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NSS Physics in Life

(Heat and Gases)

Chapter 1

Full Solution of Textbooks

Temperature and Thermometers

Checkpoint (p.11)
1.

Temperature is a physical quantity that measures the degree of hotness or

2.

coldness of an object. The most common scales are the Celsius scale and Kelvin
scale. Their respective units are C and K.
C

3.

B. The lowest possible temperature is 273C.

Exercise (p.11)
1.

2.
3.

C
(a) Incorrect. A physical quantity is a thermometric property as long as it
changes with temperature. Whether it changes linearly with temperature is
not a necessary condition of being a thermometric property.
(b) Incorrect. A physical quantity is a thermometric property as long as it
changes with temperature. Whether it increases or decreases with
temperature is not a necessary condition of being a thermometric property.
(c) Incorrect. Y does not change with temperature. It is not a thermometric

4.

5.

property.
(d) Correct. Y does not change with temperature. It may represent the mass of
an object.
The average surface temperature of the Earth in the Kelvin scale
= 15 + 273
= 288 K
The average surface temperature of Mars in the Celsius scale
= 210 273
= 63C

Checkpoint (p.21)
1.

(a) Correct. From Figure Q1b, the slope of the graph increases with the
temperature.

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NSS Physics in Life


(Heat and Gases)

Full Solution of Textbooks

(b) Correct. 5 equally spaced divisions are made between the liquid levels at
0C and 100C. From Figure Q1b, the liquid expands non-linearly. Since
the slope of the lowest division is the smallest, the lowest division
represents a temperature range larger than 20C.
(c) correct
2.

3.

C
From Figure Q2, the variation of the resistance is the largest in the temperature
range 60100C. Moreover, within that range, the resistance almost changes
linearly. It is the best working range.
C
Let l be the length of the mercury column at the normal human body temperature
of 37C.
The increase in length of the mercury column when the temperature rises from
0C to 100C is l1 = 25 5 = 20 cm.
The increase in length of the mercury column when the temperature rises from
0C to 37C is l2 = l 5.
By proportion,
37 0 l 2
=
100 0 l1
l 5
20
l = 12.4 cm

0.37 =

The length of the mercury column is 12.4 cm if the thermometer is used to


measure the normal human body temperature.

Checkpoint (p.22)
1.

C
An object expands when the temperature of the object increases because the
average distance between the molecules of that object increases.

2.

Statement 1 is incorrect.
Even at the lowest possible temperature of 0 K, the total kinetic energy of the
molecules of an object will not drop to zero.
Statement 2 is incorrect.
The object may have different average molecular kinetic energy. The temperature
of two objects is the same only if they have the same average kinetic energy due
to the random motion of the molecules in the objects.

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NSS Physics in Life


(Heat and Gases)

Full Solution of Textbooks

Exercise (p.23)
1.

(a) thermocouple thermometer


(b) rotary thermometer
(c) resistance thermometer
(d) infrared thermometer

2.

3.

One of the thermometers has a narrower capillary tube.

4.

Let be the temperature when the length of the liquid column is l.


By proportion,

l 5
100 0 15 5

l 5
=
100
10
=

(a) When the length of the liquid column is 4.5 cm,

4 .5 5
100
10
= 5C
=

When the length of the liquid column is 4.5 cm, the temperature is 5C.
(b) When the length of the liquid column is 7.5 cm,

7.5 5
100
10
= 25C
=

When the length of the liquid column is 7.5 cm, the temperature is 25C.
(c) When the length of the liquid column is 16 cm,

16 5
100
10
= 110C
=

When the length of the liquid column is 16 cm, the temperature is 110C.
5.

(a) Let l be the length of the liquid column in the thermometer when the
thermometer is placed in a liquid of 51C. From Q4, by proportion,

51 l 5
=
100
10
0.51 10 = l 5
l = 10.1 cm
The length of the liquid column is 10.1 cm when the liquid is kept at 51C.
(b) The diameter of the capillary tube may not be uniform, so the length of
liquid column does not change linearly with temperature.

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NSS Physics in Life


(Heat and Gases)

6.

Full Solution of Textbooks

(a) correct
(b) incorrect

Chapter Exercise (p.27)


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

(a) 200C, mercury-in-glass thermometer

(1A)

(b) 200C, thermocouple thermometer

(1A)

(c) 200C, rotary thermometer

(1A)

(d) 20C, alcohol-in-glass thermometer/thermistor thermometer/rotary


thermometer

8.

(1A)

(e) 20C, mercury-in-glass thermometer/alcohol-in-glass thermometer

(1A)

(f)

(1A)

2000C, thermocouple thermometer

(a) Mercury (1A) should be used in the thermometer. The working range of a
mercury-in-glass thermometer is between 30C and 400C while that of
the alcohol-in-glass thermometer is between 100C and 110C. Only the
mercury one is suitable (1A).

9.

(b) rotary thermometer (Any reasonable answers)

(1A)

(c) freezer (Any reasonable answers)

(1A)

(a) The capillary tube is made very narrow to improve the sensitivity of the
thermometer.

(1A)

(b) The glass wall of the bulb is very thin to facilitate heat transfer.

(1A)

(c) The capillary tube is uniform in diameter to make sure that the length of the
liquid column changes linearly with temperature.
10. (a) (i)

(1A)

From 0C to 4C, the volume of the water decreases (1A). When the
temperature is higher than 4C, the volume of the water increases
non-linearly with temperature (1A).

(ii) Since water does not expand linearly with temperature (1A), it is not a
suitable liquid for making a liquid-in-glass thermometer (1A).
(b) (i)

liquid alcohol

(1A)

Since liquid alcohol has the largest percentage of volume increased


among the three liquids, it is the most sensitive.
(ii) The thermometric liquid should expand linearly with temperature.

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(1A)
(1A)

NSS Physics in Life


(Heat and Gases)

Full Solution of Textbooks

11. (a) The change in length of the liquid column for a change of 1C

27 12
75 15
15
=
60
= 0.25 cm
=

(1M+1A)

(b) Let l be the length of the liquid column when the temperature is 55C.
l = 12 + (55 15) 0.25
= 22 cm

(1M+1A)

The length of the liquid column is 22 cm when the temperature is 55C.


12. (a) From Figure Q12, the length of the mercury column at the ice point is
4 cm (1A). The length of the mercury column at the steam point is 19 cm (1A).
(b) Let be the temperature when the length of the mercury column is 10 cm.
By proportion,

0
100 0

100

10 4
19 4
6
=
15
= 40C
=

(1M+1A)

The temperature is 40C when the length of the mercury column is 10 cm.
(c) Let l be the length of the mercury column when the temperature is 114C.
By proportion,
114 0 l 4
=
100 0 19 4
l4
1.14 =
15
l = 21.1 cm

(1M+1A)

The length of the mercury column is 21.1 cm when the temperature is


114C.

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NSS Physics in Life


(Heat and Gases)

Full Solution of Textbooks

13. (a)

(1M for the two axes + 0.5 M for data points + 0.5 M for the best fit line)

(b) From the graph, the water temperature is 6C.

(1A)

(c) The thermometer is most sensitive in the range 0 20C (1A). The resistance
of the thermometer has the largest percentage change in the range (1A).
14. (a) Glass B has more water molecules. The number of water molecules is
directly proportional to the mass of water.

(1A)

(b) Glass A has a higher average speed due to random motion as it has a higher
temperature.

(1A)

(c) Glass A has a higher average kinetic energy due to random motion.
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy due to the random
motion of the molecules. The higher the temperature, the higher the average
kinetic energy of the molecules is.

Pearson Education Asia Limited 2009


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(1A)

NSS Physics in Life


(Heat and Gases)

15. (a) (i)

Full Solution of Textbooks

mercury/alcohol (any one) (1A)

(ii) First put the unmarked thermometer in pure melting ice and mark the
corresponding level of liquid column as 0C.

(1A)

Then put the thermometer in pure boiling water and mark the
corresponding level of liquid column as 100C.
(b) (i)

From the graph, the temperature of the water is 24C.

(1A)
(1M + 1A)

(ii) Let l be the length of the liquid column when the temperature is 80C.
By proportion,
80 0 68 0
=
l 2 16 2
l 18.5 cm

(1M + 1A)

(iii) From the graph, the increase in length of the liquid column is 4 cm for
a temperature rise of 20C.

(1M + 1A)

16. (a) For non-contact measurement, the thermometer makes use of infrared
radiation emitted from different objects.

(1A)

(b) (Any reasonable answer)


(1) It will not contaminate the food.
(2) It will not destroy the structure of the food.
(3) It can measure the temperature distribution on the food surface.

(1A)

(c) The temperature difference between the two junctions of the thermometer
causes a current to flow through the circuit (1A). A larger temperature
difference results in a larger current. (1A)
(d) The accuracy of the contact measurement is higher.

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(1A)