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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI

10.1109/JLT.2014.2331325, Journal of Lightwave Technology

1

Plasmonic Complementary Split-Ring Resonators

Meisam Bahadori, Ali Eshaghian, and Khashayar Mehrany

Abstract A circuit model based on transmission line theory is proposed to analyze the recently introduced metalinsulator-metal complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs).

It is shown that integer and non-integer modes of CSRRs

can be characterized by transmission line models with shortand open-circuited terminals. The proposed circuit model is

then extended to incorporate side-coupling effects between the

CSRRs and straight MIM waveguides. Thereby, simple closedform expressions are provided for the coupling quality factor. It

is shown that waveguide resonator structures based on CSRRs

at specific resonance frequency and bandwidth can be smaller

than waveguide resonator structures based on conventional ring

resonators. Thanks to the smaller size of CSRRs, the coupling

in the former arrangement is stronger than it is in the latter.

Therefore, CSRRs are not required to be in the extreme proximity

of the waveguide as in the waveguide ring resonators.

Index Terms Coupled transmission lines, coupled mode theory, impedance, metal-insulator-metal, plasmons, surface waves,

split-ring resonators

I. I NTRODUCTION

to small volumes below the diffraction limit [1], [2].

With such tight confinement, new horizons are opened up for

squeezing light into deep sub-wavelength regions of space [3]

[5] with miscellaneous functionalities for on-chip nanophotonics. Various structures for plasmonic ring resonators have been

studied in recent years. In 2006, Xiao et al. [6] studied the twodimensional realization of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) adddrop filters and concluded that metallic loss is a problematic

issue in such structures due to its dramatic effect on the

quality factor. In the same year, Bozhevolnyi et al. [7] used

channel plasmon polaritons (V-grooves) to experimentally

investigate a plasmonic waveguide-ring resonator. Next year,

they used the same channel plasmon scheme to fabricate and

characterize wavelength selective structures such as add-drop

filters with a ring resonator [8]. In the same year, Hosseini

et al. [9] analyzed an MIM rectangular ring resonator sidecoupled to a waveguide and proposed a plasmonic add-drop

filter. In 2009, a dielectric-loaded plasmonic ring resonator

was introduced by Holmgaard et al. [10]. In that year, Han

et al. [11] proposed aperture coupled MIM ring resonators

and argued that aperture-coupling mechanism could be more

efficient over the evanescent coupling mechanism. Still, the

The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif

University of Technology, Tehran 111554363, Iran (e-mail: meisambahadori@gmail.com; eshaghian@ee.sharif.ir; mehrany@sharif.edu).

Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted.

However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be

obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permissions@ieee.org.

instance, the capability of MIM circular ring resonators in

realization of wavelength demultiplexing was demonstrated by

utilizing evanescent coupling mechanism between a ring and

straight waveguides [12]. In 2010, the same idea was further

pursued by substituting the circular ring with a rectangular

ring [13].

Recently, the structure of MIM complementary split-ring

resonator (CSRR) has been proposed [14]. A CSRR is formed

by inserting a metallic wall inside a regular MIM ring resonator. This metallic wall disturbs the symmetry of the MIM

ring resonator and excludes CSRRs from the category of

traveling-wave resonators. Interestingly, CSRRs accommodate

non-integer modes in addition to the standard integer modes

supported by regular ring resonators. In a more recent modification reported in 2013, Sheng Ma et al. [15] numerically

investigated the structure of a circular CSRR and found out

that the non-integer resonance modes of these structures are

highly sensitive to the width of the metallic nano-wall, as well

as its position with respect to a coupling waveguide. They also

discussed that the circular geometry of CSRR outperforms the

rectangular geometry as the effects of sharp bending are not

present in circular CSRRs. Introduction of a narrow metallicwall in the CSRRs provides a unique way of tuning the

coupling efficiency of CSRRs by either changing the width

of the metallic wall or changing its position. Regretfully,

accurate analysis of these structures is hitherto carried out

by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Such

brute-force numerical methods impose undesirable numerical

burden, and provide only a limited insight, if any, of the

electromagnetic phenomena inside the structure. Therefore, an

approximate yet accurate enough solution for extraction and

analysis of the resonant modes is warmly welcome.

The most straightforward approach to have approximate

solutions for optical coupling interactions is to call upon the

standard coupled-mode theory (CMT) [16][18]. Since the

dispersion of the metal is usually weak over the desired frequency region, standard CMT is accurate for MIM plasmonic

resonators [6]. Unfortunately, however, CMT is still in demand

of some numerical calculations. The resonance wavelengths,

intrinsic and coupling quality factors for integer and noninteger modes are all needed. Their calculations necessitate

numerical simulations.

Another analytical method that has received some attention

in recent years is the introduction of the circuit theory in metaloptics [19] and the use of transmission line (TL) concepts

in modeling and approximate analysis of MIM devices. The

parameters of such models can be determined in terms of

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2

which are readily known [1]. Structures such as splitters [20],

[21], junctions [22], [23], stubs [24], [25], and demultiplexers

[26] are among those that have been successfully analyzed

by the transmission line models. Recently, the use of coupled

transmission lines has led to the theoretical investigation of

side-coupling between parallel MIM waveguides [27], [28].

Furthermore, an extension of this theory has been proposed

for the incorporation of the higher order modes at MIM discontinuities [29]. It should be mentioned that TL models have

been already employed to extract the resonance frequencies of

rectangular CSRRs [14]. However, such analysis has two essential flaws. First, transmission characteristics and resonance

quality factors of the CSRR in side-coupled arrangement are

yet to be extracted numerically. Second, the proposed model

provides limited accuracy since it neglects the effects of the

evanescent-coupling (tunneling) between the two sides of the

metallic nano-gap [26]. These effects become more prominent

for integer modes and in case of small gaps (10-20 nm).

In this paper, for the first time to the best of our knowledge,

an approximate and accurate enough analytical model based

on transmission line theory is presented and utilized to obtain

the spectral characteristics of the recently proposed MIM

CSRRs in side-coupling arrangements. The proposed model

takes into account the effects of evanescent coupling between

the two sides of the metallic nano-gap and thus is more

accurate than the model presented in [14]. The proposed model

provides closed-form expressions for resonance wavelengths,

the intrinsic and waveguide coupling quality factors.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section II

discusses the transmission line model of an isolated CSRR

and gives its resonance frequencies and their corresponding

intrinsic quality factors. Section III extends the concept of the

TL model to include the side-coupling between a CSRR and a

straight waveguide. Thanks to the analytic nature of the model,

closed-form expressions are provided for the coupling quality

factors in section IV. In section V, the proposed TL model is

employed to design plasmonic filters with specific resonance

frequency and bandwidth. Finally, conclusions are made in

section VI.

II. C IRCUIT M ODEL FOR U NCOUPLED MIM CSRR

In this section we present a circuit model for analysis of circular plasmonic complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs).

The model provides closed form expressions for the resonance

frequency and intrinsic quality factor of the integer and noninteger modes supported by CSRRs.

The structure of a circular MIM CSRR is shown in Fig.1(a).

It can be seen that CSRR is formed when a metallic wall

splits the conventional ring resonator structure. The width of

the metallic wall, the inner and the outer radii of the ring are

denoted by Wg , R, and R + r, respectively. This structure is

modeled by two transmission line segments cascaded to each

other. One is needed to represent wave propagation within

the split MIM ring, and the other to account for the metallic

wall. Naturally, the lengths of the former and of the latter are

Lr = 2(R + r/2) Wg , and Wg , respectively. Since bending

(a)

(b)

BB0 is the symmetry plane of the CSRR. (b) The corresponding transmission

line model for the CSRR.

propagation constant, d , and the characteristic impedance,

Zd , of the transmission line segment representing the split ring

can be accurately approximated by the propagation constant

and the characteristic impedance of a straight MIM waveguide

whose width is r. Therefore, the following equations hold [1],

[20]:

p

q

2 k 2 m /m

r

2

2

tanh

d k0 d

(1a)

= p d2 02

2

d k0 d /d

d

Zd r

(1b)

0 d

where k0 is the free space wavenumber, d is the dielectric

permittivity inside the waveguide, and m is the complex

permittivity of the metal.

Since narrow metallic walls do not cause significant diffraction, the propagation constant, m , and the characteristic

impedance, Zm , of the transmission line segment representing

the metallic wall can be written as [26]:

q

m

m d2 + k02 (m d ) , Zm r

. (2)

0 m

The proposed transmission line model [Fig. 1(b)] is then

formed by cascading the above-mentioned transmission line

segments in accordance with the geometrical figure of the

CSRR. It can be easily shown that the resonance condition

in the model is met when the following equation is held:

cos(m Wg ) cos(d Lr ) 1 = (Zd /2Zm + Zm /2Zd )

sin(m Wg ) sin(d Lr ).

(3)

It is worth noting that the above-mentioned resonance condition is no different from the standard constructive interference

condition for the round trip phase when Wg approaches zero,

i.e. the CSRR becomes a conventional MIM ring resonator:

Re {d } Lr = 2m

m Z.

(4)

condition given in (3) can be rewritten as a multiplication of

two separate factors:

Zd tan(d Lr /2) + Zm tan(m Wg /2)

Zd cot(d Lr /2) + Zm cot(m Wg /2) = 0.

(5)

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10.1109/JLT.2014.2331325, Journal of Lightwave Technology

3

these factors becomes zero, two distinct sets of modes are

conceivable for the CSRR. These two sets have even and

odd symmetry about the AA0 BB0 axis passing through the

metallic wall [see Fig.1(a)]. The first set of modes obtained

by finding the zeros of the first factor in (5) corresponds

to the transmission line model in Fig. 2(a). It can be easily

seen that the amplitude of the current phasor in this model

is maximum at short-circuit AA0 and BB0 terminals. Since

the current distribution in the model represents the magnetic

field profile in the structure, the transmission line model in

Fig. 2(a) represents the set of resonant modes whose magnetic

field profiles have even symmetry about AA0 BB0 axis. They

are referred to as the integer modes because their resonance

condition for Wg Lr is no different from having a round

trip phase whose value is an integer multiple of 2 [see (4)].

It is no wonder that integer modes closely resemble modes of

a conventional MIM ring.

The second set of modes obtained by finding the zeros of the

second factor in (5) corresponds to the transmission line model

in Fig. 2(b). This time, the current phasor is zero at opencircuit AA0 and BB0 terminals and therefore its corresponding

magnetic field profile has odd symmetry about AA0 BB0 axis.

Since the round trip phase of these modes is not an integer

multiple of 2 even for Wg Lr , they are referred to as the

non-integer modes [15]. It can be shown that there is always

a non-integer mode between two consecutive integer modes.

Therefore, resonant modes of CSRR can be ordered as TM1 ,

TM1.5 , TM2 , TM2.5 , and so forth. It should be noted that the

designation of the TE and TM modes in the resonator depends

on what is chosen to be the longitudinal direction, which

is rather arbitrary. Referring to the nth order fundamental

plasmonic modes of the resonator as TMn follows the suit of

the previous works [14], [15] but is a rather odd choice because

the magnetic field of the resonator is perpendicular to the

ring plane. In the cylindrical coordinate system whose origin

is at the center of the resonator, the longitudinal direction

is perpendicular to the ring and plasmonic modes should

be referred to as TE0n0 . The reason on account of which

the plasmonic modes were originally referred to as TMn is

probably due to the fact that these modes are formed by

the TM modes in the bent MIM waveguide that builds the

resonator.

The intrinsic quality factor, Qi , of the isolated CSRR in

Fig. 1(a), can be approximated by resorting to the lumped

circuit perspective of the transmission line models [27]. Each

section of the equivalent transmission line model in Fig. 2 is

composed of complex per-unit-length series self-inductance,

Ls , and shunt self-capacitance, Cs , calculated as:

Cs(d,m) = 0 d,m /r

2

Ls(d,m) = rd,m

/( 2 0 d,m ) (6)

where the subscripts d and m refer to the dielectric and metallic regions, respectively. According to the standard definition

of the intrinsic quality factor of a resonator, Qi is written as:

Qi = 0 WE + WH /Ploss

(7)

where 0 is the resonance frequency, WE , WH , and Ploss are the

average electrical energy, magnetic energy, and lost power at

(a)

(b)

Fig. 2. Equivalent transmission line model of the CSRR for (a) integer modes

with short-circuited terminals, and (b) non-integer modes with open-circuited

terminals.

current distribution together with the per-unit-length lumped

circuit elements in the transmission line model, WE , WH , and

Ploss can be written as:

Z

Z

1

2

WE =

dz +

dz Re (Cs ) |V (z)|

(8a)

4

MIM

Wall

Z

Z

1

2

WH =

dz +

dz Re (Ls ) |I(z)|

(8b)

4

MIM

Wall

Z

Z

0

2

Ploss =

Im (Cs ) |V (z)|

dz +

dz

2

MIM

Wall

2

+ Im (Ls ) |I(z)| .

(8c)

Substitution of (8) in (7) yields the following formula for the

intrinsic quality factor of the conventional MIM ring:

2

Re Cs |Zd | + Ls

.

QRing

=

(9)

i

2

2 Im Cs |Zd | + Ls

Thanks to the strong resemblance between the integer

modes of the CSRR and modes of the conventional MIM rings,

the same formula can be employed as a good approximation

for the intrinsic quality factor of the integer modes in CSRR

with narrow enough metallic wall.

III. C IRCUIT M ODEL FOR S IDE - COUPLED MIM CSRR

A typical CSRR side-coupled to a straight MIM waveguide

is shown in Fig. 3(a). The width of the straight waveguide, and

the closest distance between the CSRR and the upper interface

of the waveguide are denoted by w and d, respectively. The

position of the metallic wall in the CSRR is determined by

the angle 0 as indicated in the figure. Clearly, the strength of

coupling between the MIM waveguide and the CSRR depends

on d and the curvature radius of the CSRR. One way to

estimate the coupling strength of the structure is to compare

the vertical distance between the upper interface of the MIM

waveguide and different points on the outer circumference of

the CSRR against the penetration depth of the metal (m ):

q

2

2

d k0 m .

(10)

m 1 Re

0733-8724 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See

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4

distance between the CSRR and the MIM waveguide, d, is

larger than twice the penetration depth (d > 2m ), we focus

on the case when the coupling is strong (d < 2m ). In such

a case, it is reasonable to assume that the coupling is almost

lost at the point where the decaying tail of the electromagnetic

wave confined in the CSRR meets the evanescent tail of

the electromagnetic wave confined in the MIM waveguide.

There are two such points lying at the intersection of a circle

concentric with the CSRR but of radius R + r + m , and a

horizontal line at distance m above the upper interface of the

MIM waveguide. The circle and the line mark the decaying

tails of the wave in the CSRR and the MIM waveguide,

respectively. In accordance with Fig. 3(a), these two points

together with the center of the CSRR as vertex subtend the

coupling angle c :

Dd

1

(11)

c 2 cos

1

R+r

where D is the vertical distance between the upper interface

of the MIM waveguide and the most distant point on the outer

circumference of the CSRR, which is still coupled to the MIM

waveguide:

2m d

D = m 2

.

(12)

R + r + m

It can be assumed that the length of the circular arc subtending

the coupling angle c is a good estimate for the coupling

length:

Lc = (R + r/2) c .

(13)

It is worth noting that c and therefore Lc become zero when

d = 2m . Increasing d beyond twice the penetration depth

(d > 2m ) kills the coupling in our proposed model.

Now that a good estimate is at hand for the coupling length,

the transmission line model of the CSRR in the previous

section can be easily modified to account for the side-coupling

effects between the CSRR and the MIM. This is shown in

Fig. 3(b) for /2 + c /2 < 0 < 3/2 c /2. It can

be seen that the modified model is still made of cascaded

transmission line segments representing the metallic wall

and the split MIM ring. Nevertheless, the transmission line

segment corresponding to the split ring region is partly coupled

to the conventional transmission line model already reported

for straight MIM waveguides. The complex per-unit-length

series self-inductance, Ls , and shunt self-capacitance, Cs , in

the transmission line model of the straight MIM waveguide can

be obtained from (6) by replacing r with w. The complex perunit-length series mutual-inductance, Lm , and shunt mutualcapacitance, Cm , existing in the coupling region between the

CSRR and the MIM, on the other hand, are not uniform along

the coupling region. Fortunately, the non-uniformity of Lm and

Cm is practically negligible for D/d < 2.5 when the strength

of coupling remains more or less constant along the coupling

region. In such a case, the non-uniform coupling region shown

in Fig. 4(a) can be approximated by the two side-coupled

straight MIM waveguides shown in Fig. 4(b). The distance;

deff , between the straight waveguides of the latter structure is

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3. (a) The schematic of a side-coupled CSRR. m is the penetration

depth of the surface wave in metal. (b) The proposed transmission line model

for the side-coupled CSRR. Lc is the approximate length of the arc of the

CSRR that is side-coupled to the waveguide, L1 = (R + r/2)(3/2 c /2

0 )Wg /2, and L2 = (R + r/2)(/2 c /2 + 0 )Wg /2. Inset shows

the circuit model for a section of length dz of the coupled transmission line

representing the side coupling of the straight waveguide and the CSRR.

length between the CSRR and the MIM waveguide:

R

d(z)p(z)dz

deff R

(14)

p(z)dz

where p(z) is a weight function that reflects the non-uniformity

of the coupling strength between the CSRR and the waveguide.

One intuitively appealing choice for the weight function, p(z),

is:

z

p(z) = sin A

, A=

(15)

R+r

2 sin(c /2)

whose maximum point at z = (R + r) sin(c /2) and minimum

points at z = 0, and 2(R+r)sin(c /2) correspond to the physical spots where the coupling strength reaches its maximum and

minimum, respectively [see Fig. 4(a)]. The effective distance

is then calculated as:

!

Z c /2

2

deff d + (R + r) 1 A

cos cos(A sin )d .

0

(16)

It is worth noting that the coupling angle, c , much like the

coupling strength, is a function of the frequency, and thus, the

effective distance is frequency dependent.

The complex per-unit-length mutual circuit elements of the

model, Lm and Cm , can then be written in terms of the even

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5

Fig. 4. (a) Non-uniform side-coupling between the CSRR and the MIM

waveguide. The minimum and the maximum distance between the coupled

arc of the CSRR and the waveguide are denoted by d, and D, respectively.

(b) Uniform side-coupling approximation.

MIM waveguides [27] in Fig. 4(b). For practical cases where

the width of the straight waveguide is equal to the thickness

of the CSRR, the complex mutual capacitance and mutual

inductance follow very simple expressions [29]:

#

"

2

e

1 Ls

(17a)

Lm =

d

o2

Cm = 0.5

1 Cs

(17b)

2d2 e2

where e and o are the propagation constants of the even

and odd supermodes between two side-coupled waveguides.

The parameters of the transmission line segments representing

the uncoupled region of the CSRR are not different from the

parameters of the transmission line segments representing the

isolated CSRR. They are shown in Fig. 3(b). Once the parameters of the model are all obtained, closed form expressions

for the transmittance, S21 (), and reflection, S11 (), can be

easily obtained [28].

It is worth noting that the proposed model in Fig. 3(b) is

valid as long as the metallic wall does not enter the estimated

coupling region. If that happens, the transmission line model of

the side-coupled part must be divided into three segments, two

of which representing the side coupling between the CSRR

and the waveguide. These two segments are then connected

to each other via the TLs that represent the metallic wall

and the uncoupled part of the waveguide between the two

segments. Regretfully, the coupling between the straight MIM

waveguide and the metallic wall in the CSRR cannot be

accurately modeled in this manner. Therefore, it is applicable

only when the coupling is supported by integer modes.

IV. C OUPLING Q UALITY FACTORS IN TERMS OF C IRCUIT

E LEMENTS

Conventionally, the temporal coupled mode theory (CMT)

has been used to extract the spectral response of a side-coupled

resonator at each of its resonance modes. The estimated

transmittance spectrum of the CMT is

T () =

j( 0 ) + 0.50 (1/Qi + 1/Qw )

(18)

j( 0 ) + 0.50 (1/Qi )

T () =

(19)

j( 0 ) + 0.50 (1/Qi + 1/Qw )

for a CSRR (standing wave resonator) [18]. In these expressions, 0 , Qi , and Qw are the resonance frequency, intrinsic

quality factor, and waveguide coupling quality factor.

Since 0 and Qi of the CSRR structure are already given

in (5) and (7), the coupling quality factor, Qw , can be found

by comparing the transmittance spectrum as obtained by

the proposed model, i.e. S21 (0 ), against the transmittance

spectrum as obtained by CMT, i.e. T (0 ). It can be shown

that:

|S21 (0 )|

.

(20)

Qw = Qi

1 |S21 (0 )|

By following the same approach, the coupling quality factor

when the metallic wall is absent (Wg = 0) can be written as

1 |S21 (0 )|

(21)

1 + |S21 (0 )|

for an over-coupled resonance (Qi > Qw ), and

1 + |S21 (0 )|

(22)

Qw = Qi

1 |S21 (0 )|

for an under-coupled resonance (Qi < Qw ). Since the overcoupled and under-coupled modes are easily distinguished by

their distinct phase behavior [18], the phase of S21 () can be

readily utilized to determine whether the structure is undercoupled or over-coupled. Obviously, distinction between overand under-coupled regimes is meaningless when the metallic

wall is present; because the resonator becomes standing type.

Therefore, there is no critical coupling for the CSRR. The

product of the half power bandwidth (HPBW), and the amplitude of the wave transmission at the resonance frequency 0

is:

HPBW |T (0 )| = 0 /Qi

(23)

Qw = Qi

V. N UMERICAL E XAMPLES

In this section, the proposed model is employed to design

first a critically side-coupled ring resonator structure with a

specific resonance frequency, and then a side-coupled MIM

CSRR with the same resonance frequency and bandwidth. For

each case, the widths of the ring and the waveguide are set to

the typical values r = 50 nm and w = 50 nm. The width of

the metallic wall for the CSRR is set to Wg = 20 nm [15].

The parameters left to be found are the radius of the ring; R,

the minimum distance between the ring and the waveguide;

d, and the position of the metallic gap; 0 . The constraints of

the design are that d > 10 nm, 100 nm < R < 500 nm, and

0 < 0 < 90 .

Throughout this section, the dielectric permittivity is d =

1 (the relative permittivity of vacuum), and the approximate

Drude model is used for the complex permittivity of the

metallic region [11]. The obtained results of the proposed

model are always verified by the two-dimensional finiteelement method using the COMSOL software. The simulations

are carried out with 3 nm triangular mesh.

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In this subsection, a side-coupled ring resonator is to be

designed to support a critically coupled resonance mode at

300 THz (0 = 1 m). The following steps are taken: First,

the transmission line model for isolated ring resonator is

invoked, and the permissible values for the radius of the ring

to support a resonance mode at 300 THz are found. The

obtained results for the radii and their corresponding mode

numbers are tabulated in Table 1. It is worth noting that

the constraints of the design limit the options to TM2 , TM3 ,

and TM4 . The lower order mode necessitates ring resonators

with small radius, while the higher order modes necessitate

ring resonators with spacious size. Interestingly, according to

(9), all the permissible mode numbers have the same isolated

quality factor, Qi .

To ensure that the critical coupling condition is satisfied,

the transmission line model for side-coupled ring resonator

is invoked, and the minimum distance between the ring and

waveguide, d, is found in such a manner that Qi Qw . It

can be shown that the constraint on d leaves us with only two

options, TM3 , and TM4 . The latter enjoys a larger d, and thus

is the best choice.

To demonstrate that the designed ring resonator works

neatly, the transmission power spectra of the designed structure

obtained by the proposed model, CMT, and COMSOL are

all compared against each other in Fig. 5. There is a good

agreement between all three. The intrinsic quality factor of this

resonator is estimated as Qi 260 (Eq. 9) and the coupling

quality factor is determined as Qw 267 (Eq. 22). Therefore,

the overall quality factor would be Qtot 132 and the halfpower bandwidth is about 2.27 THz ( 7.5 nm). The

magnetic field profile of the TM4 resonance mode is also

plotted in Fig. 5, which shows that nearly no power passes

the ring at 300 THz.

B. Complementary Side-coupled Split-Ring Resonator

CSRR is a standing wave resonator and does not support

critical coupling condition. The aim of this subsection is to

design a side-coupled CSRR to support a resonance mode

at 300 THz with the same bandwidth as in the previous

subsection (2.27 THz).

In a similar fashion, the transmission line model for isolated

CSRR is invoked, and the permissible values for the radius of

the CSRR to support a resonance mode at 300 THz are found.

The obtained results for the radii and their corresponding

intrinsic quality factors and mode numbers are tabulated in

Table 2. The constraints of the design limit the options to

TM2 , TM3 , and TM4 among integer modes and to TM2.5 ,

TM3.5 , and TM4.5 among non-integer modes. The non-integer

modes are discarded because they are of lower intrinsic quality

factor. Once again, all the permissible integer mode numbers

have nearly the same isolated quality factor, Qi . Given that the

desired bandwidth is fixed at 2.27 THz, Qtot should be 132

and thus the coupling quality factor is needed to be Qw

268. Now, the transmission line model for side-coupled ring

resonator should be invoked to find d, and 0 . The obtained

results are also given in Table 2. The lower order mode is

Fig. 5. The spectral response of the designed filter with a ring resonator

calculated form the proposed model (circles), COMSOL (solid) and CMT

(dashed). The designated center frequency is 300 THz and Qtot 132. Inset

shows the magnetic field profile of the TM4 resonance mode of the system.

Fig. 6. The spectral response of the designed filter with a CSRR calculated

form the proposed model (circles), COMSOL (solid) and CMT (dashed). The

designated center frequency is 300 THz and Qtot 132. Inset shows the

magnetic field profile of the TM2 resonance mode of the system at 0 = 0 .

(R = 205 nm) while maintaining the desired bandwidth. The

designed CSRR also enjoys a larger minimum distance, d, at

the expense of lower transmission efficiency in comparison to

the previously designed ring resonator.

Once again, the transmission power spectra of the designed

structure obtained by the proposed model, CMT, and COMSOL are all compared against each other in Fig. 6. There is a

good agreement between all three. The magnetic field profile

of the TM2 resonance mode is also plotted in Fig. 6. This time

about 23 percent of the incident power passes by the CSRR

at 300 THz, which is expected from (23).

VI. C ONCLUSIONS

A comprehensive discussion on developing a TL model

for MIM CSRRs and their ring counterparts was made in

this paper. The success of the proposed model is indebted to

the following facts: the absence of curvature loss, negligible

diffraction at the metallic wall, and small penetration depth of

the electromagnetic energy within the metallic region. Thanks

to the proposed TL model and the analytical expressions that it

provides, the design of side-coupled rings and CSRRs is now

fast and simple in view of the fact that no heavy numerical

calculation is needed.

It was also pointed out that unlike ring resonators, CSRRs

do not have critical coupling. Nevertheless, they can provide

the same resonance frequency and the same bandwidth with

smaller size, and larger minimum distance between the resonator and the straight waveguide. It is worth noting that the

minimum distance between the conventional ring resonator

and the straight waveguide is usually quite small to ensure

that there is a strong enough coupling.

http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI

10.1109/JLT.2014.2331325, Journal of Lightwave Technology

7

proposed model is indebted to the high confinement of the

electromagnetic energy, silver can be replaced by gold or any

other plasmonic material that guarantees high confinement

within the dielectric region in the structure.

TABLE I

T HE R, Qi , AND d OF A RING TO SUPPORT A CRITICALLY SIDE - COUPLED

RESONANCE MODE AT f0

TM2 , TM3 , AND TM4 .

Parameters

TM2

TM3

TM4

R (nm)

Qi

d (nm)

204

260

<10

318

260

10.5

432

260

16.5

TABLE II

T HE R, Qi , d, AND 0 OF A CSRR, TO SUPPORT A RESONANCE MODE AT

f0 = 300 TH Z AND f = 2.27 TH Z .

Parameters

TM2

TM2.5

TM3

TM3.5

TM4

TM4.5

R (nm)

Qi

d (nm)

0

205

258

20

0

254

209

18

55

320

257

20

30

368

221

17

10

434

257

20

45

483

228

17

26

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