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LED Wafer and LED Wafer Templates

A light-emitting diode (LED) is just a semiconductor light source. LEDs are utilized as indication
bulbs in several units and are increasingly employed for normal light. Appearing as functional
electronic elements in 1962, early LEDs released low-strength red light, but contemporary designs
are available throughout the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with quite high
brightness.
Whenever a light-emitting diode is started up, electrons can recombine with pockets within the
system, delivering energy within the form of photons. This result is known as electroluminescence,
and the shade of the light (corresponding to the power of the photon) is determined by the vitality
band gap of the semiconductor. An LED is usually modest in location (less than 1 mm2), and
integrated optical parts can be utilized to design its radiation pattern. LEDs have many advantages
over incandescent lighting sources including lower-energy use, longer lifetime, enhanced physical
robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. However, LEDs effective enough for area light are
fairly costly, and involve more specific present and heat management than small fluorescent lamp
resources of related productivity.

LED wafer substrate


Current substrate for GaN based DIRECTED components more, but can be utilized for
commercialization of substrate only two, specifically, Pearl and silicon carbide substrates. Others
including GaN, Si, ZnO substrates within the study and growth point, there's still some distance
from industrialization.
Blue green LED
Substrates for gallium nitride study more, but can be utilized in the creation of substrates at the
moment, only two, specifically Sapphire Al2O3 and silicon carbide SiC substrates.
1, gallium nitride substrates:
For GaN growth of gallium nitride single-crystal will be the most perfect substrate of organic
material, such a system can greatly improve the quality of epitaxial film, lowering the bits improper
density, improve the operating life, boost luminous efficiency, boost unit operating current density.
However, the preparation of gallium nitride single crystal resources very difficult, yet powerful
method. Experts in other substrates by HVPE method (including Al2O3, SiC, and LGO) progress of
gallium nitride solid film and substrate by burning technology and isolation of gallium nitride thick
movie, following the separation of gallium nitride thick film may be used as expansion of the
substrate. Rewards received by gallium nitride thick movie is apparent, namely to substrateEpitaxial gallium nitride thin film portions wrong density, Al2O3, SiC epitaxy on gallium nitride films

by reduced densities significantly wrong, but expensive. Gallium nitride solid film employed like a
substrate for semiconductor light is restricted.
2, Sapphire Al2O3 substrates:
Presently for nitride gallium growth on most Standard of covered end of is Al2O3, its rewards is
chemical security superior, and doesn't absorption noticeable, and value modest, and production
technology comparable mature; inadequate area while several, but are onebyone is overcome, as is
big of lattice dropped submission is transition layer expansion technology by overcome, conductive
performance weak through with part p, and n electrode by overcome, machinery efficiency weak
simply cutting through mine chance is zoned supplements by overcome, is huge of warm missing
used expansion layer shaped tension pressure therefore does not cracked.However, the difference of
thermal conductivity in these devices under low-current work doesn't expose a manifestly
insufficient, are power-type products under high-current function problems are featured.
3, SiC substrates:
Besides Al2O3 substrates, presently for GaN growth substrates is SiC, its market share was 2nd,
nevertheless there's a third form of substrate for gallium nitride LED industrial production. It's quite
a few distinctive advantages, good chemical security, good thermal conductivity, electrical
conductivity doesn't absorb visible light, but also notable, like the value is too high, the standard is
difficult to attain the Al2O3 and Si so good, device performance is weak. Furthermore, the SiC
substrate consumption below 380nm ultraviolet light, is not appropriate to develop below 380nm
ultraviolet LED. Due to excellent electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of SiC substrate
qualities, you do not should strength of gallium nitride LED devices about the Al2O3 substrates
using flip-chip technology to resolve thermal problems, rather than using the top and base electrode
construction, greater resolving power of gallium nitride LED devices thermal issues.
Red and yellow light LED
Red generated distance (binary) and AlGaAs (ternary) and AlGaInP (four bucks), generally using
difference and GaAs substrates without industrialization and Sapphire Al2O3 and SI substrates.
1, GaAs substrate: LPE growth if the red LED, the general usage of AlGaAs epitaxial layers, if you
use the MOCVD growth DIRECTED red, orange, light, common advancement AlInGaP Epitaxial
structure. Epitaxial layers grown on GaAs substrates, because the lattice match, easy to develop
good products, however the downside is their intake of the photon of wavelength, mirrors, Prague or
wafer bonding technology is used to eradicate this additional technical issues.
2, and distance lined end-of: in applying LPE growth red yellow light LED Shi, Common applying
GaP extension fixers in spain
layer, wavelength range more wide 565-700nm; using VPE growth red yellow-light BROUGHT Shi,
expansion GaAsP extension layer, wavelength in 630-650nm Zhijian; and using MOCVD Shi,
standard expansion AlInGaP extension structure, this structure is superior of target has GaAs lined
end-of sucking lighting of shortcomings, straight will DIRECTED structure growth in clear covered
end-of Shang, but shortcomings is lattice dropped distribution, Employing load layer development of
InGaP and AlGaInP structure is needed. In addition, hole foundation of III-N-V material process has
increased large awareness, this content not only may change the bandwidth, you can also increase
0.5% nitrogen circumstances only, from indirect to strong band gap change, and in the Red location
features a powerful light effect (650nm). Using the architectural production LED, by the GaNP

heterostructure lattice matching, one development LED epitaxial structure and eliminating the
necessity for treatment of GaAs substrate wafer bonding and transparent substrate complex
operations.
Wafers for LED application
Apparently LED wafer is for LED program, however don't forget BROUGHT template can be
principal application for LED.Currently you'll find two themes, GaN on sapphire template and GaN
on plastic format.
The GaN on sapphire format includes an ntype GaN layer grown on a sapphire substrate. Employing
a GaN-format means LED producers don't have to develop an ntype GaN buffer layer and this
reduces the full time necessary for expansion by about half in contrast to conventional methods. The
GaN-templates from PAM-XIAMEN are also suited to high-output LEDs which require huge currents
simply because they permit both low-resistance and high crystal formation.
GaN-on-silicon theme have identical efficiency to GaN-on-sapphire.But growing an LED on plastic
isn't straightforward, because there are lattice and thermal mismatches involving the substrate and
epitaxial layers that may cause the wafer to lace, if not split. It is also not possible to cultivate GaN
directly onto plastic