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FEDERAL RESERVE

PAPER MONEY,
1914-1918:
POWER, IDEOLOGY AND ART
Rafael Company

IN MEMORIAM
Richard G. Doty (1942-2013)

SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

A. SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(BOOKS IN
ENGLISH AND FRENCH)

ALBERTINI, Jean-Marie, Vronique LECOMTE-COLLIN & Bruno COLLIN (2000): Histoire de la monnaie. Du troc
leuro. Paris: Slection du Readers Digest.
ALLEN, Larry (2009): The Encyclopedia of Money. Second Edition. Santa Barbara, California / Denver,
Colorado / Oxford, England: ABC-CLIO.
BALL, Douglas B. (1995): The influence of the Bank of England and the Scottish banks on American
banking, 17811913, in HEWITT, Virginia (ed.): The Bankers Art. Studies in Paper Money. London: British
Museum Press, p. 20-27.
BOURGET, Jean, Arcangelo FIGLIUZZI & Yves ZENOU (2002): Monnaies et systmes montaires. 9e dition.
Rosny: Bral.
BOURGEY, Sabine (dir. col.) (2004): Billets de la Rserve fdrale, in Les monnaies du monde. Des pices de
lAntiquit jusqu leuro (Le Grand Atlas). Issy-les-Moulineaux: ditions Glnat / ditions Atlas, p. 47-50.
BOWERS, Q. David (2009): Whitman Encyclopedia of U.S. Paper Money. Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing.
BOWERS, Q. David & David M. SUNDMAN (2006): 100 Greatest American Currency Notes. The stories behind
the most fascinating colonial, Confederate, federal, obsolete, and private American notes. Atlanta,
Georgia: Whitman Publishing.
BRION, Ren & Jean-Louis MOREAU (2001): Le billet dans tous ses Etats. Du premier papier-monnaie leuro.
Brussels: Fonds Mercator.

CUJAH, George S. & William BRANDIMORE (2010): Standard Catalog of United States Paper Money. 29th
Edition. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications.
DAVIES, Glyn (2000): History of Money. From Ancient Times to the Present Day. Cardiff: University of
Wales Press.
DOTY, Ricard G. (1982): The Macmillan Encyclopedic Dictionary of Numismatics. New York: Macmillan
Publishing.
(1995): Surviving images, forgotten peoples: Native Americans, women, and African Americans on
United States obsolete banknotes, in HEWITT, Virginia (ed.): The Bankers Art. Studies in Paper Money.
London: British Museum Press, p. 118-131.
(2008): Americas Money, Americas Story. A Chronicle of American Numismatic History. Second
Edition. Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing.
EAGLETON, Catherine & Jonathan WILLIAMS, with CRIBB, Joe & Elizabeth ERRINGTON (eds.) (2007): Money. A
History (Second edition). London: The British Museum Press.
FRIEDBERG, Arthur L. & Ira S. FRIEDBERG (2013): Paper Money of the United States. A complete illustrated
guide with valuations. Twentieth Edition. Willinston, Vermont: Coin & Currency Institute.
GARRET, Jeff & John GUTH (2005): 100 Greatest U.S. Coins. Second Edition. Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman
Publishing.

HEWITT, Virginia (1994): Beauty and the Banknote. Images of Women on Paper Money. London: British Museum Press.
(1995): Soft images, hard currency: the portrayal of women on paper money, in HEWITT, Virginia (ed.): The
Bankers Art. Studies in Paper Money. London: British Museum Press, p. 156-165.
KRANISTER, W[illibald]. (1989): United States of America, in The Moneymakers International. Cambridge, England:
Black Bear Publishing, p. 292-323.
LANGE, David W. (2005): History of the United States Mint and Its Coinage. Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing (+
American Numismatic Association).
MARTER, Joan (ed.) (2011): The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art, Volume 1. New York: Oxford University Press.
MATHER, Frank Jewett (Jr.) (1919): Kenyon Cox, in The Field of Art, in Scribners Magazine 6, Vol. LXV, June 1919,
p. 765-768.
MORAN, Michael F. (2008): Striking Change. The Great Artistic Collaboration of Theodore Roosevelt and Augustus
Saint-Gaudens. Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing.
MORGAN, H. Wayne (1989): Keepers of Culture. The Art-Thought of Kenyon Cox, Royal Cortissoz, and Frank Jewett
Mather, Jr.. Kent, Ohio / London, England: The Kent State University Press.
(1994): Kenyon Cox 1856-1919. A Life in American Art. Kent, Ohio / London, England: The Kent State University
Press.
(ed.) (1995): An Artist of the American Renaissance. The Letters of Kenyon Cox, 1883-1919. Kent, Ohio / London,
England: The Kent State University Press.

MUDD, Douglas (2006): All the Money of the World. The Art and History of Paper Money and Coins from
Antiquity to the 21st Century. New York: Collins.
PATTERSON, Richard S. & Richardson DOUGALL (1976, released 1978): The Eagle and the Shield. A History of
the Great Seal of the United States. Washington: Department of State (Office of the Historian, Bureau
of Public Affairs) / under the auspices of the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration.

SDILLOT, Ren (1973): Les batailles du dollar, inOnze monnaies plus deux. Deux mille ans daventure.
Paris: Hachette, p. 57-82.
STAHLBERG, Rainer with Colin R. BRUCE II (2002): Standard Catalog of Stocks & Bonds. Iola, Wisconsin:
Krause Publications.
STANDISH, David (2000): Section II: United States, inThe Art of Money. The History and Design of Paper
Currency from around the World. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, p. 102-142.
STEPCZYNSKI, Marian (2003): Dollar (Actualit et avenir de la monnaie imperiale).Lausanne: Favre.

TOLLES, Thayer (2009): Augustus Saint-Gaudens in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art / New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
VAN HOOK, Bailey (2003): The Virgin & the Dynamo. Public murals in American architecture. Athens, Ohio:
Ohio University Press.

VERMEULE, Cornelius (2007): Numismatic Art in America. Aesthetics of the United States Coinage. 2nd
Edition. Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing.

Images from the National Numismatic Collection at the


Smithsonian Institution:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Reserve_Note
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Reserve_Bank_Note

BEFORE THE FED

The Federal
Reserve
System (also
known as
the Federal
Reserve, and
informally as
the Fed), the
central
banking system
of the United
States, was
created on
December 23,
1913 largely
in response to a
series of
financial
panics,
particularly a
very severe
crisis: the 1907
Bankers' Panic
(see image).

Les plus grandes banques newyorkaises furent sauves in extremis de


linsolvabilit par lintervention dun
richissime homme daffaires, J[ohn].
Pierpont Morgan [(1837-1913)], qui leur
avana les liquidits ncessaires
(Stepczynski 2003: 34).

The days of laissez-faire,


particularly for New York
money men, were over and
some form of central
banking control inescapable
and imminent. In
introducing the bill for
banking reform Senator
Carter Glass [(1858-1946)]
stated plainly that
Financial textbook writers
in Europe have characterised
our banking as barbarous
and eminent bankers in this
country have not hesitated
to confess that the criticism
is merited. (Davies 2000:
503).

THE FED

By the time Wilson was


inaugurated (on March 4, 1913),
public opinion was demanding a
dismantling of the money trust,
or at least its containment by
the federal government. One
way to keep it within bounds
might be by exerting a greater
federal control over the sinews
of the banking system, the
paper money employed in its
operations. Thus was born the
Federal Reserve Act of
[December 23,]1913, and thus,
in the following year, was born
a new type of currency, the
Federal Reserve Note (Doty
2008: 178).

WOODROW WILSON
(1856 1924).

28th President of the United States


(March 4, 1913-March 4, 1921)

http://www.sandstead.com/images/washington/various/

En 1913, le rseau des banques


nationales cr en 1863 est coiff
par le Systme fdral de rserve.
Toutes les banques doivent avoir
dans leur caisse un pourcentage
minimal de billets mis par la
Rserve fdrale. Ce pourcentage
dpend de limportance de la ville
o ces banques sont implantes.
Bizarrement, la garantie la plus
faible (12 % des dpots) est
impose aux banques des rgions
rurales qui sont les plus
imprudents (Albertini, LecomteCollin & Collin 2000: 131).

A map of the 12 districts of the United States Federal Reserve System, with the 12 Federal Reserve
Banks marked as black squares and the [present-day] 24 (total) Branches of these Federal Reserve
Banks are marked as red circles. The Washington DC Headquarters is marked with a star. (Also, a
25th branch in Buffalo, NY had been closed in 2008.).
ChrisnHouston
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Federal_Reserve_Districts_Map_-_Banks_%26_Branches.png

BOSTON
SAN FRANCISCO

NEW YORK
KANSAS
CITY

DALLAS

ST.
LOUIS

PHILADELPHIA

ATLANTA

12: SAN FRANCISCO (California); 11: DALLAS (Texas); 10: KANSAS CITY (Missouri);
9: MINNEAPOLIS (Minnesota); 8: ST. LOUIS (Missouri); 7: CHICAGO (Illinois);
6: ATLANTA (Georgia); 5: RICHMOND (Virginia); 4: CLEVELAND (Ohio);
3: PHILADELPHIA (Pennsylvania); 2: NEW YORK (New York); 1: BOSTON (Massachusetts).

BOSTON
SAN FRANCISCO

NEW YORK
KANSAS
CITY

DALLAS

ST.
LOUIS

PHILADELPHIA

ATLANTA

Let it be noted that the great majority of the Federal Reserve Banks
existed in Eastern and Midwestern cities, rather faithfully following
population distribution at the time; they are still there today (Doty
2008: 179).

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:American_gold_double-eagles_from_Hackney.jpg

Au centre de ce systme, le
Bureau fdral de rserve
commande la politique montaire
des tats Unis et [en 1913] veille
maintenir une rserve dor gale
40 % des billets mis (Albertini,
Lecomte-Collin & Collin 2000: 131).
Portable Antiquities Scheme

[...] the Federal Reserve Banks are privately owned. Private ownership
helped appease [in 1913] the banking communitys arguments that
knowledgeable bankers can best regulate the banking industry [...]
(Allen 2009: 140).

Even after the


passage of the
Federal Reserve Act
of 1913, the twelve
banks of issue did
not operate as a
fully centralised
banking institution
until [Franklin
Delano] Roosevelts
economic reforms
of the 1930s
(Eagleton &
Williams 2007:
233).
http://www.stlouisfed.org/foregone/chapter_three.cfm

Les billets doivent toujours tre remboursables en or, la Trsorerie et aux


guichets des douze Banques fdrales. A Washington, le bureau de Rserve fdrale
(le Board of Governors) contrle le fonctionnement du systme : il rgle le montant
de lmission, assure lunit et la continuit de la politique montaire, en tentant
de la soustraire aux pressions et aux passions prives et publiques (Sdillot 1973:
68).

http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/FRS-Adams.htm

En 1914, le dollar est une monnaie solide. Mais cest,


comme toutes les autres monnaies mondiales lexclusion
de la livre [French franc, German mark, Russian rouble],
une monnaie dont le rle est uniquement national
(Bourget, Figliuzzi & Zenou 2002: 73).
https://www.etsy.com/es/listing/82442395/
1914-mapa-vintage-mexico-y-estados?ref=market

http://bibliotecapersonalfagf.blogspot.com.es/2013_09_01_archive.html

http://gold.celticgold.eu/p_en/1-sovereign-edward-vii-1902-1910.html

http://www.skidmore.edu/~rginsber/go-201/worldmap1919.jpeg

THE NEW NOTES

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
publication-series/?id=966

In order to furnish suitable notes for circulation as Federal reserve notes, the Secretary of the Treasury shall
cause plates and dies to be engraved in the best manner to guard against counterfeits and fraudulent alterations,
and shall have printed there from and numbered such quantities of such notes of the denominations of $1, $2,
$5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500, $1,000, $5,000, $10,000 as may be required to supply the Federal Reserve banks.
Such notes shall be in form and tenor as directed by the Secretary of the Treasury under the provisions of this
chapter and shall bear the distinctive numbers of the several Federal reserve banks through which they are
issued.

http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/12/418

Soon after that signing Joseph E. Ralph, the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and
Printing, was assigned the task of designing and producing the new Federal Reserve Notes.
During the next year, various prototype designs were produced until a standardized design was
finalized in the fall of 1914.

http://www.coinlink.com/News/banknotes/1914-richmond-federalrerserve-proof-banknote-set-to-be-sold/

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
publication-series/?id=966

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
publication-series/?id=966

The bills were large-sized notes, which were 3.125 by


7.4218 inches and the standard size of all U.S. currency printed
between 1863 and 1928.
http://www.cutimes.com/2013/05/10/the-4-major-designs-of-the-100-billslide-show

12 BANK SEALS

SEALS OF EVERY FEDERAL RESERVE BANK


ON THE FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES (S. OF 1914 & S. OF 1918) OR FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTES (S. OF 1915 & S. OF 1918):
12-L: SAN FRANCISCO (California); 11-K: DALLAS (Texas); 10-J: KANSAS CITY (Missouri);
9-I: MINNEAPOLIS (Minnesota); 8-H: ST. LOUIS (Missouri); 7-G: CHICAGO (Illinois);
6-F: ATLANTA (Georgia); 5-F: RICHMOND (Virginia); 4-D: CLEVELAND (Ohio);
3-C: PHILADELPHIA (Pennsylvania); 2-B: NEW YORK (New York); 1-A: BOSTON (Massachusetts).

THE FEDERAL RESERVE


BANK OF

ST. LOUIS
MISSOURI

BANK SEAL & CODE (NUMBER-LETTER): FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES (SERIES OF 1914 & SERIES OF 1918)

ONLY BANK CODE (LETTER-NUMBER): FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTES (S. OF 1915 & S. OF 1918)

The localism was more apparent than real: like their better-established competitors,
the Federal Reserve Notes of 1914 and later were printed in Washington at the Bureau
of Engraving and Printing [BEP], and their black faces and green backseven with
distinctive designswere undeniably products of national government (Doty 2008:
179-180).

THE NEW
TRADITION

[...] 1913, when the Federal Reserve was instituted, and began
fulfilling its apparent mission to make United States currency as boring
and dreary-looking as possibleof which more shortly (Standish
2000: 133).

[...] 1913, when the Federal Reserve was instituted, and began
fulfilling its apparent mission to make United States currency as boring
and dreary-looking as possibleof which more shortly (Standish
2000: 133).

One reason why the Bank of England kept its designs simple and unchanging
may have been because a master currency cannot frequently change its
appearance without giving an impression of instability. Similarly, the United
States currency has not changed much since 1928. [...] (Ball 1995: 26).

One reason why the Bank of England kept its designs simple and unchanging
may have been because a master currency cannot frequently change its
appearance without giving an impression of instability. Similarly, the United
States currency has not changed much since 1928. [...] (Ball 1995: 26).

One reason why the Bank of England kept its designs simple and unchanging
may have been because a master currency cannot frequently change its
appearance without giving an impression of instability. Similarly, the United
States currency has not changed much since 1928. [...] (Ball 1995: 26).

2 TREASURY
SEALS

RED SEAL

SERIES OF 1914

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES


After World War I commenced in Europe in August
1914, the BEP [Bureau of Engraving and Printing]
could not import red ink, so it switched to blue after
less than a year of printing Red Seals (Bowers 2009:
253a).

RED SEAL

SERIES OF 1914

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES

SERIES OF 1914 & 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES


FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTES
SERIES OF 1915 & 1918

BLUE SEAL

RED SEAL

SERIES OF 1914

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES


SINCE 1969, IN ENGLISH
UNTIL S. OF 1963, LEGEND IN LATIN
LANG.

SERIES OF 1914 & 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES


FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTES
SERIES OF 1915 & 1918

BLUE SEAL

THESAUR[US] * AMER.[IC] * SEPTENT.[RIONALIS] * SIGIL.[LLUM]

THESAUR[US] * AMER.[IC] * SEPTENT.[RIONALIS] * SIGIL.[LLUM]

DATES

In passing, it should be mentioned that the date


on a bill [SERIES OF 1914, for instance] is not
necessarily its date of issue...

In passing, it should be mentioned that the date


on a bill [SERIES OF 1914, for instance] is not
necessarily its date of issue...

...It actually refers to the date a


particular bill with a particular design
was authorized (Doty 1982: 133-134).

BEFORE THE U. S. PARTICIPATION IN THE GREAT WAR

B. SERIES OF 1914 & SERIES OF 1915

FIVE-DOLLAR
BILL

ABRAHAM
LINCOLN
(1809-1865)
16th President of the
United States
(1861-1865)

Descripti Abraham Lincoln, three-quarter length


on portrait, seated, facing right.
Date 1864 Feb. 9, printed later
Source http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsc.00052
Author Anthony Berger

ABRAHAM
LINCOLN
(1809-1865)
16th President of the
United States
(1861-1865)

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beer_revenue_stamp_proof_single_1871.JPG

ABRAHAM
LINCOLN
(1809-1865) 16th President of the
United States (1861-1865)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_one_hun
dred-dollar_bill

United States Note, Series of 1880


(1st version: Series of 1869)

ABRAHAM
LINCOLN
(1809-1865)
16th President of the
United States
(1861-1865)
1ST U.S.
STAMP
WITH
ABRAHAM
LINCOLN:
1861-67
ISSUE

ABRAHAM
LINCOLN
(1809-1865)
16th President of the
United States
(1861-1865)

Image from the National Numismatic Collection at the


Smithsonian Institution

The portrait [$5, Series of 1923] is from a


photograph by Anthony Berger and was
engraved by Charles Burt, a contract engraver
for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The
same image was also used on the Federal
Reserve Note Series of 1914. With this issue,
Lincoln became the standard portrait subject
for the $5 denomination; this was continued
on all small-size notes of various series
(Bowers 2009: 251a).

S. 1915
S. 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTE

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE


S. 1914 S. 1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

SERIES OF
1914

SERIES OF
1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
BANK NOTE
SERIES
OF 1915

SERIES
OF 1918

SCENES 1 & 2

1914

COLUMBUS IN SIGHT OF LAND


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS

Large-size Federal Reserve Notes, authorized in 1913 and first printed in


1914, were reedemable in dollars, including in gold on demand at the
Treasury Department of the United States in the City of Washington,
District of Columbia, or in gold or lawful money at any Federal Reserve
Bank. They were backed specificaly by 40% gold on deposit. Thus, in a way,
these can be considered as gold coin notes (Bowers 2009: 43b).

1914

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Federal Reserve Bank Notes closely follow the concept


of Series of 1914 Federal Reserve Notes (but without
Bank in the title), [...]. The major difference, a
technical but important one, was that Federal Reserve
Bank Notes were obligations on the particular Federal
Reserve Bank, while Federal Reserve Notes were
obligations of the Federal Reserve as a whole and thus
do not have individual Federal Reserve Bank officers
signatures. Additionally, Federal Reserve Bank Notes
were receivable in payment of all taxes, excises, and
other dues to the United States except duties on
imports (customs) and interest on the public debt,
while Federal Reserve Notes were receivable for
customs and also had a gold clause (Bowers 2009:
42a).

1915 & 1918

SCENES 1 & 2

COLUMBUS IN SIGHT OF LAND


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

1915 & 1918

LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS

The first of the Series of 1915


notes were issued in 1916
(Bowers 2009: 41b).

$5
COLUMBUS

SCENE 1

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

COLUMBUS DISCOVERY OF LAND

Columbus
Discovery of Land,
Charles Schussele

Columbus

discovering
America
(October 12,
1492)

Rodrigo de Triana (1469-?):


is reported to have shouted
Tierra! Tierra! (Land! Land!).

Guanahani, the Bahamas.


It is not known precisely
which island it was.

NATIONALISM

Columbus
(16th
Century
mens
clothing).

During the four hundredth anniversary in 1892, teachers, preachers,


poets and politicians used Columbus Day rituals to teach ideals of
patriotism.

NATIONALISM

http://www.ebay.com/itm/US-230-1-1893-Columbus-in-Sight-of-Land-F-VF-NH/251530811741?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item3a9067995d

1869-1917

UNITED STATES NOTE

http://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/1917-one-dollar-bill

The Treasury Department


maintained a stock of vignettes
to use on paper money, bonds,
stamps, and other paper of
monetary value. Sometimes the
vignettes were coordinated with
other parts of the design, but
most often they were not
(Bowers & Sundman 2006: 6).

1869-1917

UNITED STATES NOTE

This vignette was designed by Joseph


P. Ourdan (Friedberg & Friedberg
2013: 38).

http://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/1917-one-dollar-bill

No one is sure what the


Great Discoverer actually
looked like. Accordingly,
representations of him
on paper money, medals,
and coins vary widely
(Bowers 2009: 110).

$5
PILGRIMS

SCENE 2

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929

1st version 1865 ($1):

http://www.antiquebanknotes.com/rare/1863-onedollar-bill.aspx

http://www.thehistoryblog.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/10/Fairbanks-5-back.jpg

www.monety.banknoty.pl/banknotes/glen_johnson/0709a.jpg

LANDING OF THE
PILGRIMS

The Pilgrims
landing on
Plymouth
Rock
(November
21, 1620).

The Landing of
the Pilgrims,
unknown artist

1914

19021929

1914

The

Mayflower
1915
1918

(1620)

WASP

NATIONALISM

WASP

NATIONALISM

The Pilgrims werent always


as much a part of the
psychohistoric landscape as
they are now, but these bills
show that this had begun by
1863the year that, not so
coincidentally, Lincoln first
declared Thanksgiving to be a
national holiday (Standish
About the 1st
2000: 132).
version: 1863
($1)

WASP

NATIONALISM

Detail: http://www.ebay.com/itm/549-VAR-LANDING-OF-THEPILGRIMS-WITH-MAJOR-FOLDOVER-ERROR-BN9643/170812791472?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item27c53
c5ab0

TEN-DOLLAR
BILL

ANDREW
JACKSON

(1767-1845)
7th President of the
United States
(1829-1837)

Descriptio Andrew Jackson - 7th President of the United States


n (18291837)
Date 1824
Source http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/resources/
graphic/xlarge/32_00018.jpg
Author Thomas Sully (1783 1872) (attributed)

ANDREW
JACKSON

7th President of the


United States
(1829-1837)

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beer_revenue_stamp_proof_single_1871.
JPG

ANDREW
JACKSON

7th President of the


United States
(1829-1837)
1ST U.S.
STAMP
WITH
ANDREW
JACKSON:
1870-88
ISSUES

ANDREW
JACKSON
(1767-1845) 7th President
of the United States (1829-1837)

United States Note, Series of 1907


(1st version: Series of 1869)

ANDREW
JACKSON

7th President of the


United States
(1829-1837)

The
portrait of
Andrew
Jackson [...]
is by
Philadelphia
artist
Thomas
Sully,
engraved for
currency use
by Alfred
Sealey
(Bowers
2009: 206b).

http://www.themainboard.com/index.php?t
hreads/which-presidentlooked-the-gayest-stupidestbrought-to-you-by-therandom-thoughtsthread.128919/

http://www.ebay.com/itm/An
drew-Jackson-portrait-USPresident-1896-U-pick-size/250702375534

S. 1915 S. 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTE

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE


S. 1914 S. 1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

1914
SERIES OF
1914

SERIES
1914
OF
1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
BANK NOTE
SERIES
OF 1915

SERIES
OF
1918
1918

SCENES 3 & 4

FARMING
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

1914

FACTORIES

1914

1915 & 1918


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

SCENES 3 & 4

FARMING
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

1915 & 1918

INDUSTRY

SCENES 3 & 4

FARMING

1915 & 1918

INDUSTRY

The back was designed by Clair Aubrey Huston; Farming, a scene in Manchester
Township, York County, Pennsylvania, was engraved by Marcus W Baldwin; Industry, a
mill in Joliet, Illinois, was engraved by HL Chorlton. The first day of issue was
November 16, 1914.
http://othersidefarms.com/blog/1914-10-dollar-bill-was-printed-on-hemp-paper/

En 1820, la production des tats-Unis est 6 fois moins leve que celle de la
France. En 1913, elle rpresente 2,5 fois celle de la Grande-Bretagne et 3,6 fois
celle de la France ! Entre ces deux dates, le dollar, qui ntait quune monnaie de
second ordre quelque peu exotique au dbut du XIX sicle, est devenu une des
principales monnaies du monde (Albertini, Lecomte-Collin & Collin 2000: 129).

On the $10 bill [...], the times, they are achangin. The industrializing of America
had benn proceeding for decades, but its true arrival is celebrated here. No doubt
the design was meant to suggest that the United States is both the breadbasket of
the world and its new industrial pillar. But while we cant see the farmers faces,
the way they are alignedthe team of horses, toosuggests that they may be
staring wistfully at this ugly new arrival coughing smoke (Standish 2000: 141).

$10
FARMING

SCENE 3

FARMING (mechanized agriculture)


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

Horse-Drawn Grain Binder


Image ID: WHi-70834
https://www.wisconsinhistory.org/whi/fullimage.asp?id=70834

MODERNITY

HOME, SWEET HOME

$10
INDUSTRY

SCENE 4

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

FACTORIES (industry)

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929


http://banknoteworld.com/united-states?Date=1902

A STACK

(Stalhberg & Bruce 2002: 265a)

http://www.ebay.com/itm/191149598135

1908

TITLE: Standard Oil Plant


Looking South, Whiting,
Ind.
DATE: 1914
PUBLISHER: P. L. Huckins
(#604)
POSTMARK: October 1,
1914, Whiting, Indiana
COLLECTION: S. Shook
http://www.rootsweb.ance
stry.com/~innwigs/Image
Archive/Whiting/WhitingI
magesIndustry.htm

MODERNITY

MODERNITY

TWENTY-DOLLAR
BILL

GROVER
CLEVELAND

(1837-1908)
22th and 24th President of the
United States
(1885-1889 & 1893-1897)
http://www.silverinvestor.com/charlessavoie
/cs_feb04.htm

Description Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837June 24, 1908), the 22nd and 24th President of the
United States and 28th Governor of New York
Date 1903
Source Frederick Gutekunst (1831 - 1917)

http://www.collectorsquest.com/blog/2012/11/23/res
toration-can-turn-trash-into-treasure/

http://www.nationalcurrencyf
oundation.org/portraitgallery
.html

S. 1915
S. 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTE

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE


S. 1914 S. 1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

1914
SERIES OF
1914

SERIES
1914
OF
1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
BANK NOTE
SERIES
OF 1915

SERIES
OF
1918
1918

SCENES 5 & 6

1914

MODES OF TRANSPORTATION: LAND, SEA & AIR


LAND, AIR
SEA
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

This engraving by Marcus W. Baldwin


was designated as Land, Sea & Air
(Bowers 2009: 487a).

1914

1915 & 1918


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

SCENES 5 & 6

1915 & 1918

MODES OF TRANSPORTATION: LAND, SEA & AIR


LAND, AIR
SEA
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

http://www.antiquemoney.com/value-of-old-banknotes-from-the-republic-of-hawaii/republic-of-hawaii-silver-certificates/value-of-1895-100-republic-of-hawaii-silver-certificate/

http://www.accionssynera.es/shop/page/7?shop_param=

$20
LAND

SCENE 5

LAND (auto & steam train), AIR (biplane)

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929


http://banknoteworld.com/united-states?Date=1902

A STEAM TRAIN

$20
BIPLANE

From "The Burgess Hydro-Aeroplane and


School Aviation Brochure, Marblehead,
Mass - 1911.
http://www.collectair.com/moisantindex.html

MODERNITY

1913

http://www.ebay.com/itm/U-S-SCOTT-Q8-UNITED-STATES-20-CENTPARCEL-POST-1913-BI-PLANE-SERVICE-USED/390833741210?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item5aff819d9a

$20
AUTO

MODERNITY
1908
This ad appeared in Life magazine
on October 1, 1908. Excerpt:
"FORD HIGH PRICED QUALITY IN A LOW PRICED
CAR"
"The Ford Four Cylinder, Twenty Horse Power,
Five Passenger Touring Car $850.00 Fob. Detroit"
"We defy anyone to break a Ford Vanadium steel
part with any test or strain less than 50%
greater than is required to put any other special
automobile steel entirely out of business.
http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/showroom/1908/
ads.html

1901 Pan-American
Exposition Stamp
The four cent Automobile stamp (Scott # 296) portrays an electric automobile with the US Capitol
Dome in the background. The automobile was referred to as an Electric Service Vehicle or what we now
call a taxi. The image was based on a turn of the century Baltimore and Ohio Railroad flyer. This stamp
has also generated some discussion as to whether it portrays the first living person to be depicted on a
stamp. The two men on the front seat are the chauffeurs while the person inside the electric automobile
is Mr. Samuel P. Hege who was the B & Os Passenger Representative in Washington. At the time, there
were more electric automobiles than those powered by gasoline.. []
http://philatelicplayground.jimdo.com/articles-1/

http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/i
d,187560857,var,USA-1901-Mint-PostStamps-MNH-%E2%80%93Exposition-of-Buffalo-%E2%80%93Pan-American--Ship-TrainAutos,language,E.html

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

The road depicted on the note next to the train appears to be much better than the average road in those days, which were
often in deplorable condition: muddy, rutty, bumpy, not paved, un-level, etc., etc.
http://www.banknoteden.com/USA.html

$20
STEAM TRAIN

For many 19th-century Americans, the railway train was progress promised and
personified. It spanned rivers and burrowed through mountains, carried products to
market and people to new lives, and knit a disintegrating republic back together.
Trains fascinated Americans from the beginning (Doty 2008: 102).

MODERNITY

http://banknoteworld.com/mexico?start=225#banknotes

MEXICO, 1913

MEXICAN MODERNITY

1901 Pan-American
Exposition Stamp
The two cent Fast Express stamp (Scott # 295) portrays the Empire State
Express of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. It was the worlds
first high speed passenger train when on September 14, 1891 it travelled 436
miles (New York City to Buffalo) in 7 hours and 6 minutes including scheduled
stops; an average of 61.4 miles/hour. G. H. Daniels, the General Passenger
Agent for the New York Central lobbied hard for the Empire State Express to be
portrayed on a stamp as the railway was an important New York State
institution. [] http://philatelicplayground.jimdo.com/articles-1/

http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/i
d,187560857,var,USA-1901-Mint-PostStamps-MNH-%E2%80%93Exposition-of-Buffalo-%E2%80%93Pan-American--Ship-TrainAutos,language,E.html

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Engravers
Vignette: 1 - G.F.C. Smillie 2-10 Marcus Baldwin and Lyman F. Ellis
Frame: 1 - Robert Ponickau 2-10 Marcus Baldwin and Lyman F. Ellis
Lettering and Numerals: Lyman F. Ellis
http://1847usa.com/ByYear/1901.htm

(Stalhberg & Bruce 2002: 94a)

http://www.ebay.com/itm/USA-CLEVELAND-SHORT-LINE-RAILWAY-COMPANY-BOND-stock-certificate-1911/330784778607?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item4d044f296f

1911

$20
SEA

SCENE 6

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

SEA (tug & ocean liner)

$20

OCEAN LINER
AND TUGBOAT

THE STATUE OF LIBERTY NEW YORK CITYS SKYLINE

Four funnel liner;


the funnels
are grouped
The third mast
into two
separated pairs

OCEAN LINER AND TUGBOAT

A characteristic of the German ships was that they had their funnels arranged in two separated pairs, so that
the spacing was greater between stacks two and three than between one and two or three and four.
[] only the two German sister ships, the Kaiser Wilhelm II and theKronprinzessin Cecilie had three masts.
Greene, Ronald (2014): Two Banknotes Featuring Ship Engravings.Nauticapedia.ca 2014.
http://nauticapedia.ca/Articles/Banknotes_Ships.php
SEE TOO: http://www.coincommunity.com/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=174212

THE STATUE OF LIBERTY NEW YORK CITYS SKYLINE

Four funnel liner;


the funnels
are grouped
The third mast
into two
separated pairs

GERMAN OCEAN LINER AND TUGBOAT

http://jewishwebindex.com/Ships%20-%20Coming%20to%20the%20USA.gif

Four funnel liner, but the funnels not are grouped into two separated pairs. And only two masts

http://www.maritimequest.com/liners/lusitania_page_3.htm

September 13, 1907: Lusitania arriving in New York on her maiden voyage.
Four funnel liner, but the funnels not are grouped into two separated pairs.
And only two masts

http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/id,141246281,var,SH582-NDL-SS-Kaiser-Wilhelm-II-at-New-York-1913,language,E.html

SS Kaiser Wilhelm II: four funnel liner;


the funnels are grouped into two separated pairs. And three masts

http://www.coincommunity.com/forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=174212
SS Kaiser Wilhelm II: four funnel liner;
the funnels are grouped into two separated pairs. And three masts

SS Kronprinzessin Cecilie : four funnel liner;


the funnels are grouped into two separated pairs. And three masts

http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/id,181799101,var,Twin-Screw-SS-Kronprinzessin-Cecilie-Passing-Statue-of-Li,language,E.html

SS Kronprinzessin Cecilie: four funnel liner;


the funnels are grouped into two separated pairs. And three masts

GERMAN MODERNITY

GERMAN IMITATION

http://notaphilie.info/shop/regensburg-ranawerke-100-milliarden-mark-15111923-p-1558.html?osCsid=a96778b970cf2ebfc93c15271a1b98b3

Notgeld der Rana-Werke Regensburg, 100


Milliarden Mark vom 15.11.1923

Notgeld der Rana-Werke Regensburg, 100 Milliarden Mark (November 15, 1923)

http://banknoteworld.com/china

CHINA, 1914

CHINESE MODERNITY

1901 Pan-American
Exposition Stamp
The ten cent Fast Ocean Navigation stamp (Scott # 298) portrays the
American Liner steamship, St. Paul which was built in 1895. The St. Paul's
claim to fame was that it was the first commercial ship to be commissioned
as a warship during the Spanish-American War. In total, 5,043,700 stamps
were issued. This rate paid both the letter and registration fees.
http://philatelicplayground.jimdo.com/articles-1/

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Buffalo-Stamps-ScottUSA-299-Used-xlite-1901-cancel-lite-crease-CV-3250/261479661353?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=i
tem3ce166ff29

Image from the National Numismatic Collection at


the Smithsonian Institution

$20
TWO YEARS AFTER

1914: TWO YEARS AFETR 1912

APRIL 14-15, 1912 (TWO YEARS BEFORE THE 1914 US 20$ BANKNOTE)

THE SINKING OF THE RMS TITANIC

APRIL 14-15, 1912 (TWO YEARS BEFORE THE 1914 US 20$ NOTE)

In 1902 J. P. Morgan formed the International Mercantile Marine Company with an investment
of $120 million. An American financier with a gift for creating fortunes, Morgan was involved
in railroads and steel empires. He purchased Red Star Lines, the Mississippi, and the entire
capital stock of the White Star Line; a British company, thereby giving him more than half of
the total British Atlantic tonnage. This transaction created the first international corporation
of its kind. Although the White Star Fleet continued to be British registered, have British
crews, and to fly the Red Ensign, it was really an American liner company. From 1902 until
1927, the White Star Line was a wholly owned subsidiary of IMMC. From its inception thirty
years earlier until the turn of the century, it was probably the most successful of the British
transatlantic carriers.
The most famous member of the International Mercantile Marine fleet was the White Star
Liner, Titanic. This unsinkable 45,328 ton, 882 1/2 foot ship was the largest liner the world
had known. On her maiden voyage to New York April 14, 1912, the liner hit an iceberg shortly
after Sunday dinner. Of the 2,340 crew and passengers aboard, only 705 were saved. This
greatest of all liners became the greatest disaster in maritime history with the deaths of
1,635 people. The story of the Titanic is the best documented of all stories of ocean liner
tragedies.
http://www.titanicuniverse.com/international-mercantile-marine-stock-certificates
THE SINKING OF THE RMS TITANIC

http://www.ebay.com/it
m/4-DIFF-RARE-ORIGTITANIC-STOCKS-w-SHIPVIGNETTE-in-4-COLORSUNBEATABLE-DEAL/350988094965?pt=LH_
DefaultDomain_0&hash
=item51b8854df5

(Stalhberg & Bruce


2002: 176a-176b)

The Titanic which sank on it's maiden voyage in 1912 was built by White Star Lines, a
subsidiary company of International Mercantile Marine which was owned by J.P.Morgan. The
loss of the Titanic partly caused the Company into bankruptcy in 1914. IMM emerged from
receivership in 1916 and with the needs of World War I, and the issuance of stock (certificate
as example), prospered for a while.
http://www.ebay.com/itm/International-Mercantile-Marine-Co-5-Preferred-Share-Certif-TitanicOwners-/171304504833?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item27e28b4e01

$20
SKYLINE

MODERNITY
On the center we can see the Woolworth
Building, the tallest in the world at that
time (finished 1913); on the left, the
Municipal Building, with its cute little
round temple at the top (finished 1914).
http://all-thats-interesting.tumblr.com/post/28207939044/the-evolution-of-new-york-city

http://wirednewyork.com/forum/showthread.php?t=19855&page=31

View from Manhattan Bdge Monroe and Market Streets


New York circa 1915. "New York skyline from Manhattan Bridge." Another entry from Detroit Publishing's series of sooty
cityscapes.
Make that New York c. 1915
Submitted by Michael R on Fri, 10/15/2010 - 3:23pm.
This magnificent view contains several skyscrapers completed after 1910. On the left we see the Bankers Trust Building, with
the pyramid on top (finished 1912) and immediately to its right, the wide bulk of the new Equitable Building (finished 1915); on
the right we see the Woolworth Building, the tallest in the world at that time (finished 1913) and the Municipal Building, with its
cute little round temple at the top (finished 1914).

http://wirednewyork.com/forum/showthread.php?t=19855&page=31

syscosteve

http://theesotericcuriosa.blogspot.com.es/2010/12/ship-beautiful-cunards-last-four.html

$20
STATUE

http://www.rms-republic.com/details_expnimp3.html

MODE

LIBERTY
http://historiasdenuevayork.wordpress.com/2013/08/02/estatua-de-la-libertad-statue-of-liberty-1905/

FIFTY-DOLLAR
BILL

ULYSSES S.
GRANT

http://thepresidentsa
tbigmo.blogspot.com.
es/2007/10/number18-ulysses-sgrant.html

(1822-1885)
18th President of the
United States
(1869-1877)

http://cbsnews1.cbsistatic.com/hub/i/r/2011/08/03/5aeea33d-a64311e2-a3f0029118418759/resize/620x465/185006421151d762c9d0e566a7953bc4/
ulysses_grant.jpg
http://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/presidents-turning-50/5/

ULYSSES S.
GRANT
(1822-1885)18th President
of the United States (1869-1877)
Silver Certificate, Series of 1886

1ST U.S. STAMP WITH ULYSSES S. GRANT:


1890-93 ISSUES

http://www.theswedishtiger.com/223-scotts.html

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver_certificate_(United_States)

S. 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTE

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE


S. 1914 S. 1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

1914
SERIES OF
1914

SERIES
1914
OF
1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
BANK NOTE
SERIES
OF
1918
1918

REVERSE D

MERCHANT SHIPS PANAMA CANAL


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

1914

BATTLESHIP

1914

1918
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

REVERSE D

MERCHANT SHIPS PANAMA CANAL


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

1918

BATTLESHIP

U.S. Coast Guard Certificate of Completion


http://s741.photobucket.com/user/connor1_photos/media
/vignettes/Coast-Guard-CertificateEng.jpg.html?sort=3&o=32

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929

http://www.monety.banknoty.pl/
banknotes/glen_johnson/0708e.
jpg

FIGURE STANDING
AT CENTER,
BETWEEN THE TWO SHIPS

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929

The back of the note, Liberty and


Progress, depicts a standing goddess
between two bodies of water, a
motif popular in other forms at the
recent 1901 [Pan-American]
Exposition (Bowers 2009: 354a).

This design [created by the exceptionally talented Walter Shirlaw]


was blatantly copied later for use on the back of the $50 [...], with
some details altered and now called Panama (Bowers & Sundman
2006: 122).

$50
MERCHANT
SHIPS

SCENE 7, A

MERCHANT SHIPS
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929

http://www.monety.banknoty.
pl/banknotes/glen_johnson/
0708e.jpg

A MERCHANT
SHIP

Sailing ship

http://www.ebay.com/itm/US-403-PANAMA-PACIFIC-ISSUE-OF-1915-MOGNH-VF-390-00-ESP-4895/281066005681?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item4170d6e4b1

Steamship (ocean liner: two funnels, two masts)

Sailing ship

http://cruiselinehistory.com/the-rotterdam-iv-holland-america-line-history/

AS DUTCH MODERNITY

http://banknoteworld.com/mozambique

MOZAMBIQUE (PORTUGAL), 1914

PORTUGUESE MODERNITY

Image from the National Numismatic Collection at


the Smithsonian Institution

1901 Pan-American
Exposition Stamp
The ten cent Fast Ocean Navigation stamp (Scott # 298) portrays the
American Liner steamship, St. Paul which was built in 1895. The St. Paul's
claim to fame was that it was the first commercial ship to be commissioned
as a warship during the Spanish-American War. In total, 5,043,700 stamps
were issued. This rate paid both the letter and registration fees.
http://philatelicplayground.jimdo.com/articles-1/

http://www.ebay.com/it
m/Buffalo-Stamps-ScottUSA-299-Used-xlite1901-cancel-lite-creaseCV-32-50/261479661353?pt=LH
_DefaultDomain_0&has
h=item3ce166ff29

$50
BATTLESHIP

SCENE 7, C

BATTLESHIP
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929

http://www.monety.banknoty.pl/
banknotes/glen_johnson/
0708e.jpg

A BATTLESHIP

Battleship

MILITARISM

USS Texas (BB-35) in 1914 http://www.operatorchan.org/w/res/9059+50.html

http://www.ma-shops.com/mueller/item.php5?id=9323&lang=en
Friedrich Wanderer (1840-1910)

GERMAN EMPIRE, 1908

GERMAN MILITARISM

GERMAN MILITARISM
http://www.ma-shops.com/mueller/item.php5?id=9323&lang=en

GERMAN EMPIRE, 1908

Le regard est attir par


limposante flottille de
croiseurs qui dfilent
lhorizon: ceux dont
lammiral [Alfred]von
Tirpitz [(1849-1930)] avait
dot le Reich allemand, et
qui faisaient de
lAllemagne la deuxime
puissance maritime du
globe (Brion & Moreau
2001: 40).
http://www.ma-shops.com/mueller/item.php5?id=9323&lang=en

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

1898, revenue stamp.


U.S. RB 21 **
BATTLESHIP
http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/id,137860834,var,
US-RB-21--BATTLESHIP,language,E.html#description

$50
PANAMA

SCENE 7, B

PANAMA CANAL
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

An allegorical
female figure
stands atop a
pedestal inscribed
Panama,
representing the
achievement of
bridging the
Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans. The
Panama Canal was
finished and
officially opened in
1914.
http://www.vintageamerica.com/federal
-reserve-notes1914/

http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/id,149913486,var,PANAMA-MEETINGATLANTIC-PACIFIC-STATISTICS-CARTE-GEOGRAPHIQUE-CARACTERISTIQUESTECHNIQUES,language,E.html#toBid

The caduceus is a
short staff entwined
by two serpents, often
(as here) surmounted
by two wings. It
represents the Greek
god Hermes (or the
Roman Mercury), and
by extension trades,
occupations or
undertakings
associated with the
deity.

The national flag of the United States of America

IMPERIALISM

http://bigblue1840-1940.blogspot.com.es/2011/10/ecuador.html

The obvious answer to


Americas defensive
needs was an
interoceanic canal cut
through Central
America, either on or
near the Isthmus of
Panama
(Doty 2008: 168).

IMPERIALISM

The acquisition of an empire [Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the


Philippine Islands and Cuba] naturally carried with it the
necessity of defending it. Under ideal conditions such a defense
would be both speedy and economical. The travails of the
battleship Oregon (which almost didnt reach Cuba from the
American West Coast before the Spanish-American War ended)
showed the virtue of celerity in movements of the U.S. Navy,
while practical considerations suggested that a single fleet
rather than two (one each to patrol the Atlantic and Pacific)
would be both politically and economically preferable.

IMPERIALISM

http://www.zonu.com/fullsize2-en/2011-10-19-14660/Map-of-Panama-1904.html

If Colombia would not sell Americans the right to build


a canal across its territory, perhaps an independent
Panama would do so.
[Theodore] Roosevelt did not foment the rebellion that
broke out at the end of 1903. Those responsible were
members of the (French) Interoceanic Canal Company and
their local political allies, who viewed Colombian
intransigence as exceedingly bad for local business. But if
not behind the revolt, Roosevelt certainly helped it along:
he sent the U.S. Navy to the area, directing it to prevent
Colombian troops from landing and putting down the
revolution. And he quickly recognized the new country
and concluded a canal treaty with it (Doty 2008: 169).

http://banknoteworld.com/french-indochina

FRENCH INDOCHINA, 1903

FRENCH IMPERIALISM

http://www.zonu.com/fullsize2-en/2011-10-19-14660/Map-of-Panama-1904.html

THE AMERICAN EMPIRE IN 1903

Cuba
Panama

http://www.cityofart.net/bship/
spanamwar.html

U.S. IMPERIALISM

January 1903: Panama, Colombian land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
November 1903: The HayBunau-Varilla Treaty (by Washington and independent Panama)
granted rights to United States "as if it were sovereign"
in a zone roughly 10 miles (16 km) wide and 50 miles (80 km) long.
January 1914: Panama Canal (build by the United Sates) becomes
a key conduit for international maritime trade and the U.S. imperial needs.

$50
SAN FRANCISCO

The back shows a goddess, Panama, personifying the narrow strip of land separating
the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at that point, further illustrated by expanses of sea
and a ship to each side. The engraving was done by Marcus W. Baldwin. When this
design was pilfered (for essentially the same motif it seen on the back of the Series of
1902 National Bank Notes, there as Liberty and Progress; [...] the Panama Canal was
prominent in the news and in the minds of America. Completed in 1914, the waterway
had been featured as one of the reasons for staging the 1915 Panama-Pacific
Exposition in San Francisco [...] (Bowers & Sundman 2006: 125).

The event [the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition] was to celebrate the new canal and also the
revuilding of San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake and fire (Bowers 2009: 584a).

http://siarchives.si.edu/
blog/exhibitions-andweather-conditionsexposition
Looking Down Sacramento St., 1906. [verso:] "San
Francisco: April 18, 1906." From As I Remember by local
photographer Arnold Genthe: This photograph shows
"the results of the earth quake, the beginning of the
fire and the attitude of the people." It was taken the
morning of the first day of the fire. Shows Sacramento
St. at Miles Place (now Miller Place) near Powell St.

The card that opens this post was published by Edward Mitchell
http://postcardiva.blogspot.com.es/2011/04/san-francisco-panama-pacific.html

http://tellersofweirdtales.blogspot.com.es/2011/06/stella-gs-perry-1877-1956.html

http://www.postcard.org/panamapie12.htm ://tellersofweirdtales.blogspot.com.es/2011/06/stellags-perry-1877-1956.html

http://www.delcampe.net/page/item/id,244387252,var,1-cpa-richard-behrendt-ground-broken-oct14-1911-panama-pacific-international-exposition-san-francisco-1915,language,E.html

1915. Postcard from the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, California. The postcard shows a night view of the Palace of Horticulture.
The exposition was intended to illustrate the function and administrative faculty of the Government of the United States and to demonstrate
the nature and growth of its institutions, their adaptation to the wants of the people, and the progress of the nation in the arts of peace and
war. The Smithsonian Institution contributed an exhibit at the exposition.
http://siarchives.si.edu/collections/siris_sic_13371

Here is another example of a poster related to the Exposition it is advertising a


flying-around-the-world competition under the auspices of the Exposition.
http://geographer-at-large.blogspot.com.es/2013/02/the-kiss-of-oceans-meeting-of-atlantic.html

One of the more beautiful, unusual and useful map projections ever devised was created by cartographer Bernard Cahill. The butterfly
projection was first published in the Scottish Geographical Magazine in 1909. Cahill (1866-1944) later applied for a US patent to protect his
creation.
[] Soon after its creation, Cahills butterfly map was used to illustrate a flying trip around the world, or circumaviation, proposed for the
Panama Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco in 1915. The map was exhibited at this exposition and won a gold medal for
cartography. Some time later, the map was used by both the State of California and the City of Charleston to illustrate shipping routes.

http://geo-mexico.com/?p=6236 //// http://www.genekeyes.com/Cahill-desk-maps/Cahill-S-F-40.jpg

Years Minted: 1915


Mints: San Francisco
Composition: 0.90 gold,
0.10 copper

Diameter: 50.8 mm
Weight: 83.55 grams
Total Mintage: 483
The Panama Pacific Exposition Commemorative $50 piece was one of a group of 5 coins minted to mark the celebration of the opening of the Panama Canal in 1915. In
addition to the massive $50 gold pieces there was a silver half dollar and Gold $1 and $2 1/2 pieces of standard size for the denomination. / The set of
commemoratives was authorized by Congress through Public Law No. 63-233 on January 16, 1915. The $50 pieces were designed by Robert I. Aitken, a New York
artist. / The Obverse design features the head of the goddess Minerva with a Corinthian style helmet including a Horsehair comb and an engraved wreath of laurel
leaves resting back on her head. The date is found in Roman numerals (MCMXV) in an arch on the lower right. The inscription IN GOD WE TRUST is above Minervas
brow in the upper right. The entire central portrait is enclosed in a ring of beads. Outside the ring is the inscription UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and FIFTY
DOLLARS which completely encircle the coin. The words are separated by dots. / The reverse design has a similar format. The central design feature is an owl, perched
on a pine bough complete with four pinecones and multiple sprigs of pine needles. The inscription E PLURIBUS UNUM is centered to the right of the owl with dots at
the beginning and end (though none between the words). These central elements are surrounded by the same ring of beads used on the obverse. Outside this ring are
the inscriptions PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION and SAN FRANCISCO in a single line of text circling the entire rim. Again the words are separated by dots.
http://typesets.wikidot.com/1915s-50r-panama-pacific-exposition-round.
(the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 License.)

http://alphabetilately.org/US-trains-02c.html
http://www.ebay.com/itm/US-398-2-1913-Pedro-Miguel-Locks-Panama-Canal-Perf-12-VF-NH/251531725888?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item3a90758c40

Like most of the commemorative stamps that preceded them, the PanamaPacific commemoratives were issued to promote a current event, the
Panama-Pacific Exposition and Worlds Fair in San Francisco from February 20
to December 4, 1915. The Exposition commemorated both the discovery of
the Pacific Ocean by Vasco Nunez de Balboa in 1513 and the completion of
the Panama Canal in 1914. It may seem strange that stamps issued in 1913
would be inscribed San Francisco, 1915, but the stamps were issued early
to give advance notice of the event. San Francisco was not the only city
interested in hosting the Worlds Fair. New Orleans was also considered. In
the end, San Francisco benefited mightily from being the city chosen.
Construction for the Fair began in 1911, just five years after the great
earthquake of 1906, and the restoration of the city and indeed the glamour
of the city to this day may be partly attributed to this event.
http://continentalcollectibles.com/panama-pacific-exposition/

MEDAL DESIGNED BY
FAMOUS SCULPTOR
AND COMMEMORATIVE
COIN DESIGNER
ROBERT INGERSOLL
AITKEN (1878-1949).
THE OBVERSE
FEATURES A WINGED
MERCURY OPENING
THE PANAMA CANAL
LOCKS THROUGH
http://www.greatestcollectibles.com/wphttp://www.tipsicocoin.com/browse_item.htm
WHICH PASSES THE
content/uploads/2012/05/HK-400.jpg
l?category_id=3133&item_id=2176
VESSEL ARGO, THE
SYMBOL OF
NAVIGATION, SETTING
SUN REFLECTING ON
HER SAILS.
http://socalleddollar.com/DollarSite/Doll
arPhotos.aspx?category=120&t
itle=HK%20399425%20Panama%20Pacific%20
International%20Exposition%2
0-%201915

http://adski-kafeteri.livejournal.com/1079205.html

THE THIRTEENTH LABOR OF


HERCULES

HERCULES
=

Empire on Display. San Francisco's Panama-Pacific International Exposition of


1915 by Sarah J. Moore (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003)
The worlds fair of 1915 celebrated both the completion of the Panama Canal
and the rebuilding of San Francisco following the devastating 1906
earthquake and fire. The exposition spotlighted the canal and the city as
gateways to the Pacific, where the American empire could now expand after
its victory in the Spanish-American War. Empire on Display is the first book to
examine the Panama-Pacific International Exposition through the lenses of
art history and cultural studies, focusing on the events expansionist and
masculinist symbolism.
The exposition displayed evidencevisual, spatial, geographic, cartographic,
and ideologicalof Americas imperial ambitions and accomplishments.
Representations of the Panama Canal play a central role in Moores argument,
much as they did at the fair itself. Embodying a manly empire of global
dimensions, the canal was depicted in statues and a gigantic working replica,
as well as on commemorative stamps, maps, murals, postcards, medals, and
advertisements. Just as San Franciscos rebuilding symbolized Americas will
to overcome the forces of nature, the Panama Canal represented the triumph
of U.S. technology and sheer determination to realize the centuries-old dream
of opening a passage between the seas.
Extensively illustrated, Moores book vividly recalls many other features of
the fair, including a seventy-five-foot-tall Uncle Sam. American railroads, in
their heyday in 1915, contributed a five-acre scale model of Yellowstone,
complete with miniature geysers that erupted at regular intervals. A mini
Grand Canyon featured a village where some twenty Pueblo Indians lived
throughout the fair.
Moore interprets these visual and cultural artifacts as layered narratives of
progress, civilization, social Darwinism, and manliness. Much as the globe had
ostensibly shrunk with the completion of the Panama Canal, the PanamaPacific International Exposition compressed the world and represented it in
miniature to celebrate a reinvigorated, imperial, masculine, and
technologically advanced nation. As San Francisco bids to host another worlds
fair, in 2020, Moores rich analytic approach gives readers much to ponder
about symbolism, American identity, and contemporary parallels to the past.
http://www.amazon.com/Empire-Display-Franciscos-Panama-Pacific-International/dp/0806143487
http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/empire-on-display-sarah-j-moore/1113609748?ean=9780806143484

The Senate Chamber (Wisconsin State Capitol Building: Madison, Wisconsin).


The mural at the front of the room was painted by Kenyon Cox and is called "The Marriage of the Atlantic and the Pacific" and it commemorates the opening of the Panama
Canal. The groom represents the Atlantic Ocean and the bride represents the Pacific Ocean. The figure in the center presiding over the wedding is America. On the right side
of the painting the goddess of peace welcomes to the wedding the Atlantic nations of Germany, France and Great Britain, while on the left the god of commerce welcomes the
Pacific nations of China, Japan, Polynesia and the Semitic nations.

http://nomadicnewfies.blogspot.com.es/2014/01/the-senate-chamber.html

1915

[...] Madison, Wisconsin, was far from either ocean, not to mention Panama, but it was a momentous event for the
whole country. Cox painted it as a male Atlantic putting a ring on a finger of a female Pacific; he also included symbolic
personifications of Japan and Polynesia. Located in Madison, in the hearth of the country, the mural carried the
implication that the United States, not Panama, was at the center, the product of that marriage (Van Hook 2003: 182).

ONE
HUNDRED-DOLLAR

BILL

BENJAMIN
FRANKLIN
6th President of
Pennsylvania
(1785-1788)
1ST U.S.
STAMP
WITH
BENJAMIN
FRANKLIN:
1851

U. S. Post Office, 1908

BENJAMIN
FRANKLIN

Gwillhickers

(1706-1709)
6th President of
Pennsylvania
(1785-1788)

U. S. Post Office, 1914

SPECIMEN 1915

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTE

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE


S. 1914 S. 1914

SPECIMEN 1915

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTE

[] a profile portrait of Benjamin Franklin, engraved in 1909 from a retouched photograph of a sculpture.
http://www.moneyfactory.gov/wcfcurrentexhibitcase3.html

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE


S. 1914 S. 1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

SERIES
1914
OF
1914

PROOF

SERIES
1914
OF
1914

FEDERAL
RESERVE
BANK NOTE
1915

PROOF

SCENE 8 (A, B & C)

REVERSE E

1914

FIVE ALLEGORICAL FIGURES (KENYON COX)

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

SCENE 8 (A, B & C)

REVERSE E
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

1914

PROOF 1915?

SCENE 8 (A, B & C)

REVERSE E

PROOF 1915?

FIVE ALLEGORICAL FIGURES (KENYON COX)

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

The artist played a leading role. He could provide a setting of leisured elegance bearing the patina of class
and taste for people who were frequently one generation removed from overalls and shovel. Fittingly, the artist
designed the currency of capitalism -Augustus Saint-Gaudens did the ten and twenty-dollar gold pieces [],
James E. Fraser did the Buffalo nickel, Victor D. Brenner did the Lincoln penny, Adolph Weinman did the Liberty
dime, and Kenyon Cox did one-hundred-dollar bills []:
THE AMERICAN RENAISSANCE 1876-1917
The Brooklyn Museum * Distributed by Pantheon Books, New York 1979 * Part I by Richard Guy Wilson
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR2/amren/amren.html

$20
GOLD COIN

SAINT-GAUDENS

FITTINGLY, THE ARTIST DESIGNED THE CURRENCY OF CAPITALISM


President Theodore Roosevelt was a great
admirer of the famous sculptor Augustus
Saint-Gaudens. The two corresponded
occasionally after meeting in 1901 at the
Pan-American Exposition. First stating his
views in 1904, Roosevelt believed that the
coinage in circulation at the time was very
unattractive and without artistic merit. He
wanted coins created that would reflect his
affection for the beauty and relief of
ancient Greek coinage. He became excited
about the possibility of changing the
designs on all U.S. coins. Naturally, he
turned to Augustus Saint-Gaudens, who
was commissioned [in 1905] to redesign all
denominations from the cent to the double
eagle [or gold $20] (Garrett & Guth 2005:
16).

Augustus Saint-Gaudens:
Victory, 1892-1903.
Carnegie Museum of Art,
Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania

FITTINGLY, THE ARTIST DESIGNED THE CURRENCY OF CAPITALISM

Augustus Saint-Gaudens:
Victory, 1892-1903.
Carnegie Museum of Art,
Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania

Roosevelt strongly wanted Saint-Gaudenss


commitment. He was master of the great
presidential gesture. His actions, while
provocative within the context of their
time, were carefully calculated. They would
establish the power of the presidency and
become standards for future American
presidents. He was intent upon advancing
the United States to a position of greatness
on the worlds stage. He was interested in
more than just achieving military or
diplomatic preeminence in this effort; he
wanted the world to know that this country
had arrived culturally. All too often during
the second half of the 19th century,
European critics dismissed the United States
as a backwater of commercialism. [...]
(Moran 2008: 219).

In place of the
traditional bust of
Liberty, the SaintGaudens design
features a facing figure
of the goddess striding
toward the viewer,
bearing a torch in her
right hand and holding
aloft the olive branch
of peace in her left. She
stands on a rocky
precipice with a
sunburst behind her. To
the left is a small
representation of the
U.S. Capitol, while an
oak branch is seen at
the right, beneath the
date and the artists
monogram (Lange
2005: 137).

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

Above Liberty
is her name,
serving as the
nations motto,
and nearly the
entire observe is
framed by 46
stars
representing the
number of
states in the
Union (two more
were added in
1912) (Lange
2005: 137).

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/
3615/3544776572_02d2c02b
8f.jpg

To her
right is the
U. S. Capitol,
and behind
her rays of
sun,
symbolizing
enlightenment, burst
upward
(Tolles
2009: 75).

The Liberty
striding
forward is a
grand
miniature as
the Hellenistic
Victory of
Samothrace
on a heroic
scale
(Vermeule
2007: 109).

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

[] with a
frontal view
of Liberty
(adapted from
the striding
Victory of the
Sherman
Monument)
on the
observe
(Tolles 2009:
48).

Gran Army Plaza,


New York
http://galleryhip.com/johnsherman-1890.html

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

Saint-Gaudens had
followed all of his
basic rules for a
successful
composition. He used
the simple verticals
formed by the folds in
Libertys skirt to
impart a sense of
tallness and beauty to
the figure. The acute
angles of the folds at
the base of the skirt
as well as Libertys
hair blowing in the
wind gave an overall
feeling of motion.
[] (Moran 2008:
280).

The reverse is
quite simple
and elegant. A
soaring eagle
flies left over
the rising sun,
with the legend
UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA
and the value
TWENTY
DOLLARS above
(Lange 2005:
137).

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

The Latin legend


E PLURIBUS UNUM
appears on the
edge in raised
letters (a technique
rarely used with
United States
coinage), flanked
by 13 raised stars.
On some of the
1908 double eagles
and on all those
that followed, the
motto IN GOD WE
TRUST appears just
above the suns
sphere (Lange
2005: 137).

The eagle in
flight against
the sun on the
reverse
achieves
complete
domination of
motion and
expanding
vista over the
confines of a
tiny tondo
(Vermeule
2007: 109).

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

http://www.ebay.com/itm/185
7-Flying-Eagle-Cent-ChoiceBU-So-FLASHY-and-NICE/390343490404

On the
reverse is a
soaring
eagle
inspired by
the eagle on
the 1857
and 1858
U.S.
pennies
(Tolles 2009:
75).

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

On the
reverse, the
flying eagle
was adorned
with a style
of feathers
that was
unique to
SaintGaudens
(Moran
2008: 280).

Augustus
Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

FITTINGLY, THE ARTIST DESIGNED THE CURRENCY OF CAPITALISM

Saint-Gaudens double eagle [] is his best-know creation and


arguably the most beautiful American coin []. Saint-Gaudens
designs inspired jealousy on the part of Mint Engraver Charles
E. Barber, whose own designs for the double eagle, while an
improvement of the past, were demonstrably not in the same
league whit that Roosevelts outsider friend (Doty 2008: 172).

Saint-Gaudens died in the summer of 1907, and he newer saw the completion of his
project, never knew that the envious Barber would succeed in reducing the high relief of
his prototypes, making them more practical for coinage but robbing them of a portion of
their artistry. But even amended for the worse, they were splendid coins, heralding a sea
change in the direction of American numismatic art (Doty 2008: 172).

Kenyon Cox: Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Metropolitan Museum, New York

Augustus
Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

FITTINGLY, THE ARTIST DESIGNED THE CURRENCY OF CAPITALISM

Kenyon Cox
(1856-1919):
Federal Reserve Note
$100 (rev.)
(Series of 1914)

$100
EXPECTATIONS

Augustus
Saint-Gaudens
(1848-1907):
Double Eagle or
gold $20
(19071933)

The fall of 1912 brought Cox


most unusual commission, in yet
another unexpected medium. The
U.S. Treasury Department had
hoped for some time to reorder
its chaotic currency. Saint
Gaudens had helped produce an
impressive new gold coinage, and
the currency deserved equal
treatment (Morgan 1994: 198199).

Kenyon Cox
(1856-1919):
Federal Reserve
Note $100 (rev.)
(Series of 1914)

[...] Early in October 1912, Cox contracted to


present the necessary design by January 15,
1913, if possible, and no later than February
1, for a fee of three thousand dollars.
The law required a good deal of information
on the face of bills, and Coxs design was only
for the back. It was to be simple, of high
artistic quality, and suitable for a new,
reduced size of bills 6-by-2 inches. [...]
(Morgan 1994: 199).

KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION: [...] a balanced, pyramidal composition

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION: [...] a balanced, pyramidal composition

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

[...] but [the muralist Kenyon] Cox also managed to


do some smaller and often unusual work. In 1912 he
designed the back of proposed new currency for the
Treasury Department. He created a small mural that
symbolized the nations wealth and energy, and
which was [only] issued on a new one-hundred dollar
bill in 1914 (Morgan 1995: 123).

Image from the National Numismatic


Collection at the Smithsonian Institution

To William Cochran [...] New York, Feb. 2nd, 1913


Dear Will:
[...]
The design I have just completed for the Treasury Department is for the back of the
new currency and is intended, at least for the present, to serve for all
denominations [...] (Kenyon Cox, in Morgan 1995: 167-168).

By adopting only one design for the back of the notes, Mr. MacVeag
believes that feature of the currency can be given over to art.
The New York Times, New York City,
5 December 1912, page 1:
http://www.newspapers.com/newspage/20374600/

KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

To William Cochran [...] New York, Feb. 2nd, 1913


Dear Will:
[...]
The Treasury Department had commissioned Cox to do a new design for
the backs of a proposed new currency. His final work, which resembled a
small mural and used allegorical figures to symbolize the nations wealth
and progress, appeared only on the back of the new Federal Reserve
one-hundred-dollar note in 1914
(Morgan 1995: 169n5).

KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

To William Cochran [...] New York, Feb. 2nd, 1913


Dear Will:
[...]
I have nothing to do with the fronts of these bills, which are
so tied up with obligatory features, under the law, that there
is little room for original work. Everything of the kind was
cleared off the back and the space given me to do what I
thought best wish [...] (Kenyon Cox,
in Morgan 1995: 167-168).
KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

To William Cochran [...] New York, Feb. 2nd, 1913


Dear Will:
[...]
I have just got back from Washington,
where I presented my completed design
to Secretary [Franklin] MacVeagh
[(1837-1934)] [...] (Kenyon Cox,
in Morgan 1995: 167-168).
MacVeagh, 45th Secretary of the Treasury
of the United States (for President
William Howard Taft from 1909 to 1913)

KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

To William Cochran [...] New York, Feb. 2nd, 1913


Dear Will:
[...]
Everybody in the Treasury Department and the Bureau of
printing and Engraving is delighted with my design, and shows
the heartiest desire to help attain the result I want. My
friends here who have seen it (I had little time to show it)
consider it perhaps the best thing
I have done [...]
(Kenyon
Cox, FIRST
in Morgan
167-168).
KENYON COX:
SKETCH1995:
OF COMPOSITION
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

To William Cochran [...] New York, Feb. 2nd, 1913


Dear Will:
[...]
If the new administration doesnt upset things I think we
shall have, at least, a paper currency of artistic merit worthy
to compare with the French. [...]
(Kenyon Cox, in Morgan 1995: 167-168).

KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

100 Francs Luc Olivier Merson Type 1906 avec Lom , face (July 7, 1908)

http://titanic.superforum.fr/t3811-billets-et-pieces-de-monnaie-les-francs-a-bord-du-titanic

100 Francs Luc Olivier Merson Type 1906 sans Lom , back (June 20, 1914)

http://www.numismondo.net/pm/fra/FRAP71a100Frs2061914DCr.jpg

To William Cochran [...] New York, Feb. 2nd, 1913


Dear Will:
[...]
It is understood that, if other designs are to be done later for
the back of different denominations, mine will remain that of
the one dollar billthe commonest [...]
(Kenyon Cox, in Morgan 1995: 167-168).

KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0B17FD385F13738DDDA00894DA405B838DF1D3

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=FB0B17FD385F13738DDDA00894DA405B838DF1D3

KENYON COX: FIRST SKETCH OF COMPOSITION

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

UNCLE SAM WILL PRINT SMALLER BANK NOTES


New Currency Soon To Be Issued To Be Six By Two and One-Half Inches.
Washington, Feb. 13[, 1913].Sec. MacVeagh, of the Treasury Department, has completed
preparations for revolutionary changes in the design and size of American currency. He expects to
give the order for printing the new notes to Director Ralph, of the Bureau of Engraving and
Printing, next Saturday[, Feb. 15, 1913].
It will require eighteen months to accomplish the change.
Secretary MacVeagh engaged Kenyon Cox, an artist of New York to design the back of the notes,
which will be the same for all denominations of all classes of notesUnited States notes, coin
certificates and national banknotes.
This design is symbolic of progress and peace, showing the development of the nation in the lines of
labor and commerce.
The new currency will be two-thirds the size of that now in circulation, its dimensions being six by
two and one-half inches.

(The Evening Independent, St. Petersburg, Pinellas County, Florida, p. 1, column 1):
http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=950&dat=19130213&id=f6ALAAAAIBAJ&sjid=SFQDAAA
AIBAJ&pg=1600,589647

[...] These great expectations were only


partially fulfilled. The incoming Wilson
administration did not adopt either the new
design or the reduced-sized currency. Cox
had hoped that a new dollar bill would take
the designs intellectual message to the
masses, but instead it went on a 1914 issue
of the new Federal Reserve hundred dollar
bill, with modest circulation. [...] (Morgan
1994: 200).

THE ONE HUNDRED-DOLLAR BILL:


WITH MODEST CIRCULATION
Image from the National Numismatic Collection at
the Smithsonian Institution

Cox produced for it one of the most elegant designs in the history
of American currency, [...] They were done with simplicity and a
strong presence, in a kind of small mural. Coxs illustrational work
retained a high quality; and he believed that each such effort,
however small, could remind viewers of traditional ideals and the
importance of careful artwork (Morgan 1989: 24).

$100
KENYON COX

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

People admired him and feared him;


in his regard, no one thought of being lukewarm (Mather 1919: 765).

http://www.clevelandart.org
/art/collection/search?collect
ion_search_query=KENYON
+COX&op=search&form_bui
ld_id=form4UyijaV992e_Kq8yD7q7d_O
kypatyJE_Uc6y_xQ1Ggo&for
m_id=clevelandart_collectio
n_search_form

The painter and muralist Kenyon Cox viewed


himself as the heir to the great traditions of the
Italian Renaissance and vigorously led the
resistance to all forms of modern painting. This
design for U. S. currency, which was rejected by
the government, shows the care with which he
planned his compositions.

1856-1919

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

http://americanart.si.edu/col Born in Ohio, studied in Paris, lived mostly in New York


lections/search/artist/?id=1 City. Painter who wrote extensively about art. His
026
sensuous female nudes were beautifully rendered but

were somewhat shocking to the public of his day; later


he found wider acceptance as a creator of allegorical
murals.
Charles Sullivan, ed. American Beauties: Women in Art and Literature (New York:
Henry N. Abrams, Inc., in association with National Museum of American Art,
1993)

1856-1919

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

American Renaissance
Kenyon Cox was born into a prominent midwestern family of theologians, lawyers, and
politicians. Despite poor health and his mothers concerns for his welfare, Cox took art
courses, hoping one day to combine his artistic talent with his familys commitment to
social service. He studied in Paris from 1877 until 1882, when he moved to New York to
work as an illustrator and art critic. Within ten years Cox was accepting mural commissions
for such prestigious institutions as the Library of Congress and the Brooklyn Institute of
Arts and Sciences. These projects helped realize his hopes that art could serve an
educational purpose. (Morgan, Kenyon Cox, 1856-1919: A Life in American Art, 1994)

Smithsonian American Art Museum Gift of Allyn Cox 1959.10.1 Not currently on view

Kenyon Cox: An Eclogue (1890)

oil on canvas 48 1/4 x 60 1/2 in. (122.5 x 153.6 cm)

Louise Howland King Cox,


(Mrs. Kenyon Cox)
by Kenyon Cox, 1892

oil on canvas 38 3/4 x 18 in.


(98.3 x 45.6 cm)
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Bequest of Allyn Cox
1983.31.2
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Luce Foundation Center,
3rd Floor, 8A

The Silver Hand Glass


1907
Kenyon Cox

oil on canvas
24 1/8 x 20 in. (61.2 x 50.8 cm.)
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Gift of Joan Armstrong Schmidt
1992.4
Luce Foundation Center, 3rd Floor, 8A

Book of
Pictures
1910-1917
Kenyon Cox
oil on canvas
29 7/8 x 36
in. (76.0 x
91.5 cm)
Smithsonian
American Art
Museum
Gift of Allyn
Cox
1959.10.2
Not currently
on view

Tradition by Kenyon Cox, 1916 (The Cleveland Museum of Art):


https://americangallery.wordpress.com/category/cox-kenyon/

$100

KENYON COX
& PUVIS
DE CABANNES

American Renaissance
Cox believed that works of art should speak a universal language
based on Classical and Renaissance precedents and promote in the
viewer a unified experience of expanded imagination and
attachment to tradition. He ardently believed that art is a unifying
force in society. Thus in his murals he used idealized, usually
female, figures to symbolize abstract ideas such as Truth or
Beauty. He was a skillful academic draftsman and a strong colorist,
and he adopted elements of the simplified, decorative style of
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-98) and of the Italian
Renaissance masters. However formal, at their best Cox's works
are beautifully crafted and impressive. [...] (Marter 2011: 562b).

American Renaissance
Although Puvis [de Chavannes] has since been closely
identified with symbolism in France, in the United States it
was his technique, more that his content, that was followed. It
was enough that Puviss subjects appeared to embrace
profound ideas, universalizing and arcadizing such notions as
work and leisure, the arts and culture. Frank Fowler later
spoke of a cult of Puvis, and during the early years of the
movement in the United States this description was very apt.
Even the supreme classicist Cox painted his The Arts and The
Sciences in the Library of Congress in the pale tones of Puvis.
[] (Van Hook 2003: 78).

Pierre Puvis de
Chavannes
(1824-1898).
Study for
Le travail.

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes


(1824-1898).
Le travail (1863), Muse de Picardie

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes


(1824-1898).
La fantaisie (1866), Ohara Museum of Art, Kurashiki (Japan)

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes


(1824-1898).
Jeunes filles au bord de la mer (1879),
Muse dOrsay, Paris (France)

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes


(1824-1898).
Les arts et les muses (1884-1889)

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes


(1824-1898).
Lt (1891), Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio)

American Renaissance
[]. Even the supreme classicist Cox painted his The Arts and The Sciences in the Library of Congress in the pale tones of
Puvis. [] (Van Hook 2003: 78).

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007684538/

Second Floor, Southwest Gallery. Panel of The Arts


by Kenyon Cox. Library of Congress Thomas
Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.

American Renaissance
[]. Even the supreme classicist Cox painted his The Arts and The Sciences in the Library of Congress in the pale tones of
Puvis. [] (Van Hook 2003: 78).

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007684539/

Second Floor, Southwest Gallery. Panel of The


Sciences by Kenyon Cox. Library of Congress
Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.

FOR AT LEAST FOURTEEN THOUSAND YEARS, THEN, FROM THE TIME OF THE
CAVEMEN TO OUR OWN DAY, PAINTING HAS BEEN AN IMITATIVE ART, AND IT SEEMS
LIKELY THAT IT WILL CONTINUE TO BE SO. THAT IS SHOULD, WITHIN A FEW YEARS,
ENTIRELY REVERSE ITS CURRENT, AND SHOULD FLOW IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION
FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS TO COME SEEMS HIGHLY IMPROBABLE, NOT TO SAY
INCREDIBLE. YET WE ARE GRAVELY TOLD THAT IT IS ABOUT TO DO THIS; THAT, AT
THE HANDS OF ITS REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENT, REACHED ITS FINAL AND DEFINITE
FORM, AND THAT NO FURTHER CHANGES ARE POSSIBLE. HENCEFORTH, AS LONG AS
MEN LIVE IN THE WORLD THEY ARE TO BE SATISFIED WITH A NON-REPRESENTATIVE
ART AN ART FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT FROM THAT WHICH THEY HAVE KNOWN
AND PRACTICED AND ENJOYED (KENYON COX: CONCERNING PAINTING:
CONSIDERATIONS THEORETICAL AND HISTORICAL, 1917).

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

$100
CLASSICAL
STABILITY

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html


http://inspirationalartworks.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Cox%20Kenyon

Venice

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html


http://inspirationalartworks.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Cox%20Kenyon

Venice

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

The original mural scheme called for each artist to paint an allegorical representation of one of the four
cities perceived at the time as most central to the development of western art. Kenyon Cox portrays the seated female figure of
Venice flanked on one side by a nude woman with palette and brushes representing Painting, and on the other by Mercury, the god of
Commerce. The winged lion of St. Marks, a merchant ship with characteristically decorated sails and snippets of the citys
architecture, round out the tableau.

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html


http://inspirationalartworks.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Cox%20Kenyon

Venice

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html

Venice

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html

Venice

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html

Venice

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html

Venice

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html

Venice

In the western world, from the late


eighteenth to at least the mid-nineteenth
century [and far beyond, as here],
allegorical figures emerged from a
harmonious union of artistic, commercial
and philosophical endeavour, in which
society strove for moral worth by looking
back to the perceived nobility and grace of
the classical world (Hewitt 1994: 12).

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/LX/ElginMarbles.html

Both political and industrial revolutions, though paid for by exploited labour, and
fostering opportunism and greed, were still fired by high ideals for the common good, and
it is desired end, not the painful means, which is represented in the contemporary
banknotes: thriumphant Liberty, fair-minded Justice, and generous Plenty with fruits of
the earth for all to share (Hewitt 1994: 12).

The issue and circulation of paper money


became widespread under just such turbulent
circumstances, but in order to be trusted, the
money itself had to suggest not struggle, but
stability (Hewitt 1994: 12). Unlike gold or
silver, paper has no intrinsic value, so its use as
money requires faith (Hewitt 1994: 7).

$100
AN HYPOTHESIS
ABOUT ALLEGORIES
AND DEEP CONCEPTS

LABOR

PLENTY AMERICA PEACE

ALLEGORIES

COMMERCE

LABOR

PLENTY AMERICA PEACE

COMMERCE

EFFORT W FATHERLAND
FATHERLAND
AGREEMENT

BUSINESS
WEALTH
AGREEMENT
AN HYPOTHESIS

ALLEGORIES

&

MORE DEEP CONCEPTS

LABOR

PLENTY AMERICA
PEACE
WITH LIBERTY CAP

COMMERCE

EFFORT W FATHERLAND
FATHERLAND
AGREEMENT

BUSINESS
WEALTH
AGREEMENT
AN HYPOTHESIS

ALLEGORIES

&

MORE DEEP CONCEPTS

$100
LABOR

SCENE 8, A

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

The first on the left shows


a Romanesque [?] man
holding a large sheaf of
wheat, [...] (Bowers 2009:
666a).

a farmer with wheat

LABOR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheaf_
(agriculture)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sickle

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

As specialization,
mechanization and
scientific management
transformed the nature
of labor in the United
States from craft to
operative work, the
muralists represented a
romanticized, preindustrial ideal of the
work ethic. They
envisioned an abstract
notion of craftsmanship
that was aesthetically,
morally and spiritually
uplifting.
http://phdtree.org/pdf/24875319working-history-images-of-labor-andindustry-in-american-mural-painting1893-1903-volumes-i-and-ii/

http://www.museosdeandalucia.es/culturaydeporte/museos/MAECO/index.jsp?redi
rect=S2_3_1_1.jsp&idpieza=310&pagina=1

Roman mosaic of the four seasons


depicting a farmer gathering wheat.
Museo Arqueolgico de Crdoba
(Andalusia, Spain).

$100
PYRAMID

SCENE 8, B

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

SCENE 8, B

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

PLENTY AMERICA PEACE

$100
WOMEN ON
PAPER MONEY

With the exception of female portraits, which are relatively


rare [...], almost all women on notes are personifications or
idealisations, even when they appear in a realistic form. In
many societies idealised female images have been summoned
to act as metaphors, in myth and dream, floklore and fine
art. Such creatures have their origins in the conception that
an elusive, mutable feminine principle governs emotion and
intuition, creation through change, and personal relations,
while a masculine principle rules reason, intellect and
initiative. This assumption tends to result in individual
named male heroes, and the use of female figures to
personify abstract and universal concepts, such as justice,
plenty or commerce [...] (Hewitt 1994: 8).

PLENTY AMERICA PEACE

LABOR

&

PLENTY

MASCULINE vs. FEMININE

PATRONISING

http://banknoteworld.com/germany?start=50#banknotes

Figures on a German 20 Mark note of 1915 [of Arthur Kampf (1864-1950)] reflect the
symbolic association of woman with the moon and intuition, man with dailylight and
reason (Hewitt 1994: 8).

GERMAN PATRONISING

http://banknoteworld.com/germany?start=50#banknotes
Thus a German note of 1915 balances the alert figure of a male labourer, sleeve rolled up ready for work, with
the serene image of a sleeping woman, her head bowed against the night sky a contrast which reflects the
symbolic association of man with daylight and reason, woman with the moon and mistery (Hewitt 1995: 157).

GERMAN PATRIARCHALISM

It is at this conjunction of conscious choice and unconscious


response that female images on notes exercise their hidden
power, reflecting and reinforcing our conflicting perceptions
of women and their
place in society
(Hewitt 1994: 11).

Margaret Vale Howe, Madeleine Powell Balck, Eve Rovert Ingersoll


Brown and Miss Marion T. Burritt, participants in a women's peace
parade down Fifth Avenue in New York City on August 29, 1914
http://historyinphotos.blogspot.com.es/2012/09/gg-bain.html

Psychological theory has not yed played much, if any, part


Plenty
1910
in
numismatics, but it is clearly relevant to observe here
Kenyon
that
because
Cox of womans biological role in child-bearing,
oil on canvas
female
images28are
5/8universal
x 35 3/8symbols
in. (72.6ofx 89.8
creation,
cm) an idea
Smithsonian
which
may readly
American
be ascribed
Art Museum
to the creation of wealth. On
Gift ofmoney
paper
Williamthis
T. Evans
is probably most often illustrated by
1910.9.6linked with symbols of agricultural fertility, [...]
women
Not currently
(Hewitt
1995: on
156-157).
view

Plenty, 1910
Kenyon Cox
oil on canvas 28 5/8 x 35 3/8 in. (72.6 x 89.8 cm)
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Gift of William T. Evans
1910.9.6. Not currently on view.
Same composition, as Prosperity, in The Beneficence of the Law (1906):
Essex County Court House (Newark, New Jersey)

Source: Essex County Historic Courthouse

Plenty, 1910

Prosperity,
in The Beneficence
of the Law (1906):
Courtroom 401,
Essex County Court House
(Newark, New Jersey)

http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/essex/hchpresentationpromo.pdf

Kenyon Cox
oil on canvas 28 5/8 x 35 3/8 in. (72.6 x 89.8 cm)
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Gift of William T. Evans
1910.9.6. Not currently on view.
Same composition in The Beneficence of the Law (1906):
Essex County Court House (Newark, New Jersey)

Patricia K. Costello,
Assignment Judge

Amy K. DePaul,
Trial Court Administrator

All photos of the Historic Courthouse in this presentation


were taken by Gerald Edwards and Robert Zemser, employees
of the Superior Court of New Jersey Essex Vicinage

Plenty
[...] This is especially true of agriculture, for increase in
1910
wealth is equated with the nurture and harvesting of crops,
KenyoninCox
which
turn parallels the womans reproductive role. In this
oil on female
canvas allegories
28 5/8 x 35
in.are
(72.6
x 89.8
cm) with
guise,
on3/8
notes
often
endowed
baskets
of fresh
produce,Art
or Museum
a cornucopia (horn of plenty)
Smithsonian
American
overflowing
withT.ripe
fruit and vegetables. [...] so the wealthGift of William
Evans
giving
power of these imaginary beings may only serve to
1910.9.6
point
up the muted
status of real women (Hewitt 1994: 14 & 27).
Not currently
on view

$100
PLENTY

a woman
with a
cornucopia

PLENTY

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art

Aphrodite, from Parthenon east pediment,


between circa 447 and circa 433 BC.
British Museum (Former Elgin collection),
London
Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikipedia Commons / CC-BY 2.5

HORN OF PLENTY

The cornucopia
(from Latin cornu
copiae) is a curved
goat's horn
overflowing with
fruit and ears of
grain that is used
as a decorative
motif emblematic
of abundance.
http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/cornucopia

HORN OF PLENTY
On the antoninianus of
Philip I [], Annona
represents the arrival of
the annual corn supply to
Rome. She stands with a
cornucopia in one arm,
and with the other she
holds ears of corn over
the prow of a galley,
which would have brought
Egypt's corn harvest to
Rome.
http://www.forumancientcoins.co
m/moonmoth/reverse_abundantia
.html://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/cornucopia

Plenty
1910
Kenyon Cox
oil on canvas 28 5/8 x 35 3/8 in. (72.6 x 89.8 cm)
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Gift of William T. Evans
1910.9.6
Not easy
currently
on view
[...]
association
between feminity and fertility (Hewitt 1995: 156-157).

http://www.gsa.gov/graphics/pbs/metz.pdf

1910

1914

He adopted a 7-by-4 foot oval design, titled


Passing Commerce Pays Tribute to Cleveland. In its
upper part a flying Mercury, god of commerce, nude
except for flowing maroon drapery, dropped golden
coins into the lap of a reclining female Cleveland.
She wore a white dress and caught the coins in her
lap with a rich red cloak. Both figures carried golden
scepters, and Cleveland wore a gold crown. [...]
(Morgan 1994: 163).

$100
AMERICA

AME

RICA

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Michelangelos Piet
in St. Peters Basilica,
1497-1499.
Vatican City (Rome).
Photo: Stanislav Traykov, Niabot (cut out)

Michelangelos Piet
in St. Peters Basilica,
1497-1499.
Vatican City (Rome).
Photo: Stanislav Traykov, Niabot (cut out)

At his art lectures


[of Kenyon Cox]
I remember his eulogies
of Michelangelo:
Jerome Myers,
Artist In Manhattan (1940)

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929

LIBERTY

http://www.monety.banknoty.
pl/banknotes/glen_johnson/
0708e.jpg

http://www.monety.banknoty.
pl/banknotes/glen_johnson/
0728.jpg

COLUMBIA

FIGURES WITH
LIBERTY CAP

LIBERTY CAP
1782 Libertas
Americana Medal
(Augustin Dupr),
Betts-615, Silver in PCGS
MS-65, Diameter: 47.8 mm.
Weight: 783.7 grains.
Thickness at edge: 3.6 mm.
From the Cardinal
Collection sold by ANR for
$115,000 on 06/30/05.
This example, once the property of famed
numismatist Harry Bass, was prominently
featured in both Part I of the presentation of the
Bass collection and Dave Bowers' book More
Adventures with Rare Coins. From New
Netherlands Coin Company's 63rd sale, April
1972, Lot 615; Bowers and Merena's sale of the
Harry W. Bass, Jr. Collection, Part I, May 1999,
Lot 2084.

http://forums.collectors.com/messageview.cfm?catid=
26&threadid=684019

Calendrier rpublicain... :
an III : [estampe] / P.L.
Debucourt del. et sculp.
[1794]

LIBERTY CAP

France. Universal International


Exposition of Paris 1900, AR Medal by
J. C. Chaplain. Silver. 107 grams. 63.50
mm. Obv: Head of Marianne right, view
of Paris behind.
http://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=162376
8&AucID=1515&Lot=238&Val=ee01ce3abbad4a7754efda7b3
600017c

Apotheosis of George
Washington, Constantino
Brumidi (1865).
Rotunda, U.S. Capitol

LIBERTY CAP

1824 Half dollar (50 cents)

Capped Bust
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1824_half_dollar_obv.jpg

LAUREATE LIBERTY CAP

VICTORY

(1892) 1914 / Barber dime (10 cents)

Photo: Brandon Grossardt


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1914_Barber_Dime_NGC_MS
64plus_Obverse.png://www.thecoinspot.com/5_cent_shield.php

ca. 1912

1914

Study for mosaic in the Wisconsin State


Capitol "Government and Liberty"
ca. 1912
Kenyon Cox
Born: Warren, Ohio 1856
Died: New York, New York 1919
oil on canvas14 1/8 x 27 1/8 in.
(35.9 x 68.9 cm.)

Smithsonian American Art Museum


Gift of Mrs. Ambrose Lansing1983.114.11
Not currently on view
http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=5874

Image from: http://elle-belle10.livejournal.com/1751764.html?thread=17034964

ca. 1912

1914

Study for mosaic in the Wisconsin State


Capitol "Government and Liberty"
ca. 1912
Kenyon Cox
Born: Warren, Ohio 1856
Died: New York, New York 1919
oil on canvas14 1/8 x 27 1/8 in.
(35.9 x 68.9 cm.)

Smithsonian American Art Museum


Gift of Mrs. Ambrose Lansing1983.114.11
Not currently on view
http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=5874

Image from: http://elle-belle10.livejournal.com/1751764.html?thread=17034964

http://kids.stradun.net/node/93

Rotunda (under the dome): Wisconsin State Capitol, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

http://sawyertravel.blogspot.com.es/2012/03/wisconsin-state-capitol-madison.html

Rotunda: Wisconsin State Capitol, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Daderot

Liberty: Mosaic in the Wisconsin State Capitol, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Designed by Kenyon Cox (1856 - 1919)

To William Cochran [...] New York, Feb. 2nd, 1913


Dear Will:
[...]

The other thing I have been working at is the designing


of our great pendentives in glass mosaic for the dome of
the Wisconsin state capitol. The designs were completed before
I took up the currency, and I must go at the execution in glass
as soon as possible, now. The contrast in scale of these two jobs is amusing.
The figures on the currency are two inches high. The figures in the mosaics,
if they stood up, would be 13 or 14 feet high!
They will be 10 feet high as they sit. ...
Your affectionate brother,
Kenyon Cox (Kenyon Cox, in Morgan 1995: 167-168).

Kenyon Cox: Design for United States Currency, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

LAUREATE
LIBERTY
CAP

KENYON
COX

U.S. SHIELD
1866 / Shield five cent coin

http://www.thecoinspot.com/5_cent_shield.php

U.S. SHIELD
When Charles Thomson came up with the final design
of the Great Seal, he first suggested a shield with
13 chevrons [], introducing the theme of mutual
support that led William Barton to suggest the
13 vertical stripes (states) supporting a chief (federal
government) we see today. The shape of the shield is
not specified.
http://greatseal.com/symbols/shield.html

Lady Liberty holds the liberty cap on a pole in one hand,


while holding an American shield in the other. She is
communicating with an American bald eagle.
http://bjws.blogspot.com.es/2013_07_16_archive.html

U.S. SHIELD
Charles Thomson
(Remarks and Explanation,
1782):
The Escutcheon is composed of the chief [upper part of shield]
& pale [perpendicular band], the two most honorable ordinaries
[figures of heraldry]. The Pieces, paly [alternating pales],
represent the several states all joined in one solid compact
entire, supporting a Chief, which unites the whole & represents
Congress. The Motto alludes to this union. The pales in the arms
are kept closely united by the Chief and the Chief depends on
that union & the strength resulting from it for its support, to
denote the Confederacy of the United States of America & the
preservation of their union through Congress.
The colours of the pales are those used in the flag of the
United States of America; White signifies purity and innocence,
Red, hardiness & valour, and Blue, the colour of the Chief
signifies vigilance, perseverance & justice (in Patterson &
Dougall 1976: 84-85).
Too in: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/27807.pdf

THE SWORD IS DRAWN,


THE NAVY UPHOLDS IT!
By Kenyon Cox
Dimensions: 51-1/2 x 37 inches (130.8 x 94.0 cm)
Medium: Color lithograph
Creation Date: 1917

Image from: https://wwihomefront.pbworks.com/f/012.JPG

1914

1917

THE SWORD IS DRAWN,


THE NAVY UPHOLDS IT!
By Kenyon Cox
Dimensions: 51-1/2 x 37 inches (130.8 x 94.0 cm)
Medium: Color lithograph
Creation Date: 1917

Image from: https://wwihomefront.pbworks.com/f/012.JPG

1914

1917

$100
PEACE

a woman
extending an
olive branch

PEACE

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Prophet Isaiah, from Sistine Chapel ceiling,


1508-1512.
Vatican City, Rome

Prophet Isaiah, from Sistine Chapel ceiling,


1508-1512.
Vatican City, Rome

At his art lectures


[of Kenyon Cox]
I remember his eulogies
of Michelangelo:
Jerome Myers,
Artist In Manhattan (1940)

Study for mosaic in the Wisconsin State


Capitol "Government and Liberty"
ca. 1912
Kenyon Cox
Born: Warren, Ohio 1856
Died: New York, New York 1919
oil on canvas14 1/8 x 27 1/8 in.
(35.9 x 68.9 cm.)

Smithsonian American Art Museum


Gift of Mrs. Ambrose Lansing1983.114.11
Not currently on view
http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=5874

Image from: http://elle-belle10.livejournal.com/1751764.html?thread=17034964

Study for mosaic in the Wisconsin State


Capitol "Government and Liberty"
ca. 1912
Kenyon Cox
Born: Warren, Ohio 1856
Died: New York, New York 1919
oil on canvas14 1/8 x 27 1/8 in.
(35.9 x 68.9 cm.)

Smithsonian American Art Museum


Gift of Mrs. Ambrose Lansing1983.114.11
Not currently on view
http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=5874

Image from: http://elle-belle10.livejournal.com/1751764.html?thread=17034964

Daderot

Liberty: Mosaic in the Wisconsin State Capitol, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Designed by Kenyon Cox (1856 - 1919)

http://academic.sun.ac.za/antieke/
coins/muntwerf/perspax.html

Roman imperial coinage frequently features the


personified [goddess] Pax [Eirene in Greek] as a
reverse type. She is usually depicted either seated
or standing, holding out an olive branch as a peace
offering.

http://butnowyouknow.net/those-who-fail-to-learn-from-history/history-of-economicdownturns-in-the-us/

U.S. silver TRADE DOLLAR, observe: Left-facing seated


Liberty, who extends her right hand, bearing an olive branch
(as symbol of peace), over the Pacific Ocean: to the Far East.

$100
MERCURY

SCENE 8, C

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

the Roman god Mercury


[Greek Hermes]
with a package

COMMERCE

Kenyon Cox: Sketch, 1912, graphite, . Gift of J. D. Cox (Cleveland Museum of Art)

PETASOS (OR PETASUS: WINGED ROUND HAT) AND CADUCEUS

1913: Grand Central Station in Manhattan is rebuilt


by Cornelius Vanderbilt and becomes Grand Central
Terminal.
http://www.amongmen.com/entertainment/world-politics/1913-2013-thenand-now

Description The terminal facade. Mercury (god of commerce) is the central figure. This s a statue of
Mineva, Mercury and Hercules.
Date 13 August 2007 (original upload date)
Source Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons
by User:Oxyman using CommonsHelper.
Author Original uploader was Purple74 at en.wikipedia

1913: Grand Central Station in Manhattan is rebuilt


by Cornelius Vanderbilt and becomes Grand Central
Terminal.
http://www.amongmen.com/entertainment/world-politics/1913-2013-thenand-now

Description The terminal facade. Mercury (god of commerce) is the central figure. This s a statue of
The
sculptures
were designed by French sculptor Jules-Flix Coutan [(1848Mineva, Mercury and Hercules.
1929)]and
carved
Johnupload
Donnelly
Date 13
August by
2007the
(original
date) Company. At its unveiling in 1914,
Source Transferred
en.wikipedia;
to Commons
the 48-foot
(14.6 m)-from
high
trio was transferred
considered
the largest sculptural group in
by User:Oxyman using CommonsHelper.
the Author
world.Original uploader was Purple74 at en.wikipedia

Giambologna:

1580. Museo del


Bargello, Florence

PETASOS

https://d1l3luowul8a0f.cloudfront.net/slir/w800-h600/sitipiu/ft/6/5/651376929004.jpg
Mercurio volante,

https://d1l3luowul8a0f.cloudfront.net/slir/w800-h600/sitipiu/ft/6/5/651376929004.jpg

[...] Cox thought


that Allyn [Cox,
the son] might as
well pose as draw
and pressed him
into service for
Mercury. The
result was an
idealized view of
my face as a very
young man on the
figure of
Commerce in
this design.
(Morgan 1994:
199).

Trsor de Berthouville,
Cabinet des Mdailles, Bibliothque
nationale Paris.
2nd century A.D. From Berthouville,
Normandy, France

Photo: Clio20

CADUCEUS

PACKAGE

AUGUSTIN PAJOU: MERCURE, 1780.


MUSE DU LOUVRE, PARIS

CORD-TIED PACKAGE

http://expo-escultura.blogspot.com.es/2010/05/mercurio-1780.html

CORD-TIED PACKAGE

http://marinni.livejournal.com/372837.html?thread=2601573

Art Nouveau lithograph print


entitled Merkur in verschiedenen
darstellungen made in 1897.
Designed by G. Sturm, edited by:
Julius Hoffmann, Stuttgart.

WINGED SANDALS

Rafael dP. Iberia-Hispania

www.flickr.com/photos/rafael_dp/5091959107

WINGED SANDALS

Museo Arqueolgico de Sevilla, Andaluca, Espaa. Dios Mercurio (detalle). S. II d.C. Procede de Itlica (Santiponce), Sevilla.
God Mercury (detail). 2nd century A.D. From Italica (Santiponce), Seville, Andalusia, Spain

Rafael dP. Iberia-Hispania

WINGED SANDALS

www.flickr.com/photos/rafael_dp/5091959107

Museo Arqueolgico de Sevilla, Andaluca, Espaa. Dios


Mercurio (detalle). S. II d.C. Procede de Itlica (Santiponce),
Sevilla.
God Mercury (detail). 2nd century A.D. From Italica
(Santiponce), Seville, Andalusia, Spain

http://culturadesevilla.blogspot.com.es/20
12/12/decalogo-del-arte-hispalense-quedebes.html

Joseph Christian
Leyendecker (1874-1951),
1907

http://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/theperfect-american-male/

http://www.pinterest.com/
pin/258816309808119237/

Fritz Klimsch
(1870-1960):
Merkur, 1912.
http://www.ebay.de/itm/Fritz-Klimsch-Merkur-1922/380598278931?nma=true&si=J3F1H7fqZ%252BHP8vsR3ToF9pAKcug%253D&orig_cvip=true&rt=
nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557

Kenyon Cox: Fall and expulsion , 1892, oil on canvas, 18.78 x 37.99 cm. (7.4 x 15 in.)
http://denudees.wordpress.com/category/c/cox-kenyon/

http://artmuseum.bowdoin.edu/CUS.18.zoomobject._330?sid=1380&x=316185&x=316186

Kenyon Cox 1894; late 19th century;


144 in. x 288 in. (365.76 cm x 731.5 cm); oil on canvas; 1893.38

Bowdoin College Museum of Art

/ 9400 College Station, Brunswick ME 04011

[...] At the left


the god Mercury,
patron of
commerce, sat in a
relaxed and
confident pose
[...] (Morgan
1994: 137).

Image from: http://www.cas-utah.com/1/post/2012/08/kenyon-cox.html

Venice (1894)

http://www.gsa.gov/graphics/pbs/metz.pdf

1910

1914

[...] The subject was familiar, if


not clichd, but was understandable
at a glance and made its point
about commerce and custom duties
without an elaborate scheme. The
figures, especially Mercury, were
well drawn, fully modelled, and
richly painted. The composition was
a logical, harmonious whole
(Morgan 1994: 163).

Study for Mural at U.S. Custom House,


Cleveland, OH, "Passing Commerce Pays
Tribute to the Port of Cleveland"
1909
Kenyon Cox
Born: Warren, Ohio 1856
Died: New York, New York 1919
oil and pencil on canvas21 1/4 x 15 1/4 in.
(54.0 x 38.8 cm)
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Gift of Mrs. Ambrose Lansing1983.114.5
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Luce Foundation Center, 4th Floor, 35B

http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=5874

This study shows Kenyon Coxs plan for a mural


above the fireplace in the office of Clevelands
Collector of Customs. Cox chose an allegorical
scene to represent the citys booming economy.
Mercury, god of commerce, drops golden coins
into the lap of an allegorical figure of
Cleveland, shown as an idealized woman. Cox
used a grid system to translate the image onto
a much larger canvas, which would be installed
in an elaborately carved frame on the wall. He
decided on a color scheme to match the dark
brown wood of the walnut walls and the
purple marble of the chimney mantle,
explaining that It seemed best to make the
decoration a spot of brilliant color in its rich
and quiet surroundings. (Morgan, Kenyon Cox,
1856-1919: A Life in American Art, 1994)
http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=5874

Mercurio, el Hermes griego, juntamente con sus atributos,


es el recurso iconogrfico, ms representativo de los carteles
feriales, de exposiciones de productos y de congresos
vinculados a la actividad econmica. De acuerdo con el mito,
Mercurio, hijo de Jpiter Zeus y Maya, es el rpido
mensajero de los dioses, especialmente de [su] padre, y el
protector del comercio, los viajeros y los peregrinos. Los
atributos de Mercurio son las sandalias aladas y el casco
alado, que le permiten desplazarse rpidamente; y el
caduceo, una vara con dos serpientes enroscadas, que a
menudo tambin lleva dos pequeas alas en la parte
superior.
Mercurio hace cesar toda disputa con el caduceo. Segn la
tradicin, el dios mensajero intervino ante dos serpientes
que se peleaban, se enroscaron a la vara y cesaron la pelea;
por este motivo, el caduceo simboliza la paz y la sabidura.
Los romanos utilizaron la figura de Mercurio para
representar el equilibrio moral y la buena conducta: el
bastn expresaba poder; las dos serpientes, la sabidura; y
las alas, la diligencia. Desde un punto de vista alegrico,
esta divinidad tambin personificaba las cualidades del
educador: la razn y la elocuencia.

http://feriasycarteles.wordpress.com/2012/05/08/prazskevzorkove-veletrhy-pvv-feria-de-muestras-de-praga-5/

En la poca
romana,
Mercurio
llevaba en la
mano una bolsa
para guardar
las monedas,
el marsupium,
una clara
referencia a su
vinculacin con
el comercio;
como lo es
tambin su
nombre en
latn, ya
que merx
significa
mercadera.
http://feriasycarteles.word
press.com/2012/05/08/pra
zske-vzorkove-veletrhypvv-feria-de-muestras-depraga-5/

MARSUPIUM
noriko.stardust

BRITISH MUSEUM, Mercury, 2ndC, Gaule (Roman Empire).


London (England) http://www.flickriver.com/photos/25396001@N04/sets/72157607823477199/

Charles Meynier.
French.
1763-1832.
oil on canvas.

MARSUPIUM

http://monsieurlabette.tumblr.com/post/62139445828/statue-of-mercury-in-a-landscape-charles-meynier

Statue of
Mercury in a
landscape.

MARSUPIUM
Apotheosis of George
Washington, Constantino
Brumidi (1865).
Rotunda, U.S. Capitol

"Commerce": Mercury, god of commerce, with his winged cap


and sandals and caduceus, hands a bag [or marsupius] of gold
to Robert Morris, financier of the Revolutionary War. On the
left, men move a box on a dolly; on the right, the anchor and
sailors lead into the next scene, "Marine."

http://nomadicnewfies.blogspot.com.es/2014/01/the-senate-chamber.html

[...] On the left, a female Commerce, with some


resemblance to Mercury, [] (Morgan 1994: 172).
Kenyon Cox: The Marriage of the Atlantic and the Pacific
The Senate Chamber, Wisconsin State Capitol Building:
Madison, Wisconsin (1915)

http://s1340.photobucket.com/user/kodakfellow/media/progress1_zpsc46559ff.jpg.html?sort=3&o=109

http://www.stampcommunity.org/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=9106&whichpage=101

AMERICAN BANK NOTE COMPANY

ALONZO EARL FORINGER (1878-1948)

http://s1340.photobucket.com/user/kodakfellow/media/progress1_zpsc46559ff.jpg.html?sort=3&o=109

http://monsieurlabette.tumblr.com/post/7662
6168769/alonzo-earl-foringer-industry

http://monsieurlabette.tumblr.com/post/76626168769/alonzo-earl-foringer-industry

AMERICAN BANK NOTE COMPANY / ALONZO EARL FORINGER (1878-1948)

$100

SOME
WORLD BANKNOTES
WHICH SHOWED
HERMES OR
MERCURY

SPAIN, 1899
http://banknoteworld.com/spain

GERMAN EMPIRE, 1908


http://www.mashops.com/mueller/item.php5?id=9323&lang=
en

BOLIVIA, 1911
http://banknoteworld.com/bolivia

(BRITISH) DOMINION OF
CANADA, 1917
http://www.ebay.ca/itm/1917-The-Canadian-Bank-ofCommerce-5-Note-s16/331014946326?pt=Paper_Money&hash=item4d12073e
16&_uhb=1

Bank Note Iconography and the Ornaments of Commerce


Classical imagery, as seen on the Canadian
Bank of Commerce $5 and $20 notes of [1917 and] 1935
suggested education, literary culture, prestige and
tradition, but how to explain the classical, draped,
nude figure of Mercury on the $5 note with his left
foot on the globe, caduceus in one hand, and
wearing a winged hat that looks suspiciously like a
fedora? On either side two female figures appear as
allegorical representations of the arts (left) and
transportation (right). On the $20 note, Neptune,
god of the sea, trident in hand, looks toward three
chastely arranged water nymphs perched on a rock
at the other side of the note. The skill of the
engraver/artist of these and other banknotes is
clearly evident, but not so his (or her) name. While
sculptors who create coins are often recognized,
the talented hands that produced elaborate and
detailed imagery for Canadas early paper money
are, for the most part, unknown. A few names,
however, have come to light as a result of the more
thorough documentation of the physical production
of bank notes.
http://ornamentum.ca/article/bank-note-iconography-and-the-ornaments-of-commerce/

(BRITISH) DOMINION OF
CANADA, 1917
http://www.ebay.ca/itm/1917-The-Canadian-Bank-ofCommerce-5-Note-s16/331014946326?pt=Paper_Money&hash=item4d12073e
16&_uhb=1

(BRITISH) DOMINION OF
CANADA, 1917.
The Canadian Bank of
Commerce, 5 dollars
(back)
http://www.ebay.ca/itm/1917-The-Canadian-Bankof-Commerce-5-Note-s16/331014946326?pt=Paper_Money&hash=item4d
12073e16&_uhb=1

Giuliano de Medici Tomb


also known as "Night and Day"
in Sagrestia Nuova (in San Lorenzo Church,
Florence) built by Michelangelo

http://nassifblog.blogspot.com.es
/2012/08/leonardo-da-vinci-wasoriginal.html

FEW CENTURIES AGO. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

GERMAN
OCCUPATION
OF LITHUANIA,
1918
http://banknoteworld.com/germany?
start=250#banknotes

AFTER THE U. S. PARTICIPATION IN THE GREAT WAR

C. SERIES OF 1918

ONE-DOLLAR
BILL

GEORGE
WASHINGTON
(1732-1799)
1st President of the
United States
(1789-1797)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gilbert_Stuart_003.jpg

Artist
Gilbert Stuart (17551828)
Title Portrait of George Washington (The Athenaeum Portrait)
Date 1796
Medium oil on canvas
Dimensions 101 88 cm (39.8 34.6 in)
Current
location
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Notes In 1796, Gilbert Stuart painted this famous portrait of
Washington from life, and then used the unfinished painting to
create numerous others, including the image used on the U.S.
one-dollar bill.
Source/Phot http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2005/stuart/philadelphia.shtm
ographer

1st President of the


United States
(1789-1797)

GEORGE
WASHINGTON

GEORGE
WASHINGTON
1st President of the
United States
(1789-1797)

George Washington
by Gilbert Stuart (1755 - 1828)
Oil on canvas, 1796 ca. - 1798
Sight measurement
Height: 28.63 inches (72.7 cm)
Width: 23.63 inches (60 cm)
Unsigned
Cat. no. 31.00003.000

http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/artifact
/Painting_31_00003.htm

SERIES OF 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTE

UNITED STATES NOTE


S. OF 1917

UNITED STATES NOTE


S. OF
1917

FEDERAL
RESERVE
BANK NOTE
SERIES
OF
1918
1918

SCENE 9

REVERSE F
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

1918

EAGLE ON AMERICAN FLAG


This is familiarly known as the
Green Eagle Note (Bowers 2009:
135).

EAGLE & FLAG

(WITH U.S. CAPITOL)

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

$10 one-year Interest Bearing Note (1864),


5% interest, paid at maturity

EAGLE & FLAGS

(WITH U.S. SHIELD)


1869
PICTORIAL
ISSUES

EAGLE & FLAG

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

$500 GOLD CERTIFICATE


SERIES OF 1882

http://funnypicturecrazy.info/2008/02/23/vintage-dollars/

http://www.monety.banknoty.pl/banknotes/glen_johnson/0728.jpg

NATIONAL BANK NOTE: THIRD CHARTER NOTE, 1902-1929

EAGLES

Charles Thomson (Remarks and Explanation, 1782):


The Escutcheon is born on the breast of an American Eagle without any other supporters [figures
represented as holding up the shield] to denote that the United States of America ought to rely on
their own Virtue (in Patterson & Dougall 1976: 85).
Too in: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/27807.pdf

AMERICAN
BALD EAGLE
Haliaeetus
leucocephalus

The stars on the flag represent the


U.S. states; the 13 stripes
represent the thirteen British
colonies that declared
independence in 1776 and became
the first states in the Union.

June 14, 1777 (Second


Continental Congress):
Resolved, That the flag of the
thirteen United States be
thirteen stripes, alternate red
and white; that the union be
thirteen stars, white in a blue
field, representing a new
constellation.

Charles Thomson
(Remarks and Explanation,
1782):
The colours of the pales are those
used in the flag of the United States
of America; White signifies purity
and innocence, Red, hardiness &
valour, and Blue, the colour of the
Chief signifies vigilance,
perseverance & justice (in
Patterson & Dougall 1976: 85).
Too in:
http://www.state.gov/documents/or
ganization/27807.pdf

NOT CORRECT ARRANGEMENT


OF THE STARS

SINCE 1912 (BETWEEN 1912 AND 1959),


SIX HORIZONTAL ROWS OF EIGHT STARS
48 STATES
(BLUE CANTON WITH
48 FIVE-POINTED STARS)

NATIONALISM

IMPERIALISM

EMPIRE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:10kMiles.JPG

IMPERIALISM

$1
AN OLD DESIGN

UNITED STATES NOTE (NOT FED NOTE OR BANK NOTE)


http://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/1917-one-dollar-bill

S. OF
1917

1914

1918

1869-1917

UNITED STATES NOTE

1915

http://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/1917-one-dollar-bill

1914

The portrait [$1, Series of 1869] was engraved by Alfred Sealey from the famous painting by
Gilbert Stuart (the standard source for other Washington images on federal paper money,
including the portrait used on $1 notes today) (Bowers 2009: 110a).

ACT OF MARCH

RD
3

1863.

[...] these denominations [$1 and $2]


would be added by statute in mid-1864[...] (Doty 2008: 150)

UNITED STATES NOTE

1917

UNITED STATES NOTE

1ST U.S.
STAMP WITH
GEORGE
WASHINGTON:
1851

TWO-DOLLAR
BILL

THOMAS
JEFFERSON
(1743-1826)
3rd President of the
United States
(1801-1809)

Artist/Maker:Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)[1]


Created: 1805
Origin/Purchase:Washington, D.C.
Materials: oil on wood
Dimensions: 66.7 x 55.2 (26 1/4 x 21 3/4 in.)
Location: Monticello, Entrance Hall
Provenance:Thomas Jefferson; by descent toThomas Jefferson Randolph;
by purchase to Burton Harrison; by purchase to the Babcock Galleries and
John B. Winant; by purchase to Percy S. Straus; by descent to Donald B.
Straus; by purchase to the National Portrait Gallery and the Thomas
Jefferson Foundation in 1983
Accession Number: 1982-53
Historical Notes: Before his first portrait taken in Philadelphia in May 1800
by Gilbert Stuart had been delivered, Jefferson sat again for the noted
portraitist in his Washington studio shortly before June 7, 1805. Jefferson
wrote that he sat for the second likeness upon Stuart's insistence.

http://www.monticello.org/site/house-and-gardens/jefferson-portraitgilbert-stuart-painting

SERIES OF 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTE

UNITED STATES NOTE


S. OF 1917

UNITED STATES NOTE


S. OF
1917

FEDERAL
RESERVE
BANK NOTE
SERIES
OF
1918
1918

SCENE 10

REVERSE G
Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

1918

BATTLESHIP NEW YORK

On the back of the note is a dreadnought fighting


ship, intended to be representative of the class, but
drawn from the 27,000-ton USS New York (Bowers
& Sundman 2006: 51).

The battleship of the 1918 note [...] is a new symbol of power of money. More martial than
a locomotive, it was a guns-and-steel assrtion of American strenght, an emblem of the
countrys contribution to winning World War I (Standish 2000: 140-141).

USS New York, although no name is assigned to the ship in the vignette.

Photo #: 19-N-13046
USS New York (BB-34)
Underway at high speed, 29 May 1915.
Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S.
National Archives.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-n/bb34.htm

Photo #: NH 45138
USS New York (BB-34)
In Hampton Roads, Virginia, 10 December 1916.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

MILITARISM

USS New York (Battleship # 34, later BB-34), 1914-1948


USS New York, lead ship of a two-ship class of 27,000-ton battleships, was built at the New York Navy Yard.
Commissioned in April 1914, her first active service was off Vera Cruz, Mexico, during the U.S. intervention
there. After more than three years of operations off the east coast and in the Caribbean, in December
1917 New York crossed the Atlantic to join the British Grand Fleet. She was flagship of the U.S. battleships of
the Sixth Battle Squadron during the remainder of the First World War.
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-n/bb34.htm

IMPERIALISM

Description: Caption reads "Formal raising of


first flag of U.S. / Veracruz 2 P.M. April 27,
1914" Photograph by Hadsell taken during
the U. S. occupation of Veracruz.
Author: Photograph by Hadsell taken during
the U.S. occupation of Veracruz, 1914.

EMPIRE

Map showing U.S. military interventions in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean in the 19th and 20th centuries
Author Lord Mota (in Portuguese language)

USS New York (Battleship # 34, later BB-34), 1914-1948


[] In mid-1919, New York transited the Panama Canal to the Pacific, where she was based during the next decade and a
half. As a unit of the Battle Fleet, she took an active part in the exercises, drills and gunnery practices that were regularly
held in the Pacific and Caribbean. New York underwent modernization in 1925-27, receiving new oil-fired boilers, anti-torpedo
bulges on her hull sides, heavier deck armor, up-to-date gunfire control mechanisms and many other improvements that
enhanced her combat capabilities. After being transferred to the Atlantic in the mid-1930s, she visited England in 1937 as the
U.S. representative to the British Coronation naval review. Over the next three years, the battleship was actively employed as
a training ship.
With the coming of war to Europe, New York participated in Neutrality Patrol operations, and, as the U.S. drew closer to the
conflict in 1941, helped in the occupation of Iceland and in escorting convoys. Her convoy activities continued after the United
States became a combatant in December 1941. In November 1942, New York also took part the North African invasion,
providing gunfire support for landings at Safi, Morocco. She spent 1943 and most of 1944 on escort and training duties,
steaming to the Pacific war zone in early 1945. In February, New York's big guns were active bombarding Iwo Jima before
and during the Marines' assault on that island. She was similarly employed off Okinawa from late March until June, and was
lightly damaged by a suicide plane on 14 April 1945.
Following the Japanese capitulation in August 1945, New York moved back to the Atlantic and was at New York City for the
Navy Day fleet review in late October. Her last active service was as a target during the atomic bomb tests at Bikini, Marshall
Islands, in July 1946. Too off radioactive and far too old for further use, she decommissioned a month later. In July 1948,
USS New York was towed out to sea Pearl Harbor and sunk as a target for Navy aircraft and ships.
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-n/bb34.htm

$2
AN OLD DESIGN

UNITED STATES NOTE (NOT FED NOTE OR BANK NOTE)


http://www.oakauctions.com/1917-two-dollars-united-states-note-lot2173.aspx

S. OF
1917

Engraving of the Capitol scene was done by Louis Delnoce and William Chorlton (Bowers 2009: 171b).

UNITED STATES NOTE

DEMOCRACY

http://www.oakauctions.com/1917-two-dollars-united-states-note-lot2173.aspx

UNITED STATES CAPITOL

S. OF
1917

Thomas Jefferson made his debut on the $2 bill in the Series of 1869, establishing what proved to be an enduring
connection lasting to today. Later, his was the iconic portrait on small-size $2 notes. An Edinburgh Scotsman named Charles
Burt created the Jefferson portrait in his capacity as one of the chief engravers for the Treasury department (Bowers
2009: 171a-b).

ACT OF MARCH

RD
3

1863.

[...] these denominations [$1 and $2]


would be added by statute in mid-1864[...] (Doty 2008: 150)

UNITED STATES NOTE

1917

UNITED STATES NOTE

1ST U.S.
STAMP
WITH
THOMAS
JEFFERSON:
1856

$500 BILL

JOHN JAMES
MARSHALL
(1755-1835)
4th Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court
(1801-1835)
Artist
Henry Inman (18011846)
Title John Marshall.
Date 1832
Medium oil on canvas
Current Library of Virginia
location Richmond, Virginia, United States
Notes Henry Inman painted his original portrait of Chief Justice
John Marshall in September 1831, when the jurist sat for
Inman in Philadelphia. This painting is a copy of Inman's
original that he made in 1832 for an engraver. John
Marshall bought the painting for his daughter who passed
it to her daughters. Marshall's granddaughters lent the
portrait to the Virginia State Library in 1874 and the
surviving granddaughter bequeathed it to the Library in
1920.
Source/ Virginia Memory
Photogr
apher

JOHN JAMES
MARSHALL
(1755-1835) 4th Chief Justice
of the Supreme Court (1801-1835)
Treasury Note, Series of 1890

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

JOHN
JAMES
MARSHALL
(1755 1835).
4th Chief
Justice of the
Supreme Court

JOHN
JAMES
MARSHALL
(1755 1835).
4th Chief
Justice
of the
Supreme
Court

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

SERIES
1914
OF
1918

1918

HERNANDO DE SOTO DISCOVERING THE MISSISSIPPI


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE

Hernando de Soto (1500-1542)


discovering the Mississippi River
(May 8, 1541).

SERIES
OF
1918
1918

http://www.antiquebanknotes.com/rare/1864-ten-dollar-bill.aspx

Hernando de Soto (1500-1542)


discovering the Mississippi River
(May 8, 1541).

1st version:
1863
($10)

William H. Powell
Oil on canvas (12' x 18)
1853; placed 1855. Rotunda, U.S. Capitol

http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/paintings-only

DISCOVERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI BY DE SOTO

NATIONALISM

As De Soto and his troops approach, the


Native Americans watch warily but quietly
before their tepees, and a chief holds out
the pipe of peace. The central area of the
painting is filled with light and color, set
off in dramatic relief by the foreground
figures in shadow, and the dark forest at
the left contrasts strongly with the bright
sky on the right. In the foreground,
weapons, armor, artillerymen moving a
cannon, and a soldier wrapping a wounded
leg suggest the attack by Indians that
took place the day before. To the right, a
monk prays as men set a newly
constructed crucifix in the ground. Above
this group and fading to the horizon is the
Mississippi River, dotted with native
canoes, small islands, and a tree being
borne downstream; the lightly forested
opposite bank is visible along the skyline.
Powell based his scene on published
accounts and histories, including Theodore
Irvings 1835 The Conquest of Florida by
Hernando de Soto. A year later, after De
Soto died of a fever, his body was buried
http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/historic-rotundain the river, [].
paintings/discovery-mississippi-by-de-soto

$1,O00 BILL

ALEXANDER
HAMILTON

(1755 OR 1757-1804)
3rd United States
Secretary of the Treasury
(1789-1795)

Sec. Alexander Hamilton


Caroline L. Ormes Ransom
Oil on canvas
1880
72 x 52 1/2 x 3"
P.1881.5

http://www.treasury.gov/about/history/Pages/ahamilton.aspx

ALEXANDER
HAMILTON

(1755 OR 1757-1804) 3rd United States


Secretary of the Treasury (1789-1795)
Gold Certificate, Series of 1907

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Godot13/Gold_certificate_(United_States)/

ALEXANDER
HAMILTON
(1755 or 1757
1804).
1st
United States
Secretary of the
Treasury

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

SERIES
1914
OF
1918

1918

BALD EAGLE, OLIVE BRANCH, ARROWS AND AMERICAN FLAG


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

OLIVE
BRANCH
AND
ARROWS:
The United
States has
"a strong
desire for
peace,
but will
always be
ready for
war."

Bald eagle
facing left,
perched on
flag, olive
branch and
arrows.

BALD
EAGLE
Haliaeetus
leucocephalus

OLIVE
BRANCH
AND
ARROWS:
[] its head
is turned
towards the
olive branch,
indicating a
desire for
peace
(Kranister
1989: 304).

BALD
EAGLE
Haliaeetus
leucocephalus

OLIVE BRANCH & ARROWS

Charles Thomson (report recommending a


design for the Great Seal, 1782):

Charles Thomson
(Remarks and Explanation,
1782):

The Escutcheon on the breast of the American


Bald Eagle displayed, proper, holding in his
dexter talon an Olive baranch, and in his
sinister bundle of thirteen arrows, all proper,
[] (in Patterson & Dougall 1976: 84).

The Olive branch and


arrows denote the power of
peace & war which is
exclusively
vested in Congress (in
Patterson & Dougall 1976:
85).
Too in: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/27807.pdf

CORRECT ARRANGEMENT
OF THE STARS

SINCE 1912, SIX HORIZONTAL ROWS


OF EIGHT STARS

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE


http://ana-museum.org/1988_17_208.html

NATIONALISM

IMPERIALISM

$5,000 BILL

JAMES
MADISON, JR.
(1751-1836)
4th President of the
United States
(1809-1817)
Gilbert Stuart (American, 1755-1828).
James Madison, 1804. Oil on canvas.
29 1/2 x 24 9/16 in. (74.9 x 62.4 cm).
G1945-23.
The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
http://npgportraits.si.edu/emuseumnpg/code/emuseum.asp?style=text&c
urrentrecord=51&page=search&profile=CAP&searchdesc=Related%20t
o%20James%20Madison......&searchstring=constituentid/,/is/,/2424/,/fal
se/,/true&newvalues=1&newaction=newpage&newstyle=single&newcur
rentrecord=57

Image:
http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions
/ig/1812-A-Nation-Emerges/04-Gilbert-StuartJames-Madison-1804.htm

(1751-1836) 4th President of the United States (1809-1817)


Proof of the obverse of a Series of 1878 $5,000 United States Note. All notes of
this issue have been redeemed and there are none outstanding (Friedberg &
Friedberg 2013: 58).

Godot13

JAMES
MADISON, JR.

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

JAMES
MADISON,
JR.
(1751 1836).
4th President of the
United States
(1809-1817)

JAMES
MADISON,
JR.
(1751 1836).
4th President
of the
United States
(1809-1817)

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

SERIES
1914
OF
1918

1918

GEORGE WASHINGTON RESIGNING HIS COMMISSION


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE

George Washington (1732-1799)


resigning his Commission as
commander-in-chief of the Continental
Army (December 23, 1783).

SERIES
OF
1918
1918

Photo: 1876

Engraved by Louis Delnoce and Frederick Girsch

http://papermoneywanted.com/one-thousand-dollar-notes/illinois/chicago-illinoisgerman-national-bank-1734-1875-1000-dollar-national-bank-notes.php

George Washington (1732-1799)


resigning his Commission as
commander-in-chief of the Continental
Army (December 23, 1783).

1st
version:
1863
($1,000)

John Trumbull
Oil on canvas (12' x 18)
1824; placed 1826. Rotunda, U.S. Capitol

http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/paintings-only

GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON RESIGNING HIS COMMISSION

This painting depicts the scene on


December 23, 1783, in the Maryland State
House in Annapolis when George
Washington resigned his commission as
commander-in-chief of the Continental
Army. The action was significant for
establishing civilian authority over the
military, a fundamental principle of
American democracy.

DEMOCRACY

Washington, illuminated by the light


falling into the room, stands in uniform
before the president of the Continental
Congress, Thomas Mifflin, and the
delegates, among whom is Thomas
Jefferson. Behind Washington are his
aides-de-camp, Col. Benjamin Walker and
Col. David Humphreys, and spectators. The
delegates and spectators direct their
attention to Washington as he extends his
right hand to return his commission. The
empty chair draped in a cloak, suggestive
of a throne covered with a kings robe,
symbolizes Washingtons act of retiring
from his position of power.
http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/historic-rotunda-paintings/general-george-washington-resigning-his-commission

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE

[...] And why Washington resignin his commision, instead of taking the oasth of office
as the first president? This choice, too, shows a closer and wiser reading of history than
we have now. It was a precedent symbolic of democratic ideals. Great commanders of
the pastand present and futurehad, after wiping out the opposition, remained in
charge and become Great Dictators. But not Washington. He resigned instead. Right
after the war, there was a movement to have him named king; on becoming president,
he had to discourage enthusiasm to call him your Highness, insisting instead on plain
Mr President. Showning him resigning his comission encapsulated an appreciation of
his truly democratic impulses (Standish 2000: 132).

SERIES
OF
1918
1918

$10,000 BILL

SALMON
PORTLAND
CHASE
(1808-1873)
6th Chief Justice of the
United States
(1864-1873) and 25th
United States Secretary of
the Treasury (1861-1864)
Henry Ulke was a photographer and
portrait artist whose studio served
Washington patrons at a time when
photographers studios were highly
popular.

http://www.treasury.gov/connect/blog/Pag
es/Salmon-Chase-Photo.aspx

SALMON
PORTLAND
CHASE

(1808-1873) 6th Chief Justice of the


United States (1864-1873) and
25th United States Secretary of the
Treasury (1861-1864)

$10 one-year Interest Bearing Note (1864),


5% interest, paid at maturity

Image from the National Numismatic Collection


at the Smithsonian Institution

SALMON
PORTLAND
CHASE
(1808 1873).
6th Chief Justice of the
United Sates
(1864-1873) and
25th United States
Secretary of the
Treasury (1861-1864)

FEDERAL
RESERVE
NOTE

SERIES
1914
OF
1918

In a burst of postwar fiscal exhuberance, the 1918 issue also included the
highest denomination bill ever put into general circulation by the United
Statesthe $10,000 bill [...]. Whose face seemed worthy of appearing on
it? Salmon P. Chase. True, he was pretty much the father of federal paper
money [of the 19th century], but does that really make him important
enough for the honor? Its a glaring example of the institutional narcissism
evident on United States currency (Standish 2000: 141).

1918

EMBARKATION OF THE PILGRIMS


Image from the National Numismatic Collection
at the Smithsonian Institution

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE

The Pilgrims on the deck of the ship Speedwell


on July 22, 1620, before they departed from
Delfts Haven, Holland, for North America,
where they sought religious freedom.

SERIES
OF
1918
1918

Photo: 1875

http://www.antiquebanknotes.com/national-currency/series-1875.aspx

The Pilgrims on the deck of the ship Speedwell


on July 22, 1620, before they departed from
Delfts Haven, Holland, for North America,
where they sought religious freedom.

1st version:
1863
($50)

Robert W. Weir
Oil on canvas (12' x 18)
1843; placed 1843. Rotunda, U.S. Capitol

http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/paintings-only

EMBARKATION OF THE PILGRIMS

LIBERTY

They [the Pilgrims] first sailed to Southampton,


England, to join the Mayflower, which was also
making the voyage. After leaks forced the
Speedwell to make additional stops in
Dartmouth and then Plymouth, its passengers
boarded the Mayflower. Five months later the
Pilgrims settled the Plymouth Colony in presentday Massachusetts.
The group appears solemn and contemplative of
what they are about to undertake as they pray
for divine protection through their voyage; the
words God with us appear on the sail in the
upper left corner. The figures at the center of the
composition are William Brewster, holding the
Bible; Governor Carver, kneeling with head
bowed and hat in hand; and pastor John
Robinson, with extended arms, looking
Heavenward. Gathered around them are the
men, women, and children going on the voyage.
Some are dressed in traditional puritan attire
while others wear more fanciful and bright
garments. The armor, helmet, and musket in the
foreground represent the tools that the Pilgrims
will use for protection in the new and unfamiliar
land. In the background on the right are the city
and people the Pilgrims leave, and on the left a
rainbow represents the hope and promise of
what lies ahead. http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/historic-rotunda-paintings/embarkation-pilgrims

The larger-denominations notes from 500 to 10,000 dollars


were first issued as the series of 1918. All of the notes of this
first issue feature historical or allegorical scenes on their
backs, making them particularly interesing as documents
recording Americas aspirations and self-image, as expressed
by the federal government (Dudd 2006: 140).

SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

D. FINAL REMARKS

4 AUTHORIZATIONS
ON THE FED
PAPER MONEY,
1914-1918

WOODROW WILSON (1856 1924).


28th President of the United States (March 4, 1913-March 4 1921)

http://www.realclearpolitics.com/lists/top_10_state_of_the_union_addresses/wilson_1913.html?state=play

SERIES OF 1914

AUTHORIZED BY FEDERAL
RESERVE ACT OF DECEMBER 23,
1913 AS AMENDED BY ACT OF
SEPTEMBER 26, 1918
SERIES OF 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES

AUTHORIZED BY FEDERAL SERIES OF 1914


RESERVE ACT OF DECEMBER 23,
1913

SERIES OF 1915

AUTHORIZED BY THE ACTS OF


DEC. 23, 1913, AND APRIL 23,
1918
SERIES OF 1918

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK NOTES

AUTHORIZED BY FEDERAL
RESERVE ACT OF DECEMBER 23,
1913

FINAL WORDS

Banknotes are international


ambassadors, and the images they
represent not the banks, which are so
institusionalised as to be devoid of
personality, but countries and national
identities
(Hewitt 1994: 7).

[...] in the twentieth century,


banknote designs have everywhere
followed more nationalistic lines.
One can hardly now mistake a
German, French or British banknote
for each other or for an American
bill (Ball 1995: 26).

Le droit [not correct: the back] de tous les


premiers billets de la Rserve fdrale
montre un pays florissant, en paix avec son
pass et son prsent (Bourgey 2004: 250).

The images of the Fed banknotes suggest, with a more than photographic
intensity, not how Americans actually were, but how they wished to
appear, to themselves and others, both then and in times to come. If the
notes are approached with this in mind, a great deal can be learned.
Based on Richard G. Doty 1995: 118*
*The images they present [in the notes of the 1800s] suggest with a more than photographic intensity, not how
Americans actually were, but how they wished to appear, to themselves and others, both then and in times to come. If the
notes are approached with this in mind, a great deal can be learned (Doty 1995: 118).

The early 20th century Fed paper money is an easily


obtainable visual representation of Americanot in terms
of what it actually was, but in terms of what those who ruled
through it thought it was.
Based on Richard G. Doty 2008: 98*
*They [the notes of the 1800s] are our best, most easily obtainable visual representation of the American 19th
centurynot in terms of what it actually was, but in terms of what those who lived throught it thought it was (Doty
2008: 98).

FEDERAL RESERVE PAPER MONEY, 1914-1918:


POWER, IDEOLOGY AND ART
Rafael Company

IN MEMORIAM
Richard G. Doty (1942-2013)