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MNS 102

Techniques for
Materials and Nano Sciences
2014 W
Instructor: Tong Leung
Chemistry, University of Waterloo

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Course Overview
MNS 101 LEC 0.50 [Course ID: 013979] : Materials and Nanosciences in the Modern
World
Overview of materials, including physical and chemical classification of materials, and
structure-property relationships; survey of emerging fields in materials and nanoscience
research such as: nanotechnology, quantum materials and devices, bionic research;
societal impacts of materials and nanoscience research. [Offered: F]
MNS 102 LEC 0.50 [Course ID: 013980] : Techniques for Materials and Nanosciences
Overview of materials synthesis, including both wet chemical and dry physical based
methodologies; basic metrology and materials characterization of surface and bulk
properties; introduction to the design, fabrication, and evaluation of simple devices;
survey of emerging new techniques in materials and nanosciences. [Offered: W]
Course Website: http://leung.uwaterloo.ca/MNS/102

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Course Outline: http://leung.uwaterloo.ca/MNS/102/OUTLINE.htm


< Please note: Term test dates [Feb 13, Mar 13] are now locked in!

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From Chemistry & Physics to Nano


Chemistry
Structure and Bonding
Thermodynamics and
kinetics
Reactions for making
materials and for processing
materials [e.g. etching
(subtractive) and deposition
(additive)]
Spectroscopy

Physics

Quantum mechanics
Solid state physics
Statistical phenomena
Modelling

Structure-Property Relations > Control > Applications

Materials Science Engineering


Structural Classification of
Materials: Crystal
Structure
Inorganic vs organic
Formation and control of
defects, impurity diffusion
Strain and Stresses
Materials interactions
(alloys, annealing)
Phase transformations

Catalysis
Micro to nanofluidics
Micro to nanoelectronics
Defects and strains
Heat transfer
Micro ElectroMechanical (MEMS)
Machines
Fatigue/fracture/
Mechanical stresses

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Lecture 01
MNS 102: Techniques for Materials and Nano Sciences

Review of Nanotechnology: Definition;


Nanoscale; Properties & Applications
Examples of Nanomaterials: Case studies
Case study: Nanoelectronics
Nanotechnology & Nanoscience: History,
Perspective, Importance, Other Fields
Course Content
Lab Tour
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Definition of Nanotechnology
The Interagency Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science,
Engineering and Technology (NSET) of the US Federal Office of
Science and Technology Policy defines nanotechnology as:
Research and technology development at the atomic,
molecular or macromolecular levels, devices and systems that
have novel properties and functions because of their small
and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating
properties and functions are developed at a critical length
scale of matter typically under 100 nm.
Royal Society of UK, Nanotechnology is the production and
application of structures, devices and systems by controlling
shape and size at nanometer scale.
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Nanoscale

1 nm = 0.000,000,001 m
Nuclear scale: 10-15 m or 10-6 nm.
Atomic scale: 0.1 nm or 1 Angstrom.
De Broglie wavelength in metals:
~1 nm.
10 H atoms or 3.5 Au atoms ~ 1 nm
DNA molecules: 2 12 nm
Viruses: 10 100 nm
Red blood cell: ~11,600 nm
Human hair: ~80,000 nm
Nanostructures: 1 - 100 nm
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http://www.mchnanosolutions.com/references/nanoworld.pdf.

http://www.mchnanosolutions.com/references/nanoworld.pdf.

http://www.mchnanosolutions.com/references/nanoworld.pdf.

http://www.mchnanosolutions.com/references/nanoworld.pdf.

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Hmmbeer

http://www.mchnanosolutions.com/references/nanoworld.pdf.

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OECD ISO TC 229 on Nanotechnologies


since 2005
OECD = Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development

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Nanomaterials: Properties &


Applications

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Homework 1A: Read http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/materials-science/nanomaterials/tutorial.html


and regenerate the table above.
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Nanomaterials: Case Studies

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Case Study: Nano-electronics

1st electronic computer


ENIAC (1946)

1st computer(1832)
Pentium IV

1st transistor

Vacuum Tube

Macroelectronics

1947

Microelectronics

Nanoelectronics
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Transistor Size
1971
4004

1989
386

1991
486

2001
Pentium IV

2003
Itanium 2

transistor /chip

410M
42M

1.2M
134 000

2300

10 m
Human hair

1 m
Red blood cell

0.1 m
Bacteria

Virus

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Gordon Moore - Scaling Law

Number of transistors

Moores Law: Doubling of the number of transistors on a chip every 18-24 months.
This is achieved by
Reducing the size of a transistor - smallest lateral feature size decreases by 13% each year.
Increasing the size of the chip chip/wafer size increases 16%/year.

Miscellaneous early ICs


DRAM memory
Intel x86 microprocessors
Intel Itanium/IA64 microprocessors
nVIDIA graphics processors

Gordon Moore:
Born 3 January 1929,
co-founder and
Chairman Emeritus of
Intel Corporation;
author of Moore's Law
published in 1965.

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Feature Size
100m

Era of Simple Scaling


Cell dimensions

10m

1m

Scaling + Innovation
(ITRS)

130 nm in 2002
0.1m

10nm

18 nm in 2018

Transition Region

Invention
Atomic dimensions

Quantum Effects Dominate

1nm

Atomic Dimensions

0.1nm
1960

1980

2000

2020

2040

Year

The era of easy scaling is over.


We are now in a period where technology and device innovations are required.
Beyond 2020, new currently unknown inventions will be required.
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Just a little bit


Moore?

OR,
goto
Nanoscience?
Source: http://www.itrs.net/Links/2011ITRS/Home2011.htm
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History of Nanotechnology
1959, R. P. Feynman [Nobel Prize 1965] gave the lecture entitled Theres plenty
of room at the bottom
Homework 1B: Watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4eRCygdW--c and
summarize 3 key points of this 1984 update of Feynmans classic lecture.

1974, Norio Taniguchi (TSU) coined the word nanotechnology


1981, Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (IBM, Zurich) [Nobel Prize 1986] invented
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)
1985, Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley [Nobel Prize 1996]
discovered Buckyballs, fullerene, and C60.
1989, Don Eigler (IBM, San Jose), Quantum confinement of surface electron
waves.
1991, Sumio Iijima (NEC), Carbon nanotubes.

1999, President Clinton announced National Nanotechnology Initiative ($500M)


at CalTech
2001, NINT at U of Alberta established
2005, Nanotech U/G, Grad and Nanoscience U/G programs started at Waterloo
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From Nanotechnology to Nanoscience


Nanotechnology involves the creation and
manipulation of materials at the nanometer (nm) scale
either scaling up from single groups of atoms or by
refining or reducing bulk materials.
Nanotechnology is not a single technology or scientific
discipline.
Nanotechnology is based on combining nanoscience
[that has foundations in chemistry and physics (and
maybe biology)] with engineering to solve real-life
problems.
Nanoscience research is 70% materials, 20% devices
and 10% systems.
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Importance of Nanoscience
The quantum mechanical (wavelike) properties of electrons inside
matter are influenced by variations on the nanoscale. By nanoscale
design of materials, it is possible to vary their micro and macroscopic
properties (charge capacity, magnetization, melting point) without
changing their chemical composition.
A key feature of biological entities is the systematic organization of
matter on the nanoscale. Development in nanoscience and
nanotechnology would allow us to place man-made nano-objects inside
living cells. It would also make it possible to make new materials using
the self-assembly features of nature.
Nanoscale components have very high surface-to-volume ratio, making
them ideal for use in composite materials, reacting systems, drug
delivery, and chemical energy storage.
Macroscopic systems made up of nanostructures can have higher
density than those made up of microstructures. This can lead to new
electronic device concepts, smaller and faster circuits, more
sophisticated functions, and greatly reduced power consumption
simultaneously by controlling nanostructure interactions and complexity.
Source: Principles of Nanotechnology: Molecular -based Study of Condensed Matter in Small Systems G. Ali
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Mansoori , World Scientific (2005).

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From Nanoscience to Other Fields


Nanomaterials: Carbon nanotubes (CNT),
nanostructures, quantum confinement,
nanophotonics, spintronics, nanoprobes (STM,
AFM, TEM).
Nanoelectronics: Quantum dots (QD), nanowires
(NW), single electron transistor (SET).
Nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS): From
microelectromechanical system (MEMS) to
nanoscale.
Nanobiology and nanomedicine.
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Course Content
Overview and Basics of Materials and Nano
Sciences
Module 1: Materials Synthesis
Module 2: Basic Metrology and Materials
Characterization
Module 3: Device Design and Fabrication
Module 4: Emerging Techniques
Summary
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Lab Tour: WATLab


Homework 1C: We will be stopping by several instrument clusters to be discussed in
the four Modules, including:
wet chemistry (C2-061),
CVD (ovens) (C2-080), PVD (magnetron sputtering (C2-080),
PLD (C2-066), MBE (C2-066);
plus
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (C2-064)
optical and electron microscopy lab (C2-060)
X-Ray diffraction (C2-060)
HIM and SIMS (C2-080)
Characterization of electrical and magnetic properties characterization (C2-080)
(a) Provide the name and brief description of one technique in each of these Modules.
(b) Using no more than TWO tweets (1 tweet = 140 characters), give a general
impression of these instruments and techniques.
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