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CE6461

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY LABORATORY L T P C


00 3 2

OBJECTIVES:
Upon Completion of this subject, the students can able to have hands on experience in flow
measurements using different devices and also perform calculation related to losses in pipes and
also perform characteristic study of pumps, turbines etc.,
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given Orifice meter.
2. Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given Venturimeter.
3. Calculation of the rate of flow using Rota meter.
4. Determination of friction factor for a given set of pipes.
5. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of centrifugal pump/
submergible pump
6. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of reciprocating pump.
7. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Gear pump.
8. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Pelton wheel.
9. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristics curves of Francis turbine.
10. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Kaplan turbine.
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
OUTCOMES:
Ability to use the measurement equipments for flow measurement
Ability to do performance trust on different fluid machinery
S. NO.

NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT

Qty.

Orifice meter setup

Venturimeter setup

Rotameter setup

Pipe Flow analysis setup

Centrifugal pump/submergible pump setup

Reciprocating pump setup

Gear pump setup

Pelton wheel setup

Francis turbine setup

10

Kaplan turbine setup

INDEX
S.No

DATE

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT

MARK SIGNATURE

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Completed date:
Average Mark:

Staff - in - charge

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY LABORATORY


GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

The following instructions should be strictly followed by students in the Hydraulics Laboratory

1. All students are advised to wear protective uniform cloth, shoes, etc. before entering into the
laboratory.
2. All the students are advised to completer their observations of previous experiments before
entering into the laboratory. Before conducting the experiment, be thorough with the
principle involved.
3. All students are advised to come with completed record and corrected observations of
previous experiments; defaulters will not be allowed to do their experiment.
4. Dont operate any instrument / equipment without getting concerned staff members prior
permission.
5. All instruments are costly. Handle them carefully, because carelessness may result in serious
injuries to the individual and damage to the instruments / equipments.
6. Handle the stopwatches and tachometers carefully.
7. Utmost care must be taken to avert any possible injury while on laboratory work. In case,
anything occurs immediately report to the staff members.
8. Make sure that all the power connections are switched off before leaving the lab.
9. All accessories of equipment should be handed over to the technician in-charge of the lab
before leaving the laboratory or else, the students can be held responsible for any damage
caused if found later and fined with breakage amount.
10. Students should not absent themselves to the lab experiments without prior permission of the
staff in charge
11. Be cautions while observing readings in differential manometers so that the mercury inside
should not spill out.

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

DETERMINATION OF THE CO EFFICIENT OF


DISCHARGE OF GIVEN ORIFICE METER

Aim:
To determine the coefficient of discharge of given Orifice meter.
Apparatus Required:
1. Orifice meter
2. Differential U tube
3. Collecting tank
4. Stop watch
5. Scale
Description:
1.

Header tank with flange assembly to fit the orifice installed in the vertical plane of the tank
side.
2. A vertical sight glass (piezometer) fitter with the tank to record the water level in the tank.
3. A constant steady supply of water with a means of varying the flow rate by using by pass
valve.
4. A traveling distance point gauge to measure the co-ordinates x and y.
5. Deliver tank with piezometer to measure discharge through the orifice.
Theory:
An orifice may be defined as an opening provided in the side or bottom of a tank for the
purpose of discharge. It should be noted that the opening will be considered as an orifice only when
the level of the liquid on the upstream side is above the top of the orifice. The purpose of an orifice
is to measure the flow. An orifice of area a provided in the side of a tank. Let H be the head of the
liquid above the centre of the orifice. The liquid stream discharged by the orifice is called a jet. The
liquid particles approach the orifice from all direction and after passing through the orifice the jet
contracts and reaches a minimum sectional area at certain section is called as vena contract. The
distance of the vena contract from the orifice is approximately equal to half the diameter of the
orifice. The stream lines of flow are converging up to vena contract and beyond this section the
stream lines are parallel.
Experimental Procedure:
1. Measure the diameter d of the vertical orifice. Admit the water supply to the header tank and
for conditions allowed to steady to give a constant head H. Measure the head of water H
above the centre line of the orifices.
2. The co-ordinates at the vertical jet are observed on the scales of the traveling distance gauge,
by touching the jet from the pointer of hook then after a reasonable distance along x-axis
where there is a stream line flow, a section of jet is chosen and on similar lines, co-ordinates
of this section are measured. After deducing the initial readings of the co-ordinates of vena
contract from the final readings, the vertical and horizontal distances of the section chosen

are found out. From this, the coefficient of velocity can be calculated by the above mentioned
formula.
3. Collect the water discharging from the orifice in a measuring tank of known dimensions and
measure the rise of water level in the measuring tank for certain period of time t sec. from
these values the coefficient of discharge can be calculated. Coefficient of contraction can
also be obtained dividing Cd with Cv.
4. The above readings are repeatedly taken for different constant heads and are tabulated.
Formulae to be used:
1. Theoretical discharge through the orificemeter, QT =

a1 a2 2 g H

m3/s

12 22

a1
a2
g
H

=
=
=
=
=

1 & 2

=
=
=

Area of cross-section of the pipe


Area of cross-section of the throat
Acceleration due to gravity
Drop in pressure head between the inlet and throat of the orificemeter

( 1) (1 ~2 )

Specific gravity of the manometric liquid


Specific gravity of water
Manometer readings.

2. Actual discharge through the orificemeter, QA =


Where,
A
R
t

=
=
=

m3/s

Area of cross-section of the collecting tank in m2


Rise of water level for time t secs in m.
Time taken in seconds for R m rise of water

3. Coefficient of discharge of the orificemeter, Cd =

4. To find the values of k & n:


a1 a2 2gH

Theoretical discharge, QT

It can be written as,

QT

Where, k

kHn
a1 a2 2g
12 22

n = 0.5
Similarly QA = kHn m3/s
Taking logarithms on both sides,
log
log

m3/s

12 22

= log k + n log H
= n log H + log k

m3/s

This equation is similar to that of a straight line. Hence if a curve is drawn with
log along the y-axis and log H along the x-axis, then it will be a straight line of slope n and
having y-axis intercept log k. Thus from that straight line, the values of k & n can be determined.
Graphical Method of Finding the value of Cd
1. Plot a curve QA Vs H
2. From the curve select two points and note down the values of QA and the corresponding
values of H .
3. Find QA from QA = QA1~ QA2
4. Find H from H = ()1 - ()2
5. Find QT using H
6. Cd =

QA
QT

Graphs to be drawn:
1. QA Vs H
2. log Vs log H

Table: Orificemeter
Size of the collecting tank =
Manometric reading
S.
No.

h1
cm

h2
m

cm

value of x =
Time taken
for R rise in
water level t
sec.

Drop in
pressure
head H
m

Theoretical
discharge QT
m3/s

Actual
discharge
QA
m3/s

Cd

Model Calculation :(For Reading No_________)


Diameter of the pipe,
Diameter of the throat,
Height of mercury column in the right limb of the manometer,
Height of mercury column in the left limb of the manometer,
Time taken for the rise of x-units of water in the collecting
tank,
Value of x
Specific gravity of the manometric liquid,
Specific gravity of the water,
Acceleration due to gravity,
Drop in pressure head between the inlet and the throat of the

orificemeter H = ( 1) (1 ~2 )

Area of cross-section of the pipe (a1) =


Area of cross-section of the throat (a2) =

a1 a2 2 g H

=
=
=
=
=

m
m
m
m

=
=

m/s2
m

D2

4
D2

m2

m2

m2

m3/s

Ax

t
QA

m3/s

Area of cross-section of the collecting tank,


Theoretical discharge through the orificemeter
QT =

D
d
h1
h2

m3/s

12 22

Actual discharge through the orificemeter, QA =


Coefficient of discharge of the orificemeter, Cd =

QT

Result:
1. The coefficient of discharge of the given orificemeter
i.
By analytical method
=
ii. By graphical method
=
n
3
2. In the equation
QA = k H m /s
k=
for the given orificemeter
n=
for the given orificemeter
3. In the equation QT= k Hn m3/s
k=
for the given orificemeter
n=
for the given orificemeter
and H is the drop in pressure head between the inlet of orificemeter and the throat or orifice in meters.

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

DETERMINATION OF THE CO EFFICIENT OF


DISCHARGE OF GIVEN VENTURIMETER

Aim:
1. To find the coefficient of discharge of the given venturimeter.
2. To find the coefficients k & n in the rating equation.
3. To find the loss-coefficient K
Apparatus Required:
1. Venturimeter
2. Stop watch
3. Collecting tank
4. Differential U-tube
5. Manometer
6. Scale
Theory:
A Venturimeter is a device which is used for measuring the rate of flow of fluid through
pipe line. The basic principle on which a venturimeter works is that by reducing the cross-sectional
area of the flow passage, a pressure difference is created between the inlet and throat & measurement
of the pressure difference enables the determination of the discharge through the pipe.
A Venturimeter consists of:
1. An inlet section followed by a convergent cone,
2. A cylindrical throat &
3. A gradually divergent cone.
The inlet section of the Venturimeter is of the same diameter as that of the pipe which is
followed by a convergent cone. The convergent cone is a short pipe which tapers from the original
size of the pipe to that of the throat of the Venturimeter. The throat of the venturimeter is a short
parallel side tube having its cross-sectional area smaller than that of the pipe. The divergent cone of
the venturimeter is gradually diverging pipe with its cross-sectional area increasing from that of the
throat to the original size of the pipe. At the inlet section & at the throat, of the venturimeter, pressure
taps are provided through pressure ring.
Venturimeter provides a construction in the flow area which produces an accelerated flow.
Consequently, there will be a fall in static pressure. Hence, the measurement of drop in static pressure
provides an accurate measure of the flow rate in the pipe. The application of Bernoullis Equation
between the inlet section and the throat section and the use of continuity equation leads to the
following expression for the flow rate.
Description:
The unit consists of three venturimeters of various sizes according to the diameter of various
pipes.
Each pipe is having the respective venturimeter with quick-action valves for pressure
tappings. The pressure tappings of the meters are connected to a common middle chamber, which is

in turn, connected to a differential manometer. Water is let from the mains to the pipes through a
gate valve and water from the pipes can be collected in a collecting tank.
Venturimeter is the device for measuring flow in pipes. It is used for measuring rates of flow
in both incompressible and compressible fluids.
The value of Cd , is less than unity vary from 0.95 0.99 for Re >105. Venturimeters are not
suitable for very low velocities.
Practical Applications:
Venturimeter is commonly used for measurement of flow through pipes. Venturies are also
used in industries to measure the flow rate of gases and liquids. It is used for measuring rates of flow
in both compressible and incompressible fluids.
Formulae to be used:
5. Theoretical discharge through the venturimeter, QT =

a1 a2 2 g H

m3/s

12 22

a1
a2
g
H

=
=
=
=
=

1 & 2

=
=
=

Area of cross-section of the pipe


Area of cross-section of the throat
Acceleration due to gravity
Drop in pressure head between the inlet and throat of the venturimeter

( 1) (1 ~2 )

Specific gravity of the manometric liquid


Specific gravity of water
Manometer readings.

6. Actual discharge through the venturimeter, QA =


Where,
A
R
t

=
=
=

m3/s

Area of cross-section of the collecting tank in m2


Rise of water level for time t secs in m.
Time taken in seconds for R m rise of water

7. Coefficient of discharge of the venturimeter, Cd =


8. To find the values of k & n:
a1 a2 2gH

Theoretical discharge, QT

It can be written as,

QT

Where, k

n
Similarly QA

=
=

m3/s

12 22

kHn
a1 a2 2g
12 22

0.5
kHn m3/s

m3/s

Taking logarithms on both sides,


log = log k + n log H
log = n log H + log k
This equation is similar to that of a straight line. Hence if a curve is drawn with
log along the y-axis and log H along the x-axis, then it will be a straight line of slope n and
having y-axis intercept log k. Thus from that straight line, the values of k & n can be determined.
Graphical Method of Finding the value of Cd
7. Plot a curve QA Vs H
8. From the curve select two points and note down the values of QA and the corresponding
values of H .
9. Find QA from QA = QA1~ QA2
10. Find H from H = ()1 - ()2
11. Find QT using H
12. Cd =

QA
QT

Graphs to be drawn:
3. QA Vs H
4. log Vs log H
Procedure:
All the necessary instrumentations along with its accessories are readily connected. It is just
enough to follow the instructions below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Fill-in the sump tank with clean water.


Keep the delivery valve closed.
Connect the power cable to 1 Ph, 220 V, 10 Amps with earth connection.
Switch-ON the Pump & open the delivery valve.
Open the corresponding ball valve of the Venturimeter pipe line.
Adjust the flow through the control valve of the pump.
Open the corresponding ball valves fitted to Venturi / Orifice tappings.
Note down the differential head reading in the Manometer. (Expel if any air is there by opening
the drain cocks provided with the Manometer).
9. Operate the Butterfly Valve to note down the collecting tank reading against the Known time
and Keep it open when the readings are not taken.
10. Change the flow rate & repeat the experiment.

Table: Venturimeter
Size of the collecting tank =
Manometric reading
S.
No.

h1
cm

h2
m

cm

value of x =
Time taken
for R rise in
water level t
sec.

Drop in
pressure
head H
m

Theoretical
discharge QT
m3/s

Actual
discharge
QA
m3/s

Cd

Model Calculation :(For Reading No_________)


Diameter of the pipe,
Diameter of the throat,
Height of mercury column in the right limb of the
manometer,
Height of mercury column in the left limb of the
manometer,
Time taken for the rise of x-units of water in the collecting
tank,
Value of x
Specific gravity of the manometric liquid,
Specific gravity of the water,
Acceleration due to gravity,
Drop in pressure head between the inlet and the throat of the

venturimeter H = ( 1) (1 ~2 )

Area of cross-section of the pipe (a1) =


Area of cross-section of the throat (a2) =

a1 a2 2 g H

=
=
=

h2

=
=

m
m
m
m
s
m

m/s2
m

D2

4
D2

m2

m2

m2

m3/s

Ax

t
QA

m3/s

Area of cross-section of the collecting tank,


Theoretical discharge through the venturimeter
QT =

D
d
h1

m3/s

12 22

Actual discharge through the venturimeter, QA =


Coefficient of discharge of the venturimeter, Cd =

QT

Result:
4. The coefficient of discharge of the given venturimeter
i.
By analytical method
=
ii. By graphical method
=
n
3
5. In the equation
QA = k H m /s
k=
for the given venturimeter
n=
for the given venturimeter
6. In the equation QT= k Hn m3/s
k=
for the given venturimeter
n=
for the given venturimeter
and H is the drop in pressure head between the inlet of venturimeter and the throat or orifice in
meters.

Ex. No.
Date

CALCULATION OF THE RATE OF FLOW USING


ROTA METER.

:
:

Aim:
1. To find the coefficient of discharge of the given rotameter.
2. To calculate the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the rotameter.
Apparatus Required:
1. Rotometer setup
2. Measuring scale
3. Stopwatch.
Description:
A rotatmeter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube.
A rotameter consists of a tapered tube of glass with a float inside that is pushed up by flow
and pulled down by gravity. At a higher flow rate more area (between the float and the tube)
is needed to accommodate the flow, so the float rises. The float is shaped so that it rotates as
the fluid passes. The top edge of the float is compared with graduations on the glass to
measure the flow rate of the fluid.
The unit consists of two rotameters of various sizes according to the diameter of
various pipes.
Practical Applications:
Rotameter is commonly used for measurement of flow through pipes in closed circuit.
Procedure:
1. Open the valves corresponding to the given rotameter.
2. Adjust the control valve kept at the exit end of the apparatus to a desired flow rate
and maintain the flow steadily
3. Collect water in the collecting tank for a rise of x units and note down the time
taken to collect that amount of water.
4. Note down the reading on the rotameter for the corresponding discharge.
5. Adjust the gate valve to increase the rate of flow and repeat step 3 and 4.
Formulae to be used:
1.
2.

Theoretical discharge
Actual discharge

3.

Co-efficient of Discharge, Cd

4.
5.

Velocity
Pressure difference

QT
QA

V
Pi Po

= Rotameter reading
= A h 60 1000
litres / min.
=

T
Actal Discharge Qa

Theoritical Discharge Qt
Qa

a
K V2

m/s.

2g

Where
A =
a =
h =
T =

+ Zo - Zi

area of the measuring tank in m2


area of the pipe in m2
rise of water level in meters (say 10 cm)
time in seconds for raise of water level

K
Zo Zi
V
g
Pi,P

=
=

loss coefficient (0.6),


Height of inlet and outlet levels of rotameter from a common datum.

=
=
=

Velocity of the water through the pipe.


Acceleration due to gravity.
Pressure at the inlet and outlet of rotameter.

Table 1 Rotameter
Diameter of the pipe =

S.

Time for (10 cm)


rise of water

No

(sec)

mm
Actual

Theoretical

Discharge,

Discharge

Qa.

Qt

(lpm)

(lpm)

Cd =

V=

Pressure

Difference

m/s

Result:
1. The coefficient of discharge of the given rotameter____________
Discussions:
1. The graph between actual and theoretical discharge.
2. Graph between pressure drop and discharge through the rotameter.

Pi - Po

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

HEAD LOSS DUE TO FRICTION (MAJOR LOSS)

Aim:
To determine the Darcys friction factor and the coefficient of friction of the given pipe.
Apparatus Required:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Theory:

A pipe provided with inlet and outlet and pressure tapping


Differential u-tube manometer
Collecting tank with piezometer
Stopwatch
Scale

A closed circuit of any cross-section used for flow of liquid is known as a pipe. In
hydraulics, generally, pipes are assumed to be running full and of circular cross section. Liquids
flowing through pipes are encountered with frictional resistance resulting in loss of head or
energy of liquids. This resistance is of two types depending upon the velocity of flow.
1. Viscous Resistance and
2. Frictional Resistance, due to different diameters.
The viscous resistance is due to the molecular attraction between the molecules of the
fluid. At low velocities, the fluid appeared to move in layer or lamina, and hence the nature of
this flow is termed laminar flow or Stream line. If the velocity of the liquid is steadily increased,
at certain velocity termed as the lower critical velocity the parallel bands of liquid will become
wavy. On further increase in the velocity these instabilities will increase in intensity until a
velocity corresponding to the upper critical velocity is attained. The region of flow bounded by
the lower and upper critical velocity is attained. The region of flow bounded by the lower and
upper critical velocities is termed the transition zone. For all further increase in velocity of flow
the streamline remains in a diffused state and the nature of this type of flow is termed turbulent.
In this case the flow is restricted by the friction between the liquid and the pipe surface which
is known as frictional resistance.
DEFINITIONS:
Laminar Flow:
A flow is said to be laminar, when the various fluid particles appear to move in layers
(or lamina) with one layer of fluid sliding smoothly over an adjacent layer. Thus in the
development of laminar flow, the viscosity of the fluids plays a significant role. Laminar flow
occurs when the viscous forces predominate over the inertial forces; it has been generally
accepted now that if Reynolds number is less than 2000, laminar flow is sustained in pipes.
Laminar flow is characterized by low velocity, narrow boundary and high viscosity. The loss
of head due to friction (hf) is directly proportional to velocity (V) in laminar flow through pipes
i.e., hf is proportional to V.
Turbulent Flow:

Turbulent flow is an irregular motion in which fluid particles move in an entirely


haphazard or disorderly manner that results in rapid and continuous mixing of the fluid particle.
It is characterized by high velocity and low viscosity. Turbulent flow occurs when inertial
forces predominate over viscous forces; and generally turbulent flows are considered to occur
in pipes at Reynolds number more than 4000. The loss of head due to friction (hf) in turbulent
pipe flows varies as Vn, where, V is the velocity of flow and n varies from 1.72 to 2.0.
Transitional Flow:
The state of flow in between the laminar and turbulent flow is called as Transitional
Flow. That is, for pipe flow at Reynolds number between 2000 and 4000, transitional state of
flow prevails, which is a region of uncertain behavior. As change of state of flow cannot be
abrupt, the transition from one set of flow to another alternates back and forth between laminar
and turbulent, within the range of Re from 2000 to 4000.
Reynolds Number:
Reynolds number signifies the relative predominance of the inertia to the viscous forces
occurring in a flow system. Thus it is the key to decide whether a flow is laminar or turbulent.
It is defined as the ration of inertia force to viscous force and is given by, Reynolds number,
Re = Inertia force / Viscous force. Or
Re = V D /
(for circular pipe).
Where, V = average velocity of flow.
D = Diameter of pipe.
= kinematic viscosity coefficient of the fluid = 1 x 10-6 m2 / sec.
It may be pointed out that Reynolds number is a function of boundary geometry and for
non-circular conduits, it is given by Re = VL / , where L is a characteristic length defining the
boundary geometry.
Critical Reynolds Number & Critical Velocity:
The concept of critical Reynolds number and critical velocity is used to distinguish between
the regions of laminar, turbulent and transitional state of flow.
Critical state is occurs when flow changes from one state in to another. Lower critical Reynolds
number for flow of fluid in pipes is of greater importance as it indicates a condition below
which all turbulence entering the flow from any source will damped out by viscosity and thus
sets a limit below which laminar flow will always occur.
Experimentally, the value of lower critical Reynolds number has been found to be
approximately 2000 for flow through pipes.
Upper critical Reynolds number and upper critical velocity are the limiting Reynolds number
and limiting velocity above which the flow will always be turbulent, that is, it marks the upper
limit of laminar flow. The upper critical Reynolds number is indefinite, being dependent upon
initial disturbances affecting the flow, shape of entry to pipe, roughness of the boundary etc.

By carefully conducting the experiment, laminar flows have been obtained at Reynolds number
has high as 14000. However the practical value of upper critical Reynolds number may be
considered to lie between 2700 to 4000 for pipe flows; the value of 4000 is generally accepted
as upper critical Reynolds number, above which flow in pipes in considered to be turbulent.
Between Reynolds number of 2000 and 4000 the transitional region exists in pipes.
Darcy-Weisbach Friction Factor:
Darcy Weisbach equation is commonly used for computing the loss of head due to
friction in pipes. It is given by,
hf = fLV2 /D2g.
Where,
Hf = loss of head due to friction.
L = Length of pipe.
D = Diameter of Pipe.
V = Mean Velocity of flow in the pipe.
F = Darcy weisbach friction factor.
The above equation indicates that the loss of energy head varies directly with velocity head
(V2/2g). Pipe length L and inversely with pipe diameter (D). The constant of proportionality
used in Darcy Weisbach equation, in the above form, f is called friction factor.
FORMULAE TO BE USED:
Head loss due to friction, hf =
Where,
f =
f" =
L =
V =
g =
D =

f L V2
2gD

4 f" L V2
2gD

Darcys friction factor


Coefficient of friction (Note : 4 f = f)
Distance between the points connected to the manometer
Velocity of flow in the pipe
Acceleration due to gravity
Diameter of the pipe
Velocity of flow in the pipe, V =

Q
a

Where
Q = Actual discharge through the pipe
a = Area of cross-section of the pipe
Actual discharge through the pipe, Q =

Ax
t

Where,
A = Area of cross-section of the collecting tank
t = Time taken for raising x-units of water level in the collecting tank.

Head loss due to friction is also given by the equation, hf = (


Where,
h1 & h2 =
=

Manometer readings
Specific gravity of the manometric liquid

1) (1 ~2 )`

Specific gravity of the liquid flowing through the pipe

PROCEDURE:
All the necessary instrumentations along with its accessories are readily connected. It is just
enough to follow the instructions below.
1. Fill-in the sump tank with clean water.
2. Keep the delivery valve closed.
3. Connect the power cable to 1 Ph, 220V. 10 Amps with earth connection.
4. Switch-ON the pump & open the delivery valve.

Table: Head loss due to friction

Size of collecting tank =


Manometer readings
h1
h2

S
No.

cm

cm

Head loss due


to friction hf
m

Time taken
for x unit rise
in water level
t sec.

Discharge
through
the pipe Q
x10-3

Velocity of
flow V
m/s

V2
M/s2

MODEL CALCULATION :(For Reading No_________)


Diameter of the pipe,
Specific gravity of the manometric liquid,
Specific gravity of the liquid flowing thro the pipe,
Distance between the points connected to the manometer,
Area of cross-section of the collecting tank,
Acceleration due to gravity,
Manometer readings

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

D2

m2

4
Ax

m3/s

t
Q

m/s

Time taken for x-unit rise of water level in the collecting tank,
Value of
Head loss due to friction.
Area of cross-section of pipe,

hf = (

a=

Actual discharge through the pipe, Q =


Velocity of flow in the pipe,

V=

Darcys friction factor,

f=

Coefficient of friction,

f=

L
A
g
h1
h2
t
x

1) (1 ~2 )

m
m2
m/s2
m
m
s
m
m

a
hf 2 g D

L V2
hf 2 g D
4 L V2

Graph:
Head loss due to friction hf vs V2
Result:
The value of the Darcys friction factor of the given pipe is,
1. By analytical method =
2. By graphical method =
The value of the coefficient of friction of the given pipe is,
1. By analytical method =
2. By graphical method =

21

Ex. No.
Date

HEAD LOSS DUE TO FRICTION (MINOR LOSSES)

:
:

Aim:
1. To determine the head loss due to friction in Pipe Fittings and hence, to
determine the Head Loss Co-efficient .
2. To determine the equivalent length of a pipe of the given fittings which is fitted to
that particular pipe line?
Apparatus Required:
3. The Pipe lines in three different branches containing;
(i) Valves in one Line
(ii) Bends & Elbows in second line
(iii) Collar, Union, Contraction &Expansion in the third line.
4. U-Tube Manometer connected across each fitting with change-over
Valves.
5. A constant steady supply of water using Centrifugal Pump with Valve
for changing the flow rate.
6. Measuring Tank with Stop Clock for measurement of flow rate.
7. The Sump Tank mounted below the Collecting Tank.
8. The Butterfly Valve for instantaneous dumping of collected water into the
Sump tank and the overflow pipe to facilitate to run the equipment on
Closed circuit basis
Theory:
Like the straight pipes produce the friction to the flow of fluid due to its inside
roughness, the pipe fittings such as Valves, Bends, Elbows, Reducers / Expanders, etc also
offer Resistance / Friction to the flow of fluid. While the head loss due to friction in straight
pipes is expressed by the standard formulae:

hf

f1 V2

.... (a)

2gd

The head loss due to friction in pipe fittings is expressed by

Similar equation:

K V2
2g

.... (b)

By equating (a) and (b), we get the factor K = f l/d where K is the local head loss
Co-efficient of pipe fittings (non-dimensional) expressed in terms of the friction factor (f),
length (l) and diameter (d) of the pipe to which the particular type of fitting is fitted.
22

In the equations where the branches of pipes are used for flow analysis, all the
resistances offered by the fittings are expressed in equivalent length of pipe to which they
are fitted, namely; L =
Kd/f .This is to be added to the length of the straight pipe of
diameter d with the friction factor f ( 0.025 generally assumed ), and the analysis is
done further. Note that the valve of K is to be evaluated from the formulae hf (pipe fitting)
=KV2/ 2g
where V is the velocity of fluid flowing in the pipe line of diameter d to which
the pipe fitting is fitted.
Further, it is also be noted that, if in a branch of pipe lines, where the various
diameter pipes are involved, the similar kind of method is used for converting all the other pipe
of different diameters to the equivalent length of one particular diameter. This way the analysis
becomes simpler. In such cases, the equivalent length is calculated from the formulae;

L
--d5

L1
L2
----- + ----d15
d25

L3
----d35

Operating Procedures:
All the necessary instrumentation along with its accessories are readily connected. It is just
enough to follow the instructions below:

1. Fill-in the sump tank with clean water.


2. Keep the delivery valve closed.
3. Connect the power cable to 1 Ph, 220V, 10 Amps
a.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.

With earth connection.


Switch-ON the Pump & open the delivery valve.
Open the corresponding ball valve of the pipe line.
Adjust the flow through the control valve of the pump.
Open the corresponding ball valves.
Note down the differential head reading in the Mano-meter. (Expel if any air is there by
opening the drain cocks provided with the Manometer)
Operate the Butterfly Valve to note down the collecting tank reading
Against the known time and keep it open when the readings are not
taken.
Change the flow rate & repeat the experiment for different diameter
Of pipe fittings.

23

Formulae to Be Used:
Data:

Area of Measuring Tank

Acceleration due to Gravity

Diameter of Bigger pipe

Diameter of Smaller pipe

A = 0.075 m2
g = 9.81 m/sec2
D = 27 mm
d = 15 mm

1. Actual Discharge (Q):


AR
where,
Q = ------------- m3/Sec
1000 is the conversion factor
1000 t
from mm to m.
A = Area of Measuring Tank
= 0.075 m2
R = Rise of water level in mm (Collecting Tank)
= 100 mm
t = Time for R mm of rise in water in Secs.
2. Loss of Head due to Fitting (hf) :
12.6 H
hf = ----------- mtrs
1000
Where,
H = Difference in Mercury column in mm of Hg in double column Manometer.
12.6 & 1000 are conversion factors.
3. Velocity Head (V):
Discharge
Q
Where,
V = ----------------------------- = ------- m/sec
Area of Inlet Section
a1
a1 = Area of pipe to which the fitting is fitted
=
4. Additional Friction Loss (K):
Loss of Head
K = -------------------Velocity Head
24

hf
= -------------(V2/2g)
Note: Additional frictional loss (K) for sudden contraction and sudden expansion

is calculated from the formula as given below:


5. Additional Frictional Loss for sudden expansion (K) :
hf
K = -------------(V1 V2)2
2g
Q
V2 = ----a2
Where,
a2 = area of the smaller diameter = d2/4 = 1.77x10-4 m2.
d = 15mm
6. Additional Frictional Loss for sudden contraction (K):
hf
K = -----------------V2
0.5 x -------2g

25

TABLE: MINOR LOSSES


LOSS OF HEAD IN PIPE FITTINGS (MINOR LOSSES)
AREA OF COLLECTING TANK = 0.075m2
DIAMETER OF 1" PIPE =27 mm
DIAMETER OF 1/2" PIPE =15 mm
Area of
inlet
section
(a1)

ROTAMET
ER
READING
in LPM

TYPE OF
PIPE
FITTING

10
20
30
40
50

Non Return
valve

10
20
30
40
50

Gate Valve

10
20
30
40
50

Wheel
Valve

MANOMETE
R READING
mm of Hg

TIME TAKEN
FOR 10 cm
RISE OF
WATER t 's'

Collecting
tank AREA
(A) in mm2

Discharge
Q in m3/sec

Loss of
Head hf in
m

Velocity
(V) in
m/sec

Velocity
head in m

Addition
al
Frictiona
l Loss
(K)

26

10
20
30
40
50

Union

10
20
30
40
50

Collar

10
20
30
40
50

90o Short
bend

10
20
30
40
50

90o Long
bend

10
20
30
40
50

45o Short
bend

27

10
20
30
40
50
Area of
inlet
section
(a1)

Area of
inlet section
(a2)

45o long
bend

VALVE
POSITION

TYPE OF
PIPE
FITTING

10
20
30
40
50

Sudden
Contraction

10
20
30
40
50

Sudden
Expension

MANOMETER
READING mm
of Hg

TIME
TAKEN
FOR 10cm
RISE OF
WATER t 's'

AREA (A)
in mm2

Discharge
Q in
m3/sec

Loss of
Head hf
in m

Velocity
(V1) in
m/sec

Velocity
(V2) in
m/sec

Additio
nal
frictiona
l Loss

Result:
Head loss due to friction is ___________.

28

Additional
frictional
Loss

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

CHARACTERISTICS TEST ON CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

Aim:
To study the performance characteristics of a centrifugal pump and to determine the
characteristic with maximum efficiency.
Apparatus Required:
1. Centrifugal pump setup
2. Meter scale
3. Stop watch
Introduction:
In general a pump may be defined as a mechanical device which, when interposed in a
pipe line, converts the mechanical energy supplied to it from some external source into
hydraulic energy, thus resulting in the flow of liquid from lower potential to higher potential.
The pumps are of major concern to most engineers and technicians. The types of pump vary
in principle and design. The selection of the pump for any particular applications is to be done
by understanding their characteristics. The most commonly used pumps for domestic,
agriculture and industries are; Centrifugal, Piston, Axial flow (stage pumps), Air jet,
Diaphragm and Turbine pumps. Most of these pumps fall into the main class, namely;
Rotodynamic, Reciprocating (positive displacement), Fluid (air) operated pumps.
While the principle of operation of other pumps is discussed elsewhere, the centrifugal
pump which is of present concern falls into the category of Rotodynamic pumps. In this pump,
the liquid is made to rotate in a closed chamber (volute casing) thus creating a centrifugal action
which gradually built up the pressure gradient towards outlet, thus resulting in the continuous
flow. These pumps compared to reciprocating pumps are simple in construction, more suitable
for handling viscous, turbid (muddy) liquids, can be directly coupled to high speed electric
motors (without any speed reduction ) & easy to maintain. But, their hydraulic heads at low
flow rates is limited, and hence not suitable for very high heads compared to reciprocating
pump of same capacity. But, still in most cases, this is the only type of pump which is being
widely used for agricultural applications because of its practical suitability. The present testing
allows the students to understand and draw the operating characteristics at various heads, flow
rates and speeds, using different size of impellers.
Description:
The present test rig is a self-contained unit operated on closed circuit basis. The pump,
electric AC motor, collecting-measuring tank set, control panel are mounted on rigid frame
work with anti-vibration mounts. The following are the provisions incorporated with the unit.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

For conducting the experiments at three or two speeds using AC Motor.


The speed is indicated on digital RPM indicator.
To measure overall input power to the AC Motor using Energy meter.
The delivery and suction head are measured by using pressure & vacuum gauges.
For changing the Pressure (Delivery Head) and Vacuum (Suction Head) by operating the
valves.
29

6. The flow rate is calculated using measuring (collecting) tank.


7. The overflow and butterfly valve are provided in collecting / measuring
tank
for
recirculation of water for closed circuit operation.
8. Change the belt to different speed positions and repeat the experiment.
9. Repeat the experiment for the different Discharge.
Operating Instructions:
All the necessary instrumentation along with its accessories is readily connected. It is
just enough to follow the instructions below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fill the sump tank with clean water.


Keep the delivery and suction valves open.
Connect the power cable to 1 ph, 220V, 15 Amps.
Select the required speed using step cone pulley arrangement.
Keep the delivery valve fully open after priming.
Switch-ON the Mains so that the Mains-ON indicator glows. Now
switch-ON the
motor.
7. Note down the speed using digital RPM indicator.
8. Note down the pressure Gauge, Vacuum Gauge and time for number of revolutions of
Energy meter disc.
9. Operate the butterfly valve to note down the collecting tank reading against the known
time, and keep it open when the readings are not taken.
10. Repeat the experiment for different openings of the delivery valve (Pressure and Flow
rate), note down the readings as indicated in the tabular column.
11. Repeat the experiment for different speeds so that the pressure gauge reading are
shown and repeat the steps (4 & 9).
12. After the experiment is over, keep the delivery valve open and switch-OFF the mains.
13. Calculate the results using formulae given and tabulate it.
Draw the graphs of Head Vs Discharge
Formula to be Used:
1.

Input power to the motor Pi (1) =


Pi (2) =

3600 10
1 1
3600 10
3 3

kW

kW

Total input power = P1 + P2


Where
N1 = Energy meter constant in rev / kWH (pump 1)
N2 = Energy meter constant in rev / kWH (pump 2)
T1 = Time taken for 10 rev. in the energy meter (pump 1)
T2 = Time taken for 10 rev. in the energy meter (pump 2)
2. Output power from the pump, P0 =

wQ H
1000

kW

Where,
w = Specific weight of water in N/m3
Q = Discharge from the pump in m3/s
H = Total head of water in m

30

3. Discharge from the pump, Q =

Ax
t

m3/s

Where,
A = Area of cross section of the collecting tank in m2
T = Time taken for x meter rise of water level in the collecting tank in seconds
4. Delivery Head, P =

P 9.81 104
w

Where,
P = Pressure gauge reading in kgf / cm2
5. Suction head, G =

G
1000

13.6 m

Where,
G = Suction gauge reading in mm of mercury
6. Total head, H = P + G + X = ______________________ m
Where,
X = Vertical distance between suction gauge and delivery gauge.
7. Efficiency

P0
Pi

100 %

31

Table: Multistage centrifugal pump


Size of collecting tank=

Sl.
No.

Pressure
gauge P
kg/cm2

Vacuum
Gauge G
mm of
Hg

P1

G1

P2

G2

Energy meter constant=

Total head
H m of
water

Time for
10cm rise in
coll. tank t
sec.

Discharge
X 103
Q

Time for 10
rev.of
energy
meter
T1
T2
sec
sec

Input
I1
kW

I2
kW

Input,
I
kW

Output,
O
kW

Efficiency
%

32

Model Calculation: (For Reading No_________)


Energy meter constant,
Area of cross section of the collecting tank,
Vertical distance between two gauges (X)
Rise in water level in the collecting tank,
Specific weight of water
Pressure gauge reading,
Time taken for x rise of water level in the collecting tank
Time taken for___ energy meter blinks
Total head, H = P + G + X
Input power to the motor Pi =

3600 10

Discharge from the pump, Q =

N T
Ax
t

Output power from the pump, P0 =


Efficiency =

P0
Pi

100

kW

rev/kWH

m2

x
w

=
=
=

m
N/m3
kgf / cm2

=
=
=
=

sec
sec
m

P
T

kW

m3/s

wQ H
1000

N1
N2
A

kW

m3/s

kW

Result:
Maximum efficiency when pumps are connected in series =

33

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

Aim:
To find the efficiency of the submersible pump.
Theory:
Pump:
The pump is a multistage centrifugal pump with radial impellers. Its a suitable for
vertical & horizontal installation for the pumping of clean water with a maximum permissible
sand content of 25 gm per cubic meter. The suction side is protected by a perforated strainer.
The pump bearings are water lubricated and screened against the ingress of sand. The motor
cable(s) run alongside the pump and are protected against mechanical damage by cable metallic
sheaths.
Motor;
The motor, a squirrel cage type, has water lubricated bearings and its windings are
intensively cooled by water surrounding it. The inside of the motor is protected against the
entry of well water sand by seal rings and sand guard. Pressure equalizing rubber diaphragm is
provided in the lower part of the motor. The axial thrust of the pump is taken up by a thrust
bearing. A single cable leads out of the motor through a cable packing box. The pump shaft
and motor shaft are rigidly connected by a coupling sleeve.
The pump is suited both for Horizontal & Vertical operation.
Direction of Rotation:
Let the pumping set run for a short time against a close discharge valve, in both
directions of rotations. The direction of rotation is reserved by crossing over two phase leads
of the power supply. The discharge pressure should be read on the pressure gauge in both cases
and pressure will be higher in one case than in the other. The higher of the two pressures
corresponds to the direction of rotation.
Operating Instructions:
All the necessary instrumentation along with its accessories is readily connected. It is
just enough to follow the instructions below:
1. Fill the sump tank with clean water.
2. Keep the delivery valve open.
3. Connect the power cable to 1ph, 240V, and 5amps with earth connections.
4. Switch on the mains, so that the mains-ON indicator glows. Now, Switch-ON the pump.
5. Now, you will find the water starts flowing to the measuring tank.
6. Close the delivery slightly, so that the delivery pressure is readable.
7. Operate the delivery valve to note down the collecting tank reading against the known time,
& keep it open when the readings are not taken.
8. Note down the other readings as indicated in the tabular column.
9. Repeat the experiment for different openings of the delivery valve.
10. Tabulate the readings, after the experiment is over keep the delivery valve open.

34

Formulae to be used:
1. Basic Data / Constants

1 HP
1 kg/cm2
Density of water, w
Area of Collecting Tank

=
=
=
=

745 watts
760mm of Hg (10m of water)
9810 N/m3
0.126m2

2. Electrical Power As Indicated By Energy Meter:

Pshaft =

Hpelec

VI
--------------------------1000

in KW.

Where,
n = Number of revolutions of energy meter disc.
t = is the time taken by the Energy meter for n revolutions, in seconds.
3. Discharge Rate Q in m3/sec.
AxR
0.126 x R
Q =
----------= --------------1000 x T
1000 x T

in m3/sec.

A =
0.126m2 is the area of Collecting Tank.
R =
the Rise of level water collected in mm.
T =
time taken in seconds for R mm rise of water.
4. Total Head H in mtr.
Where,

=
10 (Delivery Pressure)
=
10 (P) in m
Where, P is the pressure in kg/cm2.
5. Hydraulic Power (Delivered by the Pump)

Ppump =Hppump

Where, W
=
Q
=
H
=
6. Pump Efficiency.
Ppump
%pump = -----Pshaft

WQH
-------- in KW.
1000
9810 N/m3.
From Formulae-3.
From Formulae-4.

Graph
Total Head Vs Discharge.
35

TABLE OF CALCULATION
2

AREA OF COLLECTING TANK = 0.126 m


Transmission efficiency= 60%

s.no

Delivery
Pressure
"P" in
Kg/cm2

Current
in
amps
Voltage,V
volts

Rise in
water level
h in mm

Time for rise


of water level

Total
Head
"H"in m

Discharge
Qa in m3/s

Power
output,P
pump in
KW

Power
input to
motor
Hp elec
in KW

Efficiency
in %

Result:
The performance characteristic of the submersible pump is studied and the efficiency is calculated %

36

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF RECIPROCATING


PUMP

Aim:
To study the performance characteristics of a reciprocating pump and to determine the
characteristic with maximum efficiency.
Apparatus Required:
1. Reciprocating pump
2. Meter scale
3. Stop watch
Theory:
In general a pump may be defined as a mechanical device which, when interposed in a
pipe line, converts the mechanical energy supplied to it from some external source into
hydraulic energy, thus resulting in the flow of liquid from lower potential to higher
potential/Head.
The pumps are of major concern to most engineers and technicians. The types of pump
vary in principle and design. The selection of the pump for any particular application is to be
done by understanding their characteristics. While the principle of operation of other pumps
is discussed elsewhere, in standard text books, the Reciprocating pump Falling under the
category of Positive Displacement Pumps, which is of our present concern, has plunger (Piston)
moves to and fro in a closed cylinder. The cylinder is connected to suction and delivery pipes
and are fitted with non-return valve allows the liquid only to enter the cylinder and the delivery
non-return valve allows the liquid only to escape out from the cylinder to the delivery line.
The piston is connected to a crank by means of connecting rod. As the crank is rotated
at uniform speed by prime mover, the plunger moves to and fro thus creating continuous flow
of liquid.
For more uniform flow, an air vessel is fitted before the suction valve, and after delivery
valve. This contributes for more uniform flow of liquid, and also saves energy input to the
pump from the prime mover. These pumps are available in Double Acting, Double Piston
(Duplex), Triplex, Qutraplex versions. The most commonly used one is Double Acting, single
cylinder Type, and is the one used in the present Test Rig. The medium of flow of water, and
the maximum speed normally less than 300 RPM. These pumps are used for High head and
Low Flow Rate application and find application in Automobile garages and finds application
in Automobile garages and multi-storied buildings where high head is required.
Description:
The present test rig is a self-contained unit operated on closed circuit basis. The pump,
electric AC motor, collecting-measuring tank set, control panel are mounted on rigid frame
work with anti-vibration mounts. The following are the provisions incorporated with the unit.
1. To run the pump at different speeds using AC motor.
2. The speed is indicated on digital RPM indicator.
3. To measure overall input power to the AC Motor using energy meter.
4. To measure the delivery and suction heads using pressure and vacuum gauges separately.
(The delivery head pressure tapping is connected, upstream of delivery valve, and that of
the suction tapping downstream of suction valve).
37

5. The flow rate is calculated using collecting tank and stop watch.
6. The overflow and butterfly valve are provided in collecting / measuring
tank
for
recirculation of water for closed circuit operation.
7. Change to different speed positions by changing belt provided in stepped cone pulley and
to repeat the experiment.
8. Repeat the experiment for the different Discharge by operating the ball valve (delivery side)
provided.
Operating Instructions:
All the necessary instrumentation along with its accessories is readily connected. It is
just enough to follow the instructions below:
1. Fill the sump tank with clean water.
2. Keep the delivery and suction valves open.
3. Connect the power cable to 1 ph, 220V, 16 Amps.
4. Switch-ON the Mains so that the Mains-ON indicator glows. Now switch-ON the
motor.
5. Now adjust the speed using the stepped cone pulley arrangement.
6. Note down the speed using digital rpm indicator.
7. Note down the pressure Gauge, Vacuum Gauge readings.
8. Note down the time for n blinks of energy meter.
9. Operate the butterfly valve to note down the collecting tank reading against the known
time, and keep it open when the readings are not taken.
10. Repeat the experiment for different openings of the delivery valve (Pressure and Flow
rate), note down the readings as indicated in the tabular column.
11. Repeat the experiment for different speeds and repeat the steps (4 & 10).
12. After the experiment is over, keep the delivery valve open and switch-OFF the mains.
13. Calculate the results using formulae given and tabulate it.
14. Draw the graphs of Head Vs Discharge.
Formula to be Used:
1.

Input power to the motor Pi =

3600 10
N T

kW

Where
N = Energy meter constant in rev / kWH
T = Time taken for 10 rev. in the energy meter
2. Output power from the pump, P0 =

wQ H
1000

kW

Where,
w = Specific weight of water in N/m3
Q = Discharge from the pump in m3/s
H = Total head of water in m
3. Discharge from the pump, Q =

Ax
t

m3/s

Where,
A = Area of cross section of the collecting tank in m2
T = Time taken for x meter rise of water level in the collecting tank in seconds
4. Delivery Head, P =

P 9.81 104
w

m
38

Where,
P = Pressure gauge reading in kgf / cm2
5. Suction head, G =

G
1000

13.6 m

Where,
G = Suction gauge reading in mm of mercury
6. Total head, H = P + G + X = ______________________ m
Where,
X = Vertical distance between suction gauge and delivery gauge.
7. Efficiency

P0
Pi

100 %

39

VARIABLE SPEED RECIPROCATING PUMP

S.
No.

(1)

Energy meter constant

Area of collecting tank

Speed
(rpm)

(2)

Pressure
Gauge
Reading
(P)
Kgf
/cm2
(3)

Vertical distance between suction gauge and pressure gauge, X=

Vacuum
gauge reading
(G)- mm
of mercury

(4)

Time taken
for x unit
rise in
water level
t in
seconds

Time
taken for
rev. in
energymeter T
in
seconds

Total
Head H
in metres

Discharge
from the
pump Q
in m3/s

Input
power
P1 in
kW

Output
power P0
in kW

Efficiency
in
%

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

40

Model Calculation : (For Reading No_________)


Energy meter constant,
Area of cross section of the collecting tank,
Rise in water level in the collecting tank,
Specific weight of water
Pressure gauge reading,
Time taken for x rise of water level in the collecting tank
Time taken for___ energy meter blinks
Total head, H = P + G + X
Input power to the motor Pi =

3600 10

Discharge from the pump, Q =

N T
Ax
t

Output power from the pump, P0 =


Efficiency =

P0
Pi

kW

m3/s

wQ H
1000

kW

100

N
A
x
w
P
T

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

rev/kWH
m2
m
N/m3
kgf / cm2
sec
sec
m

m3/s

=
=

kW

kW
%

Graphs:
1. Q vs H for various speeds
2. vs H
3. Pi vs H
Result:
The characteristics curves were drawn for the given variable speed reciprocating
pump and from the curves the following were obtained.
Max. efficiency of the pump
=
%
Corresponding discharge from the pump
=
m3/s
Corresponding total head of water
=
m
Corresponding input power to the motor
=
kW

41

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF GEAR OIL PUMP

Aim:
To draw the characteristics curves of gear oil pump and also to determine efficiency of
given gear oil pump.
Apparatus Required:
1. Gear oil pump setup
2. Meter scale
3. Stop watch
Theory:
In general a pump may be defined as a mechanical device which, when interposed in a
pipe line, converts the mechanical energy supplied to it from some external source into
hydraulic energy, thus resulting in the flow of liquid from lower potential to higher potential.
The pumps are of major concern to most engineers and technicians. The types of pump vary
in principle and design. The selection of the pump for any particular applications is to be done
by understanding their characteristics. The most commonly used pumps for domestic,
agriculture and industries are; Centrifugal, Piston, Axial flow (stage pumps), Air jet,
Diaphragm and Turbine pumps. Most of these pumps fall into the main class, namely;
Rotodynamic, Reciprocating (positive displacement), Fluid (air) operated pumps.
While the principle of operation of other pumps is discussed elsewhere, the gear pump
which is of present concern falls into the category of Rotodynamic pumps. In this pump, the
liquid is made to rotate in a closed chamber. This pump consist of two identical inter meshing
spur pinions working in a fine clearance inside a casing. One of the pinions keyed to driving
shaft. Alternatively one of the pinions can be integral with the driving shaft. The other pinion
revolves idly. These pumps compared to reciprocating pumps are simple in construction, more
suitable for handling viscous, turbid (muddy) liquids, can be directly coupled to high speed
electric motors (without any speed reduction ) & easy to maintain. But, their hydraulic heads
at low flow rates is limited, and hence not suitable for very high heads compared to
reciprocating pump of same capacity. The present testing allows the students to understand and
draw the operating characteristics at various heads, flow rates and speeds.
Description:
The present test rig is a self-contained unit operated on closed circuit basis. The pump,
electric AC motor, collecting-measuring tank set, control panel are mounted on rigid frame
work with anti-vibration mounts. The following are the provisions incorporated with the unit.
9. For conducting the experiments at three or two speeds using AC Motor.
10. The speed is indicated on digital RPM indicator with selector switch
11. To measure overall input power to the AC Motor using Energy meter.
12. The delivery and suction head are measured by using pressure & vacuum gauges.
13. For changing the Pressure (Delivery Head) and Vacuum (Suction Head) by operating the
valves.
14. The flow rate is calculated using measuring (collecting) tank.
15. The overflow and butterfly valve are provided in collecting / measuring
tank
for
recirculation of water for closed circuit operation.
42

16. Change the belt to different speed positions and repeat the experiment.
17. Repeat the experiment for the different Discharge.
Operating Instructions:
All the necessary instrumentation along with its accessories is readily connected. It is
just enough to follow the instructions below:
15. Fill the sump tank with clean oil (SAE20-40).
16. Keep the delivery and suction valves open.
17. Connect the power cable to 1 ph, 220V, 15 Amps.
18. Select the Pump on which experiment to be conducted by changing selector switch
position and set required speed using step cone pulley arrangement.
19. Keep the delivery valve fully open after priming.
20. Switch-ON the Mains, MCB so that the Mains-ON indicator glows. Now
switchON the motor.
21. Note down the speed using digital RPM indicator using selector switch
22. Note down the pressure Gauge, Vacuum Gauge and time for number of blinks of
Energy meter .
23. Operate the butterfly valve to note down the collecting tank reading against the known
time, and keep it open when the readings are not taken.
24. Repeat the experiment for different openings of the delivery valve (Pressure and Flow
rate), note down the readings as indicated in the tabular column.
25. Repeat the experiment for different speeds so that the pressure gauge reading are
shown and repeat the steps (4 & 9).
26. After the experiment is over, keep the delivery valve open and switch-OFF the mains.
27. Calculate the results using formulae given and tabulate it.
28. Draw the graphs of Head Vs Discharge.
Formula to be Used:
8. Input power to the motor Pi =

3600 10
1 1

kW

Where
N = Energy meter constant in rev / kWH
T = Time taken for 10 rev. in the energy meter
wQ H

9. Output power from the pump, P0 =

1000

kW

Where,
w = Specific weight of water in N/m3
Q = Discharge from the pump in m3/s
H = Total head of water in m
10. Discharge from the pump, Q =

Ax
t

m3/s

Where,
A = Area of cross section of the collecting tank in m2
T = Time taken for x meter rise of water level in the collecting tank in seconds
11. Delivery Head, HD =

P 9.81 104
w

Where,
P = Pressure gauge reading in kgf / cm2

43

12. Suction head, HS =

G
1000

13.9
0.96

Where,
G = Suction gauge reading in mm of mercury
13. Total head, H = HS + HD + X = ______________________ m
Where,
X = Vertical distance between suction gauge and delivery gauge.
14. Efficiency

P0
Pi

100 %

44

Table: Gear Pump

Pressu
re
S.
gauge
No
readin
.
g P
kg/cm2

Vacuu
m
Gauge
readin
g V
in mm
of Hg

Tota
Time
l
for 10
Dischar
Hea cm. rise
ge from
d
in
the
H collecti
pump Q
m of
ng
m3/sec.
wate Tank
r
t sec.

Time for
10
revolutio
ns of
energy
meter
T sec.

Inp
ut
kW

Outp
ut
kW

Efficien
cy

45

Model Calculation : (For Reading No_________)


Energy meter constant,
Area of cross section of the collecting tank,
Vertical distance between two gauges (X)
Rise in water level in the collecting tank,
Specific weight of water
Pressure gauge reading,
Time taken for x rise of water level in the collecting tank
Time taken for___ energy meter blinks
Total head, H = HS + HD + X
Input power to the motor Pi =

3600 10

Discharge from the pump, Q =

N T
Ax
t

Output power from the pump, P0 =


Efficiency =

P0
Pi

kW

=
=

rev/kWH
m2

x
w

=
=
=

m
N/m3
kgf / cm2

=
=
=
=

sec
sec
m

P
T

m3/s

wQ H
1000

N
A

kW

100

=
=

kW
m3/s
kW
%

Graph:
Discharge vs total head in m of oil
Input power vs total head
Percentage efficiency vs total head

RESULT:
The maximum efficiency of the gear pump =

46

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF PELTON WHEEL

Aim:
To conduct load test on PELTON wheel turbine and to study the characteristics of
PELTON wheel turbine.
Apparatus Required:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Venturimeter
Stopwatch
Tachometer
Dead weight

Description:
The actual experimental facility supplied consists of a Centrifugal Pump Set, Turbine
Unit, Sump Tank, Collecting, venturimeter arranged in such a way that the whole unit works
on recirculation water system. The Centrifugal Pump Set supplies the water from the sump tank
to the turbine through control valve which has the marking to meter the known quantity of
water. The water after passing through the Turbine units enters the collecting tanks. The water
then flows back to the sump tank through venturimeter for measurement of flow rate.
The loading of the turbine is achieved by rope brake drum connected to spring balance.
The provision for measurement of turbine speed (digital RPM indicator), Head on turbine
(pressure gauge) are built in on the control panel.
Theory:
A Turbine acts as a pump in reverse, to subtract energy from a fluid system. In impulse
turbine the fluid energy, first in the potential form, is next converted wholly into the kinetic
energy by means of one nozzle before striking the runner. The jet ensuring from the nozzle is
made to impinge on the runner tangentially as shown in the figure. A powerful jet issues out of
the nozzle, impinges on the buckets provided on the periphery of the nozzle. In practice these
buckets are usually spoon shaped, with a central ridge splitting the impinging jet into two
halves which are deflected backward. As there is no pressure variation in flow, the fluid partly
fills the buckets and the fluid remains in contact with the atmosphere. The nozzle is provided
with spear mechanism to control the quantity of the water. The actual energy transfer from jet
to wheel is by changing the momentum of the stream. The impact thus produced causes the
runner to rotate and hence produces mechanical power at the shaft.
The main parts of a Pelton turbine are:
a) Spear Valve Mechanism:
In a pelton turbine the flow regulation is done with the help of a spear shaped needle valve.
It consists of a spear connected to a shaft with a hand wheel at its end.
By rotating the hand wheel the spear valve can be moved inside the nozzle axially. When
the spear is moved forward it reduces the floes area and hence flow through nozzle reduces,
similarly when it is moved backwards flow increases. Water flow can also be regulated by
the gate valve provided.
b) Runner with Buckets:
The runner consists of a circular disc with a number of evenly spaced double hemispherical
buckets fixed along its periphery. The disc is mounted on a shaft. The buckets are divided
47

into two parts by a sharp splitter edge at the centre, which divided striking of the jet into
two equal parts. The buckets are so shaped that after flowing around its inner surface; the
water leaves it with a relative velocity almost opposite in direction to the original jet but
does not interface with the passage of water to the bucket
preceding
it
during
rotation. There is notch cut at outer rim of each bucket only when it is almost normal to the
jet.
c) Casing:
The casing of a Pelton turbine has no hydraulic function to perform. It is provided only to
prevent splashing and to lead the water to the tailrace. It is generally made up of stainless
steel and it is fabricated to form D section. Front part of the casing is made of acrylic.
Operation:
1) Connect the supply water pump-water unit to 3 ph, 440 V, 30A, electrical supply,
with neutral and earth connections and ensure the correct direction of the pump
motor unit.
2) Keep the Gate Valve and Sphere valve closed.
3) Keep the Brake Drum loading at zero.
4) Press the green button of the supply pump starter. Now the pump picks-up the full
speed and becomes operational.
5) Slowly open the Sphere Valve so that the turbine rotor picks the speed and conduct
experiment on constant speed and constant head.
6) Note down the speed, load, and pressure gauge readings, tabulate the readings.
Formulae:
Discharge to the turbine Q =

Cd a1 a2 2 g H
12

Where,
Cd
a1
a2
g
H

m3/s

22

= Coefficient of discharge of the venturimeter


= Area of cross-section of pipe
= Area of cross-section of throat
Acceleration due to gravity in m/sec2
= Drop in pressure head between the inlet and the throat of the venturimeter
= = ( 1) ( ~ )
1
2

= Specific gravity of the manometric liquid


= Specific gravity of the liquid flowing through the pipe
h1 &
= Manometer readings
h2
Input power to the turbine Pi =

w Q
1000

Where
w = Specific weight of water in N/m3
Q = Discharge to the turbine in m3/s
H =

Inlet pressure head in metres =

Output power from the turbine P0 =

P9.81 104

D N T 9.81
60 1000

kW

kW
48

Where,
D
N
T
T
T1
T0
T2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Efficiency
Where,
P0 =
Pi =

Effective diameter of the brake drum in m


Speed of the turbine in r.p.m
Net load on the turbine in kgf
(T1 + T0 T2) kgf
Dead load on the loading arm in kgf
Self-weight of the loading arm in kgf
Spring load in kgf
=

P0
Pi

100 %

Output power
Input power

49

Table: Pelton Wheel


Diameter of Brake Drum=
Self wt. of the loading arm, T0=
Manometer
readings
Sl.
No

h1

Load in kgf

h2
Dead Spring
T1
T2

cm m

cm m

Net
T

Speed of
the
turbine
head

Drop in
pressure
head

Discharge
to the
turbine

Inlet
pressure
gauge
reading
(kg&cm2)

Inlet
pressure
head

Input
power
to the
turbine

Output
Efficiency
power
of the
from the
turbine
turbine

N(rpm)

H(m)

Q(m3/s)

P1

H(m)

Pi(kW)

Po(kW)

(%)

50

MODEL CALCULATION :(For Reading No_________)


Effective diameter of brake drum D
Level difference between the pressure gauge and the
vacuum gauge X
Diameter of the inlet of the venturimeter, d1
Diameter of the throat of the venturimeter, d2 = 0.6 d1
Coefficient of discharge of the venturimeter
Reading of the pressure gauges connected to the
venturimeter
Height of mercury column, in the right limb of the
manometer,
Height of mercury column, in the left limb of the
manometer,
Pressure gauge reading at the casing
Vacuum gauge reading at the draft tube
Dead added
Spring load
Acceleration due to gravity,
Self weight of the loading arm
Speed of the turbine
Specific weight of water
Drop in pressure head between the inlet and the throat of the

venturimeter H = ( 1) (1 ~2 )

Cross-section area of the pipe

(a1) =

D2

Cross-section area of the throad (a2) =

4
D2

=
=

m
m

Cd

=
=
=

P1

P2
h1

h2
G
V
T1
T2
g
T0
N
w

Cd a1 a2 2 g H

m3/s

Suction head at the draft tube G =


Total Head H= P + G + X =
Input power to the turbine P1 =
Net load T = (T1 + T0 T2)
Output power P0=
Efficiency =

P0
Pi

60 1000

100

G104

1000

kgf/cm2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf
kgf
m/s2
kgf
rpm

m
=

m2

m2

=
m3/s
=

1000

wQH

D N T 9.81

P9.81 104

kgf/cm2

12 22

Inlet pressure head at the casing P =

Pressure drop between in the inlet of the venturimeter and


the throat section
Discharge to the turbine Q =

kW

=
=
=
=
=

kW
kg
kW

51

Graphs to be drawn:
Efficiency vs speed
Result:
The characteristic curve, efficiency Vs speed, was drawn for the given Pelton wheel
turbine and from the curve
max =

The speed corresponding to the maximum efficiency, Nnormal =

rpm

The maximum efficiency of the turbine,

52

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF FRANCIS TURBINE

Aim:
To conduct load test on Francis turbine and to study the characteristics of Francis
turbine.
Apparatus Required:
1. Stop watch
2. Tachometer
Description:
While the impulse turbine is discussed elsewhere in standard text books, Francis
turbine, the reaction type which is of present concern consists of main components such as
propeller (runner) scroll casing and draft tube. Between the scroll casing and the runner, the
water turns through right angle and passes through the runner and thus rotating the runner shaft.
When guide vane angels are varied, high efficiency can be maintained over wide range of
operating conditions.
The actual experimental facility supplied consists of a centrifugal pump set, turbine
unit, sump tank and Venturimeter arranged in such a way that the whole unit works on
recirculating water system. The centre fugal pump set supplies the water from the sump tank
to the turbine through gate valve. The water after passing through the turbine unit enters back
to the sump tank through the draft tube. The water then flows back to the sump tank through
the Venturimeter with pressure gauges for the measurement of flow rate.
The loading of the turbine is achieved A.C. Generator. The provision for; measurement
of brake force (voltmeter and ammeter), turbine speed (digital RPM indicator), head on the
turbine (pressure gauge), head over the Venturimeter (pressure, vacuum gauge, 2 Nos) are
built-in on to the control panel.
The water enters a volute casing which completely surrounds the runner. The cross
sectional area of volute decreases along the fluid path in such a way as keep the fluid velocity
constant in magnitude. From the fluid passes between stationary guides vanes, mounted all
around the periphery of the runner. The function of these guide vanes is to direct the fluid on
to the runner at required angle. Each vane is pivoted and by a suitable mechanism all may be
turned is synchronism so as to alter the flow rate of the machine. In its passage through the
runner the fluid is deflected by the runner blades so that angular momentum is changed. From
the centre of the runner the fluid is turned to axial direction and flows to tail race via the draft
tube. The lower end of the draft tube must, under all conditions of operation, be submerged
below the level of water in the tail race. Only in this way it can be ensured that a turbine is full
of water.
Theory:
Francis turbine is an inward mixed flow reaction turbine named after the American
Engineer James B. Francis. In a Francis Turbine, water enters the runner at its outer periphery
and flows out axially at its centre. This arrangement provides a large discharge area with the
given diameter of the runner. A part of the net available energy of the water is converted into
kinetic energy and the rest of the major portion remains as pressure energy, as water enters the

53

runner. The runner rotates due to reaction pressure caused by the pressure difference at the
runner entry and exit.
The main components of Francis Turbine are:
1. Scroll casing: Its a spiral shaped closed passage of gradually reducing cross-sectional area,
enclosing the runner. Its function is to distribute the flow uniformly along the periphery of
the runner in such a way that the velocity remains constant at every point.
2. Guide Mechanism: There are two main functions of the guide mechanism (a) To regulate
the quantity of water supplied to the runner and (b) To adjust the direction of flow so that
there is minimum shock at the entrance to runner blades. It consists of a series of guide
vanes of aerofoil section fixed between to rings, in the form of a wheel known as guide
wheel. Each guide vane can be rotated about its pivot centre, which is connected to a
regulating ring by means of a link and lever. By operating the regulating ring the guide
vanes can be rotated, varying the width of the passage between adjacent vanes, thus altering
both the flow angle as well as the quantity of flow.
3. Runner: The runner consists of a series of curved vanes arranged evenly around the
circumference, in the annular space between two plates. It may be cast in one piece or made
of separate steel plates welded together. The runner vanes are so shaped that water enters
radially at the outer periphery and leaves it axially at the inner periphery. This change in
the direction of flow from radial to axial as it passes over the curved vanes changes the
angular momentum of the fluid thereby producing the torque, which rotates the runner. The
runner is keyed to shaft of the turbine.
4. Draft tube: It is a gradually expanding closed passage connecting the runner to the tailrace
(collecting tank). The lower end of the draft tube is always kept submerged in water. The
function of a draft tube is to convert the high kinetic energy of flow at runner exit into
pressure energy, thus increasing the efficiency of the turbine. It also enables the turbine to
be installed above the tail race level without any loss of head.

Formula to be used:
Discharge to the turbine Q =

Cd a1 a2 2 g H

m3/s

12 22

Where,
Cd
a1
a2
h

=
=
=
=

Coefficient of discharge of the venturimeter


Cross-section area of the inlet of the venturimeter in m2
Cross-section area of the throad of the venturimeter in m2
Venture head (or) the pressure head drop between the inlet and throat of the
venturimeter in m

h = (P1 P2 )9.81 104


w

P1 = Pressure intensity at the inlet of the venturimeter in kgf/cm2


P2
Pressure intensity at the throat of the venturimeter in kgf/cm2
w
Specific weight of water in N/m3
g
Acceleration due to gravity in m/sec2
Input power to the turbine P1 =

wQH
1000

kW
54

Where
w = Specific weight of water in N/m3
Q = Discharge to the turbine in m3/s
Total Head, H = Total pressure head at the casing P (m) + suction head at the draft tube
G (m) + level difference between the pressure gauge and the vaccum
gauge X (m) .
P = P9.81 104

G' =

G104
1000

P and G are the pressure gauge and Vacuum gauge readings in kgf/cm2
Output power from the turbine =
Where,
D
N
T
T
T1
T0
T2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Efficiency
Where,
P0 =
Pi =

D N T 9.81
60 1000

kW

Effective diameter of the brake drum in m


Speed of the turbine in r.p.m
Net load in kgf
(T1 + T0 T2) kgf
Dead load in kgf
Self-weight of the hanger in kgf
Spring load in kgf
=

P0
Pi

100 %

Output power
Input power

55

FRANCIS TURBINE

S.
No.

Self-weight of the hanger T0

Effective diameter of brake drum D

The value of X

Venturimeter
Pressure Gauge
readings
P1
P2
2
Kgf/cm Kgf/cm2

h=
(P1-P2)x104
w
in m

Input Output
Pressure
Vacuum
Speed
Efficiency
Load in kgf
Inlet
power power
gauge
gauge Suction Total head
of the
of the
pressure
to the
to the
reading
reading, head in H=P+G+X turbine
turbine in
head in
turbine turbine
kgf/cm2
G
m (G)
M
in rpm Dead Spring Net
%
m (P)
(P1)
(P0)
(P)
Kgf/cm2
N

T1
T2
T
kW
kW

56

MODEL CALCULATION :(For Reading No_________)


Effective diameter of brake drum D
D
Level difference between the pressure gauge and the vacuum
gauge X
Diameter of the inlet of the venturimeter, d1
Diameter of the throat of the venturimeter, d2 = 0.6 d1
Coefficient of discharge of the venturimeter
Cd
Reading of the pressure gauges connected to the venturimeter P1
P2
Pressure gauge reading at the casing
G
Vacuum gauge reading at the draft tube
V
Load added
T1
Spring load
T2
Self weight of the hanger
T0
Speed of the turbine
N
Specific weight of water
w
Cross-section area of the inlet of the venturimeter (a1) =

D2

Cross-section area of the throat of the venturimeter (a2) =

4
D2

Cd a1 a2 2 g H

=
=
=

m
m

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2
kgf
kgf
kgf
rpm

m2

m3/s

Suction head at the draft tube G =


Total Head H= P + G + X =
Input power to the turbine P1 =
Net load T = (T1 + T0 T2)
Output power P0=

m3/s

Efficiency =

P0
Pi

60 1000

1000

wQH
1000

D N T 9.81

P9.81 104

G104

m2

12 22

Inlet pressure head at the casing P =

Pressure drop between in the inlet of the venturimeter and the


throat section
Discharge to the turbine Q =

=
=

kW

100

=
=

kW
kg

=
=

kW

Graphs:
With various values of and speed the characteristic curve can be drawn with the
speed along x-axis and efficiency along y-axis. From the curve, the maximum efficiency of the
turbine and the corresponding speed can be found out.
Result:
From the Graph,
The maximum efficiency of the turbine
=
Corresponding speed (Normal speed) of the turbine =

%
rpm
57

Ex. No.
Date

:
:

CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF KAPLAN TURBINE

Aim:
To study the characteristics of a Kaplan turbine
Apparatus Required:
1. Venturimeter
2. Stopwatch
3. Tachometer
4. Dead weight
Theory:
Hydraulic (or Water) turbines are the machines which use the energy of water (HydroPower) and convert it into mechanical energy. Thus the turbine becomes the prime mover to
run the electrical generators to produce the electricity, Viz., Hydro-electric power.
The turbines are classified as Impulse & Reaction types. In impulse turbine, the head of
water is completely converted into a jet, which impulses the forces on the turbine. In reaction
turbine, it is the pressure of the following water, which rotates the runner of the turbine. Of
many types of turbine, the Pelton wheel, most commonly used, falls into the category of
turbines. While Francis & Kaplan falls in category of impulse reaction turbines.
Normally, Pelton wheel (impulse turbine) requires high heads & low discharge, while
the Francis & Kaplan (reaction turbines) require relatively low heads and high discharge. These
corresponding heads and discharges are difficult to create in laboratory size turbine from the
limitation of the pumps availability in the market. Nevertheless, at least the performance
characteristics could be obtained within the limited facility available in the laboratories.
Further, understanding various elements associated with any particular turbine are possible with
this kind of facility.
Description:
While the impulse turbine is discussed elsewhere in standard textbooks, Kaplan turbine,
the reaction type which is of present concern consists of main components such as propeller
(runner) scroll casing and draft tube. Between the scroll casing and the runner, the water turns
through right angle into axial direction and passes through the runner and thus rotating the
runner shaft. The runner has four blades which can be turned about their own axis so that the
angle inclination may be adjusted while the turbine in motion. When runner blade angles are
varied, high efficiency can be maintained over wide range of operating conditions. In the other
words even at parts loads, when a low discharge is following through the runner, a high
efficiency can be attained in case of Kaplan turbine, whereas this provision does not exist in
Francis and propeller turbines where, the runner blade angles are fixed and integral with hub.
The actual experimental facility supplied consists of a centrifugal pump set, turbine
unit, sump tank, Venturimeter arranged in such a way that the whole unit works on re
circulating water system. The centrifugal pump set supplies the water from the sump tank to
the turbine through gate valve which has the marking to the meter the known quantity of water.
The water after passing through the turbine units enters the same tank through the draft tube.
58

The water then flows back to the sump tank through the Venturimeter for the measurement of
flow rate.
The loading of the turbine is achieved by electrical AC generator connected to blub
bank. The provision for measurement electrical energy by energy meter, turbine speed (digital
RPM indicator), Head on the turbine (pressure gauge), are built-in on to the control panel.
Procedure:
1. Connect the supply pump-motor unit to 3 ph., 440V, 30A, electrical supply, with neutral
and earth connections and ensure the correct direction of pump-motor unit.
2. Keep the gate value closed and Switch on the MCB.
3. Ensure that all the three indicators are glowing.
4. Keep the electrical load at zero, by keeping all switches in off position.
5. Keep the blade for the required position by adjustable wheel (1/4, , and full open).
6. Press the green button of the supply pump starter and then release.
7. Slowly, open the gate so that turbine rotor picks up the speed and attains maximum at
particular opening of the gate. Also ensure motor is running in correct direction.
8. Apply load by switching on each switch one at a time. (Or in a bunch)
9. Note down the Venturimeter pressures, time for 3 blinks in energy meter, speed, pressure
and vacuum on the meters at the control panel and tabulate results.
10. After completion of experiment remove the load by switching off all the electrical switches.
11. Close the gate & then switch OFF the supply water pump set.
12. Follow the procedure described below for taking down the reading for evaluating the
performance characteristics of the Kaplan turbine.
Formulae Used:
1. Electrical Power as indicated by Energy Meter:

BPelec

BPshaft =

n x 1000 x 60 x 60
------------------------ in KW.
3200 x t

BPelec x 0.7 in KW.

Where,
n = Number of blinks of energy meter disc.
t = is the time taken by the Energy meter for n blinks, in seconds.
0.7
= Transmission Efficiency.

2. Discharge Rate, Q: Through Venturimeter:


Q = Cd (A1A2(2gHv))/(A12-A22) in m3/s
Where, Cd = Coefficient of discharge =0.91
A1 = Inlet area of Venturimeter (150mm diameter) = 0.0177 m2
A2 = Throat area of Venturimeter (75mm diameter) = 4.41810-3 m2
59

g = 9.81 m/s2
Hv = Head on Venturimeter, m=10h = 10 (PI-PT)
3. Hydraulic input to the turbine.
HIHYD = WQH in W
Where, W = 9810 N/m3
Q = Flow rate of water in m3/sec from formulae-1.
H = Head on turbine in m from formulae-3.
4. Head on the Turbine( H):
H = 10(PI+PV/760)

Where, P = Pressure on the turbine = PI


PV = Vacuum at the turbine

5. Turbine Efficiency
( %tur): = BPSHAFT/ HIhyd100
6. Unit quantities under unit head,
a) Unit speed,
b) Unit power,
c) Unit discharge,

Nu
Pu

=
=
Qu

N/ (H)
P/H3/2
=
Q/ (H)

7. Specific speed:
N (P)
NS

=
H5/4

Part load BPSHAFT


8. Percentage full load =

100
Max. Load BPSHAFT

GRAPHS:
A) For constant head characteristics
a. Turbine efficiency Vs Unit speed.
b. Unit power Vs Unit speed.
B) For constant speed characteristics:
a. Turbine efficiency Vs Percentage of full load.
b. Efficiency Vs. discharge.

60

CONSTANT HEAD METHOD

Rotor
Vane
Position

Number
of bulbs
on

Voltmeter
Reading
in volts

Ammeter
Reading
in amps

Speed
in
rpm

Numb
er of
blinks
of
energy
meter
disc, n

Time for
'n'numbe
r of
energyme
ter
blinks,t
sec

Suction
Pressur
e,Pv in
mm of
Hg

Venturim
eter
Pressure
(Inlet), PI
in Kg/cm2

Ventruri
meter
Pressure
(Throat)
, PT in
Kg/cm2

Venturi
meter
head,
Hv in
m of
water

Full
open

3/4
open

1/2
open

1/4
open

61

CONSTANT HEAD METHOD


Rot
or
Van
e
Posi
tion

TUR
BIN
E
Head
H,in
m

Area
of
inlet

Area
of
throa
t

Discharg
e ,Q in
m3/s

Power
Outpu
t,
BPELE
C in W

Power
Output
,BPsha
ft in W

Hydralu
ic input
power,
HIhyd in
W

UNIT QUANTITIES
UNDER UNIT HEAD
Effici
ency

Specif
ic
Speed,
Ns

%
Full
Load

Unit
Speed,
Nu

Unit
Powe
r, Pu

Full
ope
n

3/4
ope
n

1/2
ope
n

1/4
ope
n

62

Unit
Discha
rge,Qu

Vane
Positio
n

Numbe
r of
bulbs
on

Voltmeter
Reading in
volts

CONSTANT SPEED METHOD


Time
for
Number
Ammet
'n'num
Suction
Speed of rev of
er
ber of
Pressure,
in
energy
Reading
energy Pv in mm
rpm
meter
in amps
meter
of Hg
disc, n
blinks,t
sec

Venturi
meter
Pressure
(Inlet), PI
in
Kg/cm2

Ventruri
meter
Pressure
(Throat),
PT in
Kg/cm2

1/4
open

TURBI
NE
Head
H,in m

Area
of
inlet

Area of
throat

Discharg
e ,Q in
m3/s

Power
Output,
BPELEC
in W

Power
Output
,BPshaf
t in W

Hydralu
ic input
power,
HIhyd in
W

Efficiency

Specific
Speed,Ns

%
Full
Load

Result:
From the Graph,
The maximum efficiency of the turbine
=
Corresponding speed (Normal speed) of the turbine =

%
rpm

63

Venturi
meter
head,
Hv in
m of
water

Viva Question
1. Differentiate between Absolute and gauge pressures.
2. Mention two pressure measuring instruments.
3. What is the difference weight density and mass density?
4. What is the difference between dynamic and kinematic viscosity?
5. Differentiate between specific weight and specific volume.
6. Define relative density.
7. What is vacuum pressure?
8. What is absolute zero pressure?
9. Write down the value of atmospheric pressure head in terms of water and Hg.
10. Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow.
11. How will you classify the flow as laminar and turbulent?
12. Mention few discharge measuring devices
13. Draw the venturimeter and mention the parts.
14. Why the divergent cone is longer than convergent cone in venturimeter?
15. Compare the merits and demerits of venturimeter with orifice meter.
16. Why Cd value is high in venturimeter than orifice meter?
17. What is orifice plate?
18. What do you mean by vena contracta?
19. Define coefficient of discharge.
20. Write down Darcy -Weisback's equation.
21. What is the difference between friction factor and coefficient of friction?
22. What do you mean by major energy loss?
23. List down the type of minor energy losses.
24. Define turbine
25. What are the classifications of turbine?
26. Define impulse turbine.
27. Define reaction turbine.
28. Differentiate between impulse and reaction turbine.
29. What is the function of draft tube?
30. Define specific speed of turbine.
31. What are the main parameters in designing a Pelton wheel turbine?
32. What is breaking jet in Pelton wheel turbine?
33. What is the function of casing in Pelton Turbine?
34. Draw a simple sketch of Pelton wheel bucket.
35. What is the function of surge tank fixed to penstock in Pelton turbine?
36. How the inlet discharge is controlled in Pelton turbine?
37. What is water hammer?
38. What do you mean by head race?
39. What do you mean by tail race?
40. What is the difference between propeller and Kaplan turbine?
41. Mention the parts of Kaplan turbine.
42. Differentiate between inward and outward flow reaction turbine.
43. What is the difference between Francis turbine and Modern Francis turbine?
44. What is mixed flow reaction turbine? Give an example.
45. Why draft tube is not required in impulse turbine?
46. How turbines are classified based on head. Give example.
47. How turbines are classified based on flow. Give example
48. How turbines are classified based on working principle. Give example.
49. What does velocity triangle indicates?
64

50. Draw the velocity triangle for radial flow reaction turbine.
51. Draw the velocity triangle for tangential flow turbine.
52. Mention the type of characteristic curves for turbines.
53. How performance characteristic curves are drawn for turbine.
54. Mention the types of efficiencies calculated for turbine.
55. Define pump.
56. How pumps are classified?
57. Differentiate pump and turbine.
58. Define Rotodynamic pump.
59. Define Positive displacement pump.
60. Differentiate between Rotodynamic and positive displacement pump.
61. Define cavitation in pump.
62. What is the need for priming in pump?
63. Give examples for Rotodynamic pump
64. Give examples for Positive displacement pump.
65. Mention the parts of centrifugal pump.
66. Mention the type of casing used in centrifugal pump.
67. Why the foot valve is fitted with strainer?
68. Why the foot valve is a non-return type valve?
69. Differentiate between volute casing and vortex casing.
70. What is the function of volute casing?
71. What is the function of guide vanes?
72. Why the vanes are curved radially backward?
73. What is the function of impeller?
74. Mention the types of impeller used.
75. Define specific speed of pump.
76. Mention the type of characteristic curves for pump
77. How performance characteristic curves are drawn for pump.
78. Mention the parts of reciprocating pump.
79. What is the function of air vessel?
80. What is slip of reciprocating pump?
81. What is negative slip?
82. What is the condition for occurrence of negative slip?
83. What does indicator diagram indicates?
84. What is the difference between actual and ideal indicator diagram?
85. Briefly explain Gear pump.
86. Differentiate between internal gear pump and external gear pump.
87. Briefly explain vane pump.
88. What is rotary pump?
89. Draw the velocity triangle for centrifugal pump.
90. Draw the indicator diagram from reciprocating pump.
91. What is the amount of work saved by air vessel?
92. Mention the merits and demerits of centrifugal pump.
93. Mention the merits and demerits of reciprocating pump.
94. What is separation in reciprocating pump?
95. How separation occurs in reciprocating pump?
96. Differentiate single acting and double acting reciprocating pump.

65