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SNMP, SNMPv2, SNMPv3,

and RMON 1 and 2


Third Edition

William Stallings

ADDISON-WESLEY
Upper Saddle River, NJ Boston Indianapolis San Francisco
New York Toronto Montreal London Munich Paris Madrid
Capetown Sydney Tokyo Singapore Mexico City

Contents

Preface

xiii

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1

xv

Introduction
1.1 Network Management Requirements 2
1.2 Network Management Systems 6
1.3 Outline of the Book 15
APPENDIX 1A Internet Resources 19

PART I Network Management

Fundamentals

Chapter 2

Network Monitoring
2.1 Network Monitoring Architecture 23
2.2 Performance Monitoring 29
2.3 Fault Monitoring 41
2.4 Accounting Monitoring 44
2.5 Summary 45
APPENDIX 2A Queueing Theory Concepts 46
APPENDIX 2B Statistical Analysis Concepts 52

23

Chapter 3

Network Control
3.1 Configuration Control 55
3.2 Security Control 59
3.3 Summary 67

55

VII

Vi

Contents

PART II

SNMPvl

Chapter 4

SNMP Network Management Concepts


4.1 Background 71
4.2 Basic Concepts 75
4.3 Summary 83

71

Chapter 5

SNMP Management Information


5.1 Structure of Management Information
5.2 Practical Issues 102
5.3 Summary 114
APPENDIX 5A TCP Connection States 116

85
86

Chapter 6

Standard MIBs
6.1 MIB-II 121
6.2 Ethernet Interface MIB 146
6.3 Summary 157
APPENDIX 6A Case Diagrams 158
APPENDIX 6B IP Addressing 159

121

Chapter 7

Simple Network Management Protocol


7.1 Basic Concepts 163
7.2 Protocol Specification 173
7.3 Transport-Level Support 190
7.4 SNMP Group 192
7.5 Practical Issues 192
7.6 Summary 202
APPENDIX 7A Lexicographical Ordering 204

163

PART III
Chapter 8

RMON
Remote Network Monitoring: Statistics Collection
8.1 Basic Concepts 209
8.2 s t a t i s t i c s Group 222
8.3 h i s t o r y Group 225
8.4 h o s t Group 228
8.5 hostTopN Group 234
8.6 matrix Group 238
8.7 tokenRing Extensions to RMON 241

209

Contents

ix

8.8 Summary 248


APPENDIX 8A EntryStatus Textual Convention 249
Chapter 9

Chapter 10

PART IV

Remote Network Monitoring: Alarms and Filters


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

alarm Group 251


filter Group 256
Packet capture Group 266
event Group 271

9.5
9.6

Practical Issues 273


Summary 276

RMONl
10.1 Overview 277
10.2 Protocol Directory Group 287
10.3 Protocol Distribution Group 293
10.4 Address Map Group 298
10.5 RMON2 Host Groups 300
10.6 RMON2 Matrix Groups 305
10.7 User History Collection Group 315
10.8 Probe Configuration Group 320
10.9 Extensions to RMONl for RMON2 Devices 324
10.10 Practical Issues 326
10.11 Summary 328

251

277

SNMPvl

Chapter 11

SNMPvl: Management Information


11.1 Background 331
11.2 Structure of Management Information 335
11.3 Summary 357
APPENDIX HA Row-Status Textual Convention 358

331

Chapter 12

SNMPvl: Protocol
12.1 Protocol Operations 365
12.2 Transport Mappings 392
12.3 Coexistence with SNMPvl 392
12.4 Summary 398

365

Contents

Chapter 13

PART V

SNMPvl: MIBs and Conformance


13.1 SNMPv2 Management Information Base 399
13.2 Conformance Statements 405
13.3 Evolution of the I n t e r f a c e s Group of MIB-II 413
13.4 Summary 422
APPENDIX 13A TestAndlncr Textual Convention 424

399

SNMPv3

Chapter 14

Cryptographic Algorithms in SNMPv3


14.1 Conventional Encryption with DES 427
14.2 The MD5 Secure Hash Function 433
14.3 The SHA-1 Secure Hash Function 438
14.4 Message Authentication with HMAC 439

427

Chapter 15

SNMPv3: Architecture and Applications


15.1 Background 447
15.2 SNMPv3 Overview 450
15.3 SNMP Architecture 455
15.4 SNMPv3 Applications 470
15.5 MIBs for SNMPv3 Applications 473
15.6 Summary 483
APPENDIX 15A Textual Conventions for the SNMP Management
Architecture 485

447

Chapter 16

SNMPv3: Message Processing and User-Based


Security Model
16.1 Message Processing 489
16.2 The SNMPv3 User-Based Security Model 498
16.3 Summary 524

Chapter 17

SNMPv3: View-Based Access Control Model


17.1 The VACM Model 525
17.2 Access Control Processing 530
17.3 The VACM MIB 535
17.4 Summary 543
APPENDIX 17A The Use of Subtrees and Masks 544

489

525

Contents

xi

APPENDICES

Appendix A

The
A.l
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5

TCP/IP Protocol Suite


Operation of TCP and IP 552
The Layers 553
Applications 556
User Datagram Protocol 557
Standards 558

Appendix Abstract Syntax Notation One


B.l Abstract Syntax 561
B.2 ASN.l Concepts 564
B.3 ASN.l Macro Definitions 578
B.4 Basic Encoding Rules 586
B.5 Alternative Encoding Rules 594
Glossary 597
References 603
Index

605

SSI

561