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BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

ReadingNotes:Man'sPlaceintheCosmosbyMaxScheler
(http://anthropology.rinet.ru/old/library/sheler8.htm)

OverviewsofScheler'sThought:
1) "Introduction"byW.Stark.InTheNatureofSympathybyMaxScheler
2) Schutz,Alfred."MaxScheler'sEpistemologyandEthics,"I,II.InTheReviewofMetaphysicsXI(19571958),304314,486
501.
3) seealso.J.M.Bochenski.ContemporaryEuropeanPhilosophy.Berkeley:UofCaliforniaPress,1956.

In 1927 at a Conference in Darmstadt, near Frankfurt, arranged by Graf Keyserling, Scheler delivered a lengthy lecture, entitled
"Man's Particular Place" (Die Sonderstellung des Menschen), published later in much abbreviated form as Die Stellung des
MenschenimKosmos[literally:"Man'sSituationintheCosmos"].(http://www.maxscheler.com/ManfredFrings)
April1927,DarmstadtbeiderTagungderSchulederWeisheit

2.DerMenschalsNeinsagenknnerundAsketdesLebens(M.Scheler)
BetrachtetmandenMenschenimKontrastzumTier,lsstsichbetonen:DerMenschkannsich
distanzierenz.B.vonseinenTriebenodervonderWirklichkeit(daerbersienachdenkenkann).Er
transzendiertdieWirklichkeit(erwillseineSchrankendurchbrechenundfragtimmerweiter;Scheler
nenntdiesauchWeltoffenheit)undkannseineTriebenergiesublimieren(Freud!).Entscheidendes
MomentdermenschlichenSonderstellungistalsoderBesitzdesGeistes.(http://fkg
wuerzburg.de/schule/faecher/evrel/dokumente/Material%20Anthropologie/Sonderstellung%20des%20Menschen.pdf)

NotesfromMan'sPlaceinNature:
Lifeinnature,lifeinman.

Translator'sIntroduction
TwoParts
1) BriefBiographyandGeneralOverviewofSchelersPhilosophy
2) DiscussionoftheMansPlaceinNature

"astudyofthenatureofmaninrelationtohis'biological,psychological,ideologicalandsocialdevelopment.'Thisiswhathemeant
bya'philosophicalanthropology.'ItwaspredicatedupontheHegelianthesisthathistoryistherecordofman'sprogressiveself
consciousness."(trans.intro,xxiiiiv)

Stagesofpsychiclife:
1) anundifferentiatedvitalimpulseordrive(xxvii)
a. noreflexarc,i.e.,ecstatic
2) instinctualbehavior(xxviii)
3) associativebehaviorormemory(Ibid.)i.e.,thehabitual
3&4ariseoutof2
4) practicalintelligence(xxix)
5) ideation
a. freedomtranscendingallconditionsofnature(xxixxxx)
b. linkage:ideationandsublimation

"Aspiritualactisan'ascetic'act.Itinhibits,deflectsorluresthelibidofromitsnaturalgoalsinordertoacquiresomevitalenergy
foritsown'ideas.'Withouttherepressedenergywithdrawnfrom'life'inthisprocessofsublimationthespiritisimpotentand
inoperative.(xxxixxxii)

Scheler,18741928

NOTESTOSCHELER'STEXT:(nb:seemytranslationofTOC)

Pages335
AUTHORSPREFACE
QuestionsthathavedoggedScheler
Whatisthehuman(derMensch)?

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

Whatisherplaceinbeing(inSein)?
o Notinthenatureofthings(3)

manismoreofaproblemtohimselfatthepresenttimethaneverbeforeinallrecordedhistory.Attheverymomentwhenman
admitsthatheknowslessthaneverabouthimselfthereseemstotohavearisenanewcouragetotruthfulnesstoraisethis
questionofessencewithoutanycommitmenttoanytraditionthathasprevaileduptonow.(modified1 3)

THEPROBLEMATIC:THEIDEAOFTHEHUMAN
Threeirreconcilableanswerstoquestion:whatisthehuman?
1) Theologicalanthropology:thatoftheJewishChristiantradition
2) Philosophicalanthropology:thatoftheGreektradition
a. Thehumanisdefinedbyreason
i. Participantinatranscendentalorsuperhumanreason
3) Scientificanthropology:thatofmodernscienceandgenetic(developmental)psychology
a. Thehumanisarecentproductofblindevolution
b. Differenceofdegree(ofcomplexity)betweenthehumanandotherlifeforms

atnotimeinhishistoryhasmanbeensomuchaproblemtohimselfasheisnow(6)

Nounifiedideaofman,i.e.,thehuman

thehuman
1) Thenaturalsystematicconceptofthehuman
a. Inonesense,itsignifiestheparticularmorphologicalcharacteristicsofmanasasubclassofthevertebratesand
mammals.(6)
2) Theessenceconceptofthehuman:
a. Thewordman,inthesecondsense,signifiesasetofcharacteristics,whichmustbesharplydistinguishedfrom
theconceptanimalincludingallmammalsandvertebrates.(7)

THESTAGESOFPSYCHOPHYSICALBEING.THEPLANT,THEANIMAL,THEHUMAN.
Livingbeingsnotmerelyobjectsofexternalperception,livingcreaturesalsohaveaninnerbeingandforselfbeing,inwhich
they,themselves,turninward.
o Inotherwords,anymodeofoutwardbehaviorisalwaysexpressingtheinnerstateaswell,forthereisnoinner
statewhichdoesnotexpressitselfdirectlyorindirectlyinbehavior.Thusitcanalwaysbeexplainedintwo
respects,inbothpsychologicalandphysiologicaltermsatthesametime.(15)
Lowestformofpsychicliferepresentedbyplantlife
o unconsciousvitalfeeling(Gefhlsdrang)devoidofsensationorrepresentation(vorstellungslose)
o Itisthepowerbehindeveryactivity,evenbehindthoseonthehighestspirituallevel,anditprovidestheenergy
evenforthepurestactsofthoughtandthemosttenderexpressionsofgoodwill.(9)
Thisfirstleveloftheinnersideoflife,thevitalimpulse,isnotonlypresentinallanimalsbutalsopresent
inthehuman.(13)
thisimpulseistheunityofallthehighlydifferentiateddrivesandaffectsinman.(13)
Thebasisoftheprimitivebrain(notSchelersexpression)
o Purposive,goaloriented
Generaldrivetowardvitalneeds(growthandreproduction)
Impelledtowardandfrom
Directedonlytowardtheunspecifiedwholeofpossibleresistancesandrealitiesimportanttothelifeof
thebotanicalorganism
Impulsewhollydirectedtothatwhichisexternal
o ekstatischemGefhlsdrang
Notanempiricalconcept
o Notimpelledtowardanyspecificstimuli
Moreover,thisvitalfeelingisalsothesubjectofthatprimaryexperienceof
resistancewhichistherootofexperiencingwhatiscalledreality,especially
theunityandtheimpressionofrealitywhichprecedesanyspecific
representation.(14)
1

"modified"meanstranslationalteredbyBobSandmeyerusuallytoreflectthetextmoreliterally

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

o rhythmic
Lacksanyreflexarcreferringbacktotheorganismsvitalcenter
o Yetwefindintheplanttheoriginalphenomenonofexpressiveness,oracertain
physiognomyofitsinnerstates,suchasfeeble,vigorous,luxuriant,orpoor.(12)
Expressiveness:aphenomenonoflife
o Lackinganysenseofinnerbeing(notinnerlife)
Nomemoryorcapacitytolearn
o Passive
Althoughincapableofadaptingitselfactivelytotheenvironment,whetherdeadoralive,theplanthas
teleoclitic*relationsbothtotheinorganicsubstancesintheenvironmentandtoinsectsandbirds,for
example.Thusinametaphysicalsense,theplantmuchmorethantheanimalmaybesaidtobeproofof
theunityoflifebehindallmorphologicalchangesandofthegradualgrowthofalltypesoflivingformsin
closedsystemsofmatterandenergy.(13)
theprincipleattheunknownrootsoflifemayactinaccordancewithfancifulplay,regulatedby
anaestheticorder(Ibid.)
Schelercoinedtheword"teleoclitic"*forthiskindofpurposivenesswhichdoesnotdependon
individualrepresentation.(Affectivity:thepowerbaseofmoralbehaviorbySebastianA.Samay,
O.S.B.http://www.crvp.org/book/Series01/I12/chapter_i.htm)
o Klineintoinclineorturn,tolean
Cf.enclitic,proclitic
o Teleotocomeintobeing,tobequiteorfullyso
o Conditionsforsensoryexperience(whichtheplantlacks)
Vitalimpulseand
Motorsystem
Lackofmotorsystemsignifiesalackofsensorycapacities
Socialanimallife(bycontrast)characterizedbydualprincipleof
Pioneering
Following
Secondessentialform:instinct(asastrictlybehavioralconcept)
o Instinctivebehavior
i. sensible(sinngem)
1. Inclineteleologicallyforthewholeofthelivingsubject
a. i.e.,holisticandteleocliticcharacter
ii. hasadefiniteandunchangingrhythm
1. notreflexive
2. apatternintime
3. notacquiredthroughassociationorhabit(trialanderror)
4. maybepurposivetowardafaroffortemporallydistantend
iii. itrespondsonlytotypicallyrecurringsituationswhicharesignificantforthelifeofthespeciesandnot
fortheparticularlifeoftheindividual(16)
1. Neitherlearnedbehaviornoranintelligentbehavior
2. Neverareactiontospecificfactorsintheenvironment
iv. Innateandhereditary
1. Coordinatedwithfixedstagesofdevelopment
a. "instinctisalwaysapartofthegrowthofthespeciesitself"(19)
v. aformofbehaviorwhichisindependentofthenumberofattemptsthatananimalmakesinorderto
dealwithasituation(17)
1. Completefromthestart,notdeveloped
2. Capableofspecializationthroughlearningandexperience
o "whatananimalcanperceive(vorstellen)andsense(empfinden)isdeterminedandcontrolledbytheapriori
relationofitsinstinctstothestructureofitsenvironment"(modified18)
Memoryisdeterminedandconditionedundersuchstricturesaswell
o BrainStructure:Instinctivebehaviorvs.higherlevelbehaviorsthesynthesisanddissociationofthesensory
manifold
"Wecanshowthatpsychicprocesses(Ablufe)determinedbylawsofassociationorhabitarelocalized
considerablyhigherinthenervoussystemthanareinstinctivemodesofbehavior.Thefixedstructureof
meaningfulbehaviorcomplexes(festgegliedertenSinneinheitlichkeitendesVerhaltens)is,onthewhole

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

conditionedsubcortically.Thecerebralcortexisessentiallyanorganofdissociation,notofassociation,
ascomparedwiththemoreunifiedandmoredeeplylocalizedmodesofbehavior."(1920)
Twoprimitivedevelopmentsofinstinctivebehavior
o Disintegrationofsensuousunitybyemergenceofsimplesensationsandrepresentations
andassociativeconnectionbetweenthemteleologicalmotivated
o Beginningsofintelligence
Artful(notartificial)attempttomakesensiblethatwhichisatfirstasense
emptyautomatism
Nonmechanistic
o "creativedissociation,notassociationorsynthesisofindividualpieces,isthebasic
processofpsychicevolution"(20)
o Instinctivebehavior"representsanindividualunityofforeknowledgeandactionsothatthereisnevermore
knowledgethanwhatisinvolvedinthenextstageofaction."(21)
Thebeginningoftheseparationofsensationandreaction(reflexarc[Reflexbogen])
Neitheraknowledgethroughthoughtsorimagesandrepresentations
"Itisafeelingofvaluechargedresistanceswhicharedifferentiatedasattractiveorrepulsiveaccordingto
thesevalueimpressions"(21)
Thirdessentialformofpsychiclife:Habitualmodeofbehavior,i.e.,"associativememory"
o Typifiedbyconditionedtraining
Behaviorsmodifiedslowlyandcontinuously
Trainingoccursonthebasisofearliertrialanderror
pointstoaninnatedriveofrepetition
o Habituationpresupposesaconditionedreflex
"thecapacityofreportingorganicstatesbacktoacentralagencyormotorsystem"(23)
o Conditionedreflexisnotidenticaltoassociativememory
"associativememory,localizedinthehigherregionsofthecortex,isalatephenomena"(25)
Regulativelawsofassociation(contiguityandresemblance[andaccordingtoHume,succession,
i.e.,causeandeffect])arise
o onthebasisofhabituation
o inthecontextofdrivemotivations
"insight"(intellectualinfluence)atworkintheproductionofassociationsbymeansoftrialand
error
o Associativeprincipleoccursintheseparationofthesensorysystemfromthemotorsystem,i.e.,thereflexarc
Atworkinallanimals
Traditionasimitation(cf.repetitiondrive)
Socialanimallife(bycontrast)characterizedbydualprincipleof
o Pioneering
o Following
Notaculturalinheritance:nonsymbolic,nothistorical
o "traditionispresentalreadyamongherdsandpacksandothersocialformsofanimal
life"(26)
Wheretheherd"learns"whatthepioneersetsforthandthismakespossible
itstransmissiontocominggenerations(heavilymodified26)
o "Thedissolutionoftheforceoftraditionisacontinuousprocessinhumanhistory;itis
anachievementofratiowhichinoneandthesameactobjectifiesthecontentof
traditionandthrowsitback,asitwere,intothepasttowhichitbelongs."(modified27)
o Makespossibletheemergenceoftheindividualfromthespecies
"Thustheindividualceasestobenomorethanapointoftransitioninthereproductiveprocessofthe
species."(27)
Freesdrives,feelingsandaffectsfromtheirinstinctivebehavioralfunctionintheserviceofspecies
"The'pleasureprinciple,'therefore,isnotanoriginalphenomenon,ashedonismbelieves,buta
consequenceofanintensifiedassociativeintelligence."(28)
Fourthformofpsychiclife:practicalintelligence
o "Intelligentbehavior"
Capableofrespondingtoanewsituationmeaningfully
Withouttrialanderror

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

Cleverlyorfoolishly,prudently,cunningly
Capableofdrivedeterminedproblemsuddenly
Practicalaimsatsomeactionwhosegoalissetoutbyitsdrives
o Asopposedtospiritualgoals
o Psychologicalcharacterof"intelligence"
"Suddeninsightintoaconnectedcontextoffactsandvalueswithintheenvironmentthatisneithergiven
directlyinperceptionnorhadbeenperceivedinsuchmannerearlier,i.e.,asitwereaonhand
reproductively."(modified30)
Partlygiveninexperience
Partlygiveninananticipatoryrepresentation
o Theprehavingofanewsituationneverbeforeencountered
o Newfortheindividual(notthespecies)
o "theobjectiverelationsintheenvironmentdeterminedandselected,asitwere,inaccordancewiththeroleofthe
drivewhichproducethenewidea"(30)
Thechimpanzeemanipulatingtheobjectsinhiscageinordertogetthebanana(thegoalobject)
Toolobjects
o "Itisthedynamicenergyofthedriveitselfthatishereobjectifiedandprojectedinto
constituentsoftheenvironment."(32)2
o Displacementofdriveontothingworld
"Intheanimal,ofcourse,therestructuringofthefieldwhichwehavebeen
describingdoesnottakeplacethroughconscious,reflectiveactivity,butrather
throughakindofintuitive,objectivereplacingofthethingsinthe
environment."(33)
Not,however,aninstinctivebehavior
Sameprincipleappliestochoice
"itisamistakesupposethatanimalsarealwaysmovedbythestrongerimpulse"(33)
o Animallackscapacitytochoosebetweenvaluesassuch
Theusefuloverthepleasant
o Neverthless,choiceinsinuatestheproductionofgoods
Somedeferredforothers
"wefindinanimalsthecapacityforgenerosity,help,reconciliation,
friendship,andsimilarphenomena."(34)
THEESSENCEOFSPIRIT:FREEDOM,WORLDCONSCIOUSNESSANDSELFCONSCIOUSNESS,ACTUALITY,ANINALANDTHEHUMAN
Humananimaldifference:anessentialdifference
o Differencenotbasedon:
Capacitytochoose
(Practical)intelligence
o Principleopposedtolifeassuch:SPIRIT(36)
Greekconceptionofthisprinciple:reason
1. Conceptualthought
o Intuitionofessences
o Voluntaryandemotionalacts(valueandchoice)
Therootofpersonhood
SPIRIT:"freedomanddetachabilityfromthebondageandpressureoflife,fromitsdependenceuponall
thatbelongstolife,includingitsowndrivemotivatedintelligence"(37)
1. Freefromenvironment
2. "opentotheworld"
o Thehuman"capableoftransformingtheprimarycentersofresistanceandreaction
into"objects"(Gegenstnden)(37)
o Theanimalremainsimmersedamidstthethingswhichpush/pullherthiswayandthat
"ecstatically"
3. "Spiritisthusobjectivity(Sachlichkeit),orthedeterminabilitybyvirtueofthewaybeingisofthe
thingsthemselves."(modified37)
o Reversal(Umkehrung)turnaround

DieTriebdynumikimTiereselbstises,diesichhierzuversachlichenundindieUmbebungsbestandteilehineinzuerweitern
beginnt.(36)

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

Animalbeinginanenvironment
Firstact:impetusfromaphysiologicalpsychologicalcondition
Secondact:makingactualchangestoenvironmentasaresultoffreeactionwithrespecttodominantgoal
setbyitsdrives
Thirdact:concomitantchangeinphysiologicalpsychologicalcondition
o Thehumanbeingintheworld
Firstact:"behavior(comportment,relation)is"motivated"frompurethewayofbeingofanobject
graspedbycomplexesofrepresentationsandsensations"(modified38)
Secondact:free(voluntary)*release(Enthemmung)fromadriveimpulse(andcorrespondingreaction)
1. *i.e.,voluntaryorfreerestrainingofadriveimpusleproceedingfromthecoreoftheperson
Thirdact:analterationoftheobjectivityofathing(Sache)whichisexperienceasselfsufficientandfinal
o "Becominghumanistheelevationtoworldopennessbyvirtueofspirit."(modified39)
o Actofbeing
Theanimal:
1. Ecstaticbeing
o Intelligencestrictlytiedtoorganicdrivesandpracticalneeds
Thehuman:
1. "capableofexpandinghisenvironmentintothedimensionofaworldandobjectifying
resistance."(40)
2. Selfconscious:consciousnesswhichthespiritualcenterofactionhasofitself
a. Concentration"Sammlung
i. EnsimismamientoyalteracinOrtegayGasset
"Fouressentiallevelsinwhichallexistence(Seiende)manifestsitselfwithregardtoinnerbeing."(modified41)
o Inorganicbeinghavenobeingforself,noinnerbeing
1. Plant
a. Vitaldrives
b. Noreportingbacktocenter(nervoussystem)
2. Animal
a. Ecstatic
b. Bothsensationandconsciousness
i. "theanimallacksacenterwhichwouldrelateallthepsychophysicalfunctionsofseeing,hearing,
smelling,andgrasping,andthedifferentthingscoordinatedwiththem,intoaunitybelongingto
oneandthesameconcreteobject."(43)
3. Thehuman
a. Selfconsciousbyvirtueofspirit
b. Capacitytoobjectify
i. Thingssheisincommercewith
ii. Herownpsychicstates
4. Theperson(i.e.,spiritualcenterofman)
a. First,"mustbethoughtofasthecenterraisedbeyondtheoppositionoforganismandenvironment"(42)
i. "worldspace"relatesbacktospiritualcenter,i.e.,selfreferencingcapacity
ii. "Onlyinmandowefindthestrangephenomenonthatbothspatialandtemporalemptiness
appearspriorto,andisthebasisof,allpossibleperceptionsintheworldofobjects."(45)
b. Second,"Thecenter,however,fromwhichmanperformstheactsbymeansofwhichheobjectifiesbody,
psycheandworldinitsspatialandtemporalabundance,cannotitselfbe"piece"ofthisworld.Italso
cannothaveadeterminatesomewhereorsometime.Itcanonlybeplacedinthehighestgroundof
being(Seinsgrunde)itself."(modified47)
c. Third,"Spiritisthesolebeingincapableof,itself,beinganobject.Itispureactualityandhasitsbeing
solelyinthefreeperformanceofitsacts.Thecenterofspirit,the"person,"isneitherobjectivenor
thinglybeingbutratheronlyacontinuouslyselfexecutingorderedstructureofacts(essentially
determined)."(modified47)
i. "Psychicactsarecapableofobjectification,butnotthespiritualacttheintentionalityitselfwhich
makesthepsychicprocessvisible.Wecanonly"collect"ourselveswithregardtoourbeingasa
person:wecanconcentrateuponit;wecannotobjectifyit."(47)
1. "Mitvollzug"empatheticbeingwithanother
2. Verstehen(understanding)asthegreatestcontrasttoVergegenstndlichung
(objectification)
o

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

ii. "Ifweenvisagethe"psychic"andthe"physical"astwoaspectsofthesamelifeprocess,towhich
correspondtwomodesofobservinganddescribingthesamephenomenon,thentheremustbe
anxwhichmakesthesedifferentobservationsandwhichmusttranscendtheoppositionofbody
andsoul.Thisxisnothingotherbutthespiritobjectifyingallbutaswesaw,nevercomingto
beitselfobjective.Iflifeisnonspatialbutneverthelesstemporalbeingthenwhatwename
"spirit"isnotonlytransspatialbutalsotranstemporal."(modified81)
IDEATINGCOGNITIONOFESSENCESASAFUNDAMENTALACTOFSPIRIT
Specialspiritualact:ideation
o whatisx?whatisthenature(Sosein)ofx(Dasein)
o Examples
ConversionofBuddhaasexample
Descartesintuitionofthewax
Wholefieldofmathematics
o Ideation,therefore,meanstograsptheessentialmodesandformalstructuresoftheworldthroughasinglecase
only,independentofthenumberofobservationsandinductiveinferenceswhichbelongtointelligence.(50)
Universallyvalidknowledge
Validbeyondthelimitsofsensoryexperience
1. aprioriinsights
o Functions
Forpositivesciences:providesfundamentalaxioms
Formetaphysics:evidencethattheworldcannotbereducedtocausesofthefinitekind
1. Windowintotheabsolute(Hegel)
2. Secondaryattributeofthesuperindividualexisting(seienden)Ensase
o Essentialcharacteristicofthehuman:aprioriknowledge
Historicalreason:whatisconstantisreasonasadispositionandcapacitytoshapeandform,through
actualizationofnewessentialinsights,newformsofthoughts,intuition,loveandvalue.(modified51)
1. Takeshapeinandinitiatedbypioneersandsharedbyparticipationwithrestofmankind
o Techniqueofideation:theactofreduction
Existence

1. "toopposethisreality(ofthehereandnow)withanemphatic'No.'"(52)
o Buddha
o Plato
o Husserl
"WhileIdonotgoalongwithHusserl'stheoryofreductioninitsdetails,Ido
believethatitreferstotheessentialactbywhichthehumanspiritmustbe
defined."(52)
2. Distinction:thewaysomethingis(Sosein)vs.theexistenceofthatthing(Dasein)
o (Dasein)"Existence(=beingactual)isgiventousmoreoverintheexperienceof
resistanceinaworldspherealreadydisclosedandthisresistantisthereforour
striving,forourlibidinallife,forourcentrallifeimpulse.Thatwhichexistsistherefor
usastheexperiencedimpressionofresistanceagainstthelowest,mostprimitive
feelingimpulseofthatlevelofanimatelifeinhering,aswesaw,evenintheplant.
(modified512)
Thisisnotinferentialinanysense
"Theexperienceofrealityisthusentirelyour"representation"oftheworldnot
postbutratherpregiven."(55)
o Sosein"thewaysomethingis"thecharacteristicsofaphysicalthing,includingcolor,
shape,andextension,andorganizationorthesecharacteristicsinathing
3. Perceptionatalllevelsdowntothemoststrikinglyimpressionalisafunctionoftheimpulse
ofthelifedrivecodeterminingthestimulationofthenervoussystem.
Thisradical"No"deactualizingorideatingtheworld
1. "Itdoesnotmean,asHusserlsuggested,abstainingfromtheexistentialjudgment(whichliesin
anynaturalactofperception."(54)
2. "Ifexistencemeansresistance,thecancelingofrealitycanonlybethekindofasceticactby
whichwesuspendtheoperationofthevitalimpulseinrelationtowhichtheworldappearsas
resistance,andwhichisthepreconditionforallsensoryexperienceofthenowherethus."
(modified54)

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos
3.

"Onlyspiritinitsformaspure"will"caneffecttheinactualizationofthatcenteroffeelingdrive
byanactofwillandthatmeansanactofrepression."(modified54)
o Thecansuppresshisownvitaldrives
Invertedbeingtheasceticlife
o IrrelevanttoanWeltanschauung(particularworldview)
Buddhatheascentofspiritistheultimategoodbecauserealityisinherently
evil
Scheler"wemusttrytoreturnfromthesphereofessencestoactualityand
itsnowherethusbeinginordertoimproveit(inthiscaseexistenceis,to
beginwith,neutralwithrespecttogoodandevil)"(modified55)
Nietzsche"envisagethetruelifeandestinyofmanintermsofaneternal
rhythmicmovementbetweenideaandreality,spiritandinstinctandinthe
reconciliationofthisconstanttension."(Ibid.)
o "thehumanisinrelationtotheanimaltheeternalFaust"(55)
o "Onlymanasalivingbeingintroduceslawandorderintonature,notfromarational,
butfromabiologicalnecessity."(67)
o
4. Sublimation
o Thehumancanconstructherperceptionsvisvasanidealworldofideas
o Bythismeans,makeaccessibletospirittheenergyslumberingintherepresseddrives
o Sublimationand"evolution"
"Sublimationwouldthendesignatethenaturalprocessbywhichenergiesofa
lowersphereofbeing,inthecourseofevolution,aremadeavailabletohigher
formsofbeingandbecoming."(68)
THEPROBLEMOFSUBLIMATION,CRITIQUEOFTHE"CLASSICAL"ANDNEGATIVE"THEORY.SUBLIMATIONASWORLDEVENT
SpiritasSchelerdescribesit
o Spiritis,aswesaid,ultimatelyanattributeofabeingitself,thatbecomesmanifestinthehumanintheunityof
concentrationofthepersoncollecteduntoherself.Butspiritassuchisinpureformoriginallywithoutevery
power,force,oractivityabsolutely.(modified56)
Notaproductofasceticism,repressionandsublimation
"Spirithasitsownnatureandautonomy,butlacksanoriginalenergyofitsown."(57)
o Twofoldprocessofspiritualsublimation(theprocessofmakingspiritcomealive(62))
Direction(Lenkung):inhibitionandreleaseofvitalimpulsesthroughthespiritualwill
Guidance(Leitung):processofpresentingideasandvalueswhicharethenrealizedthroughtheimpulses
1. BothpresupposeawithdrawalwhichOrtegayGassetdiscussesinhistheoryofaction,cf.esp.
ManandPeople,chapter1
o "Thespiritualcenterofactivity,whichwehavecalledthepersoninthehuman,isnotasubstancebuta
monarchisticstructureofacts,inwhichoneofthemassumesleadershipandguidancewithwhichthehuman
"identifiesherself"with."(modified64)
o Twomistakenviews:
Naturalismassertsthathigherformsofbeingdevelopgeneticallyfromlower
VitalismandIdealismassertthathigherformsarecausesoflowerformsoflife
1. Directionoflifefromplanttoanimaltothehumanrepresentaloss(ofindependence)
2. "thelowestformsarethemostpowerful,andthehighestthemostimpotent"(66)
o "Asdifferentaslifeandspiritareintheessentialbeing,theyaremutuallyrelatedtoeachotherinman.Spirit
infuseslifewithideas,butonlylifeiscapableofinitiatingandrealizingspiritualactivity,fromitssimplestacttothe
achievementofataskofgreatspiritualcontent."(81)
Spiritandlifearecomplementaryprinciples"(85)
TwoConceptionsofSpiritbothofwhichSchelerrejects
o ClassicalGreekConception
Spiritisthemotiveforceinthesoul
1. Ahistoricalworldview:"thehigherformsofbeingfromtheGodheadtobrutematterarealsothe
morepowerfulones"(57)
2. GodisSpiritpureandsimple
Doctrineoftheautonomouspoweroftheidea
1. IncludesJudaeoChristiantradition,whereGodispurespirit
Twomainversions

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

1. Doctrineofthespiritualsubstanceofman
2. Doctrineofpanspirit
o NegativeTheory
Spiritisaproductoftherepressionofdrivesandimpulses
1. SomeExamples
o Buddha'sdoctrineofsalvation
Bycancellingornullifyingofdesire(thirst)theveilofmayawillbelifted,i.e.,
theentireworldstructurewilldisappear
o Schopenhauer'sdoctrineoftheselfnegationofthewilltolive
Onlythehumanhasthecapabilityofselfnegationbywhichspringallhigher
formsofconsciousnessandknowledge
PaulAlsberg,TheRiddleofMankind
o Organicadaptation
Cf.AlfredAdler
o Reasonerroneouslyidentifiedwithdiscursivethought
o Freud,esp.BeyondthePleasurePrinciple
Neurosesaproductoftherepressionofinstinctsanddrives
Sublimation
Theapplicationofdrivesandinstinctsinapositiveaspectthe
foundationofallhigherculturaldevelopment
Negativetheoryhasnoanswertoquestion:whatisitinthehumanthatnegates?Whatdeniesthewillto
life?Whatrepressestheimpulses?Andforthesakeofwhatgoalsorvalues?
1. Presupposesspiritfor"itispreciselythespiritthatinitiatestherepressionofinstincts."(62)
2. "theautonomyofspiritisthebasicpresuppositionfortheideaoftruthandthepossibilityof
discoveringtruth"(63)
3. Proponents:
o Epicurus
o Hobbes
o Machiavelli
o LaMettrie
o Schopenhauer
o Marx
o Freud
"Theworldviewsketchherecutsthroughthedualismthathasprevailedforsomanycenturies:thedualismbetweena
"teleological"anda"mechanistic"explanationoftheactualityoftheworld."
o Teleological:wherehigherpowersdeterminethelowerforms
o Mechanistic:wherespiritisconceivedasaproductofimpulsesanddrives
Scheler'stheologicalconception:historicalselfdeification
o "Ifwecalldeitasthepurelyspiritualattributeinthehighestgroundofallfinitebeing,thenwecannotimpute
anypositive,creativepowertowhatwecallspiritortheGodhead(Gottheit)inthisground.Theideaofa
worldcreationoutofnothingfalterswiththisview.Ifthisprimordialtensionofspiritandimpulseissituatedin
beingthroughitself(Seindurchsichselbst),thentherelationofbeingtoworldmustbeofanotherkind.In
ordertorealizeitsdeitas,oritsinherentplenitudeofideasandvalues,thegroundofthings(GrundderDinge)was
compelledtoreleasetheworldcreativedrive.Itwascompelled,asitwere,topaythepriceofthisworldprocess
inordertorealizeitsownessenceinandthroughthistemporalprocess.Andthisbeingthroughitself(Seindurch
sich)woulddeservetobecalleddivinebeingonlytothedegreetowhichitrealizesitseternaldeitasinthe
processofworldhistoryinandthroughman.Infact,thisprocess,essentiallytimelessbutmanifestingitselfintime
forourfiniteexperience,canapproachitsgoaltheselfrealizationoftheGodheadonlytothedegreetowhich
whatwecall"world"becomestheperfectlycompletebodyoftheeternalsubstance."(modified7071)
UNITYBODYSOULANDTHEMETAPHYSICALDUALISMSPIRITLIFE,CRITIQUEOFDESCARTES;CRITIQUEOFNATURALISTICTHEORIES,
OFTHETHEORYOFL.KLAGES
CartesianDualismrepresentsaphenomenologicallyincoherentviewoflivingbeing
o "ForDescartes,theworldconsistsonlyofthinking"points"andofgiganticmechanismtobeexplored
mathematically.Thereisonlyonethingofvalueinhistheory:thenewautonomyandsovereigntyaccordedto
spirit."(72)
Mind=purespirit
Animalbody=mechanismsubjecttophysicalcausality

BobSandmeyer,notesofMaxScheler'sMan'sPlaceintheCosmos

10

"weshouldguardagainoveremphasizingpurelyphysiologicalexplanations"(77)
NaturalisticTheories
o Twotypes
Onewhichisonesidedlymechanistic
E.g.,Democritus,Epicurus,andLucretius,LaMettrie
Onewhichisonesidedlyvitalistic
E.g.,Hume,Mach
Contra.L.Klages
o Twomainfallacies
Conceivesreasonasdiscursive
Asopposedtoideational
Conceivesspiritasakindofforce
Seespiritandlifeatodds
"Physiologicalandpsychicprocessesoflifearestrictlyidenticalinanontologicalsense"(74)
o Twowaysoflookingatthesameprocessoflife
o "Itispreciselythissystem(ofdrives)thatconstitutestheessentialunityandthatmediatesbetweeneverygenuine
livingprocessandthecontentsofconsciousness."(underliningmine,76)
CritiqueofWesternmedicine(78)
o "Psychophysicallifeisone.Thisunityisafactforallformsoflife,includingman.Thereisnottheslightestreason
tothinkthatthereismorethanadifferenceindegreebetweenthepsychiclifeinmanorintheanimal"(78)
o Instead,thedualismwhichweencounterinmanandwhichweexperiencesubjectivelyinourselvesisofahigher
andmoreprofoundlyencompassingorder:itistheoppositionbetweenspiritandlife."(modified80)
o "Spiritandlifearecomplementaryandinterrelated.Itisafallacytorepresentthemasoriginalenemiesconsumed
instrugglewitheachother.'Hehohasthoughtmostdeeplylovesthatwhichismostalive.'"(87)
ONTHEMETAPHYSICALPLACEOFTHEHUMAN
"Forusthebasicrelationshipbetweenmanandtheworldgroundconsistsinthefactthatthisgroundcomprehendsand
realizesitselfdirectlyinthehuman,who,bothasspiritandasalife(Lebewesen),isbutapartiallocusofspiritandthedrive
of'thatwhichisbyvirtueofabeing'."(modified92)

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