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In this issue:

The Council of Gangra


St Columba of Iona
St Ninian: Scotlands First Saint
Iona of My Heart
Macbeth, King of Scotland
Two Scottish Prayers
and much more . . .

Vol 16, Number 2


December 2012

X
O R T H O D O X E N G L A N D V O L . 1 6 N O . 2
w w w .o rth o d o x e n g la n d .o rg .u k
A Q u a rte rly Jo u rn a l o f E n g lis h O rth o d o x R e a d in g
D e c e m b e r 2 0 1 2
C O N T E N T S
E d ito ria l: T h e C o u n c il o f G a n g ra ........................................................................................ 1
F ro m

th e H o ly F a th e rs : S t C o lu m b a o f Io n a

...................................................................... 2

S t N i n i a n : S c o tl a n d s F ir s t S a in t .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 5
Io n a o f M y H e a rt
F ro m

Io n a

.............................................................................................................. 7

........................................................................................................................ 1 2

M a c b e th , K in g o f S c o tla n d : F o re ru n n e r o f S c h is m

............................................................ 1 2

O rth o d o x y S h in e s T h ro u g h W e s te rn M y th s (8 ): T h e M a k in g o f E u ro p e

............................1 3

Q u e s tio n s a n d A n s w e rs .................................................................................................... 1 7
B o o k R e v ie w : M ille n n iu m : T h e E n d o f th e W o rld a n d th e F o rg in g o f C h ris te n d o m

.......... 2 4

T w o S c o ttis h P ra y e rs ........................................................................................................ 2 5

P u
o f
E d
A r
A d
P u

O R T H O
b lis h e d
th e C h u
ito r:
t W o rk :
d re s s:
b lic a tio

D O X E N G
w ith th e b
rc h O u ts id
F

n d a te s :

L A N D
le s s in g o f th e V e ry R e v e r e n d M a r k , A r c h b is h o p o f th e D io c e s e o f G re a t B r ita in a n d Ir e la n d
e R u s s ia .
r A n d re w P h illip s .
Eadmund (Daysign).
S e e k in g s H o u s e , G a r fie ld R o a d , F e lix s to w e , S u ffo lk IP 1 1 7 P U , E n g la n d .
1 S e p te m b e r, 1 D e c e m b e r, 1 M a rc h , 1 Ju n e .

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

E d ito ria l:
T H E C O U N C IL O F G A N G R A
H E C o u n c il o f G a n g ra , in P a p h la g o n ia in
A s ia M in o r, w a s h e ld in 3 4 0 . It w a s a tte n d e d
b y th irte e n b is h o p s a n d is s u e d tw e n ty -o n e
c a n o n s . It h a d b e e n c a lle d to c o u n te r a c e rta in
B is h o p E u s ta th iu s o f S e b a s te in A rm e n ia , w h o h a d
p re a c h e d a s p iritu a lis tic h e re s y c o n n e c te d w ith
G n o s tic is m . H e a n d h is h e re tic a l d is c ip le s h e ld th e
a n ti- In c a r n a tio n a l v ie w s c o n d e m n e d b y th e C o u n c il
o f G a n g ra . B p E u s ta th iu s , n a tu ra lly , a v e g e ta r ia n , w a s
e x tre m e ly s tric t a n d a s c e tic , s o m u c h s o th a t h e
h a d fa lle n in to th e h e re tic a l v ie w s c o n d e m n e d b y
th e c a n o n s b e lo w . F o r th is z e a l w ith o u t k n o w le d g e , h e w a s d e p o s e d b y th e C o u n c il o f G a n g ra
a n d h is d is c ip le s w e re e x c o m m u n ic a te d .
T h e e s s e n tia l s in o f th e E u s ta th ia n s w a s p rid e ,
th e th o u g h t th a t th e y h a d b e c o m e p e rfe c t a n d w e re
a b o v e th e C h u rc h . T h u s , th e y th o u g h t th a t th e y
c o u ld d is o b e y th e C h u rc h . P h a ris e e is m , b ig o try
a n d c e n s o rio u s ju d g e m e n t o f o th e rs w e re th e
re s u lts o f th e ir s in , w h ic h d e v e lo p e d in to h e re s y ,
fo r it le d th e m o u ts id e th e C h u rc h . T h e c a n o n s o f
G a n g ra a re c o n ta in e d in th e R u d d e r, th e b o o k o f
C a n o n L a w o f th e O rth o d o x C h u rc h , to th is d a y .
T h is is b e c a u s e th e y a re s till to p ic a l. F o r e x a m p le ,
th e c a n o n s s till to d a y d e s c rib e a c e rta in fo rm o f
p rid e a n d in v e rte d s n o b b e ry th a t c a n b e fo u n d
a m o n g th o s e , fo rtu n a te ly fe w , w h o d e s p is e th e
s im p le , n o n -in te lle c tu a l p ie ty o f o rd in a ry O rth o d o x
a n d try to s p re a d a s e c ta ria n s p irit.
It s h o u ld b e n o te d th a t th e w o rd a n a th e
u s e d in th e s e , a s in m a n y o th e r, c a n o n s , d o e s
m e a n a c u rs e , a s in c o llo q u ia l E n g lis h , b u t m e
a s e p a ra tio n . In o th e r w o rd s , in th e c o n te x t o f
C o u n c ils , it s im p ly s ig n ifie s th e s ta te m e n t o f
th a t s o m e o n e w ith s u c h h e re tic a l v ie w s
p ra c tic e s is s e p a ra te d fro m th e g ra c e o f G o d ,
th e ir te a c h in g s a n d p ra c tic e s a re w ith o u t g ra c e

If a
d is p a ra
e v e n th
o u t th a
le t h im

n y o
g e s
o u g
t sh
b e

n e d is p
a w ife
h s h e is
e c a n n o
a n a th e m

C A N O N I
a ra g e s m a rria g
w h o s le e p s w
fa ith fu l a n d re v
t e n te r th e K in
a .

o r
ith h e
e re n t,
g d o m

lo a th e
r h u sb
a n d m
o f h e a

m a
n o t
a n s
th e
fa c t
a n d
th a t
.

o r
a n d ,
a k e s
v e n ,

C A N O N II
If a n y o n e a d v e rs e ly c ritic iz e s s o m e o n e w h o e a ts
m e a t (m e a t w ith o u t b lo o d a n d th a t h a s n o t b e e n
s a c rific e d to id o ls o r s tra n g le d ) w ith re v e re n c e a n d

fa ith , c la im in g th a t h e h a s n o h o p e o f s a lv a tio n , le t
h im b e a n a th e m a .
C A N O N

III

If a n y o n e o n th e p re te x t
s e rv a n t to s c o rn h is m a s te r a
a n d n o t to g iv e h is s e rv ic e s
fa v o u r a n d a ll h o n o u r, le t h im
C A N O N
If
o n th
w h e n
a n a th

a n y o
e g ro
th a
e m a

o f
n d
to
b e

p ie
le a v
h is
a n a

ty te a c h e s a
e h is s e rv ic e
m a s te r w ith
th e m a .

IV

n e d is c rim in a te s a g a in s t a m a rrie d p rie s t


u n d s th a t h e s h o u ld n o t ta k e c o m m u n io n
t p rie s t c e le b ra te s th e L itu rg y , le t h im b e
.
C A N O N

If a n y o n e te a c h e s th a t th e c h u rc h b u ild in g is
c o n te m p tib le a n d s o a re th o s e w h o g a th e r fo r
s e rv ic e s th e re , le t h im b e a n a th e m a .
C A N O N
If a n y o n e h o ld s s e rv ic
s e p a ra te ly fro m
th e C h
C h u rc h , w a n ts to p e rfo
C h u r c h w ith o u t a p r i e s ts
c o n s e n te d to b y a b is h o p

e s in a
u rc h
rm th
h e lp ,
, le t h

C A N O N
If a n y o n
o r p ro d u c e
o f th e b is h
th o s e th in g
to a c t w ith
a n a th e m a .

e w a n ts
o u ts id e
o p o r o
s h a v e b
th e ir c o

to
th
f
e e
n s

a n y
fro
a fte
e m

c h a p
a n d ,
e fu n
a s a p
im b e

e l o f h is o
s c o rn in g
c tio n s o f
p ro v e d o f
a n a th e m a

w n ,
th e
th e
a n d
.

V II

ta k e o r g iv e C
e C h u rc h , a g a
th e p e o p le in
n p la c e d , a n d
e n t a n d a p p ro

C A N O N
If
a p a rt
lo o k
a n a th

V I

h u rc
in s t
w h
d o e
v a l,

h o
th e
o se
s n
le t

ffe rin g
a d v ic
h a n d
o t w a n
h im b

s
e
s
t
e

V III

o n e g iv e s o r ta k e s a n y fru it o r p ro d u c e ,
th e b is h o p o r th e p e rs o n a p p o in te d to
r a lm s , le t b o th th e g iv e r a n d th e ta k e r b e
a .
m

C A N O N
If a n y o n
a b o m in a tin
n o t fo r th
v irg in ity , le

e re m a in s
g m a rria g
e g o o d e
t h im b e a

a
e ,
x a
n a

v irg in
a s if h
m p le
th e m a

IX
o r k e e p s c o n tin e n c e ,
e w e re a h e rm it, a n d
a n d h o ly n a tu re o f
.

C A N O N X
If a n y o n e le a d in g a life o f v irg in ity fo r th e L o rd
p ro u d ly d e s p is e s m a rrie d p e o p le , le t h im
b e
a n a th e m a .
C A N O
If a n y o n e s c o rn s th o s e
a g a p e m e a ls a fte r th e
b ro th e rs a n d s is te rs a n d th
th e m in h o n o u rin g th e L o
th e in v ita tio n s to th e m , in
le t h im b e a n a th e m a .

If a n y m a n w
a lle g e d ly fo r th e
c la im s th a t h e is
th is a n d lo o k s d o
o rd in a ry c lo th e s ,
b e a n a th e m a .

If, fo r
a n y w o m
o rd in a ry ,
m a n s c lo

th e
a n
e v
th in

sa
c h
e ry
g ,

X I
w h o in
L itu rg y ,
e p o o r a
rd , a n d r
o rd e r to

C A N
k e o f a
a n g e s h
d a y w
le t h e r

d fa ith h o ld
w h ic h th e ir
v ite d to jo in
e s to a n s w e r
ig ra te th e m ,

X II
a n d ra g g e
a s c e tic e x e
w ith rig h te o
se w h o w e a
to th e c u s to

O N X III
n a lle g e d a
e r c lo th in g
o m a n s c lo
b e a n a th e m

C A N O N

g o o
to
re in
e fu s
d e n

d
rc
u
r
m

c lo th
is e , a
sn e ss
sm a rt
, le t h

e s,
n d
b y
o r
im

If a
d e v o te
in a s m u
to b e g
a s c e tic
a n a th e

s c e tic e x e rc is e ,
a n d in s te a d o f
th in g , p u ts o n
a .

C A N O N
If a n y
o f g o d lin
p io u s , a n
g o d lin e s s
th e m , le t

If a n y
x e rc is e ,
e m in d h
u sb a n d ,
h e h a s d

c h ild re n
e s s , a ll
d fa il to
, th a t is
th e m b e

w o m a
c u ts o
e r th a
le t h e
is o b e y

le
th
p
to
a

a v
e
a y
sa
n a

C A
n , fo r
ff h e r
t s h e
r b e a
e d th

X V

h is
d in
n th
o d ,
c ts
g

c h ild re n o r
th e m , a n
e m , to b rin g
a n d , o n th e p
th e m , le t

fa ils
fa
th e m
re te x
h im

to
ils ,
u p
t o f
b e

o n th e p re
e p a re n ts
th e ir p a re
e n d tim e w

te x t
a re
n ts
ith

X V I

e th e ir p a
m o re s o
d u e h o n
y , re fu s e
th e m a .

re n
if
o r
to

th e
h o n
p rid
a n a

If a n y o n e
s e rv ic e s
o u r o f th
e a n d is
th e m a .

fin d s fa u
, litu rg ie
e m a rty rs
o v e rc o m
s

ts
th
to
sp

N O N X V II
th e s a k e o f a n a
h a ir, w h ic h G o
is s u b je c t to th
n a th e m a , o n th e
e c o m m a n d to b

lle
d
e
g
e

g e
g a
w
ro
o b

d a s c e tic
v e h e r to
ill o f h e r
u n d s th a t
e d ie n t.

N G L A N D

a lle g e d a s c e tic
b e a n a th e m a .

X IX

a s c e tic e x e rc is e , w ith o u t
e th e m s e lv e s o n th is a n d
e C h u rc h a n d a p p o in te d
th e d e lu s io n th a t th e ir
is p e rfe c t, le t th e m b e

lt w ith
a n d
, b e c a u
e w ith

C A N O N

X IV

in
p rid
y th
d e r
tte r

C A N O N

If a n y w o m a n a b a n d o n s h e r h u s b a n d a n d w a n ts
to le a v e h im b e c a u s e s h e a b o m in a te s m a rria g e , le t
h e r b e a n a th e m a .
C A N O
y o n e a b a n d o n s
h im s e lf to fe e
h a s it d e p e n d s o
d ly a n d re s p e c t G
e x e rc is e , n e g le
a .

If a n y o n e fo r th e s a k e o f a n
e x e rc is e fa s ts o n a S u n d a y , le t h im

If a n y w h o e n g a g e
p h y s ic a lly n e e d in g it,
b re a k th e fa s ts , k e p t b
fo r a ll C h ris tia n s , u n
re a s o n in g in th is m a
a n a th e m a .

X V III

C A N O N

C A N O N
e a rs p o o r
s a k e o f
e n d o w e d
w n o n th o
a c c o rd in g

C A N O N

R T H O D O X

X X
th o s e
c o m m
se h e
lo a th

w h o g a th e r fo r
e m o ra tio n s in
is im b u e d w ith
in g , le t h im b e

X X I

W e s ta te th e s e th in g s n o t in o rd e r to c u t o ff fro m
th e C h u rc h o f G o d th o s e w h o w is h to e n g a g e in
a s c e tic e x e rc is e a c c o rd in g to th e S c rip tu re s , b u t to
c u t o ff th o s e w h o ta k e th e m a tte r o f a s c e tic
e x e rc is e s a s s o m e th in g to b e p ro u d o f, w h o lo o k
d o w n o n th o s e w h o liv e a n d b e h a v e in a n e a s ie r
m a n n e r a n d w h o in tro d u c e n o v e ltie s c o n tra ry to
th e S c rip tu re s a n d th e c a n o n s o f th e C h u rc h . F o r
w e d o in d e e d a d m ire v irtu e w ith h u m ility ,
w e lc o m e c o n tin e n c e w ith m o d e s ty a n d g o d lin e s s ,
e s te e m in g th o s e w h o le a v e w o rld ly a ffa irs w ith
h u m ility to b e c o m e h e rm its , a n d w e h o n o u r
m o d e s t c o h a b ita tio n in m a rria g e a n d d o n o t
d e s p is e w e a lth w ith ju s tic e a n d th e d o in g o f g o o d .
W e a ls o p ra is e fru g a lity a n d m o d e s t a n d p la in
d re s s , w h ic h is w o rn s o le ly to p ro te c t th e b o d y ;
w h e re a s w e a b h o r lo o s e a n d e x a g g e ra te d fa s h io n s
in d re s s . W e a ls o h o n o u r th e h o u s e s o f G o d a n d
e m b ra c e th e s e rv ic e s h e ld th e re a s h o ly a n d
b e n e fic ia l; th o u g h w e d o n o t c o n fin e p ie ty to th e s e
h o u s e s o f G o d , b u t h o n o u r e v e ry p la c e b u ilt in th e
n a m e o f G o d . W e a ls o c o n s id e r g a th e rin g in th e
c h u rc h o f G o d to b e a b e n e fit to th e p u b lic . W e
a ls o c o n g ra tu la te th o s e w h o d o g o o d to th e p o o r
a c c o rd in g to th e tra d itio n s o f th e C h u rc h , o v e r a n d
a b o v e w h a t is re q u ire d . A n d , b rie fly , w e p ra y e rfu lly
h o p e th a t e v e ry th in g th a t w ill b e d o n e in th e
C h u rc h a n d in c h u rc h is th a t w h ic h h a s b e e n
h a n d e d d o w n a c c o rd in g to th e T ra d itio n , fro m th e
D iv in e S c rip tu re s a n d A p o s to lic tra d itio n s .

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

F ro m th e H o ly F a th e rs :
S T C O L U M B A O F IO N A
C C O
c o m
th a n
g ra in in th e

R D IN G to
p o s e d b y
k s a n d p r
m ill o n Io

A n c ie n t o
T h e F a th e
W h o m n e
W h o w a s
A n d O n ly
W h o c o -e
O n e o n ly
W e p ra is e

tr
S t
a is
n a

a d itio n , th e fo llo w in g w a s
C o lu m b a a s a h y m n o f
e w h ile h e w a s g rin d in g
:

f d a y s , E n th ro n e d o n h ig
r U n b e g o tte n , H e
ith e r s p a c e n o r tim e c a n
a n d is a n d e v e r s h a ll b e
-b e g o tte n S o n a n d H o ly
te rn a l g lo ry s h a re :
G o d , o f T h re e P e rs o n s,
, a c k n o w le d g e , a n d d e c

h
c o n ta in ,
:
S p irit,

la re .

B e in g s h e a v e n ly firs t H e m a d e ;
A n g e ls a n d a rc h a n g e ls o f lig h t,
In P rin c ip a litie s a n d T h ro n e s ,
A n d m y s tic ra n k o f P o w e r a n d M ig h t,
T h a t lo v e a n d M y s te ry D iv in e
S h o u ld n o t d w e ll a im le s s ly a lo n e ,
B u t h a v e v e s s e ls w h e re in to p o u r
G re a t w e a lth o f g ifts in e ffa b le .
s t fro m th e h ig h e s t h e ig h ts o f h e a v e n ,
r fro m th e a n g e ls s h in in g s ta te ,
d e s fro m g lo ry L u c ife r,
llin g in s c o rn in fa tu a te .
n g e ls a p o s ta te s h a re h is fa ll,
te e le d w ith h is h a te a n d fire d w ith p rid e ,
a n is h e d fro m th e ir fe llo w s b rig h t,
h o in th e h e a v e n ly s e a ts a b id e .

C a
F a
F a
F a

D ire a n d a ll fo u l, th e D ra g o n g
W h o s e d e a d ly ra g e w a s k n o w n
T h e s lip p e ry s e rp e n t, w ilie r
T h a n a ll liv in g th in g e a rth d o e s
F ro m th e b rig h t re a lm o f h e a v e
A th ird p a rt o f th e s ta rs e n tic e ,
I n H e l ls a b y s s t o q u e n c h t h e ir
In h e a d lo n g fa ll fro m P a ra d is e .
E a rth
F o u n
A n d
T h e
S u n ,
A n d
A n d
A n d

re a t,
o f o ld ,
h o ld
n h e c o u ld
lig h t,

n e x t a n d H e a v e n , se a a n d sk y ,
d s h a p e w ith in th e E te rn a l m in d ,
s to o d c re a te d . N e x t a p p e a re d
fru itfu l h e rb a n d tre e in k in d
m o o n a n d s ta rs th a t c lim b th e h e a v e n s ,
b ird s a n d fis h e s g re a t a n d s m a ll,
b e a s ts a n d h e rd s a n d liv in g th in g s ,
m a n to b e th e k in g o f a ll.

F ro m e v e ry g la d A n g e lic
A s s o o n a s th e s ta rs s p ra n
B u rs t fo rth th e w o n d e rin g
T h e H e a v e n ly C r e a to r s m
A n d , a s H is h a n d iw o rk th
A ro s e fro m lo v in g h e a rts
T h e d u e trib u te o f w o n d r
S w e llin g in s w e e te s t h a rm

to n g u e ,
g in to lig h t,
s h o u t th a t p ra is e d
ig h t.
e y sa w ,
a n d fre e
o u s so n g ,
o n y .

G a i n s t S a ta n s w i le s a n d H e l ls a s s a u lt
O u r p rim a l p a re n ts c o u ld n o t s ta n d
A n d in to n e w a b y s s e s fe ll
T h e le a d e r a n d h is h o rrid b a n d
F ie rc e fo rm s , w ith n o is e o f b e a tin g w in g s ,
T o o d re a d fo r s ig h t o f m o rta l e y e ,
W h o , fe tte re d , fa r fro m h u m a n k e n ,
W ith in th e ir p ris o n h o u s e s lie .
H im , b a n is h e d fro m h is firs t e s ta te ,
T h e L o rd c a s t o u t fo r e v e rm o re
A n d n o w h is w ild a n d re b e l c re w
In u p p e r a ir to g e th e r s o a r.
In v is ib le , le s t m e n s h o u ld g a z e
O n w ic k e d n e s s w ith o u t a n a m e ,
A n d , b re a k in g e v e ry b a rrie r d o w n ,
D e file th e m s e lv e s in o p e n s h a m e .
In th e th re e q u a r
T h re e m ig h ty fo u
W h e n c e ris e th ro
R ic h -la d e n c lo u d
O n w in d s fro m o
T h e y s p e e d to s w
W h ile th e s e a -s h
U n til th e tid e s re

te
n
u
s
u

rs o f th e s e a
ta in s h id d e n lie ,
g h w h irlin g w a te r-s p o u ts
th a t c lo th e th e s k y :
t h is tre a s u re -h o u s e
e ll b u d , v in e a n d g ra in ,
a llo w s e m p tie d w a it
tu rn a g a in .

K in g s e a rth ly g lo ry fa d e s fa s t,
A n d fo r a m o m e n t is its s ta y .
G o d h a s a ll m ig h t; a n d a t a n o d
T h e g ia n ts fa ll b e n e a th h is s w a y
B e n e a th w a te rs d e e p , w ith m ig h
In fire s a n d to rm e n ts d re a d th e y
C h o k e d in th e w h i r lp o o ls a n g r y
D a s h e d o n th e ro c k s b y e v e ry w
.

ty
ra
su
a v

p a n g s.
v e ,
rg e ,
e .

L ik e o n e th a t th ro u g h a s p a rin g s ie v e
T h e p re c io u s g r a in d o e s s lo w ly p o u r,
G o d s e n d s d o w n u p o n th e e a rth
T h e c lo u d -b o u n d w a te rs e v e rm o re .
A n d fro m th e fru itfu l b re a s ts o f h e a v e n ,
W h ile c h a n g in g s e a s o n s w a x a n d w a n e ,
T h e w e lc o m e s tre a m s th a t n e v e r fa il
P o u r fo rth in ric h s u p p lie s th e ra in ,

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

M a rk h o w th e p o w e r o f G o d s u p re m e
H a s h u n g a lo ft e a r th s g ia n t b a ll,
A n d fix e d th e g re a t e n c irc lin g d e e p ,
H is m ig h ty h a n d s u p p o rtin g a ll.
U p o n th e p illa rs w h ic h h e m a d e ,
T h e s o lid r o c k s a n d c liffs th a t s o a r,
A n d o n th e s u re fo u n d a tio n s re s t
T h a t s ta n d u n m o v e d fo r e v e rm o re .

S o o n s h a ll a ll
B e fo re th e Ju d
A n d re n d e rin g
S h u d d e r e a c h
H o rro r o f n ig h
W a ilin g o f m e
O p e n in g th e b
R iv in g o f h e a r

N o n e d o u b ts th a t w ith in th e e a rth
G lo w th e d e v o u rin g fla m e s o f h e ll,
W h e re in is c a p tiv e d a rk e s t n ig h t
W h e re n o is o m e b e a s ts a n d s e rp e n ts d w e ll,
G e h e n n a s o ld a n d a w f u l m o a n ,
A n d c rie s o f m e n in a n g u is h d ire ,
A n d fa llin g te a rs a n d g n a s h in g te e th ,
A n d th ir s t, a n d h u n g e r s b u r n in g tir e .

T h e tru m p e t o f th e a rc h a n g e l firs t
S h a ll b la re a fa r its s u m m o n s d re a d
A n d th e n s h a l l b u r s t e a r th s p r is o n b a r s ,
A n d g ra v e s g iv e u p th e ir d e a d .
T h e ic e o f d e a th s h a ll m e lt a w a y ,
W h ils t d u s t g ro w s fle s h , a n d b o n e m e e ts b o n e ,
A n d e v e ry s p irit fin d s a g a in
T h e fra m e th a t w a s b e fo re its o w n .

O f re a lm s w e re a d b e n e a th th e w o rld
W h e re th e d e p a rte d s p irits w a it,
W h o n e v e r c e a s e to b e n d th e k n e e
T o C h ris t, th e o n ly P o te n ta te .
T h e y c o u ld n o t o p e n th e w ritte n B o o k ,
W h o s e s e v e n s e a ls n o n e b u t H e m ig h t b re a k ,
F u lf illi n g th u s t h e p r o p h e ts w o r d ,
T h a t H e s h o u ld c o m e , a n d v ic to ry m a k e .

W a n d e r s O r io n fr o m h e a v e n s h e ig h t,
T o th re a d h is h id d e n e a s te rn w a y ,
E re s e t th e g le a m in g P le ia d e s
T h ro u g h b o u n d s o f o c e a n , d a y b y d a y ;
A n d V e s p e r, th o u g h h i s o r b i ts w h ir l
B e s e t tw ic e tw e lv e m o o n s to e n d u re ,
O n e e v e n b y a n c ie n t p a th s re tu rn s :
B o th ty p e s o f H im w h o c o m e s fo r s u re .

P a ra d is e a n d its p le a s a n t g la d e s
F ro m th e b e g in n in g G o d d id m a k e ;
O u t o f w h o s e fo u n ta in -h e a d th e re flo w
F o u r r iv e r s s w e e t, e a r th s th ir s t to s la k e
A n d m id m o s t s ta n d s th e tre e o f life ,
W ith le a v e s th a t n e ith e r fa d e n o r fa ll,
W ith h e a lin g to th e n a tio n s fra u g h t,
W h o s e jo y s a b u n d a n t n e v e r p a ll.

X r
T h
T h
T h
T h

Q u e s tio n s th e S in g e r, W h o h a s
S in a i th e m o u n ta in o f th e L o rd ?
T h e e c h o in g th u n d e rs w h o h a s
A n d rin g in g tru m p e t-b la s t o u tp o
W h o s a w th e lig h tn in g s d a z z le
A n d h e a v in g ro c k s th a t c ra s h e d
M id m e te o rs g la re a n d d a rts o f
S a v e M o s e s , ju d g e o f Is ra e l?

Y o n
T h e
A n d
T h e
T h e
T h e
A n d
T h e

R is e s
D a y o
A d a y
O f d a
A d a y
W h e n
W h e n
A n d a

c lim b e d
h e a rd ,
u re d ?
w h irl,
a n d fe ll,
fla m e ,

th e d a w n : th e d a y is n e a r,
f th e L o rd , th e K in g o f k in g s
o f w ra th a n d v e n g e a n c e ju s t,
rk n e s s , c lo u d s a n d th u n d e rin g s
o f a n g u is h e d c rie s a n d te a rs ,
g lo w o f w o m a n s lo v e s h a ll p a le ,
m a n s h a ll c e a s e to s triv e w ith m a n ,
ll t h e w o r l d s d e s ir e s h a l l fa il.

m o rta ls tre m b lin g s ta n d


g e s a w f u l t h r o n e ,
th e g re a t a c c o u n t,
h a te fu l s in to o w n .
t! W h e n n o n e c a n w o rk ,
n a n d flo o d in g te a rs .
o o k s b y c o n s c ie n c e w rit,
ts w ith g u ilty fe a rs .

is
e
e
e
e

t th e M o s t H ig h fro m h e a v e n d e s c e n d s ,
C ro s s H is s ig n a n d b a n n e r b rig h t.
s u n in d a rk n e s s s h ro u d s h is fa c e ,
m o o n n o m o re p o u rs fo rth h e r lig h t:
s ta rs u p o n th e e a rth s h a ll fa ll
A s fig s d ro p fro m th e p a re n t tre e ,
W h e n e a r th s b r o a d s p a c e is b a th e d i n fi r e ,
A n d m e n to d e n s a n d m o u n ta in fle e .
d e r in h e a v e n th e a n g e l h o s t
ir e v e r-rin g in g a n th e m ra is e ,
fla s h in m a z e o f h o ly d a n c e ,
T rin ity D iv in e to p ra is e :
fo u r-a n d -tw e n ty e ld e rs c a s t
ir c ro w n s b e fo re th e L a m b o n h ig h ,
th e fo u r B e a s ts a ll fu ll o f e y e s
ir c e a s e le s s th re e fo ld p ra is e s c ry .

Z e a l o f
S h a ll w
W h o se
T h a t C h
B u t w e
A n d so
T o re a p
T h e g lo

th e L
h e lm
s to n y
ris t h
s h a ll
w ith
th e d
rie s o

o rd , c o n su m
th e fo e s , a
h e a rts w ill
a s fro m th e
so a r o u r L o
H im s h a ll e
u e re w a rd s
f E te rn ity .

in g fire ,
m a z e d a n d d u m b ,
n o t b e lie v e
F a th e r c o m e .
rd to m e e t,
v e r b e ,
a m id

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

S T N IN IA N
S c o tla n d s F ir s t S a in t

s
B
G
h
b
a
s
E

th e R o m a n E m p ire w e a k e n e d a n d th e
R o m a n s p re p a re d to p u ll o u t o f B rita in in
th e
y e a r 4 1 0 , th e re
s till re m a in e d
tro n g h o ld s o f R o m a n a n d in d e e d C h ris tia n life in
rita in . T h e s e w e re n o t in th e s o u th -e a s t, w h e re
e rm a n ic p e o p le s , c o lle c tiv e ly c a lle d S a x o n s ,
a d b e e n s e ttlin g , a t firs t a s s o ld ie rs s in c e th e
e g in n in g o f th e th ird c e n tu ry . It w a s th e y w h o h a d
lre a d y g iv e n th e n a m e th e S a x o n S h o re to th e
o u th e rn a n d e a s te rn c o a s ts o f w h a t is n o w
n g la n d .

In d e e d , b y th e m id -fifth c e n tu ry R o m a n to w n s
a n d c o u n try v illa s in th e s o u th -e a s t, th e o n ly
s tro n g h o ld s o f C h ris tia n ity , h a d b e e n m o re o r le s s
a b a n d o n e d . T h e R o m a n o -B ritis h s tro n g h o ld s , o n
th e c o n tra ry , w e re a b o v e a ll in th e w e s t o f p re s e n td a y E n g la n d , W ilts h ire , S o m e rs e t. D o rs e t, D e v o n
a n d C o rn w a ll, s o u th W a le s a n d n o rth W a le s a n d
th e a re a to th e s o u th -w e s t a n d th e n o rth -w e s t o f
H a d r ia n s W a l l.
U n til a b o u t 4 2 5 th e re s e e m s to h a v e b e e n n o
c o lla p s e in R o m a n c iv ilis a tio n in n o rth e rn B rita in
a s fa r a s S tra th c ly d e . T h is R o m a n c iv ilis a tio n h a d
in c re a s in g ly b e c o m e a C h ris tia n o n e , a s d u rin g th e
fo u rth c e n tu ry R o m a n c iv il s e rv a n ts h a d b e e n
b a p tiz e d . In th e n o rth e rn re g io n tw o n a m e s s ta n d
o u t a s re g a rd s R o m a n o -B ritis h C h ris tia n ity . T h e s e
w e re P a tric k (P a tric iu s ) a n d N in ia n (N y n ia ). T h e y
w e re th e a p o s tle s o f th e a g e . B o th w e re B rito n s a n d
b o th p ro b a b ly c a m e fro m
th e s u b -R o m a n ,
C h r is t ia n r e g io n s o u t h - w e s t o f H a d r ia n s W a ll.
S t P a tric k , s o n o f a d e a c o n a n d g ra n d s o n o f a
p rie s t, w o rk e d in Ire la n d , p ro b a b ly b e tw e e n a b o u t

M a p s h o w in g th e p o s itio n o f W

h ith o r n

S t N in ia n (c . 4 5 0 )
4 3 1 to
w o rk e
s o u th e
W h ith
P ic ts .

4 6 2 . A n d a t
d in G a llo w
rn L o w la n d s
o rn . H e b e c a

M o st
in S t B e d
u s w ith
B rito n a
s to n e c h
(3 9 7 )
in O ld E

a b o u t th
a y a n d
o f S c o tla
m e th e a

e s
in
n d
p o

a m
w
, w
s tle

e tim e
h a t is
ith h is
o f th e

S t
n o
c e
so

N in ia n
w th e
n tre in
u th e rn

o f w h a t w e k n o w a b o u t h im c a n b e fo u n d
e , b u t a rc h o lo g y a n d o th e r s c ie n c e s h e lp
th e re s t. H e te lls u s th a t N in ia n w a s a
n d h a d le a rn e d th e fa ith in R o m e . H is
u rc h w a s d e d ic a te d to S t M a rtin o f T o u rs
in a p la c e c a lle d in L a tin C a n d id a C a s a ,
n g lis h W h ith o rn a n d in m o d e rn E n g lis h

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

th e W h ite H o u s e . T h is h a s b e e n c o n firm e d b y
m o d e rn a rc h o lo g y w h ic h h a s fo u n d w h ite p a in te d m a s o n ry a n d in s c rib e d C h ris tia n s to n e s
th e re .
S in c e W
im p o rta n t to
h a v e s e e m
C h ris tia n ity
s o u th -w e s t
in h a b ita n ts ,
ia n s ) a n d P
lo c a tio n , o n
th a t o f th e a

h ith o rn w a s a c c e s
w n s lik e C a rlis le a n d
e d a g o o d lo c a tio
o f th e re g io n to th e n
o f H a d r i a n s W a ll.
B ritis h C e lts (th e p ro
ic ts , s p o k e a s im ila
a a d e s o la te , s a n d y s
s c e tic s o f th e a g e .

s ib le b
M a ry p o
n fo r
o rth -w e
A ll o f
-R o m a n
r la n g u
p it, w a s

s e a to
rt, it m u s t
th e h a lfs t a n d th e
th e lo c a l
V o ta d in a g e . T h is
ty p ic a l o f

T h a t N in ia n s p r e a c h in g s h o u ld h a v e b e e n
m a d e in th e V o ta d in ia n te rrito ry fro m h is s e e a t
W h ith o rn re c e iv e s s u p p o rt fro m a rc h o lo g ic a l a n d
p la c e n a m e e v id e n c e . T h e re is a n in s c rib e d s to n e
a t W h ith o rn d a tin g fro m th e m id -fifth c e n tu ry w ith
th e n a m e L a tin u s , its e r e c to r, c a rv e d o n it in
R o m a n c a p ita ls ; a n d in th e n e a r a n d a s s o c ia te d s ite
o f K irk m a d rin e a n o th e r in s c rib e d s to n e h a s th e c h irh o m o n o g ra m e n c irc le d b y th e h a lo o f g lo ry , a n d ,
in R o m a n c a p ita ls , H ic ia c e n t s a n c ti e t p r c ip u i
s a c e rd o te s Id e s , V iv e n tiu s e t M a v o rtiu s : H e re lie
th e h o ly a n d e m in e n t b is h o p s Id e s , V iv e n tiu s a n d
M a v o rtiu s . T h e L a tin u s s to n e a tte s ts a n e a rly lo c a l
C h ris tia n ity , fo r it b e g in s , O p ra is e th e L o rd : a n d
th e th re e e a rly s to n e s a t K irk m a d rin e a ll h a v e th e
c h i-rh o m o n o g ra m .

b a c k to th e e x te n s io n o f h is m is s io n , th e d a tin g o f
th e s e d e d ic a tio n s s till n e e d s to b e e s ta b lis h e d .
W

h ile N
a tte s te d b y
to h o w h is
T h e re la tio n
to W h ith o rn
m o v e d to th

F ro m

in ia n s w o r k i n th e
p la c e n a m e s , w e h a v e
e p is c o p a l s e e p a s s e d
o f th e th re e fifth -s ix th
s u g g e s ts th a t a t s o m e
e a d ja c e n t m in s te r: in d

W a ll re g io n
n o e v id e n c e
to K irk m a d rin
c e n tu ry b is h o
tim e th e s e e w
e e d , in th a t a r

is
a s
e .
p s
a s
e a

h ith o r n M u s e u m

T h e re is s o m e e v id e n c e , a g a in , fo r th e s u rv iv a l
o f N in ia n s n a m e in p la c e n a m e s . A t a N i n ia n ic
s ite a t B ra m p to n , n in e m ile s n o rth e a s t o f C a rlis le ,
a c h u r c h o f S t M a r tin s lie s w ith in th e lin e s o f a
R o m a n fo rt a n d b e n e a th th e n o rth e rn ra m p a rt o f
th e fo r t N in e w e lls , N in i a n s w e l l, a d jo in s a m a s s
o f fa lle n
R o m a n
m a s o n ry . N y n e k irk e s in
W e s tm o rla n d (C u m b ria ) a ls o c o m m e m o ra te s th e
s a in t.
T h o u g h d e d ic a tio n s to N y n ia th ro u g h o u t
S c o tla n d a re fre q u e n t, a n d s o m e m a y in d e e d d a te

T h e V ie w f r o m S t N in ia n s C a v e n e a r W h it h o r n ,
w h e r e th e s a in t lo v e d to p r a y fa c in g th e s e a .

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

w o u ld h a v e in s p ire d th e d e d ic a tio n . A lth o u g h


p la c e n a m e s lik e S t N in ia n s n e a r S tirlin g a n d a ls o
S t N i n i a n s Is le in th e S h e tla n d s p r o b a b ly d o n o t
m e a n th a t S t N in ia n h im s e lf tra v e lle d to th o s e
p la c e s , h is d is c ip le s , d ire c t a n d in d ire c t, m u s t h a v e
d o n e . T h e n a m e N in ia n a p p e a rs in S c o ts a s
R in g a n a n d in th e G a e lic a s T ru in n e a n o r
T rin ia n , a s o n th e Is le o f M a n . In a n y c a s e , th e
e x te n t o f h is in flu e n c e c a n b e s e e n fro m th e m a p
w h ic h s h o w s d e d ic a tio n s to h im . S t B e d e a s s e rte d
t h a t S t N in ia n s r e lic s la y i n W h it h o r n . A n d it i s
th e re th a t O rth o d o x p ilg rim s s h o u ld g o , s a y in g :

o f B ritto n ic C h ris tia n ity th e re w a s n o q u e s tio n o f a


te rrito ria l s e e a t a ll. N o th in g is k n o w n o f th e
tra n s fe r o f th e s e e fro m W h ith o rn to th is n e a rb y
s ite : b u t s u c h a p a s s a g e p e rh a p s in d ic a te s a b re a k
in th e v e n e ra tio n o f S t N in ia n . S u c h a b re a k is
s u p p o r te d b y th e fa c t th a t S t N in ia n s n a m e d o e s
n o t a p p e a r in p la c e n a m e s n o rth o f th e W a ll in its
n a tiv e , B ritto n ic fo rm , n o r w e re p e rs o n a l n a m e s
fo rm e d fro m it.
T h
h ith
d is c ip
re lic s
W

e re
o rn
le s ,
o f S

is
w a
g iv
t M

a
s d
e n
a r

s
e d
th
tin

u g g e s tio n th a
ic a te d to S t M a
a t S t N in ia n m
a fte r a p ilg rim

th
rtin
a y h
a g e

e
b y
a v
to

c h u rc
S t N in
e o b ta
T o u rs.

a t
ia n s
in e d
T h is

H o ly F a th e r N in ia n , p r a y to G o d fo r u s !

IO N A O F M Y H E A R T
Io n a o f m y
Io n a o f m y
In s te a d o f
S h a ll b e th
B u t b e fo re
Io n a s h a ll

h e a rt,
lo v e ,
m o n k s
e lo w in
th e w o
b e a s it

v o
g
rld
w

ic
o f
s
a s

e s
c a ttle ;
h a ll c o m e to a n e n d
.

P ro p h e c y o f S t C o lu m b a
S e v e n
S h a ll
S h a ll
B u t C

y e a rs b e fo r e th e e n d o f th e w o
d ro w n th e n a tio n s : th e s e a
c o v e r Ir e la n d a n d th e g re e n - h e
o lu m b a s Is le s h a ll s w im a b o v

rld
a t
a d
e

, a
o n
e d
th e

d e lu g e
e tid e
Is la y
flo o d .

O ld G a e lic P ro p h e c y

th e y e a r 5 9 7 S t A u g u s tin e la n d e d in K e n t. B u t
a ls o in 5 9 7 S t C o lu m b a re p o s e d . T h e C o n v e rs io n
o f E n g la n d w a s a n A n g lo -C e ltic o p e ra tio n . It
w o u ld e v e n b e a m is ta k e to s e e th is A n g lo -C e ltic
a rc h ip e la g o o u ts id e th e c o n te x t o f th e re s t o f
E u ro p e a n d A s ia a n d A fric a , e a s t a n d w e s t, n o rth
a n d s o u th . O n e o f th e g re a t in s p ira tio n s o f th e Iris h
C h u rc h w a s E g y p t. A n d a s w e k n o w S t A u g u s tin e
w a s Ita lia n a n d S t C o lu m b a w a s Iris h . O f o th e r
g re a t s a in ts o f E n g la n d (n o t E n g lis h s a in ts ),
S t B irin u s w a s a L o m b a rd , S t F e lix w a s a B u rg u n d ia n , S t T h e o d o re w a s a G re e k , S t Iv o w a s a
P e rs ia n a n d S t Jo h n o f S h a n g h a i w a s fro m L ittle
R u s s ia . T h e re is n o ro o m fo r n a rro w n a tio n a lis m in
th e C h u rc h .
W h a
th e firs t
A n d re w
th e Is la
S t B rid g
sh a d o w
E n lig h te
L in d isfa
E n lig h te

M u ll a n d Io n a (r in g e d )

t th e n c a n w e s a y o f S t C
p a tro n s a in t o f S c o tla n d ,
, a n d s till is , fo r th o s e in
n d s? W h a t c a n w e sa
e t p ro p h e s ie d a s a
in g b o th Ire la n d a n d S c o
n e r o f th e N o rth a n d , th r
rn e a n d
m a n y o th e
n e r o f m o s t o f E n g la n d .

o lu m b a , w h o w a s
b e fo re th e A p o s tle
th e H ig h la n d s a n d
y o f h im w h o m
g re a t tre e o v e rtla n d ? H e w a s th e
o u g h S t A id a n a n d
r d is c ip le s , th e

S t C o lu m b a a rriv e d o n Io n a w ith tw e lv e
d is c ip le s , a ll h is k in s m e n , in 5 6 3 . H e w a s a g e d
fo rty -tw o . It w a s 1 2 M a y , P e n te c o s t E v e . T h e is la n d
o f Io n a w a s c h o s e n b e c a u s e Ire la n d w a s n o lo n g e r
v is ib le fro m its h ig h e s t p o in t. T h e is la n d w a s
k n o w n in G a e lic , a s H i, Y o r I, p ro n o u n c e d a s E
i n E n g li s h . S t A d a m n a n , th e w r it e r o f S t C o lu m b a s
life , re fe rs to it a s Io u a , b e c a u s e h e m a d e th e n a m e
a n a d je c tiv e to a g re e w ith th e L a tin w o rd fo r is la n d
in s u la Io u a in s u la . N o w th e e a rly s c rib e s m a d e
little d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e le tte rs u a n d n a n d s o

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

T h e m e a ls a t th e m o n a s te ry w e re o f th e
s im p le s t, c o n s is tin g c h ie fly o f c e re a l, p o rrid g e ,
b re a d , m ilk , e g g s a n d fis h . T h e h o u rs o f th e m e a ls
d iffe re d w ith th e s e a s o n s o f th e y e a r. W e d n e s d a y
a n d F rid a y w e re th e re g u la r fa s t d a y s , b u t th e ru le
w a s re la x e d b e tw e e n E a s te r a n d P e n te c o s t. In L e n t
th e fa s t w a s k e p t till th e e v e n in g o f e v e ry d a y
e x c e p t S u n d a y , w h e n m ilk , b re a d a n d e g g s w e re
a llo w e d d u rin g th e d a y . O n S u n d a y s a n d h o ly d a y s ,
o r w h e n th e re w e re g u e s ts a t ta b le , th e fo o d w a s
b e tte r a n d m o re a m p le .

M a p o f Io n a
b y a s lip o f th e p e n th e is la n d c a m e to b e k n o w n
a s Io n a .
T h a t a t le a s t is o n e o f th e e x p la n a tio n s o f its
n a m e , b u t th e re a re m a n y m o re . S t A d a m n a n
re g a rd e d th e n a m e C o lu m b a a s b e in g th e s a m e a s
Jo n a h , w h a t in H e b re w is Io n a , in th e G re e k
la n g u a g e is c a lle d P e ris te ra a n d in th e L a tin
C o lu m b a . Io n a m a y a ls o b e th e G a e lic fo r th e Is le
o f S a in ts , I-S h o n a , a s th e s h is n o t s o u n d e d a n d
th e w o rd is p ro n o u n c e d , th is g iv e s I-o n a . T h e re is
a ls o a tra d itio n th a t th e is la n d u s e d to b e c a lle d
In n is -n a n D ru id n e a c h o r Is le o f th e D ru id s . A fte r
C o lu m b a s e ttle d a t Io n a it w a s g e n e ra lly c a lle d IC o lu m -C ille o r Ic o lm k ill, th e Is la n d -o f-C o lu m b a o f-th e -C h u rc h , a n d G a e lic -s p e a k e rs s till c a ll it b y
th a t n a m e . A n o th e r tra d itio n a l n a m e w a s th e Is le o f
D re a m s , b u t b y w h a te v e r n a m e it w a s k n o w n , Io n a
w a s a lw a y s a s s o c ia te d w ith th e th in g s o f th e s p irit.
M o re re c e n tly IO N A h a s b e e n s u g g e s te d a s a n
a c ro n y m fo r a ll th e Is le s Is le s o f th e N o rth
A tla n tic , ra th e r th a n th e u n w ie ld y B ritis h Is le s a n d
Ire la n d .
T h e m o n k s w o re a c o a rse c a s so c k o f u n d y e d
w o o l o v e r a tu n ic o f fin e r w e a v e ; o n h o ly d a y s th e y
w o re w h ite ro b e s . C o lu m b a h im s e lf n e v e r w o re
lin e n n e x t to h is s k in ; h is d re s s w a s c o m p le te d b y
a h e a d -c o v e rin g o r c u c u lla , b u t w h e th e r th e o th e r
m o n k s w o re th is is n o t s ta te d . In b a d w e a th e r a
c o a rs e o u te r c lo a k c o u ld b e w o rn o v e r th e
o rd in a ry c a s s o c k . T h e s h o e s w e re o f h id e , la c e d
to g e th e r w ith le a th e r th o n g s .

S e e in g th a t th e a ra b le la n d o f th e m o n a s te ry la y
m o s tly n e a r th e w e s te rn o u tle t o f th e T e m p le G le n ,
th e m o n k s p ro b a b ly w e n t to a n d fro m th e ir w o rk
b y th e G le n , a m u c h m o re d ire c t ro u te th a n th a t
fo llo w e d b y th e m o d e rn ro a d . T h e c o rn a fte r b e in g
c a rrie d h o m e w a s g ro u n d in to c o a rs e a n d fin e
flo u r a n d s to re d in c h e s ts . T h e g rin d in g w a s d o n e
a t firs t in a h a n d -q u e rn s u c h a s w a s o n c e u s e d in
re m o te p a rts o f th e H ig h la n d s a n d e x a m p le s o f
w h ic h h a v e b e e n d u g u p a t Io n a ; b u t la te r a w a te rm ill w a s c o n s tru c te d , th e w h e e l o f w h ic h w a s
tu rn e d b y th e s tre a m w h ic h flo w e d d o w n p a s t th e
b a rn a n d s m ith y .
W h ile p o rrid g e w a s th e c h ie f fo o d , m e a l a n d
flo u r w e re a ls o b a k e d in to lo a v e s , g e n e ra lly m ix e d
w ith w a te r, b u t s o m e tim e s w ith m ilk o r h o n e y o r a s
a g re a t lu x u ry , w ith th e ro e o f s a lm o n . T h e s e lo a v e s
w e re b a k e d o n a fla t s to n e s u p p o rte d o v e r a fire .
T h e m o n a s te ry p o s s e s s e d a ls o a little is la n d w h e re
th e s e a ls o r s e a -c a lv e s b re d ; th is s e e m s to h a v e
b e e n o n e o f th e ro c k y is la n d s o ff th e R o s s o f M u ll,
p o s s ib ly th e is la n d o f E rra id . T h e m o n k s u s e d th e
s e a ls k in s fo r c o v e rin g s in th e w in te r a n d th e o il fo r
b u rn in g in th e ir c ru s ie s .
F o r fu e l th e m
th e n o rth e n d , w
th e ir fire s w ith
a rtific ia l lig h t in
c a n d le s w h ic h w
th e tim e o f S t P
p ro b a b ly th e s a m
lig h t th e m to m id

o n k s c u t p e a t fro m a m o s s n e a r
h ic h is n o w w o rk e d o u t. T h e y lit
flin t a n d s te e l a n d tin d e r: fo r
th e lo n g w in te r n ig h ts th e y u s e d
e re k n o w n in B rita in a s e a rly a s
a tric k : th e ir c ru s ie s fo r o il w e re
e a s th e la n te rn s th e y c a rrie d to
n ig h t s e rv ic e s in th e c h u rc h .

T h e m o n k s s le p t o n p a lle ts o f h e a th e r o r
b ra c k e n , c o v e re d b y a s h e e t, w ith a b la n k e t o f
c o a rs e m a te ria l o n th e to p . T h e y la y d o w n to re s t
w ith th e ir c a s s o c k s o n , fo r th e y h a d to ris e a t d e a d
o f n ig h t to g o to s e rv ic e in th e c h u rc h . T h e p illo w
w a s g e n e ra lly o f w o o d , th o u g h in th e c a s e o f
C o lu m b a h im s e lf it w a s o f s to n e : a s m a ll g ra n ite
s to n e fo u n d n e a r th e p la c e w h e re h e w a s b u rie d
h a s a lw a y s b e e n re g a rd e d a s h is p illo w . It is 2 0
in c h e s lo n g a n d h a s a c ro s s in c is e d o n o n e s id e o f

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

it . C o l u m b a s b e d is a ls o s a id to h a v e b e e n le s s
c o m fo rta b le th a n th o s e o f h is m o n k s : tra d itio n
m e n tio n s a s to n e fla g w ith a h id e la id o v e r it.
T h e b ro th e rs liv e d a rd u o u s liv e s : th e y d id th e
s e rv ic e s d a y a n d n ig h t, th e y d id th e w o rk o f th e
fa rm , p lo u g h in g , s o w in g , h a rv e s tin g , g rin d in g ,
b a k in g , b u ild in g a n d s o o n , a s w e ll a s tra v e llin g o n
m is s io n s fo r th e S a in t b y la n d a n d s e a , a n d c o p y in g
th e S c rip tu re s . C o lu m b a w o rk e d a s h a rd a s a n y o f
h is m o n k s : h e a ls o c a rrie d h o m e th e g ra in fro m th e
fie ld s o n h is b a c k , th e flo u r fro m th e m ill to th e
k i tc h e n . W h e n th e d a y s w o r k w a s d o n e h e r e n d e re d h is m o n k s th e a n c ie n t s e rv ic e o f w a s h in g
th e ir fe e t, fo llo w in g in a ll th in g s th e e x a m p le o f
C h ris t. A lth o u g h th e m o n k s w o rk e d h a rd , C o lu m b a
w a s n o th o u g h tle s s ta s k m a s te r: h e o fte n w e n t o u t
to e n c o u ra g e th e m
in th e ir w o rk , s o m e tim e s
w a lk in g s o m e tim e s rid in g o n a w h ite p o n y a n d
w h e n h e c a m e to b e a n o ld m a n , d riv in g in a little
c a rt.

If a n y o f h is m o n
e w e n t to liv e
o n a s te ry , b u t w ith
ith it. T h e p la c e
a lle d a D is e rt, a n
o rt-n a -D is e rt, w
e rm ita g e .

k s w is h e d to le a
a t s o m e d is ta
o u t b re a k in g o ff
w h e re s u c h a m
d th e re is a b a y
h ic h
m e a n s

d a s o lita ry
n c e fro m
h is c o n n e c
o n k liv e d
a t Io n a c a
lite ra lly ,

life ,
th e
tio n
w a s
lle d
th e

O n c e w h e n h e h a d re c a lle d a m o n k fro m L o c h
A w e a n d h e h a d c o m e a ll th a t lo n g jo u rn e y
w ith o u t d e la y , C o lu m b a p ra is e d h is p ro m p t
o b e d ie n c e a n d to ld h im h e m u s t n o w re s t a w h ile .
A n d o n c e o n a v e r y c o ld d a y in w in te r, D ia rm it
fo u n d C o lu m b a a n x io u s a n d d e p re s s e d . W h e n h e
a s k e d th e c a u s e o f th is s a d n e s s C o lu m b a a n s w e re d , W ith ju s t c a u s e I a m s a d to d a y , m y c h ild ,
s e e in g th a t m y m o n k s , n o w w e a rie d a fte r th e ir
s e v e re la b o u rs , a re e n g a g e d b y L a is ra n in b u ild in g
a la rg e h o u s e : w ith th is I a m m u c h d is p le a s e d .
S t C o l u m b a s d i s p le a s u r e , s a y s S t A d a m n a n , w a s a t
th a t m o m e n t c o n v e y e d to L a is ra n in th e m o n a s te ry
o f D e rry . H e fe lt im p e lle d to s to p th e m o n k s in th e ir
b u ild in g o p e ra tio n s a n d to o rd e r s o m e re fre s h m e n t
to b e m a d e re a d y fo r th e m . H e a ls o g a v e d ire c tio n s
th a t th e y w e re to re s t, n o t o n ly o n th a t d a y b u t a ls o
o n o th e r o c c a s io n s o f s e v e re w e a th e r.
T h e re
h o w c o
th o u g h ts
d a n g e r b
p e rh a p s
ra p h e rs,
th e a g e .
fa th e r; h

a re s e v e ra l s to rie s o f th is n a
n s ta n tly C o lu m b a s m o n k s
. H e k n e w in s tin c tiv e ly w h e n
y s e a o r la n d . A n d th o u g h th
b e e x a g g e ra te d b y h is a d
th e y e x p re s s th e th o u g h ts a
T h e m o n k s lo o k e d o n C o lu
e c a re d fo r th e m a s h is fa m

tu re s h o w in g
w e re in h is
th e y w e re in
e s to rie s m a y
m irin g b io g n d fe e lin g o f
m b a a s th e ir
ily a n d h a d

th e m a lw a y s in h is m in d , w h e th e r
h im a t Io n a , te m p te d p e rh a p s b y
c u rio s ity o r je a lo u s y , o r w h e th e r th
o n lo n g v o y a g e s a t h is re q u e s t. E v
e x a g g e ra tio n o f th e s to rie s w e c a n
c lo s e s y m p a th y b e tw e e n C o lu m b a
h is th o u g h t s p e d o u t to th e m in d a n
a n d s tre n g th e n in g th e m . S u c h b o n
a re n o t u n k n o w n in o u r o w n d a y .

th e y w e re w ith
e v il s p irits o f
e y w e re s a ilin g
e n th ro u g h th e
a p p re c ia te th e
a n d h is m o n k s :
g e r, c o m fo rtin g
d s o f s y m p a th y

O n e o f th e m o s t im p o rta n t o c c u p a tio n s o f th e
m o n k s o f Io n a w a s th e p ra c tic e o f w ritin g a n d th e
tra n s c rip tio n o f th e S c rip tu re s . In th is a s in e v e ry th in g c o n n e c te d w ith th e s p re a d o f C h ris tia n ity in
S c o tla n d , w e h a v e to lo o k to Ire la n d fo r th e h is to ry
a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e a rt. L e tte rs w e re k n o w n in
I r e la n d b e f o r e S t P a tr ic k s d a y : h e u s e d t o in s tr u c t
h is d is c ip le s in th e a rt o f w ritin g . T h e c h a ra c te rs ,
a n d d e s ig n s u s e d b y th e s e e a rly s c rib e s w e re
p ro b a b ly o f E a s te rn o rig in a n d h a d c o m e to Ire la n d
fro m R a v e n n a th ro u g h G a u l. T h e Iris h a d a p te d
th e m to th e ir o w n id e a o f b e a u ty , b u t th o u g h e a rly
Iris h m a n u s c rip ts h a v e fe a tu re s p e c u lia r to Ire la n d ,
s im ila r in te rla c in g s a re fo u n d in e a rly Ita lia n
c h u rc h e s , e s p e c ia lly in th o s e o f R a v e n n a . T h e s e
in te rla c in g s s y m b o liz e d life a n d im m o rta lity ,
h a v in g n e ith e r b e g in n in g n o r e n d .
D e s ig n s o f in te rla c e d rib b o n w o rk , p la ite d
ru s h e s , b a n d s , c o rd s a n d k n o ts a re c o m m o n to th e
e a rlie s t a rt o f v a rio u s p e o p le s , a n d w h e n th e firs t
m is s io n a rie s c a m e to Ire la n d b rin g in g c o p ie s o f th e
G o s p e ls , th e y n a tu ra lly b ro u g h t th is a rt w ith th e m .
T h e o b je c t o f th e w ritin g w a s , o f c o u rs e , to m u ltip ly c o p ie s o f th e S c rip tu re s . B u t a lth o u g h m a n y
s e rv ic e b o o k s w e re c o p ie d s im p ly fo r u s e , th e
m o n k s w e re s o im p re s s e d b y th e g ra n d e u r o f th e
m e s s a g e th a t th e y o fte n trie d to m a k e th e c o p y in
s o m e d e g re e w o rth y o f th e m a tte r: th e y th o u g h t
n o th in g b u t th e fin e s t w o rk th e y c o u ld a c h ie v e w a s
g o o d e n o u g h a s a m e d iu m fo r th e s p re a d o f th e
G o s p e ls .
Illu m in a tio n , fo r w h ic h Iris h m o n k s a fte rw a rd s
b e c a m e s o fa m o u s , w a s th e n in its in fa n c y . T h e
w ritin g w a s s o m e tim e s d o n e o n w a x ta b le ts , b u t fo r
im p o rta n t b o o k s lik e c o p ie s o f th e G o s p e ls ,
p a rc h m e n t w a s u s e d . T h e Iris h d id n o t u n d e rs ta n d
th e d re s s in g o f th e s k in s s o w e ll a s th e c o n tin e n ta l
s c rib e s , a n d th e ir p a rc h m e n t, m a d e o f th e s k in s o f
c a lv e s , g o a ts o r s h e e p , w a s th e re fo re n o t a s th in a s
th a t u s e d e ls e w h e re . It is s till b e lie v e d b y m a n y th a t
th e B o o k o f K e lls w a s w ritte n o n Io n a .
W e m a y th in k o f th e m o n k o f Io n a th e n , s ittin g
in th e w ritin g ro o m , c o p y in g th e s to ry o f th e life o f
C h ris t, p o rin g o v e r h is w o rk , in te n t o n g lo rify in g

1 0

G o d b y th e b e a u ty o f e v e ry c u rv e . T h ro u g h th e
o p e n d o o r o r w in d o w h e w o u ld s e e th e g re e n
p a s tu re s s lo p in g d o w n to th e S o u n d , h e w o u ld h e a r
th e w a v e s la p p in g o n th e w h ite s a n d s . H e w o u ld
re fle c t fo r a m o m e n t o n th e b e a u ty o f th e w o rld in
w h ic h G o d h a d p la c e d h im , h e w o u ld fe e l th a t H e
w h o c re a te d s u c h b e a u ty m u s t b e a lo v in g F a th e r
w h o c a re d fo r H is c h ild re n . A n d th e n h e w o u ld
b e n d a g a in to h is ta s k , fo rm in g h is s le n d e r c u rv e s
a n d la v in g o n h is g lo w in g c o lo u rs to th e g lo ry a n d
th e p ra is e o f G o d .
O n c e in C o l u m b a s y o u n g e r d a y s w h e n h e w a s
in a c h u rc h o n L a m b a y Is la n d o ff th e D u b lin c o a s t,
S t C o m g a ll s u g g e s te d th a t C o lu m b a s h o u ld m a k e
th e o ffe rin g o f th e b o d y a n d b lo o d o f C h ris t in th e ir
p re s e n c e . C o lu m C ille o b e y e d . A n d it w a s th e n
th a t S t C a in n e c h s a w a fie ry c o lu m n o v e r C o lu m
C i lle s h e a d w h il e h e w a s e n g a g e d in t h e o f fe r in g .
S t C o lu m b a o n c e a s k e d S t D ic u il: W h y d o y o u
a lw a y s s m ile ? T h e a n s w e r w a s : B e c a u s e n o o n e
c a n ta k e G o d fro m m e .
O n c e w h e n S t C o lu m b a w a s v is itin g a m o n a s te ry o n th e is la n d o f E ig g , h e c a m e u p o n tw o
m o n k s w h o h a d b e e n p re a c h in g in a s p irit o f
riv a lry , th e o n e c la im in g to b e a b e tte r p re a c h e r
th a n th e o th e r. S tre tc h o u t b o th o f y o u th e rig h t
h a n d to w a rd s H e a v e n , s a id C o lu m b a . T h e m o n k s
d id a s h e to ld th e m a n d th e S a in t w e n t o n . O n e o f
y o u is s lig h tly ta lle r th a n th e o th e r, b u t n e ith e r c a n
c o m e w ith in re a c h o f th a t w h ite c lo u d flo a tin g
a b o v e u s . T o y o u r k n e e s , O m e n ! P ra y fo r e a c h
o th e r a n d fo r th e p e o p le a n d b o th o f y o u w ill re a c h
h ig h e r th a n th e c lo u d s . B o th m o n k s fe ll o n th e ir
k n e e s , a n d th e ir p ra y e rs w h ic h u s e d to s tic k in th e
th a tc h , m o u n te d n o w lik e s p a rk s o f fire in to th e
h e a v e n s . E v e r a fte r th e re w a s b ro th e rh o o d b e tw e e n
th e tw o m o n k s , a n d th e b ro th e rh o o d o f th e m o n ie s
m a d e b ro th e rs o f th e fo lk .
A t h is e n d S t C o lu m b
w o rd s , I c o m m e n d to y o u
k e e p a m o n g y o u rs e lv e s u n
p e a c e , a n d if y o u o b s e
e x a m p le o f th e h o ly fa th e r
o f th e g o o d , w ill h e lp y o
H im , w ill p ra y fo r y o u ;
p ro v id e y o u w ith th e n e e d
h e w ill a ls o g iv e y o u th
th in g s , p re p a re d fo r th e m
C o m m a n d m e n ts .
W h e
b y S t C
S c o tla n
W ig to w

n w e
o lu m b
d fro
n s h ire

c o n
a ,
m
. It

s u lt
w e s
th e
is im

s a id : T h e s e , m y la s t
, m y c h ild re n , th a t y o u
fe ig n e d lo v e a n d m u tu a l
rv e th is ru le a fte r th e
s , G o d , th e S tre n g th e n e r
u ; a n d I, d w e llin g w ith
a n d n o t o n ly s h a ll H e
s o f th e p re s e n t life , b u t
e g ifts o f e te rn a l g o o d
th a t k e e p th e D iv in e

th e lis
e e th a
O rk n
p o s s ib

t o f c h u rc h e s
t h e tra v e lle d
e y s rig h t d
le to a s c e rta in

fo u n d e d
a ll o v e r
o w n to
w h e th e r

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

c h u rc h e s n a m e d a fte r h im w e re a c tu a lly fo u n d e d
b y h im o r b y h is m o n k s a fte r h is d e a th . H e is s a id
to h a v e fo u n d e d o n e h u n d re d c h u rc h e s w h ic h th e
w a v e fre q u e n ts , th a t is o n th e s e a -c o a s t, b u t th e re
is n o n e e d to th in k th e S a in t h im s e lf v is ite d a ll
th e s e p la c e s , a lth o u g h h is tra v e llin g a c tiv itie s w e re
e n o rm o u s . H e a n d h is d is c ip le s fo u n d th e ir w a y
in to th e w ild e s t g le n s o f C a le d o n ia a s w e ll a s to th e
fa rth e s t is le s o f th e o c e a n . W h e re v e r th e y w e n t,
s e ttle m e n ts w e re e s ta b lis h e d o n th e p a tte rn o f th e
m o n a s te ry o f Io n a a n d fro m e a c h o f th e s e c e n tre s
th e m o n k s w e n t o u t to p re a c h th e G o s p e l. W e c a n
im a g in e th e th o u g h ts o f th e s e b ra v e m e n a s th e y
c ro s s e d th e w ild s o f n o rth e rn S c o tla n d , n o t k n o w in g w h a t d a n g e r o f e n e m y o r w ild b e a s t m ig h t lie
in w a it fo r th e m . T h e p ra y e r fo r tra v e llin g , re c e n tly
re c o v e re d fro m th e tra d itio n a l G a e lic , m a y h a v e
h a d its o rig in lo n g a g o in th e m in d s o f C o lu m b a n
m o n k s:
L ife
S e n
T h e
T ill

b e in
s e in
b lo o
I c o m

m y sp e e c h ,
w h a t I sa y ,
m o f c h e rrie s o n m y lip s ,
e b a c k a g a in .

T h e lo v e
B e fillin g
T h e lo v e
F illin g m

Je s u s
e v e ry
Je s u s
e fo r e

C ro
C ro
T h e
T h e

c o rrie s
v a lle y s
h ite M
h e rd Je

s s in g
s s in g
fa ir w
S h e p

C h ris
h e a r
C h ris
v e ry

T h e fa ir w h ite M
T h e S h e p h e rd Je
T h e re is a tra d itio
to b e a llo w e d to
P a ra d is e , a s lo n g a s
c o u ld s e e H is g lo ry a
th e is la n d s g o e s :
I c a ll o n M a r
I c a ll o n B rid
P o w e rfu l,
I c a ll o n C o lu
A n d I c a ll o n
O n a ll s a in ts
S t C o lu m b a
C re a to r, u n d e r
n a tu re th e a p p
e v e rla s tin g s e a
e x p a n se o f sk y
is la n d s s h o w s a
b e s e e n in d rie r

t g a v e
t fo r m e ,
t g a v e
o n e .

, c ro s s in g
lo n g a n d
a ry , s till
su s b e m

fo re s ts ,
w ild ,
u p h o ld m e ,
y s h ie ld ,

a ry s till u p h o
su s b e m y sh
n th a t S t C o lu
k e e p th e s m
h e w a s in G
n d h e a r H is v

ld m e .
ie ld .
m b a a sk e d
a lle s t d o o
o d s H o u s e
o ic e . A p ra y

o n ly
r in
a n d
e r o f

y , A id fu l M o th e r o f m e n ,
e , F o s te r-m o th e r o f C h ris t A llm b a , A p o s tle o f s e a a n d s h o re ,
h e a v e n ,
a n d a n g e ls th a t a re o n h ig h .

s a id : If y o u w
s ta n d C re a tio n .
e a l o f Io n a is in
in its c h a n g in g
w h ic h in th e d a m
b e a u ty a n d v a rie
a tm o s p h e re s . O n

is h to k n o w th e
T o th e lo v e r o f
d e e d in fin ite ; th e
a s p e c ts , th e w id e
p c lim a te o f th e s e
ty o f c o lo u r n o t to
e o f th e firs t th in g s

R T H O D O X

1 1

N G L A N D

Io n a A b b e y

w h ic h s trik e s th e p ilg rim is th e s n o w y w h ite n e s s o f


th e s a n d in th e b a y s a n d o v e r th e w h o le n o rth e n d
o f th e is la n d , w h ic h is c a lle d in G a e lic T ra ig h B h a n
n a M a n a n c h , th e W h ite S tra n d o f th e M o n k s ,
b e c a u s e a t th e fin a l D a n is h in v a s io n , in th e e n d o f
th e te n th c e n tu ry , th e D a n e s la n d e d th e re a n d
k ille d th e A b b o t a n d fifte e n o f h is m o n k s w h o h a d
c o m e to m e e t th e m . N o t o n ly is th e s a n d b e a u tifu l
in its p u rity o n la n d , b u t w h e n th e tid e is fu ll, th e
g re e n fre s h n e s s o f th e w a te r o v e r th is s n o w y s a n d
is in d e s c rib a b le . F u rth e r o u t fro m s h o re , w h e re
ro c k s a n d s e a w e e d ta k e th e p la c e o f s a n d , th e
c o lo u r c h a n g e s to d e e p b lu e s a n d p u rp le s , w h ile
h e re a n d th e re o v e r a s a n d b a n k p a tc h e s o f p a le
g re e n lig h t u p th e s e a .
L o o
th e lo n
a t a ll,
S t C o lu

k in g
g su m
w e
m b a

o u
m
k n
lo

t o n th
e r n ig h
o w th a
o k e d o

e b e a
ts , w h
t m a
u t o n

u tie s
e n d
n y h
th e

o f
a rk n
u n d
sa m

se a
e ss
re d
e b

a n d sk
h a rd ly
y e a rs
e a u tie s

y in
fa lls
a g o
a n d

fe lt th a t in Io n a h e liv e d a m o n g th o s e u n s e e n th in g s
w h ic h a re e te rn a l. W e re m e m b e r th e o ld G a e lic
p ro p h e c y th a t C h ris t s h a ll c o m e a g a in u p o n Io n a .
Io n a is a t th e h e a rt o f e v e ry th in g . A s m a ll is la n d ,
fa s h io n e d o f a little s a n d , a fe w g ra s s e s s a lt w ith th e
s p ra y o f a n e v e r-re s tle s s w a v e , a fe w ro c k s th a t
w a d e in h e a th e r a n d u p o n w h o s e b ro w s th e s e a w in d w e a v e s th e y e llo w lic h e n . B u t s in c e re m o te s t
d a y s h o ly m e n h a v e b o w e d h e re in w o rs h ip . In th is
little is la n d w a s lit a la m p w h o s e fla m e lig h te d
p a g a n E u ro p e fro m th e A n g le in h is fe n to th e
s w a rth y fo lk w h o c a m e b y G re e k w a te rs to tra d e in
th e O rie n t. H e re L e a rn in g a n d F a ith h a d th e ir
tra n q u il h o m e . F ro m a g e to a g e lo w ly h e a rts h a v e
n e v e r c e a s e d to b rin g th e ir b u rd e n h e re . Io n a
h e rs e lf h a s g iv e n u s fo r re m e m b ra n c e a fo u n ta in o f
y o u th m o re w o n d e rfu l th a n th a t w h ic h lie s u n d e r
h e r o w n ro c k s ; A n d h e re h o p e w a its . T o te ll th e
s to ry o f Io n a is to b a c k to G o d a n d to e n d in G o d .

1 2

F R O M
M a y th
a n
M a y th
a n
M a y th
F ro m m

e c ro s
d th is
e c ro s
d th is
e c ro s
y sh o

s o f C h r
e a r.
s o f C h r
th ro a t.
s o f C h r
u ld e r to

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

IO N A

is t b e o v e r th is fa c e
is t b e o v e r th is m o u th
is t b e o v e r m y a rm s
m y h a n d s.

M a y th e c ro s s o f C h ris t b e w ith m e , b e fo re
m e .
M a y th e c ro s s o f C h ris t b e a b o v e m e ,
b e h in d m e .
W ith th e c ro s s o
D iffic u lty in th e
F ro m th e to p o f
m y fo o t,
I tru s t in th e p ro
O C h ris t.

f C h ris t m a y I m e e t e v e ry
h e ig h ts a n d in th e d e p th s .
m y h e a d to th e n a il o f
te c tio n o f T h y c ro s s ,
(A ttrib u te d to M u g ro n ,
A b b o t o f Io n a , 1 0 th c e n tu ry )

M A C B E T H , K IN G O F S C O T L A N D ,
F o re ru n n e r o f S c h is m

A C B E T H is b e s t k n o w n a s th e s u b je c t
o f S h a k e s p e a r e s tr a g ic S c o ttis h p la y
a n d th e m a n y w o rk s it h a s in s p ire d .
H o w e v e r, th e p la y p re s e n ts a h ig h ly in a c c u ra te
v ie w o f th e re ig n o f a re a l K in g o f S c o tla n d a s a
w e a k m a n , m a n ip u la te d b y h is w ife a n d h a u n te d
b y g u ilt. In re a lity , M a c b e th w a s a s tro n g a n d a b le
K in g o f S c o tla n d . A s th e firs t K in g o f S c o tla n d to d ie
a fte r th e W e s te rn S c h is m o f 1 0 5 4 , w h ic h le d to th e
o ffic ia l fo u n d a tio n o f R o m a n C a th o lic is m , th e re a re
c o n n e c tio n s b e tw e e n h im a n d e v e n ts th a t w e re
o c c u rrin g a ll o v e r W e s te rn E u ro p e a t th a t fa ta l
tim e .
M a c b e th (M a c B e th a d
o f B e th a d , th e s o n o f F in d
S c o ts in 1 0 4 0 , a fte r h e
K in g , D u n c a n I. K in g M a
te e n y e a rs u n til h is o w n
w a s in tu rn k ille d b y D u n
M a lc o lm III.
A s a re g io n a l k in
n o rth -e a s t S c o tla n d ,
w h e n th e S c a n d in a v ia
w h o th e n ru le d o v
S c a n d in a v ia , w e n t n
a c c e p t th e s u b m is s io
M a lc o lm
II a n d th

m a c
la c h )
h a d
c b e th
d e a th
c a n s

F in d la c h
b e c a m e K in
k ille d th e p
re ig n e d fo r
in 1 0 5 7 , w
s o n , th e fu tu

th e s o
g o f th
re v io u
se v e n
h e n h
re K in

n
e
s
e
g

g o r c h ie fta in o f M o ra y in
M a c b e th is firs t m e n tio n e d
n /V ik in g K in g C a n u te (C n u t),
e r E n g la n d a n d m u c h o f
o rth in 1 0 3 1 . T h is w a s to
n o f th e K in g o f S c o tla n d ,
o s e w ith h im , in c lu d in g

M a c b e th . It is re c o rd e d th a t: M a lc o lm , K in g o f th e
S c o ts , s u b m itte d to h im a n d b e c a m e h is m a n , w ith
tw o o th e r k in g s , M a c b e th a n d Ie h m a rc .
H o w e v e r, M a lc o lm II d ie d o n ly th re e y e a rs la te r
in N o v e m b e r 1 0 3 4 , q u ite p o s s ib ly a s s a s s in a te d . H e
w a s a t o n c e s u c c e e d e d b y h is y o u n g g ra n d s o n
D u n c a n (D o n n c h a d m a c C rn in ), a p p a re n tly u n o p p o s e d . H e b e c a m e D u n c a n I, b u t h is b rie f re ig n
w a s u n s u c c e s s fu l. A fte r S tra th c ly d e in s o u th e rn
S c o tla n d h a d b e e n a tta c k e d b y N o rth u m b ria in
1 0 3 9 , D u n c a n le d a re v e n g e a tta c k a g a in s t th e
N o rth u m b ria n c a p ita l, D u rh a m , in 1 0 4 0 . T h is w a s
a d is a s te r fo r th e S c o ts . It w a s la te r th a t y e a r th a t
D u n c a n le d a n a rm y in to M o ra y , w h e re h e w a s
k ille d b y its re g io n a l k in g , M a c b e th , in A u g u s t
1 0 4 0 a t P itg a v e n y n e a r E lg in .
It w a s o n D u n c a n s d e a th th a t
K in g o f S c o tla n d . A ft e r D u n c a n s
in a b a ttle b e tw e e n tw o S c o ttis h
M a c b e th w a s u n c h a lle n g e d .
M a ria n u s te lls h o w in 1 0 5 0 K in g
p ilg rim a g e to R o m e , w h e re h e g
p o o r, a s if it w e r e s e e d . T h is w a s
L e o IX , th e firs t re fo rm is t p o p e ,
th e W e s te rn S c h is m .

M a c b e th b e c a m e
fa th e r w a s k ille d
a rm ie s in 1 0 4 5 ,
T h e c h ro n ic le r
M a c b e th m a d e a
a v e m o n e y to th e
in th e a g e o f P o p e
w h o a ls o c a u s e d

S ig n ific a n tly , M a c b e th th e n b e c a m e in v o lv e d in
th e c o n flic t in E n g la n d b e tw e e n th e E n g lis h E a rl

R T H O D O X

1 3

N G L A N D

G o d w in o f W e s s e x a n d th e h a lf-N o rm a n K in g
E d w a rd th e C o n fe s s o r. In 1 0 5 2 E a r l G o d w in ,
w h o s e s o n H a ro ld G o d w in s s o n w a s to fig h t a g a in s t
W illia m
o f N o rm a n d y a t H a s tin g s in 1 0 6 6 ,
e x p e lle d
th e c a s tle -b u ild in g N o rm a n s fro m
E n g la n d in o rd e r to p ro te c t th e E n g lis h fro m
fe u d a l is m . T h e s e N o r m a n s in c lu d e d E d w a r d s n e w
A rc h b is h o p o f C a n te rb u ry , R o b e rt o f Ju m ie g e s , p u t
in p la c e to c ro w n D u k e W illia m o f N o rm a n d y K in g
o f E n g la n d a f te r E d w a r d s d e a th . T h e s e N o r m a n s
w e re c h a s e d o u t o f th e c o u n try in th e n a tio n a l
u p ris in g in 1 0 5 2 .
H o w e v e r, M a c b e th
N o rm a n s , w h o w e re to

to o k th e s id e o f th e
b e u s e d b y th e re fo rm is t

p a p a c y
v io le n c e
H o ly L a
a b o u t re
E n g la n d
S c o tla n d

a s th e ir s h o c k
in Ita ly , E n g
n d a n d Ire la n
c e iv in g a n u m
a t h is c o u rt,
to in tro d u c e

-tro
la n
d .
b e
b e
fe u

F iv
m o rta
fu tu re
D u n c
h is m
L u m p

y e a rs
w o u n
a lc o lm
) o n 1 5
to ta
n a n . H

a c b e
e ls e
g M a
t 1 0 5
la s t
u rie d

e
lly
M
a n
e n
h a

la te
d e d
III
A u
k e
e w

r M
o r
(K in
g u s
h is
a s b

O R T H O D O X Y S H IN E S T H R O U G H W E S T E R N
T h e M a k in g o f E u ro p e

o p s to s p r
d , W a le s ,
M a c b e th h
r o f N o rm
c o m in g th
d a lis m in to

e a d s c h is m b
S c o tla n d , th
a d n o q u a lm
a n e x ile s fro m
e firs t K in g o
h is c o u n try .

y
e
s
f

th w a s d e fe a te d a n d
k ille d o u trig h t b y th e
lc o lm C a n m o re , s o n o f
7 , a fte r re tre a tin g w ith
s ta n d a t th e b a ttle a t
o n Io n a .

M Y T H S (8 )

L D E R W e s te rn s c h o la rs h ip o n C h u rc h
h is to ry is n o t g e n e ra lly o f m u c h u s e to
O rth o d o x . M o s t o f it is s im p ly a n tiO rth o d o x a n d th e re fo re a n ti-a u th e n tic C h ris tia n ity ,
e v e n o p e n ly b o a s tin g o f its Ju d e o -C h ris tia n a n d
n o t C h ris tia n c iv ilis a tio n . T h e a n ti-O rth o d o x
p re ju d ic e s o f s u c h s c h o la rs h ip , w h e n it m e n tio n s
O rth o d o x y a t a ll, c o m e s im p ly fro m th e fa c t th a t
h is to ry is w ritte n b y th e w in n e rs , a n d e v e n d e s p ite
th e F ir s t W o r ld W a r, u p u n til th e S e c o n d W o rld
W a r m o s t W e s te rn s c h o la rs th o u g h t th a t th e W e s t
h a d w o n .

D a w s o n , S h e e d a n d W a rd , 1 9 3 2 . A lth o u g h h e w a s
a v e ry re s p e c ta b le a n d tra d itio n a l R o m a n C a th o lic
(h e s u ffe re d a g re a t d e a l a fte r th e S e c o n d V a tic a n
C o u n c il), y e t h is in s ig h ts in to th e h is to ry o f re lig io n
la rg e ly s u p p o rt th e O rth o d o x th e s is b e c a u s e h is
p ro p h e tic s p irit w a s s o fa r a h e a d o f h is tim e . (S e e
o u r a rtic le o n h im in O rth o d o x E n g la n d , V o l 6 ,
N o 4 ). In fa c t, th e s e e x tra c ts s e e m to illu s tra te
a b u n d a n tly th e p o s t-O rth o d o x d e fo rm a tio n s o f
W e s te rn c u ltu re w h ic h b e g a n w ith th e s p re a d o f
th e n e w filio q u e c u ltu re b e h in d th e P a p a c y .

It is d iffe re n t to d a y , w h e n th e n e a r-m ille n n ia l


c rim e s o f th e W e s t a re v is ib le to a ll a n d n o b o d y
a n y lo n g e r lis te n s to th e v o ic e s o f e c c le s ia s tic a l
in s titu tio n s w h ic h m o u ld e d th e la s t th o u s a n d y e a rs
o f W e s te rn h is to ry th e y a re c le a rly c o m p ro m is e d .
In te re s tin g ly , c o n te m p o ra ry s e c u la r s c h o la rs h ip ,
w h ic h in its ig n o ra n c e o f O rth o d o x y c a n n o t in a n y
w a y b e a c c u s e d o f b e in g p ro -O rth o d o x , is a n
e x c e lle n t s o u rc e fo r O rth o d o x to u n d e rs ta n d w h a t
w e n t w ro n g w ith th e W e s t. W e c a n u n d e rs ta n d
h o w , b y re n o u n c in g th e O rth o d o x C h ris tia n F a ith
in its a n ti-T rin ita ria n a n d a n ti-C h ris tic filio q u e
h e re s y , its fo rm e r C h u rc h b e c a m e a s e rie s o f -is m s ,
C a th o lic is m ,
P ro te s ta n tis m ,
L u th e ra n ism ,
C a lv in is m , A n g lic a n is m
e tc , w h ic h h a v e b re d
m o d e rn -d a y s e c u la ris m a n d w ill e v e n tu a lly le a d to
th e e n d o f th e w o rld .

A lth o u g h o m in o u s ly th re a te n e d fo r n e a rly th re e
c e n tu rie s b e fo re , u n d e r C h a rle m a g n e , th e s e
d e fo rm a tio n s w e re n o t d e fin itiv e ly im p le m e n te d
u n til th e e le v e n th c e n tu ry . T h e d a te o f 1 0 5 4 is th u s
s e e n to b e s y m b o lic o f th e v e ry re a l s p iritu a l fa ll
w h ic h to o k p la c e in W e s te rn E u ro p e in th e
e le v e n th c e n tu ry . In th e y e a r 1 0 0 0 , th e fa ll h a d b y
n o m e a n s b e e n c e rta in . In 1 0 5 4 it w a s . A n d it is
th a t fa ll w h ic h h a s d e fin e d th e s u b s e q u e n t h is to ry
o f n o t ju s t W e s te rn E u ro p e , b u t th e w h o le w o rld .
B u t le t th e le a rn e d a u th o r s p e a k :

In

ta k
w e
T h
k n

th e
e n fro m
h a v e s
e se a re
o w n R

fo llo w in
v a rio u
e le c te d
fro m T h
o m a n

g a rtic le , th e e
s w o rk s o f s e c
e x tra c ts fro m a
e M a k in g o f E u
C a th o lic s c h o

ig h th
u la r s
re lig io
ro p e b
la r C

in

a s e rie s
c h o la rs h ip ,
u s s c h o la r.
y th e w e llh ris to p h e r

p . x x . T h e s p ir itu a l b a r r ie r o f b e in g o u ts id e
th e O rth o d o x C h u r c h .
W e (i.e . N o n -O
fro m th e E u ro p e a n
a re fo rc e d to s tu
d is in te re s te d c u rio
d is in te rs th e re lic s

rth o
p a
d y
s ity
o f a

d o x N
st b y a s
it fro m
o f th e
d e a d c u

. o f E d .) a re c u
p iritu a l b a rrie r
o u ts id e w ith
a rc h o lo g is t
ltu re .

t o
a n
th
w h

ff
d
o

1 4

p p . 4 6 4 7 . In th e e le v e n th c e n tu r y th e W e s t
is o la te s its e lf fr o m a ll th a t w e n t b e fo r e .
B u t a lth o u g h fro m th e fifth c e n tu ry th e tw o
h a lv e s o f th e E m p ire d rifte d a p a rt in re lig io n a s w e ll
a s in p o litic s , th e d iv is io n w a s n o t c o m p le te ...
T h e s e c o n d itio n s c h a ra c te riz e d th e w h o le p e rio d
w ith w h ic h w e a re a b o u t to d e a l. It w a s n o t u n til
th e e le v e n th c e n tu ry th a t th e re lig io u s b o n d w h ic h
u n ite d E a s t a n d W e s t w a s fin a lly d e s tro y e d a n d
W e s te rn C h ris te n d o m e m e rg e d a s a n in d e p e n d e n t
u n ity , s e p a ra te d a lik e in c u ltu re a n d re lig io n fro m
th e re s t o f th e o ld R o m a n w o rld .

p p . 1 0 8 1 1 0 . O r th o d o x c u ltu r e v e r s u s
m o d e r n E u r o p e a n c u ltu r e
B u t it is n o t p o s s ib le to u n d e rs ta n d B y z a n tin e
(s ic ) c u ltu re if w e lo o k a t it o n ly fro m th e e c o n o m ic
o r th e p o litic a l p o in t o f v ie w . F o r, to a g re a te r e x te n t th a n th a t o f a n y o th e r E u ro p e a n s o c ie ty , its
c u ltu re w a s a re lig io u s o n e a n d fo u n d its e s s e n tia l
e x p re s s io n in re lig io u s fo rm s ; a n d e v e n to -d a y it
s u rv iv e s to a g re a t e x te n t in th e tra d itio n o f th e
E a s te rn (s ic ) C h u rc h . T h e m o d e rn E u ro p e a n is
a c c u s to m e d to lo o k o n s o c ie ty a s e s s e n tia lly
c o n c e rn e d w ith th e p re s e n t life , a n d w ith m a te ria l
n e e d s , a n d o n re lig io n a s a n in flu e n c e o n th e m o ra l
life o f th e in d iv id u a l. B u t to th e B y z a n tin e (s ic ), a n d
in d e e d to m e d i v a l m a n in g e n e ra l, th e p rim a ry
s o c ie ty w a s th e re lig io u s o n e , a n d e c o n o m ic a n d
s e c u la r a ffa irs w e re a s e c o n d a ry c o n s id e ra tio n . T h e
g r e a t e r p a r t o f a m a n s l ife , e s p e c ia lly a p o o r m a n s ,
w a s liv e d in a w o rld o f re lig io u s h o p e s a n d fe a rs ,
a n d th e s u p e rn a tu ra l fig u re s o f th is re lig io u s w o rld
w e re ju s t a s re a l to h im a s th e a u th o ritie s o f th e
E m p ire . T h is o th e rw o rld ly s p irit g o e s b a c k , o f
c o u rs e , to th e e a rly c e n tu rie s o f C h ris tia n ity , b u t
a fte r th e a d o p tio n o f th e n e w re lig io n a s th e o ffic ia l
c u lt o f th e E m p ire , it to o k o n n e w fo rm s w h ic h
b e c a m e c h a ra c te ris tic o f B y z a n tin e (s ic ) c u ltu re .
A b o v e a ll, th e re w a s th e in s titu tio n o f m o n a s tic is m ,
w h ic h a ro s e in E g y p t e a rly in th e fo u rth c e n tu ry ,
a n d s p re a d w ith e x tra o rd in a ry ra p id ity b o th in th e
E a s t a n d th e W e s t ... th e m o n a s tic id e a l b e c a m e th e
s ta n d a rd o f th e re lig io u s life o f th e E m p ire . T h e
m o n k w a s th e s u p e rm a n , th e o rd in a ry c le ric a n d
la y m a n fo llo w e d th e s a m e id e a l a t a d is ta n c e . T h e y
a ll a c c e p te d th e s u b o rd in a tio n o f s e c u la r a c tiv itie s
to th e p u re ly re lig io u s life . T o th e m th e re a l fo rc e s
th a t ru le d th e w o rld w e re n o t fin a n c e a n d w a r a n d
p o litic s , b u t th e p o w e rs o f th e s p iritu a l w o rld , th e
c e le s tia l h ie ra rc h y o f a n g e lic V irtu e s a n d In te llig e n c e s . A n d th is in v is ib le h ie ra rc h y h a d its
c o u n te rp a rt a n d m a n ife s ta tio n in th e v is ib le o rd e r

o f th e e c c le s ia
s a c ra m e n ta l o rd e
n o t h a rd fo r a B
m ira c u lo u s in te rp
life , fo r h e s a w
litu rg y th e c o n
T h e o p h a n y .

s tic a l h
r o f th e
y z a n tin e
o s itio n o
e n a c te d
tin u a l m

R T H O D O X

ie ra rc h y , a n d
D iv in e M y s te rie
(s ic ) to b e lie v
f P ro v id e n c e in
b e fo re h is e y e
ira c le o f th e

N G L A N D

in th e
s . It w a s
e in th e
h is d a ily
s in th e
D iv in e

T h is v is io n o f s p iritu a l re a lity a n d m y s te ry w a s
th e c o m m o n p o s s e s s io n o f th e B y z a n tin e w o rld .
T h e e d u c a te d m a n re a c h e d it th ro u g h th e m y s tic a l
p h ilo s o p h y o f th e G re e k F a th e rs , a b o v e a ll
D io n y s iu s th e A re o p a g ite a n d M a x im u s C o n fe s s o r,
w h ile th e u n e d u c a te d s a w it th ro u g h th e m a n y c o lo u re d im a g e ry o f a rt a n d le g e n d . B u t th e re w a s
n o c o n flic t b e tw e e n th e tw o v ie w s , s in c e th e
s y m b o lis m o f a rt a n d th e a b s tra c tio n s o f th o u g h t
fo u n d th e ir c o m m o n g ro u n d in th e litu rg y a n d
d o g m a o f th e C h u rc h .

p p . 2 1 0 1 1 . O r th o d o x E n g la n d
In E n g la n d , th e C h u rc h e m b o d ie d th e w h o le
in h e rita n c e o f R o m a n c u ltu re a s c o m p a re d w ith
th e w e a k a n d b a rb a ro u s trib a l s ta te s . It w a s th e
C h u rc h ra th e r th a n th e s ta te th a t le d th e w a y to
n a tio n a l u n ity th ro u g h its c o m m o n o rg a n is a tio n , its
a n n u a l s y n o d s a n d its tra d itio n o f a d m in is tra tio n .
In th e p o litic a l s p h e re th e A n g lo -S a x o n c u ltu re w a s
s in g u la rly
b a rre n
o f
a c h ie v e m e n t.
T h e
N o rth u m b ria n s ta te fe ll in to w e a k n e s s a n d a n a rc h y
lo n g b e fo re th e fa ll o f th e A n g lia n a rt a n d c u ltu re .
T h e p o p u la r c o n c e p tio n o f th e A n g lo -S a x o n a s a
k in d o f m e d i v a l Jo h n B u ll is s in g u la rly a t v a ria n c e
w ith h is to ry . O n th e m a te ria l s id e A n g lo -S a x o n
c iv ilis a tio n w a s a fa ilu re ; its c h ie f in d u s try s e e m s to
h a v e b e e n th e m a n u fa c tu re a n d e x p o rt o f s a in ts ,
a n d e v e n B e d e w a s m o v e d to p ro te s t a g a in s t th e
e x c e s s iv e m u ltip lic a tio n o f m o n a s tic fo u n d a tio n s
w h ic h s e rio u s ly w e a k e n e d th e m ilita ry re s o u rc e s o f
th e s ta te .
B u t, o n th e o th e r h a n d , th e re h a s n e v e r b e e n a n
a g e in w h ic h E n g la n d h a d a g re a te r in flu e n c e o n
c o n tin e n ta l c u ltu re . In a rt a n d re lig io n , in s c h o la rs h ip a n d lite ra tu re , th e A n g lo -S a x o n s o f th e e ig h th
c e n tu ry w e re th e le a d e rs o f th e ir a g e . A t th e tim e
w h e n c o n tin e n ta l c iv ilis a tio n w a s a t its lo w e s t e b b ,
th e c o n v e rs io n o f th e A n g lo -S a x o n s m a rk e d th e
tu rn o f th e tid e . T h e S a x o n p ilg rim s flo c k e d to
R o m e a s th e c e n tre o f th e C h ris tia n w o rld a n d th e
P a p a c y fo u n d its m o s t d e v o te d a llie s a n d s e rv a n ts
in th e A n g lo -S a x o n m o n k a n d m is s io n a rie s . T h e
fo u n d a tio n s o f th e n e w a g e w e re la id b y th e
g re a te s t o f th e m a ll, S t. B o n ifa c e o f C re d ito n , th e
A p o s tle o f G e rm a n y , a m a n w h o h a d a d e e p e r

R T H O D O X

1 5

N G L A N D

in flu e n c e o n th e h is to ry o f E u ro p e
E n g lis h m a n w h o h a s e v e r liv e d .

th a n

a n y

p p . 2 6 4 5 . T h e S c h is m w a s fo r c e d o n th e
p a p a c y b y th e b a r b a r ia n ta k e o v e r.
T h u s th e n e w p o s itio n o f s o c ia l h e g e m o n y in
W e s te rn E u ro p e th a t th e P a p a c y a c q u ire d a t th is
p e rio d w a s th ru s t u p o n it fro m w ith o u t ra th e r th a n
a s s u m e d b y its o w n in itia tiv e . A s D r C a rly le w rite s
w ith re g a rd to th e r is e o f th e T e m p o ra l P o w e r, A n y
o n e w h o s tu d ie s th e P a p a l c o rre s p o n d e n c e a n d th e
L ib e r P o n tific a lis in th e e ig h th c e n tu ry w ill, w e
th in k , fe e l th a t th e le a d e rs h ip o f th e R o m a n
re s p u b lic a in th e W e s t w a s fo rc e d u p o n th e m (th e
P o p e s ) ra th e r th a n d e lib e ra te ly s o u g h t. It w a s o n ly
s lo w ly a n d re lu c ta n tly th a t th e y d re w a w a y fro m
B y z a n tin e (s ic ) a u th o rity , fo r a fte r a ll, a s c iv iliz e d
m e m b e rs o f th e R o m a n s ta te , th e y , p re fe rre d th e
B y z a n tin e (s ic ) to th e b a rb a ria n . In th e s a m e w a y
in th e n in th c e n tu ry th e P a p a c y s u b m itte d to th e
c o n tro l o f th e C a ro lin g ia n E m p ire a n d e v e n a c c e p te d th e C o n s titu tio n o f 8 2 4 , w h ic h m a d e th e
E m p e ro r th e m a s te r o f th e R o m a n s ta te a n d g a v e
h im p ra c tic a l c o n tro l o v e r th e a p p o in tm e n t o f th e
P o p e . N e v e rth e le s s , th e b o n d o f a s s o c ia tio n w ith
th e C a ro lin g ia n E m p ire o f its e lf in c re a s e d th e p o litic a l im p o rta n c e o f th e P a p a c y , a n d a s th e E m p ire
g re w w e a k e r a n d m o re d iv id e d , th e P a p a c y c a m e
to b e re g a rd e d a s th e s u p re m e re p re s e n ta tiv e o f
W e s te rn u n ity . T h u s th e re w a s a b rie f p e rio d
b e tw e e n th e p o litic a l e ffa c e m e n t o f th e P a p a c y
u n d e r C h a rle m a g n e a n d L o th a ir a n d its e n s la v e m e n t to lo c a l fa c tio n s in th e te n th c e n tu ry , w h e n it
s e e m e d p re p a re d to ta k e th e p la c e o f th e
C a ro lin g ia n d y n a s ty a s th e le a d e r o f W e s te rn C h ris te n d o m . T h e p o n tific a te o f N ic h o la s I, (8 5 8 8 6 7 )
fo re s h a d o w s th e fu tu re a c h ie v e m e n ts (s ic ) o f th e
m e d i v a l P a p a c y . H e w ith s to o d th e g re a te s t m e n
o f h is tim e , th e e m p e ro rs o f th e E a s t a n d W e s t,
H in c m a r, th e le a d e r o f th e F ra n k is h e p is c o p a te ,
a n d P h o tiu s , th e g re a te s t o f th e B y z a n tin e (s ic )
p a tria rc h s , a n d h e s u c c e s s fu lly a s s e rte d th e
s p iritu a l a u th o rity a n d in d e p e n d e n c e o f th e H o ly
S e e e v e n w h e n th e E m p e ro r L e w is II a tte m p te d to
im p o s e h is w ill b y th e u s e o f a rm e d fo rc e .
H is s u c c e s s o rs w e re in c a p a b le o f m a in ta in in g
s o lo fty (s ic ) a p o s itio n .

p p . 2 7 0 7 1 . T h e e th ic a l a n d s p ir itu a l d u a lis m
o f th e te n th c e n tu r y W e s t a n d th e c r itic a l
c h o ic e it fa c e d in th e e le v e n th c e n tu r y .
T h e re w e re in fa c t tw o s o c ie tie s a n d tw o c u ltu re s in e a rly m e d i v a l E u ro p e . O n th e o n e h a n d
th e re w a s th e p e a c e -s o c ie ty o f th e C h u rc h , w h ic h
w a s c e n tre d in th e m o n a s te rie s a n d e p is c o p a l c itie s
a n d in h e rite d th e tra d itio n o f la te r R o m a n c u ltu re .
A n d , o n th e o th e r h a n d , th e re w a s th e w a r-s o c ie ty
o f th e fe u d a l n o b ility a n d th e ir fo llo w in g , w h o s e
life w a s s p e n t in in c e s s a n t w a rs a n d p riv a te fe u d s .
A lth o u g h th e la tte r m ig h t b e a ffe c te d p e rs o n a lly b y
th e in flu e n c e o f th e re lig io u s s o c ie ty , w h o s e le a d e rs w e re o fte n th e ir o w n k in s m e n , th e y b e lo n g e d
s o c ia lly to a m o re p r im itiv e o rd e r. T h e y w e re th e
s u c c e s s o rs o f th e o ld trib a l a ris to c ra c ie s o f b a rb a ria n E u ro p e , a n d th e ir e th o s w a s th a t o f th e trib a l
w a rrio r. A t th e b e s t th e y p re s e r v e d a c e rta in r u d e
m e a s u re o f s o c ia l o rd e r a n d p ro te c te d th e ir s u b je c ts fro m e x te rn a l a g g re s s io n . B u t in m a n y c a s e s
th e y w e re p u re ly b a rb a ro u s a n d p re d a to ry , liv in g in
th e ir s tro n g h o ld s , a s a m e d i v a l c h ro n ic le r w rite s ,
lik e b e a s ts o f p re y in th e ir d e n s , a n d is s u in g fo rth
to b u rn th e ir n e ig h b o u rs v illa g e s a n d to h o ld th e
p a s s in g tra v e lle r to ra n s o m .
T h e v ita l p ro b le m o
w h e th e r th is fe u d a l b a rb
a b s o rb th e p e a c e -s o c ie ty
th e la tte r c o u ld s u c c e e d
its h ig h e r c u ltu re o n th e
fo rm e rly d o n e w ith th e
th e A n g lo -S a x o n s a n d th

f th e te n th c e n tu ry
a ris m w a s to c a p tu re
o f th e C h u rc h , o r w h e
in im p o s in g its id e a ls
fe u d a l n o b ility , a s it
b a rb a ria n m o n a rc h ie
e F ra n k s.

w a s
a n d
th e r
a n d
h a d
s o f

A t firs t s ig h t th e p ro s p e c ts s e e m e d e v e n m o re
u n fa v o u ra b le th a n th e y h a d b e e n in th e a g e th a t
fo llo w e d th e b a rb a ria n in v a s io n s , fo r n o w th e
C h u rc h its e lf w a s in d a n g e r o f b e in g e n g u lfe d in
th e flo o d o f b a rb a ris m a n d fe u d a l a n a rc h y . P rin c e s
a n d n o b le s to o k a d v a n ta g e o f th e fa ll o f th e E m p ire
to d e s p o il th e c h u rc h e s a n d m o n a s te rie s o f th e
w e a lth th a t th e y h a d a c c u m u la te d d u rin g th e
p re v io u s p e rio d . In B a v a ria , A rn u lf c a rrie d o u t a
w h o le s a le s e c u la ris a tio n o f c h u rc h la n d s , a s
C h a rle s M a rte l h a d d o n e in th e F ra n k is h k in g d o m
a t th e c lo s e o f th e M e ro v in g ia n p e rio d , a n d th e
B a v a ria n m o n a s te rie s lo s t th e g re a te r p a rt o f th e ir
p o s s e s s io n s . In th e W e s t th in g s w e re e v e n w o rs e ,
s in c e th e m o n a s te rie s h a d b e e n a lm o s t ru in e d b y
th e ra v a g e s o f th e N o rth m e n a n d th e fe u d a liz a tio n
o f th e W e s t F ra n k is h k in g d o m le ft th e C h u rc h a t th e
m e rc y o f th e n e w m ilita ry a ris to c ra c y , w h o u s e d its
re s o u rc e s to c re a te n e w fie fs fo r th e ir fo llo w e rs .
H u g h C a p e t w a s la y a b b o t o f m o s t o f th e ric h e s t
a b b e y s in h is d o m in io n s , a n d th e s a m e p o lic y w a s

1 6
fo llo w e d o n
p o te n ta te .
T h u s th e
re d u c e d th e C
o rd e r e v e n g r
th e d e c a d e n t
o f S t B o n ifa c e
titu re fro m th
h e ld th e ir b e n
m ilita ry s e rv ic

O
a

s m a lle r

s c a le

b y

e v e ry

lo c a l

d e v e lo p m e n t o f fe u d a lis m
h u rc h to a s ta te o f w e a k n e s s a n d
e a te r th a n th a t w h ic h h a d e x is te
M e ro v in g ia n s ta te b e fo re th e c o m
. B is h o p s a n d a b b o ts re c e iv e d in
e p rin c e lik e o th e r fe u d a to rie s
e fic e s a s s p iritu a l fie fs in re tu rn
e .

h a d
d is d in
in g
v e sa n d
fo r

p p . 2 7 8 9 . T h e s p ir itu a l d e c a d e n c e th a t le d
to th e S c h is m in th e e le v e n th c e n tu r y .
In th e te n th c e n tu ry ... a s in th e fifte e n th c e n tu ry ,
th e re v iv a l o f Ita lia n c u ltu re a n d its c o m p le te
in d e p e n d e n c e o f th e N o rth w e re u n d o u b te d ly
a c c o m p a n ie d b y a m o v e m e n t o f re lig io u s d e c lin e
a n d m o ra l d is o r d e r. T h e H o ly S e e h a d b e c o m e th e
s la v e o f n e p o tis m a n d p o litic a l fa c tio n s , a n d h a d
lo s t its in te rn a tio n a l p o s itio n in C h ris te n d o m . A n d
its s itu a tio n w a s th e m o re p e rilo u s in a s m u c h a s th e
C h u rc h n o rth o f th e A lp s w a s b e in g a ffe c te d b y th e
n e w m o ra l id e a ls o f th e m o v e m e n t o f m o n a s tic
re fo r m a n d h a d b e g u n to s e t its o w n h o u s e in o r d e r.
A t th e c o u n c il o f S a in t-B a s le d e V e rz y in 9 9 1 th e
F re n c h b is h o p s o p e n ly d e c la re d th e ir b e lie f in th e
b a n k ru p tc y o f th e P a p a c y .
Is it to s u c h m o n s te rs (a s P o p e Jo h n X II o r
B o n ifa c e V II), s w o lle n w ith th e ir ig n o m in y a n d
d e v o id o f a ll k n o w le d g e h u m a n o r d iv in e , th a t th e
in n u m e ra b le p rie s ts o f G o d th ro u g h o u t th e w o rld
w h o a re d is tin g u is h e d b y th e ir k n o w le d g e a n d
v irtu e s s h o u ld la w fu lly b e s u b m itte d ? a s k s th e ir
s p o k e s m a n , A rn o u l o f O rle a n s . W e s e e m to b e
w itn e s s in g th e c o m in g o f A n tic h ris t, fo r th is is th e
fa llin g a w a y o f w h ic h th e a p o s tle s p e a k s , n o t o f
n a tio n s b u t o f th e c h u rc h e s .
If Ita ly h a d re m a in e d is o la te d fro m N o rth e rn
E u ro p e , R o m e w o u ld h a v e n a tu ra lly g ra v ita te d
to w a rd s th e B y z a n tin e (s ic ) E m p ire , a s w a s in d e e d
th e d e lib e ra te p o lic y o f A lb e ric a n d o th e r le a d e rs
o f th e R o m a n a ris to c ra c y , a n d th e re w o u ld h a v e
b e e n a re a l d a n g e r th a t th e e le v e n th c e n tu ry w o u ld
h a v e w itn e s s e d a s c h is m , n o t b e tw e e n R o m e a n d
B y z a n tiu m (s ic ), b u t b e tw e e n th e o ld w o rld o f th e
M e d ite rra n e a n a n d th e E a s t a n d th e y o u n g p e o p le s
o f N o r th e rn E u ro p e . A c tu a lly , h o w e v e r, th is d a n g e r
d id n o t m a te ria lis e . T h e N o rth e rn m o v e m e n t o f
re fo rm d id n o t tu rn a g a in s t th e P a p a c y , a s in th e
s ix te e n th c e n tu ry , b u t b e c a m e its a lly a n d c o o p e ra te d w ith it to re n e w th e re lig io u s life o f
W e s te rn C h ris te n d o m ; a n d th e firs t re p re s e n ta tiv e

o f th
p re p
w h o
th e
R o m

is m
a re
w a
c o u
a n

o v e m e
th e w a
s th e re
n c il o f
p ro n o u

n t to
y fo r
p re se
S a in
n c e m

o c c u p y
th e n e w
n ta tiv e
t-B a s le
e n ts , G

R T H O D O X

th e
a g e
o f th
a n d
e rb e

P a p a
w a s
e G a
re c o
rt o f

N G L A N D

l c h a ir a
th e v e ry
llic a n p a
rd e d its
A u rilla c .

n d
m
rty
a n

to
a n
a t
ti-

p p . 2 8 4 8 8 . T h e e le v e n th c e n tu r y is th e
fo u n d a tio n o f th e a p o s ta s y o f th e m o d e r n
w o r ld a n d it b e g a n a m o n g th e C a r o lin g ia n s .
It is im p o s s ib le to d ra w a n a b ru p t lin e o f
d iv is io n b e tw e e n o n e p e rio d a n d a n o th e r, a b o v e
a ll in th e h is to ry o f s o v a s t a n d c o m p le x a p ro c e s s
a s th e ris e o f a c iv ilis a tio n , a n d c o n s e q u e n tly th e
d a te w h ic h I h a v e c h o s e n to m a rk th e e n d o f th is
s u rv e y is a m a tte r o f p ra c tic a l c o n v e n ie n c e ra th e r
th a n o f s c ie n tific d e fin itio n . N e v e rth e le s s th e re is
n o d o u b t th a t th e e le v e n th c e n tu ry m a rk s a d e c is iv e tu rn in g -p o in t in E u ro p e a n h is to ry th e e n d o f
th e D a rk A g e s (s ic ) a n d th e e m e rg e n c e o f W e s te rn
c u ltu re (s ic ) ... w ith th e e le v e n th c e n tu ry a m o v e m e n t o f p ro g re s s (s ic ) b e g in s w h ic h w a s to
c o n tin u e a lm o s t w ith o u t in te rm is s io n d o w n to
m o d e rn tim e s . T h is m o v e m e n t s h o w s its e lf in n e w
fo rm s o f life in e v e ry fie ld o f s o c ia l a c tiv ity in
tra d e a n d c iv ic life a n d p o litic a l o rg a n is a tio n , a s
w e ll a s in re lig io n a n d a rt a n d le tte rs . It la id th e
fo u n d a tio n s o f th e m o d e rn w o rld n o t o n ly b y th e
c re a tio n o f in s titu tio n s th a t w e re to re m a in ty p ic a l
o f o u r c u ltu re , b u t a b o v e a ll b y th e fo rm a tio n o f
th a t s o c ie ty o f p e o p le s w h ic h , m o re th a n a n y m e re
g e o g ra p h ic a l u n it, is w h a t w e k n o w a s E u ro p e .
T h is n e w c iv iliz a tio n w a s , h o w e v
fro m e m b ra c in g th e w h o le o f E u ro p e ,
w h o le o f W e s te rn E u ro p e . A t th e b e g in
e le v e n th c e n tu ry E u ro p e w a s s till, a s it h
c e n tu rie s , d iv id e d u p b e tw e e n fo u r o r
c u ltu re -p ro v in c e s , o f w h ic h W e s te rn C
a p p e a re d b y n o m e a n s th e m o s t p o w
m o s t c iv iliz e d ...

e r, s till fa r
o r e v e n th e
n in g o f th e
a d b e e n fo r
fiv e d is tin c t
h ris te n d o m
e rfu l o r th e

T h u s th e c u ltu re th a t w e re g a rd a s c h a ra c te ris tic a lly W e s te rn a n d E u ro p e a n w a s c o n fin e d in


th e m a in w ith in th e lim its o f th e fo rm e r C a ro lin g ia n
E m p ire , a n d fo u n d its c e n tre in th e o ld F ra n k is h
te rrito rie s o f N o rth e rn F ra n c e a n d W e s te rn
G e rm a n y . In th e te n th c e n tu ry it w a s , a s w e h a v e
s e e n , h a rd p re s s e d o n e v e ry s id e a n d e v e n te n d e d
to c o n tra c t its fro n tie rs . B u t th e e le v e n th c e n tu ry
s a w th e tu rn o f th e tid e a n d th e ra p id e x p a n s io n o f
th is c e n tra l c o n tin e n ta l c u ltu re in a ll d ire c tio n s . In
th e W e s t th e N o rm a n C o n q u e s t to o k E n g la n d o u t
o f th e s p h e re o f th e N o rd ic c u ltu re th a t h a d
th re a te n e d fo r tw o c e n tu rie s to a b s o rb it, a n d
in c o rp o ra te d it in to c o n tin e n ta l s o c ie ty ; in th e

R T H O D O X

N o rth
S la v s
in flu e
s a d in
th e M

a n d
a n d
n c e ;
g e n e
e d ite

1 7

N G L A N D

E a s t it g ra d u a
p e n e tra te d S
w h ile in th e S
rg y o n th e g re
rra n e a n fro m

lly
c a
o u
a t
th

d o m
n d in
th it
ta s k
e p o

in a
a v ia
e m b
o f th
w e r

te d th e
b y its
a rk e d w
e re c o n
o f Is la m

W e s te rn
c u ltu ra l
ith c ru q u e st o f
.

In th is w a y th e p e o p le s o f th e F ra n k is h E m p ire
im p o s e d th e ir s o c ia l h e g e m o n y a n d th e ir id e a ls o f
c u ltu re o n a ll th e s u rro u n d in g p e o p le s , s o th a t th e
C a ro lin g ia n u n ity m a y b e re g a rd e d w ith o u t
e x a g g e ra tio n a s th e fo u n d a tio n a n d s ta rtin g -p o in t
o f th e w h o le d e v e lo p m e n t o f m e d i v a l W e s te rn
c iv iliz a tio n . It is tru e th a t th e C a ro lin g ia n E m p ire
h a d lo n g lo s t its u n ity , a n d F ra n c e a n d G e rm a n y
w e re b e c o m in g m o re a n d m o re c o n s c io u s o f th e ir
n a tio n a l d iffe re n c e s . N e v e rth e le s s th e y b o th
lo o k e d b a c k to th e s a m e C a ro lin g ia n tra d itio n , a n d
th e ir c u ltu re w a s c o m p o u n d e d o f th e s a m e e le m e n ts , th o u g h th e p ro p o rtio n s w e re d iffe re n t. T h e y
w e re s till in e s s e n c e th e W e s te rn a n d E a s t F ra n k is h
re a lm s , th o u g h , lik e b ro th e rs w h o ta k e a fte r d iffe re n t s id e s o f th e ir fa m ily , th e y w e re o fte n m o re
c o n s c io u s o f th e ir d iffe re n c e th a n o f th e ir
re s e m b la n c e . In b o th c a s e s , h o w e v e r, th e c u ltu ra l
le a d e rs h ip la y w ith th e in te rm e d ia te re g io n s th e
te rrito rie s o f th e E m p ire th a t w e re m o s t L a tin iz e d ,
a n d th o s e in F ra n c e w h e re th e G e rm a n ic e le m e n t
w a s s tro n g e s t: N o rth e rn F ra n c e , L o rra in e a n d
B u rg u n d y , F la n d e rs a n d th e R h in e la n d . A b o v e a ll,
it w a s N o rm a n d y , w h e re th e N o rd ic a n d L a tin
e le m e n ts s to o d in s h a rp e s t c o n tra s t a n d m o s t
im m e d ia te c o n ta c t, th a t w a s th e le a d e r o f th e
m o v e m e n t o f e x p a n s io n .
It w a s th is m id d le te rrito ry , re a c h in g fro m th e
o ire to th e R h in e , th a t w a s th e tru e h o m e la n d o f
e d i v a l c u ltu re a n d th e s o u rc e o f its c re a tiv e a n d
h a ra c te ris tic a c h ie v e m e n ts . It w a s th e c ra d le o f
o th ic a rc h ite c tu re , o f th e g re a t m e d i v a l s c h o o ls ,
f th e m o v e m e n t o f m o n a s tic a n d e c c le s ia s tic a l
e fo rm a n d o f th e c ru s a d in g id e a l. It w a s th e c e n tre
f th e ty p ic a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e fe u d a l s ta te , o f

th e
th e
c o m
th e
C h u

N o rth E u ro p
in s titu tio n o
p le te s y n th e
G e rm a n ic N
rc h a n d th e

It w
m ilita r
p o lity
th e c ru

a s
y s
o f
sa

n o t u
o c ie ty
W e s te r
d in g id

e a n c o m m u n a l m o
f k n ig h th o o d . It w
s is w a s fin a lly a c h
o rth a n d th e s p iritu
tra d itio n s o f L a tin c

v e m e n t a n
a s h e re th
ie v e d b e tw
a l o rd e r o
u ltu re .

d o f
a t a
e e n
f th e

n til th e e le v e n th c e n tu ry th a t th e
w a s in c o rp o ra te d in to th e s p iritu a l
n C h ris te n d o m b y th e in flu e n c e o f
e a l.

p p . 2 8 9 9 0 . T h e fu tu r e o f E u r o p e is b e y o n d
s u p e r fic ia l h u m a n is m , in th e q u e s t fo r a
d e e p e r s p ir itu a l tr a d itio n .
T o d a y E u ro p e is fa c e d w ith th e b re a k d o w n o f
th e s e c u la r a n d a ris to c ra tic c u ltu re o n w h ic h th e
s e c o n d p h a s e o f its u n ity w a s b a s e d . W e fe e l o n c e
m o re th e n e e d fo r s p iritu a l o r a t le a s t m o ra l u n ity .
W e a re c o n s c io u s o f th e in a d e q u a c y o f a p u re ly
h u m a n is t a n d o c c id e n ta l c u ltu re . W e c a n n o
lo n g e r b e s a tis fie d w ith a n a ris to c ra tic c iv iliz a tio n
th a t fin d s its u n ity in e x te rn a l a n d s u p e rfic ia l th in g s
a n d ig n o r e s th e d e e p e r n e e d s o f m a n s s p ir itu a l
n a tu re . A n d a t th e s a m e tim e w e n o lo n g e r h a v e
th e s a m e c o n fid e n c e in th e in b o rn s u p e rio rity o f
W e s te rn c iv iliz a tio n a n d its rig h t to d o m in a te th e
w o rld . W e a re c o n s c io u s o f th e c la im s o f th e
s u b je c t ra c e s a n d c u ltu re s , a n d w e fe e l th e n e e d
b o th fo r p ro te c tio n fro m th e in s u rg e n t fo rc e s o f th e
o rie n ta l w o rld a n d fo r a c lo s e r c o n ta c t w ith its
s p iritu a l tra d itio n s . H o w th e s e n e e d s a re to b e m e t,
o r w h e th e r it is p o s s ib le to m e e t th e m , w e c a n a t
p re s e n t o n ly g u e s s . B u t it is w e ll to re m e m b e r th a t
th e u n ity o f o u r c iv ilis a tio n d o e s n o t re s t e n tire ly o n
th e s e c u la r c u ltu re a n d th e m a te ria l p ro g re s s o f th e
la s t fo u r c e n tu rie s . T h e re a re d e e p e r tra d itio n s in
E u ro p e th a n th e s e , a n d w e m u s t g o b a c k b e h in d
H u m a n is m a n d b e h in d th e s u p e rfic ia l triu m p h s o f
m o d e rn c iv ilis a tio n , if w e w is h to d is c o v e r th e
fu n d a m e n ta l s o c ia l a n d s p iritu a l fo rc e s th a t h a v e
g o n e to th e m a k in g o f E u ro p e .

QUESTIONS &
ANSWERS
I h a v e
th re e y e
h u s b a n d
b o rn a n d b ro u g h t u p
n e w c a le n d a r C h r is tm

o n ly liv e d in
a r s , m a r r ie d
. H o w d o y
in th e W e s t, m
a s a n d y e t re

th e
to m
o u , w
a n a g
m a in

W e st
y F r e
h o w
e w ith
fa ith fu

fo r
n c h
e re
th e
l to

th e O r th o d o x C h r is tm a s ? H o w
th e m ?

c a n y o u c o m b in e

N . S ., L e M a n s
A th e is ts , Je w s a n d M u s lim s h a v e n o p ro b le m
w ith it. M o s t o f th e m k e e p C h ris tm a s . N o r d o th e

1 8

v a s t m a jo rity o f W e s te rn E u ro p e a n s h a v e a n y
p ro b le m s w ith it, th is m e a n s a ll th o s e w h o n e v e r
s e t fo o t in a n y c h u rc h o n 2 5 D e c e m b e r. In o th e r
w o rd s , C h ris tm a s fo r th e m , a s fo r u s , is s im p ly a
p a rt o f th e s e c u la r, c u ltu r a l W e s te r n c a le n d a r, lik e
a n y o th e r b a n k h o lid a y , a tim e a t th e e n d o f th e
y e a r to h a v e a d e c o ra te d tre e a n d d e c o ra tio n s in
th e h o u s e a n d g iv e e a c h o th e r a p re s e n t. T h is c a n
a ll b e d o n e m o d e s tly a n d n e e d in n o w a y in te rfe re
w ith th e p r e p a r a tio n s fo r th e fe a s t o f C h r is ts B ir th
o n 7 Ja n u a ry , w h ic h is s o im p o rta n t th a t w e e v e n
ta k e a d a y o ff w o rk . In o th e r w o rd s , 2 5 D e c e m b e r
is a c u ltu ra l, n o t a s p iritu a l, o c c a s io n .
W

h o is S t V ic to r ia ?
L .A ., N o r w ic h

T h e re a re n in e S t V ic to ria s :
7 Ju n e (2 5 M a y ) M a rty r V ic to ria o f E p h e s u s . Ic o n :
h ttp ://w w w .ik o n u .ru /in fo .p h p ? id = 3 7 5 .
6

1 4 Ju n e (1 Ju n e ) M a rty r V ic to ria o f S a lo n ic a .
N o v e m b e r (2 4
N ic o m e d ia .

O c to b e r)

M a rty r V ic to ria

o f

N o th
th e y
4 th
a b o u

in g
w e
c e n
t th

is
re
tu
e

k n o
p ro b
rie s .
fo llo

w n a
a b ly
H o w
w in g

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

b o u t th e liv e s o f th e a b o v e , b u t
a ll m a rty re d in th e 3 rd o r e a rly
e v e r, w e k n o w m u c h m o re
:

1 1 F e b ru a ry (2 9 Ja n u a ry ) M a rty rs V ic to ria a n d 4 4
o th e rs in A lb itin a n e a r C a rth a g e (3 0 4 ).
2 3 M a rc h (1 0 M a rc h ) M a rty r V ic to ria (N ik i) o f
C o rin th (2 5 8 ). Ic o n :
h ttp ://w w w .id rp .ru /b u y /s h o w _ ite m .p h p ? c a t= 9 0 3 6
1 2 O c to b e r (2 9 S e p te m b e r) M a rty r V ic to ria . S h e
w a s a s e rv a n t m a rty re d in R o m e in c . 6 0 u n d e r
N e ro .
1 7 N
A c is c
T h e y
liv e s

o v
lu
w
in

2 1 D e
C u lu s a
life . A
A ria n s
d a y . M
to m in

e m
s,
e r
fu

b e r (4 N o v e m b e r) M a rty rs V ic to ria a n d
P a tro n s o f C o rd o b a in S p a in ( 3 0 4 ).
e b ro th e r a n d s is te r a n d w e h a v e th e ir
ll.

c e m b e r (8
(N o rth A fr
y o u n g m o
w ith 6 2 p r
a n y o th e r O
e s in S ic ily

D e c e m b e r)
ic a ) ( 4 7 7 )
th e r, s h e w a
ie s ts a n d 3 0 0
rth o d o x fro m
a n d S a rd in ia

Ic o n in c lu d in g th e M a r ty r s S S V ic to r ia a n d A n a to lia o f R o m e

M a
a ls o
s m
la y
th e
in th

rty r V ic to ria o f
h a s a d e ta ile d
a rty re d b y th e
p e o p le o n th a t
a re a w e re se n t
o se y e a rs.

R T H O D O X

2 3
a n
S e
R a

D e c e m b e r
d A n a to lia o f
e th e s e c o n
v e n n a b e lo w

1 9

N G L A N D

(1 0 D e c e m b e r) M a rty rs V ic to ria
R o m e (c . 2 5 0 ). T h e y w e r e s is te r s .
d fro m rig h t in th e fre s c o fro m
:

W h e n s h o u ld w e r e m o v e C h r is tm a s
tr e e s a n d d e c o r a tio n s ? Is th e r e a
T w e lfth N ig h t tr a d itio n ?
A . P ., F e lix s to w e
S tric tly , o r litu rg ic a lly , s p e a k in g , th e s e s h o u ld b e
re m o v e d o n th e le a v e ta k in g o f T h e o p h a n y (1 4 /2 7
Ja n u a ry ).
Is O r th o d o x y a n ti-W e s te r n ?
E . H ., P e n n s y lv a n ia
T h is q u e s tio n re m in d s m e o f a c o n v e rt I m e t
n e a rly 4 0 y e a rs a g o . H e w a s a lw a y s c o m p la in in g
th a t , y o u c a n t d o th a t, y o u c a n t d o th is , i ts
W e s te rn . It w a s q u ite a n o b s e s s io n w ith h im . (H e
w a s o f c o u rs e h im s e lf a n e x -A n g lic a n , a ty p ic a l
n e o p h y te ). I d o n t th in k it is n e c e s s a r y to s p e a k lik e
th a t. W e h a v e to d is tin g u is h b e tw e e n w h a t is
C h ris tia n a n d w h a t is N o n -C h ris tia n C h ris tia n
s im p ly b e in g th e o rig in a l w o rd fo r O rth o d o x .
F o r e x a m p le , I c a n th in k o f fe w th in g s m o re
O rth o d o x th a n th e liv e s o f S t A lb a n a n d S t C u th b e rt
y e t th e y a re th o ro u g h ly W e s te rn . O n th e o th e r
h a n d , I c a n th in k o f fe w th in g s le s s O rth o d o x th a n
th e c o n c e n tra tio n c a m p a n d th e A to m ic B o m b
y e t th e y to o a re th o ro u g h ly W e s te rn . In b e tw e e n
th e m s ta n d C h a rle m a g n e a n d T h o m a s A q u in a s ;
tru e , th e y a re W e s te rn , b u t th e m a in th in g is th a t
p a rts o f th e ir id e o lo g ie s a re s im p ly n o t C h ris tia n .
In o th e r w o rd s , le t u s n o t b e s u p e rfic ia l, le t u s
lo o k a t th e O rth o d o x C h ris tia n c o n te n t o f a n y th in g .
W h a t w e s h o u ld b e s a y in g is if s o m e th in g is
C h ris tia n o r n o t, n o t its g e o g ra p h ic a l o rig in . T h e
C o m m u n is t S o v ie t U n io n , h a v in g v io le n tly
re n o u n c e d O rth o d o x y , q u ic k ly b e c a m e a m a s te r o f
c o n c e n tra tio n c a m p s a n d a to m ic b o m b s . E v e n if
C o m m u n is m is a W e s te rn id e o lo g y , it h a s m a in ly
b e e n p ra c tis e d o u ts id e th e W e s te rn w o rld b y N o n W e s te rn a n d a n ti-W e s te rn , i.e . N o n -C h ris tia n a n d
a n ti-C h ris tia n p e o p le . L e t u s u s e th e te rm s ,
C h ris tia n o r n o t C h ris tia n ; g e o g ra p h y is to o
s u p e rfic ia l.
W h y is d e p r e s s io n
n o w a d a y s?

s o

c o m m o n

A . P ., F e lix
T h e s o u rc e o f d e p re s s io n is in a la c k o f
A n d o f c o u rs e , w ith o u t fa ith in G o d , w h a t h
th e re ? T h e re is o n ly th e p ro s p e c t o f d e a th

sto w
h o p
o p e
. T h

e
e .
is
is

e x p la
d e a th
m a k e
fa ith ,
s o u ls

in s w h y d e p
. T h u s , th o s e
p ro p a g a n d a
b e a r a h e a
w h o m th e y

re s s io n
in te lle c
o u t o f
v y re sp
d e p riv e

o fte n le a d
tu a ls w h o
th e ir a th e
o n s ib ility
o f fa ith .

s to
d e
is m
to

s u ic id e , to
n y G o d a n d
, o r la c k o f
th e s im p le

h y d o s o m a n y A n g lic a n s w h o
b e c o m e O r th o d o x m a k e it u p a s
th e y g o a lo n g ?
B . P ., C o lc h e s te r
S im p ly b e c a u s e th e y a re n o t a n c h o re d in th e
T ra d itio n , th e y h a v e n e v e r liv e d it, b u t o n ly liv e d
o u ts id e it. F o r th e m O rth o d o x y m e a n s to re a d a
fe w b o o k s (p ro b a b ly w ritte n b y o th e r c o n v e rts lik e
th e m s e lv e s ), lo o k a t a fe w w e b s ite s , le a rn a fe w
te c h n iq u e s , a n d th a t is it; th e y n e v e r u n d e rs ta n d
th a t O rth o d o x y is a w a y o f life a n d th e v a lu e s
w h ic h c o m e fro m th a t life . T h e ir la c k o f s p iritu a l
p re p a ra tio n , o v e rn ig h t re c e p tio n s a n d o rd in a tio n s ,
a ll c a u s e s o m a n y s c a n d a ls in th e C h u rc h . I b e lie v e
th a t th e p ro b le m c o m e s fro m c e rta in b is h o p s w h o
o rd a in th e m w ith o u t g iv in g tim e a n d tra in in g . T h e
w o rs t th in g is w h e n th e s e p e o p le th in k th e y k n o w
e v e ry th in g a n d re fu s e to le a rn fro m
o th e rs .
T ra g ic a lly , a fte r a fe w y e a rs , s u c h m o v e m e n ts d ie
o u t lik e w ith e re d b ra n c h e s c u t o ff fro m th e tre e o f
O rth o d o x y . T h e o n ly h o p e is th a t th e y liv e in
p la c e s w h e re O rth o d o x R o m a n ia n s , G re e k s a n d
R u s s ia n s e tc c a n te a c h th e m a n d c o n v e rt th e n to
re a l (a n d n o t b o o k is h ) O rth o d o x y .
W

h a t a re th e
A lz h e im e r s ?

s p ir itu a l c a u s e s

o f

B . S ., F r a n c e
I th in k th e re m u s t b e m a n y c a u s e s a n d I w o u ld
n o t lik e to s a y th a t th e re a re o n ly tw o o r th re e
c a u s e s o f it. O n th e o n e h a n d , I h a v e n o tic e d
a m o n g a fe w s u ffe re rs th a t G o d h a s d e p riv e d th e m
o f th e ir m e m o rie s b e c a u s e th e y h a v e b e e n v e ry
m e a n in th e ir liv e s . I c o n c lu d e th a t n a s tin e s s to
o th e rs , b itte rn e s s a n d c y n ic is m c a n le a d a m o n g a
f e w to A lz h e im e r s . T h is is G o d le a d i n g th e s e
p e o p le to s a lv a tio n b y d e p riv in g th e m
o f th e
fa c u ltie s a n d re a s o n s fo r s u c h n a s tin e s s , b itte rn e s s
a n d c y n ic is m . O n th e o th e r h a n d , I h a v e s e e n s o m e
v e ry fin e a n d in n o c e n t p e o p le s u ffe rin g fro m
A lz h e im e r s . I th i n k in th e ir c a s e t h a t G o d d e p r i v e s
th e m o f th e ir m e m o ry b e c a u s e H e is p ro te c tin g
th e m fro m b e in g h u rt b y th e c ru e ltie s o f th is w o rld
a n y fu rth e r a n d s o c o n s o lin g th e m . B u t I re p e a t
th e s e a re o n ly o b s e rv a tio n s a m o n g s o m e th e re
m u s t b e m a n y o th e r r e a s o n s f o r A lz h e im e r s . W e
re m e m b e r n o t to ju d g e . T h e re is a m y s te ry h e re .

2 0

O
W

h y a r e
F re n c h th
is
C h
r e n o u n c in g th is ? A n d
y o u r s e lf, s o b e lie v in g

y o u o
e v e ry
r is tia n
a r e y o
in T r a d

p p o se
w o r d
is m e .
u n o t
itio n a

to

is m s ? In
fo r C h r is tia n ity
A r e
y o u
a T r a d itio n a lis t
lis m ?
A . B ., G r e e c e

A n y is m is a fo rm
o f id o la try . S o R o m a n
C a th o lic is m is th e c u lt o f u n iv e rs a lity a c c o rd in g to
th e R o m a n m o d e l, i.e . a fo rm
o f h u m a n
im p e ria lis m . P ro te s ta n tis m is th e c u lt o f p ro te s t,
e v e n w h e n th e re is n o n e e d fo r p ro te s t. M o d e rn is m
is th e id o la try o f a ll th a t is m o d e rn . T ra d itio n a lis m
is th e id o la try o f a n y tra d itio n , h o w e v e r
s e c o n d a ry it m a y b e . I a m n o t a tra d itio n a lis t, I
s im p ly fo llo w th e T ra d itio n (n o t tra d itio n s w ith a
s m a ll t, th a t is , in v e n te d lo c a l c u s to m s ). A n d
s o m e o n e w h o fo llo w s th e T ra d itio n is s im p ly a
C h ris tia n .
I a m so
F re n c h
w o rd
e ig h te e
E n c y c lo
a n d m a

rry to h a v e to
w o rd fo r C h
c h ris tia n is m
n th c e n tu ry
p e d ia w h o w
k e it in to a m

c o rre c t y
ris tia n ity
e w a s
b y th e
a n te d to
e re is m .

o u r F re n c h .
is C h re tie n
in v e n te d
fre e m a s o n s
d e m o te C h

T h e
te .
in
o f
ris tia

re a l
T h e
th e
th e
n ity

H o w c a n y o u u n d e r sta n d th e g e stu re
o f S t N ic h o la s in g iv in g A r iu s a s la p ?
I th in k w e s h o u ld lo o
a s w e lo o k a t s o m e o n e g
s la p . In o th e r w o rd s , it w
to h is s e n s e s b e c a u s e
in te lle c tu a l h y s te ria n o
m a n y s u ffe r to d a y . H o w
s a in t, w e a re n o t s a in ts .
I k n o
b u t w
e d in
E v a n g e lic a l fr ie n d
fro m
s p a c e s h ip s
th in k ?

k a t th
iv in g a
a s in te
h e w
t a t a ll
e v e r,

th is is
h o w e re
th e B o o
w h o sa
a re N e

A . B ., C o lc h e s te r
is in th e s a m e w a y
h y s te ric a l p e rs o n a
n d e d to b rin g A riu s
a s in a s ta te o f
d iffe re n t fro m w h a t
S t N ic h o la s w a s a

g o in g
th e N
k o f G
y s th a
p h ilim

to so u n
e p h ilim
e n e s is ?
t m o d e
. W h a
t

d s
m
I h
r n

tra n g e ,
e n tio n a v e a n
a lie n s
d o y o u

S . L ., S u ffo lk
G e n e s is 6 is q u ite c le a r. T h e N e p h ilim (in th e
S e p tu a g in t, th e w o rd a p p e a rs a s g ia n ts ), w e re th e
o ffs p rin g o f d e m o n s w ith w o m e n . In o th e r w o rd s ,
th e re m u s t h a v e b e e n a s p e c ie s (k in d in K in g
Ja m e s E n g lis h ) o f d e m o n s (e v il s p irits o r fa lle n
a n g e ls ) w h ic h b e c a m e s o g ro s s , s o m a te ria l a s a
re s u lt o f th e ir fa ll, th a t th e y w e re a b le to
im p re g n a te w o m e n . T h e re s u lts w e re s o g ig a n tic
(n o t o n ly in p h y s ic a l s iz e , b u t a ls o in th e s iz e o f

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

th e ir k n o w le d g e a n d a b ilitie s ), s o fo u l th a t th e E a rth
h a d to b e c le a n s e d b y th e F lo o d .
b o
w h
h u
G a
o n

D e m
d ie s
ic h
m a n
d a re
c e th

o n s n e e d to
in o rd e r to c
is w h y th e y
-b e in g s . T h is
n e s w in e , th
e y h a d b e e n

It s e e m s to m
re c a lle d in v a
A fric a n , H in d
g o d s a n d g o d
a fa v o u rite a c
p a g a n id o ls
p a g a n is m is u

p o s s e s s th e
o m e to p o w
c o n tin u a lly
is w h y in
e y to o k o v
e x p e lle d fro

e th a t th e b irth
rio u s p a g a n m y
u , G re e k a n d
d e sse s a re d e m
tiv ity . T h e C h u
a re in h a b ite d
ltim a te ly d e m o

a n
e r
try
th
e r
m

o f
th o
N o
o n s
rc h
b y
n -w

im a
a n d
a n d
e c
a n im
a h u

l e n e rg y o f
ta k e fo rm ,
ta k e o v e r
a s e o f th e
a l b o d ie s ,
m a n b o d y .

N e p h ilim is a ls o
lo g ie s , s u c h a s th e
rs e , in w h ic h th e
a n d fo rn ic a tio n is
is q u ite c le a r th a t
d e m o n s a n d th a t
o rs h ip .

A s fo r a lie n s (h o w a p p ro p ria te th e ir n a m e ) a n d
th e ir s p a c e s h ip s , th e s e a re a ll c le a rly d e m o n ic
(w h e n th e y a re n o t s im p ly , a s th e y u s u a lly a re , th e
ta ll s to rie s o f p u b lic ity -s e e k in g fra u d s ). E v e n
p ic tu re s o f a lie n s re s e m b le c lo s e ly th e im a g e s o f
d e m o n s p a s s e d d o w n to u s in C h u rc h ic o n o g ra p h y
a n d th e L iv e s o f th e S a in ts . In te re s tin g ly , a lth o u g h
th e s e a lie n s a re s u p p o s e d to c o m e fro m v a rio u s
c o r n e r s o f G o d s v a s t a n d s ta r r y u n iv e r s e , th e y a ll
lo o k lik e o n e a n o th e r. It is c le a r th a t th e y a ll b e lo n g
to d e m o n k in d . T h e fa c t th a t th e y a p p e a r in th e a ir
is n o s u rp ris e , th e a e ria l re a lm s a re th e h a b ita tio n s
o f th e d e m o n s a n d lig h ts in th e s k y a n d h e a v e n ly
s ig n s a re to b e e x p e c te d o f d e m o n s .
W h o p e r fo r m e d th e a n n u a l m ir a c le
o f h e a lin g a t B e th e s d a (Jn . 5 )?
A . P ., C o lc h e s te r
T h e C a n o n a t th e M a tin s o f th e S u n d a y o f th e
P a ra ly tic s ta te s c le a rly th a t th is w a s th e A rc h a n g e l
M ic h a e l.
A t
p r ie
d o o
o th e r lita n ie s a t

th e V
st sta
rs fo r
V e sp e

ig il
n d
th e
r s in

T h e p r ie s ts p la c e is a t
p la c e is in fro n t o f th e ro y a
th e p e o p le to p ra y e r, w h ic h
th e b e g in n in g o f G re a t V
d e a c o n , th e p rie s t s a y s th e
th e d o o rs b e c a u s e a t th is m
d a rk , h e re p re s e n ts A d a m
e x p e lle d fro m P a ra d is e . T h
firs t p s a lm a n d th e c e n s in
W h e n th e d o o rs a re c lo s e d

S e rv
in f
g re a
s id e

ic e
ro n t
t lita
th e

w h y
o f
n y b
a lta r

d o e s th e
th e ro y a l
u t sa y th e

th e
l d o
is h
e sp
g re
o m
w
is is
g
a n d

S . T ., Ip s w ic h
a lta r ; th e d e a c o n s
o rs , in o rd e r to c a ll
is r o le . H o w e v e r, a t
e rs , if th e re is n o
a t lita n y in fro n t o f
e n t, s ta n d in g in th e
h o h a s ju s t b e e n
th e m e a n in g o f th e
A d a m is in E d e n .
th e lig h ts s w itc h e d

R T H O D O X

2 1

N G L A N D

o ff, th is is th e ir e x p u ls io n a n d th u s fro m th e n o n w e
p ra y in re p e n ta n c e in th e d a rk n e s s o f th e w o rld .
I h a v e s e e n A n g lic a n c h u r c
E n g la n d a n d th e y h a v e s ig n
o u ts id e w ith th e n a m e o f n e x t
p r e a c h e r o r p r ie s t-v is ito r a n d th e ir q u a lific
W h y d o w e n o t d o th is in th e O r th o d o x C h

h e s in
b o a rd s
w e e k s
a tio n s .
u rc h ?

V . K ., L o n d o n
In

th e C h u rc h w e s e rv e C h ris t, n o t p e rs o n a litie s .
A m o n g N o n -O rth o d o x th e y h a v e -is m s , n a m e d
a fte r n a tio n a litie s , s y s te m s o r p e rs o n a litie s
A n g lic a n is m , P a p is m , M e th o d is m , B a p tis m ,
C a lv in is m , L u th e ra n is m a n d s o o n . W e c e le b ra te
th e L itu rg y fu n d a m e n ta lly a lw a y s th e s a m e . T h is
is b e c a u s e w e h a v e th e T ra d itio n , n o t h u m a n
in v e n tio n s . T h e T ra d itio n is m u c h g re a te r th a n
h u m a n -b e in g s b e c a u s e it is in s p ire d b y G o d th e
H o ly S p irit
I c a n n o t fin d a n y o n e w h o c a n
e x p la in th e s y s te m
o f a w a r d s fo r
p r ie s ts in th e O r th o d o x C h u r c h . C a n
y o u ?
S . R ., L o n d o n
B y th e O rth o d o x C h u rc h y o u m e a n th e R u s s ia n
O rth o d o x C h u rc h a s th e s y s te m d o e s n o t e x is t in
o th e r L o c a l C h u rc h e s . (A lth o u g h s o m e L o c a l
C h u rc h e s in th e D ia s p o ra h a v e re c e n tly b e g u n
c o p y in g th e R u s s ia n C h u rc h . F o r e x a m p le , th e e x A n g lic a n A n tio c h ia n c le rg y a s k e d to b e a llo w e d to
w e a r s im p le R u s s ia n p r ie s ts c r o s s e s a n d th e
T h y a te ira ju ris d ic tio n s e e m s to g iv e o u t th e title s
e c o n o m o s a n d p ro to p re s b y te r to a ll e x -A n g lic a n
c le rg y , a lm o s t re g a rd le s s o f h o w lo n g th e y h a v e
b e e n c le rg y ). In th e R u s s ia n C h u rc h th e s y s te m is
th a t a n a w a rd is g iv e n e v e ry fiv e y e a rs , p ro v id in g
th a t th e p rie s t is c e le b ra tin g w e e k ly a n d g e n e ra lly
d o in g h is jo b c o rre c tly . T h e re a re e le v e n a w a rd s
a n d th e y a re :
A fte r
(n a b e d re
a llo w e d
a w a rd .
re in tro d u

fiv e
y e a rs : T h e
c o n fe s s o r s c lo th
n n ik ). (O rig in a lly , p rie s ts w e re n o t
to h e a r c o n fe s s io n s u n til th e y h a d th is
P e rh a p s
th is
c u s to m
s h o u ld
b e
c e d ? ).

A fte r te n y e a r s : T h e p r i e s ts h a t (k a m ila v k a ).
A fte r fifte e n y e a rs : T h e g o ld e n c ro s s .
A fte r tw e n ty y e a rs : T h e title o f A rc h p rie s t.
A fte r tw e n ty -fiv e y e a rs : T h e d ia m o n d (p a lits a ).
A fte r th irty y e a rs : T h e je w e lle d c ro s s .

A ft e r t h ir ty - fiv e y e a r s : T h e p r i e s ts m i tr e (s l ig h tl y
d if fe r e n t fr o m th e b i s h o p s m it r e ) .
A fte r fo rty y e a rs : T h e s e c o n d c ro s s .
A fte r fo rty -fiv e y e a rs : T h e rig h t to c e le b ra te th e
L itu rg y w ith o p e n ro y a l d o o rs u n til a fte r th e
C h e ru b ic H y m n
A fte r fifty y e a rs : T h e rig h t to c e le b ra te th e
L itu rg y w ith o p e n ro y a l d o o rs u n til a fte r O u r
F a th e r .
A fte r fifty -fiv e
(T h e re a re o n ly
w h o le R u s s ia n C
in R O C O R in th
o v e r 8 5 ).

y e a rs : T h e title o
tw o p rie s ts w ith
h u rc h , o n e in M
e U S A . B o th , o f

f P
th
o sc
c o u

ro to p r
is title
o w , th
rse , a

e s b y te r.
in th e
e o th e r
re a g e d

A p rie s t c a n b e g iv e n a n a w a rd e a rly fo r s o m e
s p e c ia l a c h ie v e m e n t. O n th e o th e r h a n d , c e rta in
b is h o p s d o n o t a b id e b y th e a b o v e a n d g iv e a w a rd s
o u t v e ry fre e ly . (T h is is th e c a s e w ith c e rta in
M o s c o w P a tria rc h a te b is h o p s in th e D ia s p o ra a n d
in th e U k ra in e . H e re I h a v e s e e n p rie s ts u n d e r th e
c a n o n ic a l a g e o f o rd in a tio n , w h ic h is th irty ,
a lre a d y w ith a g o ld e n c ro s s !). O n th e o th e r h a n d ,
o th e r b is h o p s a re v e ry m e a n a n d v irtu a lly g iv e n o
a w a rd s a t a ll u n til s o m e th in g h a p p e n s , fo r
e x a m p le , th e y re a lis e h o w u n ju s t th e y h a v e b e e n
o r e ls e th e y a re re b u k e d b y fe llo w b is h o p s !
If th e s y s te m is a p p lie d fa irly , it s e e m s a v e ry
g o o d s y s te m . U n fo rtu n a te ly , th is is n o t a lw a y s th e
c a s e . S o m e tim e s fa v o u rite p rie s ts a re m a d e
a rc h p rie s ts w ith in a fe w m o n th s o f o rd in a tio n .
S o m e tim e s a w a rd s g e t fo rg o tte n fo r a c o u p le o f
d e c a d e s , th e n y o u g e t fo u r in fo u r y e a rs !
S o m e tim e s a w a rd s a re g iv e n fo r th e w ro n g re a s o n s .
It a ll h a p p e n s a n d it c a n c a u s e s c a n d a l a n d
d iv is io n , a s h a p p e n e d a t th e o ld E n n is m o re
G a rd e n s C a th e d ra l, fo r e x a m p le .
N o w
im p o
p e o p
B u t s u r e ly lo w s e
k in d o f h u m ility ?

a d
rt
le
lfW

a y s w
a n c e o
su ffe r
e ste e m
h a t d o

e h
f s
fro
is
y o

e a r a lo
e lf-e s te e
m lo w
g o o d b e
u th in k ?

t a b o u t
a n d h
s e lf-e s te e
c a u s e it
m

th e
o w
m .
is a

T . F ., Ip s w ic h
T h e re is a s u b tle b u t im p o rta n t d iffe re n c e
b e tw e e n
s e lf-e s te e m ,
w h ic h
c o m e s
fro m
h u m ilia tio n , a n d h u m ility . In th e G o s p e ls w e a re
to ld to lo v e G o d a n d lo v e o u r n e ig h b o u r a s
o u rs e lv e s . In o th e r w o rd s , w e a re to lo v e
o u rs e lv e s , in th e s e n s e th a t w e re s p e c t o u rs e lv e s
b e c a u s e w e a r e G o d s c r e a t io n . T h i s is n o t e g o i s ti c
s e lf-lo v e a n d d e lu d e d n a rc is s is tic v a n ity , b u t
r e a liz a tio n th a t w e a r e G o d s c r e a tio n . O n ly w h e n

2 2
w e
th a
g e n
c a n
to w
e x a
w o

O
re a liz e , th
t w e a re G
u in e ly h u
p ro v o k e
a rd s th e s
m p le ) o r
rm w ill tu

S t L ilia ?
It c
L y d ia .
c a le n d
in E n g

a t is , w h e n w e h a
o d s c r e a tio n c a n
m b le . H u m ilia tio
a v io le n t re s p o n
e lf (s e lf-m u tila tio n
e ls e v io le n c e to
rn ).

v e a re a
w e s ta r
n is m a
s e , e ith
o r e v e n
w a rd s

l p e rc e p tio
t to b e c o m
n m a d e a n
e r v io le n c
s u ic id e , fo
o th e rs (th

n
e
d
e
r
e

I a m p r e g n a n t w ith a d a u g h te r a n d
w a n t to c a ll h e r L ilia . W h a t c o u ld h e r
b a p tis m a l n a m e b e , a s th e r e is n o

O .
o u ld b e L e a h (in R u s s ia n , L ia )
A lth o u g h th e re is n o S t L ilia in
a r, th e re is a p r e -S c h is m S p a n is h
lis h ).

K .,
o r
th e
S t L

L o n d o n
p o s s ib ly
R u s s ia n
ilia (L ily

h y a r e s o m a n y A n g lic a n c h u r c h e s
d e d ic a te d to S t P e te r o n ly a n d n o t th e
A p o s tle s P e te r a n d P a u l to g e th e r, a s
in o u r C h u r c h ?
T h e d e d ic a tio n to S t
c u s to m w h ic h A n g lic a n s
C a th o lic s a n d w h ic h th e y
L o c a l W e s te rn C h u rc h ,
S c h is m . T h e re is n o th in g
its e lf, b u t th e d a n g e r c o m
O rth o d o x c o n te x t.

P e te r a lo
in h e rite d
in h e rite
th a t is ,
w ro n g w
e s w h e n

V . K ., L o n d o n
n e is a n a n c ie n t
fro m th e R o m a n
d in tu rn fro m th e
fro m b e fo re th e
ith th is c u s to m in
it fa lls o u t o f th e

F o r e x a m p le , ju s t a s R o m a n C a th o lic is m lo o k s
e s p e c ia lly , b y d e fo rm a tio n , to th e A p o s tle P e te r, s o
P ro te s ta n tis m h a s a s p e c ia l re g a rd fo r th e A p o s tle
P a u l. T h is is in o p p o s itio n to th e O rth o d o x
v e n e ra tio n fo r b o th A p o s tle s , a n d b e y o n d th e m , fo r
th e F o u r G o s p e ls , th e N e w T e s ta m e n t, th e T w e lv e
A p o s tle s , th e S e v e n ty A p o s tle s , th e C h u rc h F a th e rs ,
th e S a in ts a n d th e C o u n c ils , w h ic h a re th e o n g o in g
N e w T e s ta m e n t in th e o n g o in g N e w T e s ta m e n t
C h u rc h th e O rth o d o x C h u rc h . T h e (O rth o d o x )
C h u rc h h a s C a th o lic ity , in S la v o n ic , S o b o rn o s t,
n o t in d iv id u a lis m .
In y o u r e x p e r ie n c e , w h a t s o r t o f
p r o b le m s d o A n g lic a n s a n d C a th o lic s
fa c e w h e n th e y b e c o m e O r th o d o x ?
C . M ., B r is to l
I th in k y o u m e a n th e te m p ta tio n s th e y fa c e
w h e n th e y jo in th e O rth o d o x C h u rc h . B e c o m in g
O rth o d o x is q u ite a n o th e r q u e s tio n .
F irs t o f a ll, I a lw a y s a v o id re c e iv in g p ra c tis in g
A n g lic a n s a n d C a th o lic s w h o w a n t to jo in th e
C h u rc h fo r n e g a tiv e o r c a re e ris t re a s o n s . T h e y

R T H O D O X

N G L A N D

c o m e w ith th e ir o w n p ro u d a g e n d a o f c h a n g e a n d
c a n n o t a c c e p t th e C h u rc h a s S h e is . T h e y s h o u ld
s ta y w h e re th e y a re , p re c is e ly b e c a u s e th e y d o n o t
a c tu a lly w a n t to b e c o m e O rth o d o x a n d g e n e ra lly
la p s e fro m
O rth o d o x y , if th e y a re m is ta k e n ly
r e c e iv e d ( u s u a lly a t th e i r o w n o r s o m e o n e e ls e s
in s is te n c e ). W e d o n o t p ra c tis e p ro s e ly tis m in th e
O rth o d o x C h u rc h . H o w e v e r, th e re is th e c a s e o f
th e la p s e d , w h ic h g e n e ra lly m e a n s la p s e d a lo n g ,
lo n g tim e a g o . T h e y c a n b e re c e iv e d . E v e n h e re
th e re c a n b e te m p ta tio n s w h ic h c o m e fro m a n
in g ra in e d A n g lic a n o r R o m a n C a th o lic m e n ta lity .
F o r in s ta n c e , A n g lic a n s o fte n te n d to s e c ta ria n is m (th e e s s e n c e o f th e ir A n g lic a n P ro te s ta n tis m ) o r
e ls e c u ltis h n e s s (g u ru c u lts ) o f o n e e x tre m e o r
a n o th e r, e ith e r o ld c a le n d a ris t o r lib e ra l-s e c u la r is t.
I a m s u re th a t y o u c a n th in k o f m a n y e x a m p le s in
E n g la n d . B o th s e c ta ria n is m (th is c h u rc h is n o t
g o o d e n o u g h fo r m e , s o I w ill g o a n d s ta rt m y o w n
in m y fro n t ro o m e tc ) a n d c u ltis h n e s s (o n ly X h a s
th e tru th , n o -o n e e ls e is g o o d e n o u g h fo r m e )
c o m e o f c o u rs e fro m v u lg a r p rid e . In b o th c a s e s ,
th e s e v ic tim s o f p rid e a re u n a b le to a c c e p t th e
b re a d th o f O rth o d o x y . T h is is ty p ic a l o f P ro te s ta n tis m . In th e w o rs t c a s e s , s u c h c o n v e rts (a n d
c o n v e rts th e y a re , s in c e th e y n e v e r b e c o m e
O rth o d o x ) c o m b in e
b o th
s e c ta ria n is m
a n d
c u ltis h n e s s .
L a p s e d R o m a n C a th o lic s a re m u c h e a s ie r, b u t
o n o n e h u g e c o n d itio n th a t th e y g e t th e p ra c tic a l
ra m ific a tio n s o f P a p is m o u t o f th e ir s y s te m (p rie s tly
c e lib a c y , p ie tis m , th e n e e d to w o rs h ip a p e rs o n in
a u th o rity ). O th e rw is e , o n jo in in g th e O rth o d o x
C h u rc h s o m e k e e p to th e ir o ld w a y s o r e ls e tu rn to
fa n a tic a l a n ti-C a th o lic is m
a n d
b e c o m e o ld
c a le n d a ris ts . I h a v e s e e n th a t Iris h , S p a n is h ,
L ith u a n ia n a n d Ita lia n C a th o lic s te n d to a c c e p t
O rth o d o x y m u c h m o re e a s ily th a n p ro te s ta n tiz e d
E n g lis h C a th o lic s . S o m e o f th e s e a re O rth o d o x in
e v e ry th in g in n a m e a n y w a y , s in c e th e y n e v e r
b e lie v e d in th e P o p e o r p rie s tly c e lib a c y e ith e r. In
th is s e n s e , m a n y R o m a n C a th o lic la y p e o p le , w h o
h a v e n e v e r b e e n in d o c trin a te d , a re O rth o d o x in
e v e ry th in g b u t n a m e a n y w a y .
T h e k e y to th e p a s to ra l c a re
O rth o d o x is m o d e ra tio n .

o f su c h

n e w

W h a t is th e d iffe r e n c e b e tw e e n
m a r ty r a n d a p a s s io n -b e a r e r ?

A . P ., C o lc h e s te r
A p a s s io n -b e a re r is o n e w h o w a s k ille d b y
n o m in a l O rth o d o x ; a m a rty r is o n e w h o w a s k ille d
b y th o s e o f a n o th e r fa ith .

R T H O D O X

2 3

N G L A N D

H o w d o w e p r e p a r e o u r s e lv e s a n d
o u r c h ild r e n fo r c o m m u n io n a p a r t
fr o m r e a d in g th e r u le th e e v e n in g
b e fo re ?
S . D ., C o lc h e s te r
B e fo re c o m m u n io n w e s h o u ld a ll k e e p th e
p re c e d in g W e d n e s d a y a n d F rid a y fa s ts s tric tly a n d
m a k e a s p e c ia l e ffo rt to re a d o u r m o rn in g a n d
e v e n in g p ra y e rs th a t w e e k . (T h o s e w h o ta k e
c o m m u n io n ra re ly a ls o o b s e rv e a th re e -d a y fa s t
b e fo re c o m m u n io n ). O n th e e v e n in g b e fo re
c o m m u n io n w e s h o u ld m a k e th e e ffo rt to a tte n d
th e V ig il s e rv ic e a n d h a v e c o n fe s s io n . If th is is n o t
p o s s ib le fo r a g o o d re a s o n , w e s h o u ld m a k e o u r
c o n fe s s io n d u rin g th a t w e e k , o r, if n o th in g e ls e is
p o s s ib le , o n th e m o rn in g o f th e litu rg y its e lf. A n d
w e s h o u ld p re p a re th a t c o n fe s s io n . W e s h o u ld try
to a v o id w a tc h in g T V o r lis te n in g to th e ra d io o r
g o in g o u t a n y w h e re o n th e e v e n in g b e fo re
c o m m u n io n .
T h e ru le a n d p ra y e rs c a n b e re a d e ith e r th e e v e n in g
b e fo re o r e ls e it c a n b e s p lit in to tw o p a rts . O n e
p a rt is re a d o n th e e v e n in g b e fo re , th e o th e r p a rt,
fo r e x a m p le , th e p ra y e rs th e m s e lv e s , m a y b e re a d
o n th e m o rn in g o f c o m m u n io n . S o m e p e o p le d o
n o t b ru s h th e ir te e th o n th e m o rn in g o f
c o m m u n io n . If w e d o s o , w e s h o u ld b e c a re fu l n o t
to s w a llo w w a te r. B e fo r e c o m m u n io n m e n s h o u ld
trim th e ir m o u s ta c h e , if th e y h a v e o n e , s o th a t n o
fa c ia l h a ir to u c h e s th e c o m m u n io n a s w e ta k e it. If
w e c o m e to c h u rc h b y c a r, w e s h o u ld b e c a re fu l
w ith o u r e y e s , e s p e c ia lly a v o id in g d is tra c tio n s lik e
a d v e rtis in g h o a rd in g s .
C h ild re n u p u n til th e a g e o f s e v e n
b e fo re c h u rc h , b u t n o t in c h u
b a b ie s ). H o w e v e r, c h ild re n s h o u
w e a n e d a w a y fro m th is , s o th a t b y
firs t c o n fe s s io n , a t th e a g e o f a b o u
v a ry ), th e y s h o u ld n o t fe e l d e p r
h a v e to fa s t c o m p le te ly . F o r e x a m
o ld c a n e a t w h a t h e w a n ts b e fo re
y e a r o ld s h o u ld o n ly b e a llo w e d

c a n d rin k o r e a t
rc h (e x c e p t fo r
ld g ra d u a lly b e
th e tim e o f th e ir
t s e v e n (th is c a n
iv e d w h e n th e y
p le , a tw o -y e a r
th e litu rg y , a s ix to d rin k . M a k e

s u re th a t c h ild re n h a v e s o m e th in g to e a t a fte r th e
litu rg y . D o n t m a k e th e m w a it u n til y o u g e t h o m e .
T ry
re a d
a n d
c o m
th a n
th e m

a n d sp e n d
in g o r g o in g
re a d th e p ra
m u n io n its e
k s g iv in g e a c
s lo w ly .

th e
fo r
y e rs
lf, a n
h d a

d a y
a w a
o f th
d th
y fo r

o f c o m m
lk . A fte r
a n k s g iv in
e n o n e o
th e n e x t

u n
c o m
g o
f th
fiv e

io n q u ie tly ,
m u n io n try
n th e d a y o f
e p ra y e rs o f
d a y s. R e a d

A p u r e ly p r a c tic a l q u e s tio n : H o w d o
y o u c le a n c a n d le w a x fr o m c a r p e ts in
c h u rc h ?
O . V ., L o n d o n
F o r y e a rs w e u s e d to p u t o ld n e w s p a p e rs o n to th e
w a x m a rk s o n th e c a rp e t a n d th e n p a s s a h o t iro n
o v e r th e m . T h e w a x w o u ld c o m e th ro u g h u p o n to
th e p a p e r. H o w e v e r, m o r e r e c e n tly , w e h a v e
d is c o v e re d th a t if y o u p o u r ju s t a little b o ilin g
w a te r fro m a k e ttle o n to th e w a x m a rk s o n th e
c a rp e t (b e c a re fu l n o t to b u rn y o u rs e lf) a n d th e n
ru b a n o ld ra g o n to w h e re th e b o ilin g w a te r is , th e
w a x w ill c o m e o ff o n to th e ra g .
S h o u ld
th e s e c r e t p ra y e r s a n d
E u c h a r is tic c a n o n o f th e D iv in e
L itu r g y b e r e a d s e c r e tly ?
T . P ., L o n d o n
T h e te rm s e c re t p ra y e rs is a m is tra n s la tio n . T h e
c o rre c t tra n s la tio n is : s a c ra m e n ta l p ra y e rs ,
p ra y e rs o f th e m y s te rie s o r m y s tic a l p ra y e rs .
C e rta in o f th e s e s o -c a lle d s e c re t p ra y e rs , fo r
e x a m p le , a t th e g re a t lita n y a n d a t th e little lita n ie s
a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e L itu rg y c o n c e rn o n ly th e
p rie s t. It m a k e s n o s e n s e to re a d th e m a lo u d . A s fo r
th e p ra y e rs o f th e e u c h a ris tic c a n o n , w h ic h h a v e
b e e n re a d m y s tic a lly s in c e th e s ix th c e n tu ry a n d
u n iv e rs a lly s o , s in c e th e e ig h th c e n tu ry , th e y to o
s h o u ld b e re a d m y s tic a lly . T h is d o e s n o t
n e c e s s a rily m e a n s e c re tly , in c o m p le te s ile n c e , b u t
it c e rta in ly d o e s n o t m e a n a lo u d , a s ra tio n a lis ts ,
w h o h a v e n o s e n s e o f th e s a c re d , d o .

BOOK REVIEW
Millennium: The End of the World and the
Forging of Christendom (sic)

by Tom Holland
E S P IT E h is e rro n e o u s title (C h ris te n d o m h a d
e x is te d fo r 1 ,0 0 0 y e a rs b e fo re th e m ille n n iu m ) th is 2 0 0 8 w o rk is m u c h m o re th a n a n

a c c o u n t o f th e y e a r 1 0 0 0 . T h e T V h is to ria n , T o m
H o lla n d , ta k e s in a ll th e m a jo r w a rs a n d p o litic a l
e v e n ts o v e r a 2 0 0 -y e a r p e rio d , s ta rtin g w ith th e

2 4
g re a t sh
O tto n ia
w ith th e
c e n tu ry
b a rb a ria

O
ift o f
n s in
N o rm
a n d
n C ru

p o w
th e
a n C
th e
sa d e

e r fro m
e a rly 1 0
o n q u e st
m a ssa c re
rs in 1 0 9

th e C a ro
th c e n tu
o f S ic ily
s in Je r
9 .

lin
ry ,
in
u sa

g ia n s to th e
a n d e n d in g
th e la te 1 1 th
le m b y th e

T h is b o o k is a s tu d y o f o n e o f th e m o s t c ru c ia l
p e rio d s in E u ro p e a n h is to ry , w h e n W e s te rn E u ro p e
fe ll fro m th e A g e o f th e S a in ts a n d a c q u ire d its
a rro g a n t, s e c u la ris t s tru c tu re s th a t s till e x is t to d a y ,
c o n d itio n in g its c u ltu re a n d its th o u g h t a n d
b ra in w a s h in g m o s t o f its in h a b ita n ts . N o ta b ly , th e
1 1 th c e n tu ry , th e c o re o f th is b o o k , s a w th e a ffirm a tio n o f th e fe u d a l s y s te m ; lo c a l lo rd s b u ilt th e ir
c a s tle s a n d s e n t o u t th e ir re ta in e rs to e x a c t d u e s
a n d s e rv ic e s , d ro v e th e p e a s a n ts in to d e b t a n d
tu rn e d th e m in to s e rfs , th a t is , e n s la v e d th e m . T h e
n e w m e d i v a l m o n k s , w h o s e m o n a s te rie s a n d
c h u rc h e s w o u ld b e c o n s tru c te d o n fe u d a l c a s tle
lin e s , g a v e th e m p ro te c tio n a n d th e p o p e s o f R o m e
d e v e lo p e d a b u re a u c ra tic a n d le g a lis tic s y s te m o f
g o v e rn a n c e .
H o lla n d s p e a k s a b o v e a ll o f th e e s s e n tia l d a te s
1 0 5 4 , 1 0 6 6 , 1 0 7 1 a n d 1 0 7 7 . T h e b o o k e n d s w ith
1 0 9 5 , w h e n th e firs t c ru s a d e w a s p ro c la im e d a n d
th e W e s te rn c o rn e r o f E u ro p e m o v e d in to th e h ig h
m id d le a g e s : th e a g e o f u g ly G o th ic c a th e d ra ls ,
w h e n th e W e s te rn s u p re m a c y in n a s ty th in g s , lik e
m a c h in e ry , w e a p o n ry , u s u ry a n d m u c h e ls e , g o t
u n d e r w a y . T h e n e w re lig io n w a s c e n tra l to th is ,
a n d th e re is e v e n a th e o ry th a t it le d to th e
in v e n tio n o f c lo c k s , b e c a u s e th e m e d i v a l m o n k s
n o w h a d s o m a n y ritu a ls to p e rfo rm . It is rig h t fo r
H o lla n d to c la im th e 1 1 th c e n tu ry a s th e tu rn in g
p o in t th e O rth o d o x C h u rc h h a s a lw a y s s a id s o .
T h e c e n tra l d ra m a , w h ic h o p e n s th e b o o k , is th e
ttle b e tw e e n th e p a p a c y a n d G e rm a n im p e ria lth a t w e re b o th d e v e lo p in g fa s t. C a n o s s a (1 0 7 7 )
s e n te re d W e s te rn v o c a b u la ry : a G e rm a n
p e ro r, H e n ry IV , s ta n d in g in th e s n o w , b a re fo o t
d p e n ite n t, o u ts id e a n A p e n n in e ro c k -fo rtre s s ,
g g in g a p o p e fo r fo rg iv e n e s s . A t b o tto m , th e re
a s a q u e s tio n o f g re a t s ig n ific a n c e fo r th e fu tu re :
h o u ld C h u r c h a n d S ta te b e s e p a r a te ? T h e P o p e s
n ti-O rth o d o x (b e c a u s e a n ti-In c a rn a tio n a l) d e a n d s th a t h e b e a llo w e d t o lo o k a fte r h i s C h u r c h s
w n a ffa irs c o n trib u te d , in th e e n d , to th e id e a th a t

b a
is m
h a
E m
a n
b e

th e s a c re d a n d th e
re a lm s, a n d
th is
s e c u la riz a tio n .
C h
is ,
C a
to
th e
w a
D a
h is
n o

R T H O D O X

s e c u la r w e re tw o
le d
to
m o d e rn

N G L A N D

d iffe re n t
W e ste rn

T h is w a s th e a g e w h e n a n e w
fo rm
o f
ris tia n ity b e g a n to e m e rg e a n d d e fin e its e lf, th a t
th is w a s th e a g e o f th e in v e n tio n o f R o m a n
th o lic is m . In 1 0 5 7 th e re w a s a b a ttle in M ila n a s
w h o s h o u ld b e b is h o p . A re fo rm is t m o v e m e n t,
P a ta re n e s , a tta c k e d p rie s ts fo r m a rry in g : th e y
n te d c e lib a c y , a n d o n e c le ric a lis t C a rd in a l, P ie r
m ia n i, a tta c k e d w o m e n . O n th is th e O x fo rd
to ria n a n d re v ie w e r N o rm a n S to n e , e ls e w h e re
frie n d o f th e O rth o d o x C h u rc h , c o m m e n ts :

I h a v e a b
I d o n o t th in
w a s o n e o f th
a v e g e ta ria n
a b s u rd ity w
P a ta re n e h e r
C a th a rs , w h o
p ro d u c t o f th

o n e to p ic k w ith
k th a t h e u n d e
o s e fa n a tic s b
w h o a d v a n c e
ith n o B ib lic a
e s y w a s e v e n tu
re fu s e d to e a t
e s e x u a l a c t.

H o lla n d a t th is p o in t.
rs ta n d s s e x . D a m ia n i
y n a tu re a h e rm it, a n d
d p rie s tly c h a s tity , a n
l b a c k in g ; a n d th e
a lly ta k e n u p b y th e
a n y th in g th a t w a s th e

A la in B e s a n o n w rite s o f th e C a th a rs th a t th e y
h a d a n in te lle c tu a l h a tre d o f c re a tio n . A t th e
b o tto m o f a ll th is is a v ie w o f th e w o rld a s h o p e le s s ly s in fu l w h ic h e d g e s in to th e g re a t th e o lo g ic a l
q u e s tio n o f th e d a y : h o w fa r Je s u s C h ris t w a s a
m a n . T h e B ritis h d o n o t re a lly lik e q u e s tio n s o f th is
s o rt, a rg u in g th a t th e y a re re a lly to d o w ith b u re a u c r a t ic m a c h in a tio n s . T h a t is c e r t a in ly H o lla n d s
v ie w w h e n h e ta lk s a b o u t th e g re a t s c h is m o f 1 0 5 4
th a t d iv id e d th e L a tin fro m th e O rth o d o x C h u rc h :
in C o n s ta n tin o p le , p rie s ts m a rrie d , a lo n g -te rm
c o n s e q u e n c e o f w h ic h m a y e v e n b e th a t, w h e re a s
L a tin C h ris tia n ity is n o w g o in g th e w a y o f th e o ld
N e s to ria n s , O rth o d o x y flo u ris h e s . H o lla n d is
w e a k e r o n th e O rth o d o x w o rld th a n h e is
e ls e w h e re .
H o lla n d s p o p u lis t, C h a n n
in v o lv e s s w e e p in g m o s t o f th
c ry p tic re fe re n c e s in th e e n d -n
a lm o s t e v e ry p a rt o f th e s to ry
fid e n c e e v e n th e p a rts th a t c o n
a n d fe e lin g s o f th e p ro ta g o n
n o rm a lly o n ly b e g u e s s e d a t. T h
g o o d re a d , b u t n o t n e c e s s a rily v e

e l

4 a p p ro a c h
e e v id e n c e in to
o te s , a n d te llin g
w ith e q u a l c o n c e rn th e m o tiv e s
is ts , w h ic h c a n
e re s u lt is a v e ry
ry g o o d h is to ry .

R T H O D O X

2 5

N G L A N D

Two Scottish Prayers

H O U

a n g e
o f m e
F ro m th e d
T h e s h e p h e rd in g
T o m a k e ro u n d a
D riv e fr
S u rro u n
A n d in
K e e p th

o m
d m
th e
o u

m e
e o
n a r
m y

B e th
B e th
B e th
A n d
T o d a

o u a
o u a
o u a
b e a
y , to n

b rig
g u id
s m o
k in d
ig h t

I a
L e
F o
T o

tire d a n d
th o u m e
e it is tim
e c o u rt o
to th e p e a

m
a d
r m
th

l o f G o d w h o h a st c h a rg e
e a r F a th e r o f m e rc ifu ln e s s ,
k in d o f th e fo ld o f th e s a in ts
b o u t m e th is n ig h t;

e v e
n th
ro w
c o r

ry
e
s,
a c

h t fla m
in g s ta
o th p a
ly s h e p
a n d fo

te m
se a
c ro
le ,

p ta tio
o f u n
o k s a
k e e p

e b e fo
r a b o v
th b e lo
h e rd b
r e v e r.

I a s tra n
to th e la
e to g o
f C h ris t,
c e o f h e

re
e
w
e

n a n d
rig h te o
n d s tra
it a lw a

d a n g e r,
u sn e ss,
its ,
y s .

m e ,
m e ,
m e ,
h in d m e .

g e r,
n d o f a n g e ls ;
h o m e
a v e n .

(C a rm in a G a d e lic a , I, 4 9 )

M IC H A E
A n d th e
S h ie ld th
W ith th e s h a d e o
S h ie ld th o u m y s
O n e a rth a n d in
F ro
F ro
F ro
P ro

fo e
fo e
m fo e
te c t a
M y so u l
O h m y s
m

L o
rig h
o u
f th
o u l
h e a

f th
te o
m y
y w

e a n g e ls
u s in h e a v e n ,
so u l
in g ;

v e n ;

s u p o n e a rth ,
s b e n e a th e a rth ,
s in c o n c e a lm e n t
n d e n c irc le
n e a th th y w in g ,
o u l w ith th e s h a d e o f th y w in g !
C a rm in a G a d e lic a , Ill, 1 4 9 )