now?

2.

Five years ago, Neeta was thrice as old as Geeta. Ten years later, Neeta will be twice as old as

Geeta. How old are Neeta and Geeta now?

3.

A fraction becomes

4.

4

if 1 is added to each of the numerator and the denominator. However, if we

5

1

subtract 5 from each, the fraction becomes . Find the fraction.

2

If we add 1 in the numerator of a fraction and subtract 1 from its denominator, the fraction

what is the fraction?

1

when we add 1 to its denominator, then

2

LINEAR EQUATIONS

5.

IN

TWO VARIABLES................................................................................................................ 2 5

If we add 5 to the denominator and subtract 5 from the numerator of a fraction, it reduces to

we subtract 3 from the numerator and add 3 to its denominator, it reduces to

1

. If

7

1

. Find the fraction.

3

6.

The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 8. The number obtained by interchanging the two

digits exceeds the given number by 36. Find the number.

7.

The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 9. Also, nine times this number is twice the number

obtained by reversing the order of the digits of the number. Find the number.

8.

Seven times a two-digit number is the same as four times the number obtained on interchanging the

digits of the given number. If one digit of the given number exceeds the other by 3, find the number.

9.

Two audio cassettes and three video cassettes cost Rs 340. But three audio cassettes and two

video cassettes cost Rs 260. Find the price of an audio cassette and that of a video cassette.

10. Three chairs and two tables cost Rs 1850. Five chairs and three tables cost Rs 2850. Find the cost

of two chairs and two tables.

11. If we buy 2 tickets from station A to station B, and 3 from station A to station C, we have to pay

Rs 795. But 3 tickets from station A to B and 5 tickets from A to C cost a total of Rs 1300. What is

the fare from station A to B and that from station A to C?

12. The area of a rectangle gets reduced by 9 square units, if its length is reduced by 5 units and the

breadth is increased by 3 units. If we increase the length by 3 units and the breadth by 2 units,

then the area is increased by 67 square units. Find the length and the breadth of the rectangle.

13. If in a rectangle, the length is increased and the breadth is reduced by 2 units each, the area is

reduced by 28 square units. If the length is reduced by 1 unit, and breadth increased by 2 units,

the area increases by 33 square units. Find the dimensions of the rectangle.

14. A person starts his job with a certain monthly salary and earns a fixed increment every year. If his

salary was Rs 4500 after 4 years of service and Rs 5400 after 10 years of service, find his initial

salary and the annual increment.

15. A railway half-ticket costs half the full fare but the reservation charges are the same on a

half-ticket as on a full ticket. One reserved first class ticket from station A to station B costs Rs

2125. Also, one reserved first class ticket and one reserved half first class ticket from A to B cost

Rs 3200. Find the full fare from station A to B and also the reservation charges for a ticket.

16. In a ABC, C = 3B = 2( A + B). Find the three angles.

[Hint : A + B + C = 180.]

17. A two-digit number is obtained by either multiplying the sum of the digits by 8 and adding 1, or

by multiplying the difference of the digits by 13 and adding 2. Find the number. How many such

numbers are there?

26.................................................................................................................................................... MATHEMATICS

18. In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, A = (2x + 4)o , B = ( y + 3)o , C = (2y + 10)o and D = (4x 5)o.

Find the four angles.

19. Points A and B are 100 km apart on a highway. One car starts from A and another from B at the

same time. If the cars travel in the same direction at a constant speed, they meet in 5 hours. If the

cars travel towards each other, they meet in 1 hour. What are the speeds of the two cars?

20. A person can row downstream 20 km in 2 hours and upstream 4 km in 2 hours. Find mans speed

of rowing in still water and the speed of the current.

[Hint: If persons speed in still water is x km per hour and the speed of the current is y km per hour,

then the speed upstream is (x y) km per hour and the speed downstream is (x + y) km per hour.]

21. A person can row 8 km upstream and 24 km downstream in 4 hours. He can row 12 km downstream

and 12 km upstream in 4 hours. Find the speed of the person in still water as also the speed of the

current.