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Law Enforcement Administration

Law Enforcement Administration - the process involved in ensuring strict


compliance, proper obedience of laws and related statutes. Focuses on the
policing process or how law enforcement agencies are organized and manage in order
to achieve the goals of law enforcement most effectively, efficiently and productively.
Law - the system of rules that a particular country or community recognizes as
regulating the actions of its members and may enforce by the imposition of penalties.
Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.
Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of
objectives and plans and internal operating efficiency. Connotes bureaucratic
structure and behavior, relative routine decision-making and maintenance of the internal
order.
Sir Robert Peel - considered a "father of law enforcement".
Sir Robert Peels Nine Principles of Policing
1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.
2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of
police actions.
3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the
law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.
4. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally
to the necessity of the use of force.
5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by
constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.
6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to
restore order only when the expertise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to
be insufficient.
7. Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to
the historic tradition; the police are the public and the public are the police. The police
being only full time individuals charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the
citizens.
8. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never
appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.
9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder not the visible
evidence of police action in dealing with it.

Administration of Police Organization


Police - one of the pillars of the criminal justice system that has the specific
responsibility of maintaining law and order and combating crime within the society.
- comes from Latin "politia"-civil administration which itself derives from
the ancient Greek police "city"
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Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of


objectives and plans and internal operating efficiency.
Organization - a group of persons working together for a common goal or objectives.
Police Organization - a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety
administration engaged in the achievement of goals and objectives that promotes the
maintenance of peace and order, protection of life and property, enforcement of the
laws and the prevention of crimes.
Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.
Law Enforcement Agency - pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing the
laws.
Objectives - refer to the purpose by which the organization was created. Refer to the
goals of the organization.
Supervision - means the act of watching over the work or tasks of the members of the
organization to ensure that desired results are achieved.
Management - the process of directing and facilitating the work of people organized in
formal groups in order to achieve objectives. Judicious or wise use of resources
(manpower, material,money,equipment,
supplies and time).
Hierarchy - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in
any given organization. Serves as the framework for the flow of authority downward
and obedience upward, through the department.
Authority - the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower
positions within an organizational hierarchy. Must be viewed in terms of prescribed roles
rather than of individuals.
A particular position within the organization. Carries the same regardless of who
occupies that position.
Management/Administrative Functions
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Directing
4. Controlling
5. staffing
6. Reporting
7. Budgeting
Principles of efficient Management
* Division of work - work specialization can increase efficiency with the same amount of
effort.
* Authority and Responsibility- authority includes the right to command and the power
to require
obedience. One can not have authority without responsibility.
* Discipline - necessary for an organization to function effectively, however, the state
of the disciplinary
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process depends upon the quality of its leaders.


* Unity of Command - subordinate should receive orders from one superior only.
* Scalar Chain - the hierarchy of authority is the order of ranks from the highest to the
lowest levels of the
organization. Shows the vertical hierarchy of the organization which defines an
unbroken chain of
units from top to bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority.
Organizational Units in the Police Organization
1. Functional Units
Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a large department; comprised of
several divisions.
Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.
Section - functional unit within a division that is necessary for specialization.
Unit - functional group within a section or the smallest functional group within an
organization.
2. Territorial Units
Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty.
Route - a length of streets designated for patrol purpose, also called line beat.
Beat - an area designed for patrol purposes whether foot or motorized.
Sector - an area containing two or more beat, route or post.
District - a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually with its
own station.
Area - a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of designated
districts.
EVOLUTION OF THE POLICING SYSTEM
ORIGIN OF THE WORD POLICE
POLITEIA Greek word which means government of the city
POLITIA Roman word which means condition of the state or government
POLICE French word which was later adopted by the English language
THEORIES OF POLICE SERVICE
1. HOME RULE THEORY
- policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely for the efficiency
of their functions upon the express needs of the people.
- policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the preservation of public peace and
security.
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2. CONTINENTAL THEORY
- policemen are regarded as state or servants of the higher authorities
- the people have no share or have little participation with the duties nor connection
with the police
organization.
CONCEPTS OF POLICE SERVICE
1. OLD CONCEPT
- police service gives the impression of being merely a suppressive machinery
- this philosophy advocates that the measurement of police competence is the
increasing number of arrests, throwing offenders in detention facilities rather than
trying to prevent them from committing crimes
2. MODERN CONCEPT
- regards police as the first line of defense of the criminal justice system, an organ of
crime prevention
- police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number of crimes
- broadens police activities to cater to social services and has for its mission the
welfare of the individual
as well as that of the community in general.
EARLY POLICING SYSTEM
1. KIN POLICING
- the family of the offended individual was expected to assume responsibility for
justice
- the family of the victim was allowed to exact vengeance
2. EGYPT
- ancient rulers had elite unit to protect them
- created the MEDJAYS, a form of police force whose duties include guarding of the
tombs and apprehending thieves
- introduced the use of dogs as guards and protectors.
3. ROME
- created the first organized police force called VIGILES OF ROME, or VIGILES
URBANI (watchmen of the
city), which had the primary task of firefighting and policing
- the Vigiles acted as night watch, apprehending thieves, keeping an eye out for
burglars and hunting
down runaway slaves, and were on occasion used to maintain order in the streets
- the Vigiles dealt primarily with petty crimes and looked for disturbances of the
peace while they
patrolled the streets
- created a special unit called PRAETORIAN GUARDS, a special force of guards used
by Roman Emperors as the Emperors' personal guards
- as personal guards of the Emperor, their primary duty was to protect the Emperor
from assassination and other forms of attack against the Emperor.
4. ENGLAND
a) FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM/MUTUAL PLEDGE SYSTEM
- required all males aged 12 and above to join a group of nine to form a TYTHING
- members of the tything are called a TYTHINGMEN
- a CONSTABLE served as a leader of ten tythings
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- the primary task of the things was to protect their village from thieves and
animals
- tythings were later organized into SHIRES
- a shire was headed by a leader called SHIRE REEVE, which is the origin of the word
sheriff
- their duty was to apprehend offenders
b) PARISH CONSTABLES
- a parish official charged with controlling crimes
- appointed to serve for one year
- duties included organizing watchmen to guard the
gates
- during trouble, the watchman would raise a HUE AND
CRY, a call to arms where the rest of the parish
would stop what they were doing and come to the aid
of the constable.
MODERN POLICING SYSTEM
1) ENGLAND
a. BOWSTREET RUNNERS - a group of men organized to arrest offenders.
- organized by Henry Fielding, a magistrate in London,in 1749 in London, England.
- the name was adopted from the name of the street where the office of Henry
Fielding was located.
- when Henry Fielding retired as magistrate, he was replaced by his blind brother,
John Fielding
b. METROPOLITAN POLICE OF ACT 1829
- the law that created the first modern police force in London England, called the
Metropolitan Police
Service.
- this law was passed through the initiative of Sir Robert Peel, a member of the
Parliament
- the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service is the Scotland Yard, now
known as the New
Scotland Yard
SIR ROBERT PEEL - recognized as the father of modern policing system.
2. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
a. NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT
- created in 1845 in New York, USA
- recognized as the first modern style police department in the US.
- the largest police force in the world
- modeled after the Metropolitan Police Service of London
b. BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT
- the oldest police department in the US
- the first night watch was established in Boston in 1631.
- formally founded in May, 1854.
AUGUST VOLLMER - recognized as the Father of Modern Law Enforcement for his
contributions in the development of the field of criminal justice in the US
- author of the book, Police Administration, which served as the basic guide in the
administration of the
police organization in the US
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- was the first police chief of Berkeley, California.


Important Personalities in the Evolution of Philippine Policing
Brig.Gen. Rafael Crame - the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1917.
Col. Antonio Torres - the first Filipino Chief of Police of the Manila Police Department in
1935.
Col. Lambert Javalera - the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department after the
Philippine Independence from the United States of America in 1946
Dir.Gen. Cesar Nazareno - the first chief of the Philippine National Police.
HIGHLIGHTS OF RA 6975 THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL
GOVERNMENT ACT OF
1990, RA 8551 THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE REFORM AND
REORGANIZATION ACT OF
1998 and RA 9708
A. THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (DILG)
- formerly Department of Local Government (DLG)
- reorganized under RA 6975
ORGANIZATION: - consist of:
a) the Department proper
b) existing bureaus and offices of the DLG
c) local government units (LGU)
1) provincial governors
2) city and municipal mayors
d) the National Police Commission
e) the Philippine Public Safety College
f) Philippine National Police
g) Bureau of Fire Protection
h) Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
- the PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA 6975
- headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the President and who shall serve at the
pleasure of the
President
- the Secretary shall be assisted by two (2) Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant
Secretaries
a) Undersecretary for Local Government
b) Undersecretary for Peace and Order
- No retired or resigned military officer or police official may be appointed as
Secretary within one
(1) year from date of retirement or resignation
- the Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the National Police Commission
POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE DILG
1. Assist the President in the exercise of general supervision over local governments;
2. Advise the President in the promulgation of policies, rules, regulations and other
issuances on the general
supervision over local governments and on public order and safety;
3. Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other issuance's implementing laws on
public order and
safety, the general supervision over local governments and the promotion of local
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autonomy
and community empowerment and monitor compliance thereof;
4. Provide assistance towards legislation regarding local governments, law enforcement
and public safety;
Establish and prescribe plans, policies, programs and projects to promote peace and
order, ensure public
safety and further strengthen the administrative, technical and fiscal capabilities
of local government
offices and personnel;
5. Formulate plans, policies and programs which will meet local emergencies arising
from natural and man-made disasters; Establish a system of coordination and
cooperation among the citizenry, local executives and the Department, to ensure
effective and efficient delivery of basic services to the public;
6. Organize, train and equip primarily for the performance of police functions, a police
force that
is national in scope and civilian in character.
RELATIONSHIP OF THE DILG WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE
(DND)
- under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was in charge with external
security while the
DILG was in charge with internal security
- under RA 8551, the Armed Forces of the Philippines is now in charge with both internal
and external
security with the PNP as support through information gathering and performance of
ordinary police
functions.
NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION
- an agency attached to the DILG for policy coordination
- shall exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the PNP.
VISION OF THE NAPOLCOM
"We envision the National Police Commission as a highly dynamic, committed and
responsive administering and controlling body, actively and effectively facilitating the
evolvement of a highly professional, competent,
disciplined, credible and trustworthy PNP"
MISSION OF THE NAPOLCOM
"To administer and control the Philippine National Police with the end in view of
maintaining a highly
professional, competent, disciplined, credible and trustworthy PNP
POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NAPOLCOM
A. Exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the Philippine
National Police (PNP)
which shall mean the power to:
1. Develop policies and promulgate a police manual prescribing rules and regulations
for efficient
organization, administration, and operation, including criteria for manpower
allocation distribution and
deployment, recruitment, selection, promotion, and retirement of personnel and
the conduct of
qualifying entrance and promotional examinations for uniformed members;
2. Examine and audit, and thereafter establish standards for such purposes on a
continuing basis,
the performance,activities, and facilities of all police agencies throughout the
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country;
3. Establish a system of uniform crime reporting;
4. Conduct annual self-report surveys and compile statistical data for accurate
assessment of the crime
situation and the proper evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of all police
units in the country;
5. Approve or modify plans and programs on education and training, logistical
requirements, communications, records,information systems, crime laboratory, crime
prevention and crime reporting;
6. Affirm, reverse or modify, through the National Appellate Board, personnel
administrative actions
involving the demotion or dismissal from the service imposed upon members of the
Philippine National
Police by the Chief of the Philippine National Police;
7. Exercise appellate jurisdiction through the Regional Appellate Boards, over
administrative cases against
policemen and over decisions on claims for police benefits;
8. Prescribe minimum standards for arms, equipment, and uniforms and, after
consultation with the
Philippine Heraldry Commission, for insignia of ranks, awards, medals of honor;
9. Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in matters pertaining to the discharge
of its own
powers and duties,and designate who among its personnel can issue processes and
administer oaths
in connection therewith;
10. Inspect and assess the compliance of the PNP on the established criteria for
manpower allocation,
distribution and deployment and their impact on the community and the crime
situation, and thereafter
formulate appropriate guidelines for maximization of resources and effective
utilization of the PNP
personnel;
11. Monitor the performance of the local chief executives as deputies of the
Commission; and
12. Monitor and investigate police anomalies and irregularities.
B. Advise the President on all matters involving police functions and administration;
C. Render to the President and to Congress an annual report of its activities and
accomplishments during the
thirty (30)days after the end of the calendar year, which shall include an appraisal
of the conditions
obtaining in the organization and administration of police agencies in the
municipalities, cities and
provinces throughout the country, and recommendations for appropriate
remedial
legislations;
D. Recommend to the President, through the Secretary, within sixty (60) days before
the commencement of
each calendar year, a crime prevention program; and
E. Perform such other functions necessary to carry out the provisions of R.A. 6975, as
amended, other
existing laws and Presidential issuance's, and as the President may direct.
COMPOSITION OF NAPOLCOM
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1. One chairperson
2. Four regular commissioner
3. The Chief PNP as ex officio member
Note:
* shall serve a term of office of six (6) years
without reappointment or extension
* three of the four regular commissioners shall come from civilian sector and not
former members of the
police or military
* the fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement sector
either active or retired
* at least one (1) of the four regular commissioners shall be a woman
* from among the three regular commissioners from the civilian sector, the Vice
Chairperson shall be
chosen
* the Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive Officer of the Commission
* refer to the organizational structure of the NAPOLCOM
Important dates in the history of modern Philippine Policing
1901 - ACT no. 175 of the Philippine Commission established the Philippine
constabulary on august 8, 1901.
1905 - the Philippine constabulary school was established at the sta.lucia barracks in
Intramuros on February 17, 1905.
1908 - the Philippine constabulary school was transferred to Baguio City.
1916 - the Philippine constabulary school was renamed academy for officers of the
Philippine constabulary.
1917 - on December 17, 1917, Brigadier General Rafael Crame from Rizal Province,
became the first Filipino chief of the Philippine constabulary.
1926 - the academy for officers of the Philippine constabulary was renamed Philippine
Constabulary Academy.
1936 - the Philippine Constabulary Academy became the present day Philippine Military
Academy.
1938 - The Philippine Constabulary became the existing and organized national police
force of the country pursuant to commonwealth act no. 343 dated June 23, 1938 and EO
no. 389 dated December 23, 1950. This decree integrated local police forces into the
Philippines constabulary operational and organizational set up.
1966 - congress enacted RA no. 4864, the police act of 1966. This law also created the
Police Commission (POLCOM).
1972 - The POLCOM was reorganized as the National Police Commission.
1975 - PD 765 was enacted. This law is called the Police Integration Law of 1975. The
Integrated National Police was established with the Philippine Constabulary as nucleus
under the Department of national Defense. The NAPOLCOM, originally under the office
of the President was transferred to the Ministry of National defense.
1985 - The National Police Commission was returned to the office of the President
pursuant to E.O 1040.
1989 - Executive order 379 placed the Integrated national Police directly under the
command, supervision and control of the President. This order vested the NAPOLCOM
with the powers of administrative control and supervision over the Integrated National
Police.
1990 - RA 6975 was passed on December 13, 1990 establishing the Philippine National
Police under a reorganized Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). A
new National Police Commission was created under the DILG.
1998 - congress passed into law RA no. 8551 on February 25, 1998, otherwise known as
the Philippine National Police reform and reorganization act of 1998. This act
strengthened and expanded NAPOLCOM,s authority over the PNP to include
administration of police entrance examination and conduct pre-charge investigation
against police anomalies and irregularities and summary dismissal of erring police
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members.
FUNCTIONS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION
1. PRIMARY OR LINE FUNCTIONS
- functions that carry out the major purposes of the organization, delivering the services
and dealing
directly with the public
- the backbone of the police department
- examples of the line functions of the police are patrolling, traffic duties, crime
investigation
2. STAFF/ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS
- functions that are designed to support the line functions and assist in the performance
of the line
functions
- examples of the staff functions of the police are planning, research, budgeting and
legal advice
3. AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS
- functions involving the logistical operations of the organization
- examples are training, communication, maintenance, records management, supplies
and equipment management
ORGANIC UNITS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION
1. OPERATIONAL UNITS
- those that perform primary or line functions
- examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and vice control,
2. ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS
- those that perform the administrative functions examples are personnel, finance,
planning and
training.
3. SERVICE UNITS
- those that perform auxiliary functions
- examples are communication, records management,supplies.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
- the systematic arrangement of the relationship of the members,
positions,departments and
functions or work of the organization
- it is comprised of functions, relationships,responsibilities and authorities of individuals
within
the organization
KINDS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES
1. LINE
- the oldest and simplest kind; also called military
- defined by its clear chain of command from the highest to the lowest and vice versa
- depicts the line functions of the organization
- orders or commands must come from the higher level of authority before it can be
carried out
- involves few departments
2. FUNCTIONAL
- structure according to functions and specialized units
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- depicts staff functions of the organization


- responsibilities are divided among authorities who are all accountable to the authority
above.
3. LINE AND STAFF
- a combination of the line and functional kind
- combines the flow of information from the line structure with the staff departments
that service,
advise, and support them
- generally more formal in nature and has many departments
ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES
FOUR PRIMAL CONDITIONS OF AN ORGANIZATION
1. AUTHORITY
- the supreme source of government for any particular organization
- the right to exercise, to decide and to command by virtue of rank and position
2. MUTUAL COOPERATION
- an organization exists because it serves a purpose.
3. DOCTRINE
- provides for the organizations objectives
- provides the various actions, hence, policies, procedures, rules and regulations of the
org. are based on the statement of doctrines
4. DISCIPLINE
- comprising behavioral regulations
ELEMENTS OF POLICE ORGANIZATION
1. UNITY OF COMMAND
- dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to ensure uniformity
in the execution of
orders
2. SPAN OF CONTROL
- the maximum number of subordinates that a superior can effectively supervise
Factors affecting the span of control:
a) Leadership qualities of the supervisors
b) Nature of the job and work conditions
c) Complexity of task
d) Education and skill of the employees
3. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
- conferring of an amount of authority by a superior position to a lower-level position.
4. HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY
- the relationship between superiors and subordinates
- serves as the framework for the flow of authority downward and obedience upward
through the
department
HIERARCHY - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in
any given
organization
5. SPECIALIZATION
- the assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks
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SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS (AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION)


- the designation of certain activities or tasks as ones that must be performed in a
highly.
technological,scientific or precise manner
- areas of police specialization include undercover works, crime scene operations, legal
advising,
computer work, SWAT operations and others
SPECIALIZATION OF PEOPLE (SPECIALISTS)
- the designation of particular persons as having expertise in a specific area of work
- signifies the adaptation of an individual to the requirements through extensive
training
6. CHAIN OF COMMAND
- the arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or position and
authority.
7. COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY
- dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective
supervision and
control.
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLICING SYSTEM
The institution of police in the Philippines formally started during the Spanish period.
The establishment of
the police force was not entirely intended for crime prevention nor peacekeeping.
Rather, it was created as an extension of the colonial military establishment.
Ancient Roots
The forerunner of the contemporary police system was the practice of barangay
chieftains to select
able-bodied young men to protect their barangay during the night and were not
required to work
in the fields during daytime.Among the duties of those selected were to protect the
properties
of the people in the barangay and protect their crops and livestock from wild animals.
Spanish Period
Carabineros de Seguridad Publica organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying
the regulations
of the Department of State; this was armed and considered as the mounted police;
years after, this kind of police organization discharged the duties of a port, harbor and
river police.
Guardrilleros/Cuardillo this was a body of rural police by the Royal Decree of 18
January 1836, this decree provided that 5% of the able-bodied male inhabitants of each
province were to be enlisted in this police organization for three years
Guardia Civil this was created by a Royal Decree issued by the Crown on 12 February
1852
to partially relieve the Spanish Peninsular troops of their work in policing towns,it
consisted of a body
of Filipino policemen organized originally in each of the provincial capitals of the central
provinces
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of Luzon under the Alcalde Mayor


American Period
The Americans established the United States Philippine Commission headed by General
Howard Taft as its first governor-general. On January 9, 1901, the Metropolitan Police
Force of Manila was organized pursuant to Act No 70of the Taft Commission. This has
become the basis for the celebration of the anniversary of the Manilas Finest every
January 9th.
ACT NO 175 entitled An Act Providing for the Organization and Government of an
Insular Constabulary,enacted on July 18, 1901.
Henry T. Allen - Captain of the 6th US cavalry, a graduate of West Point class 1882.
Father of the Philippine Constabulary.The first chief of the Philippine Constabulary in
1901.
ACT NO 183 - created the Manila Police Department, enacted on July 31, 1901.
CAPT GEORGE CURRY - the first chief of police
of the Manila Police Department in 1901.
Act No 255 the act that renamed the Insular Constabulary into Philippine
Constabulary,
enacted on October 3, 1901
Executive Order 389 ordered that the Philippine Constabulary be one of the four
services
of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, enacted on December 23, 1940.
Post-American Period
RA 4864 otherwise known as the Police Professionalization Act of 1966, enacted on
September 8, 1966; created the Police Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory agency
to oversee the
training and professionalization of the local police forces under the Office of the
President; later POLCOM was renamed into National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM).
Martial Law Period
PD 765 otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975,enacted on August 8, 1975;
established the Integrated National Police (INP) composed of the Philippine
Constabulary (PC)
as the nucleus and the integrated local police forces as components, under the Ministry
of National
Defense
- transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the Ministry of National
Defense
Post Martial Law Regime
Executive Order No 1012 transferred to the city and municipal government the
operational
supervision and direction over all INP units assigned within their locality; issued on July
10, 1985
Executive Order No 1040 transferred the administrative control and supervision of
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the INP
from the Ministry of National Defense to the National Police Commission
RA 6975 otherwise known as the Department of the Interior andLocal
Government Act of 1990,
enacted on December 13,1990; reorganized the DILG and established the Philippine
National Police,
Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine
Public Safety College.
RA 8551 otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and
Reorganization Act
of 1998, enacted on February 25, 1998; this law amended certain provisions of RA
6975.
RA 9708 - law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum
educational
qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system; approved
on 12 August 2009.
- An Act extending for five (5) years the reglementary period for complying with the
minimum educational qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the
promotion system thereof,amending for the purpose pertinent provisions of RA 6975
and RA 8551 and for other purposes.

Administration of Police Organization Review Questions 1


1.A primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide
responsibility for providing a specific specialized functions.
A.Section
B.Sector
C.Squad
D.Detail
2.A subdivision of a squad
A.Section
B.Unit
C.Sector
D.Detail
3.A subdivision of a unit.
A.Section
B.Unit
C.Squad
D.Detail
4.A subdivision of a section.
A.Precinct
B.Unit
C.Squad
D.Detail
5.The primary geographic subdivision of a precinct.
A.Post
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B.Sector
C. Section
D.Unit
6.The primary subdivision of a sector.
A.Post
B.Beat
C. Unit
D.Sector
7.One of several tours of duty.
A.Detail
B.Post
C. Shift
D.Beat
8.Fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer
A.Post
B.Beat
C. Shift
D.Section
9.The primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau.
A. Precinct
B.Section
C. Sector
D.Unit
10.It means planning the work of the department and of the
personnel in an orderly manner.
A.Plan
B.Delegate
C. Oversee
D.Organize
Memorize the following:

1.Organize - it means planning the work of the department and of the personnel in an order
manner.

2.Oversee - It means that the supervisor ensures that the work that has been organized and
delegated is satisfactorily
completed.

3.Delegate - It means giving someone else the responsibility and authority to do something.
4.Precinct - the primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau.
5.Post - Fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer.
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6.Shift - one of several tours of duty.


7.Beat - the primary subdivision of a sector.
8.Sector - the primary geographic subdivision of a precinct.
9.Unit - subdivision of a section.
10.Squad - a subdivision of a unit.
11.Detail - a subdivision of a squad.
12.Section - a primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide responsibility for
providing a specific specialized functions.
Answers: Administration of Police Organization
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
D
C
B
B
B
C
A
B
D

Administration Of Police Organization Review Questions 2


1. A nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of law enforcement agencies voluntarily
reporting data on crimes brought to their attention.
A. National Crime Reporting
B. Uniform Crime Reporting
C. National Statistic Report
D. National Police Crime Report
2. It post the location of murder's, rapes, robberies, carnapping and other major crimes
of the locality.
A. Crime hot spots
B. Crime incident location
C. Crime spot map
D. Crime mapping
3. It post the the motor vehicle and pedestrian accident which occur in the area.
A. Traffic spot map
B. Traffic crime map
C. Traffic statistic report
D. Traffic incidence report
16

4. Useful to indicate the traffic accidents and crime location.


A.Traffic map
B. Traffic and crime map
C. Crime map
D. Spot map
5. Each time any file is issued, a record should be made on a color charge-out which is
often called a Substitution Card or an Out Card which takes the place of a file that
has been removed from the cabinet.
A. Borrower's card
B. Document card
C. Borrower's slip
D. Charged out card
6. A file showing the history of each police officer, both prior and subsequent to joining
the force, is indispensable.
A. Personal records
B. Policy,order,memoranda file
C. Assignment record
D. Correspondence file
7. This consist of set or records of communications classified, arranged and filed
alphabetically by the subject to which they pertain.
A. Personal record
B. Policy,order,memoranda file
C. Assignment record
D. Correspondence file
8. This consist of photographic records of known criminals and describe the procedure
how criminals commit crime.
A. Modus operandi file
B. Operation file
C. Method of operation file
D. Criminal file
9. A notation put into a file to indicate that a record is not stored in that file but in some
other location specified therein. It tells the filer or searcher where to find the needed
material.
A. Reference
B. Cross reference
C. File notation
D. Cross location
10.Making an identifying mark on the item to be stored to indicate what classifications it
is to be filed .
A. Identifying
B. Classifying
C. Coding
D. Differentiating
17

Remember the ff: Administration of Police Organization


1. Uniform Crime Reporting - A nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of law
enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their attention.
2. Crime spot map - It post the location of murder's, rapes, robberies, carnapping and
other major crimes of the locality.
3. Traffic spot map - It post the the motor vehicle and pedestrian accident which occur
in the area.
4. Spot map - Useful to indicate the traffic accidents and crime location.
5. Charged out card - Each time any file is issued, a record should be made on a color
charge-out which is often called a Substitution Card or an Out Card which takes the place
of a file that has been removed from the cabinet.
6. Personal records - A file showing the history of each police officer, both prior and
subsequent to joining the force, is indispensable.
7. Correspondence file - This consist of set or records of communications classified,
arranged and filed alphabetically by the subject to which they pertain.
8. Modus operandi file - This consist of photographic records of known criminals and
describe the procedure how criminals commit crime.
9. Cross reference - A notation put into a file to indicate that a record is not stored in
that file but in some other location specified therein. It tells the filer or searcher where to
find the needed material.
10.Coding - Making an identifying mark on the item to be stored to indicate what
classifications it is to be filed .
11. The accredited professional organization for criminologists in the Philippines is the
PCAP - Professional Criminologist Association of the Philippines.
12.The Professional Criminologists Association of the Philippines (PCAP) was accredited
by PRC on March 25, 1990 as the professional organization for criminologists in the
country.
13. The Board of Examiners for Criminology was created on July 1, 1972, pursuant to
Republic Act No. 6506 entitled An Act Creating the Board
of Examiners for Criminologists in the Philippines and For Other Purposes.
14. The first Board, constituted in 1987, was composed of
1. Dr. Sixto O. de Leon as Chairman
2. Atty. Virgilio B. Andres as member
3. Jaime S. Navarro as member
18

15.Republic Act No. 6506 - An Act Creating the Board


of Examiners for Criminologists in the Philippines and for Other Purposes.
16. Lourdes W. Aniceto - the present chairman of the board of criminology.
17. Ernesto V. Cabrera - the present member of the board of criminology.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

B
C
A
D
D
A
D
A
B
C

Administration of police organization review questions 3


1. There are how many staff directorate in the Philippine National Police?
A. 8
B. 10
C. 12
D. 14
2. The second highest ranking officer in the PNP.
A. Deputy Director General for Operation
B. Chief of the Directorial Staff
C. NCR Director
D. None of the Above
3. What is the rank of the PNP Chief of the Directorial Staff?
A. 3 Star General
B. 2 Star General
C. 1 Star General
D. None of the Above
4. This theory of Police service is followed by the PNP.
A. Continental Theory
B. Home Rule Theory
C. Modern Rule Theory
D. None of the Above
5. Under this theory of police service, policemen are considered servants of the community.
A. Continental Theory
B. Home Rule Theory
C. Modern Rule Theory
19

D. None of the Above


6. Under this theory of police service, policemen are considered servants of the
higher authority and people have little share or no share of all there duties nor any direct
connection with them.
A. Continental Theory
B. Home Rule Theory
C. Modern Rule Theory
D. None of the Above

7. This concept of police service says that punishment is the sole instrument of crime control
throwing more people to jail rather than keeping them out of jail.
A. Old Concept
B. Modern Concept
C. Community Concept
D. None of the Above

8. This concept of police service says that the yardstick of efficiency of police is the absence
of crime.
A. Old Concept
B. Modern Concept
C. Community Concept
D. None of the Above
9. This type of organizational structure divides authority between several specialist.
A. Line Organization
B. Functional Organization
C. Line Staff Organization
D. None of the Above
10.It is the simplest type of organizational structure,Channels of authority and responsibility
extends in a direct line from top to bottom within the structure.
A. Line Organization
B. Functional Organization
C. Line staff Organization
D. None of the Above
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

B
D
A
B
B
A
A
B
B
A
20

Administration of Police Organization Reviewer 4


1. This type of organizational structure is found in almost all police organization today.
A. Line Organization
B. Functional Organization
C. Line Staff Organization
D. None of the Above
2. An organization is effective if it enables the individual to contribute to the
organizations objective.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational efficiency
C. Scalar Principle
D. Unity of Command
3. Organization is effective if it is structured in such a way to aid the accomplishment of
the organization's objective
with a minimum cost.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational efficiency
C. Scalar Principle
D. Unity of Command
4. The vertical heirarchy of an organization which defines an unbroken chain of units from
top to bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational efficiency
C. Scalar Principle
D. Unity of Command
5. A subordinate should only follow the command of one superior.
A. Unity of command
B. Span of control
C. Delegation of authority
D. Principle of balance
6. The control of superior should not be more than what he can effectively direct.
A. Unity of command
B. Span of control
C. Delegation of authority
D. Principle of balance
7. The assignment of authority and responsibility to another person.
A. Unity of command
B. Span of control
C. Delegation of authority
D. Principle of balance
21

8. Refers to the division of work according to type, place, time and specialization.
A. Functional Principle
B. Line and Staff principle
C. Principle of balance
D. Principle of delegation result
9. To ensure the effectiveness of the structure in meeting the organization's objective.
A. Functional Principle
B. Line and Staff principle
C. Principle of balance
D. Principle of delegation result expected
10.That which implies the system of varied functions, arrange into a workable pattern.
A. Functional Principle
B. Line and Staff principle
C. Principle of balance
D. Principle of delegation result expected
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
C
B

Administration of Police Organization Review Questions 5


1. The authority delegated should be adequate to ensure the ability to accomplish
expected result.
A. Functional Principle
B. Line and Staff principle
C. Principle of balance
D. Principle of delegation result expected
2. The responsibility of the subordinates to their superior for performance is absolute
and superior can not escape responsibility for the organization on activities performed
by their subordinates.
A. Principle of Absolute Responsibility
B. Principle of balance
C. Principle of Parity and Responsibility
D. Principle of delegation

22

3. The responsibility for actions can not be greater than that implied by
the authority delegated nor should it be less.
A. Principle of Absolute Responsibility
B. Principle of balance
C. Principle of Parity and Responsibility
D. Principle of delegation
4. This law organized the Manila Police department.
A. Act 183
B. R.A. 8551
C. E.O. 1012
D. E.O. 1040
5. Transferred the operational supervision and direction over all INP units to the city
and municipal government.
A. Act 183
B. R.A. 8551
C. E.O. 1012
D. E.O. 1040
6. Transferred the administrative control and supervision of the INP from Ministry of
National Defense to the office of the Napolcom.
A. Act 183
B. R.A. 8551
C. E.O. 1012
D. E.O. 1040
7. The Transfer of the administrative control and supervision of the INP from Ministry of
National Defense to the office of the Napolcom took effect on.
A. July 10, 1985
B. July 10, 1986
C. July 10, 1987
D. July 10, 1988
8. The Manila Police Department was organized on.
A. July 31, 1900
B. July 31, 1901
C. July 31, 1902
D. July 31, 1903
9. Granted to those who possesses the mandatory promotional requirement.
A. Regular Promotion
B. Special Promotion
C. A and B
D. None of the Above
10.Extended to PNP members who acted conspicuously beyond and above the call of
duty.
A. Regular Promotion
B. Special Promotion
23

C. A and B
D. None of the Above
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
A
C
A
C
D
A
B
A
B

Administration of Police Organization Review Questions 6


1. A PNP officer before eligible for promotion to the rank of Senior Superintendent must
first obtained
what mandatory training requirement?
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Advance Course
D. Officer Basic Course
2. A PNP officer before eligible for promotion to the rank of Superintendent must first
secure what
mandatory training requirement?
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Advance Course
D. Officer Basic Course
3. A PNP officer before eligible for promotion to the rank of Chief Inspector must first
secure what
mandatory training requirement.
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Advance Course
D. Officer Basic Course
4. A PNP officer before eligible for promotion to the rank of Senior Inspector must first
secure what
mandatory training requirement.
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Advance Course
D. Officer Basic Course
24

5. Before an officer is appointed to the rank of PNP Inspector, He/She must finish
what mandatory training
requirement?
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Candidate Course
D. Officer Basic Course
6. Before a PNP enlisted personnel is appointed to the rank of SPO3 to SPO4,
what mandatory training requirement must he/she undertake?
A. Senior Leadership Course
B. Basic Leadership Course
C. Public Safety Basic Course
D. None of the Above
7. Before a PNP enlisted personnel is appointed to the rank of PO2 to PO3,
what mandatory training requirement must he/she undertakes?
A. Senior Leadership Course
B. Basic Leadership Course
C. Public Safety Basic Course
D. None of the Above
8. Highest award in the PNP.
A. Medalya ng Kasanayan
B. Medalya ng Kabayanihan
C. Medalya ng Katapangan
D. Medalya ng Kagitingan
9. PNP's mandatory retirement age.
A. 55
B. 56
C. 60
D. 65
10. Optional retirement requires the approval of the
A. DILG Secretary
B. Napolcom
C. Chief of the PNP
D. President of the Philippines
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A
B
C
D
C
A
C
D
25

9. B
10. B
Note:
Mandatory Promotional Requirement
1. Educational Attainment
2. Time in Grade
3. Eligibility
4. Mandatory Training Requirement
5. Performance Evaluation Rating
6. Awards and Commendations Received
7. Clearances
Mandatory Training Requirement
1. Senior Superintendent - GSC (General Staff Course, MNSA,
or MPSA (Master in Public Safety Administration)
2. Superintendent - OSEC (Officer Senior Executive Course)
3. Chief Inspector - Officer Advance Course
4. Senior Inspector - Officer Basic Course
5. Inspector - Officer Candidate Course
6. SPO3 to SPO4 - Senior Leadership Course
7. SPO1 to SPO2 - Basic leadership Course
8. PO2 to PO3 - Public safety Basic Course
Performance Evaluation Rating - made by supervisor twice
a year. January to June, July to December
5 - Outstanding
4 - Very Satisfactory
3 - Satisfactory
2 - Fair
1 - Poor

Administration of Police Organization Definition of Terms


Area - a section or territorial division of a large city each composed
of designated districts.
Beat - an area designated for patrol purposes whether on foot or motorized.
Bureau - largest organic unit within a large department.
Commanding Officer- an officer who is in command of the department, a bureau, a
division, an area, or a district.
Department Rules - rules established by department directors\superiors to control the
conduct of the members of the police force.
District - a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes usually with its
own station.
26

Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.


Duty Manual - describes the procedures and defines the duties ofofficers assigned to
specified post or position.
Formal Organization - is defined as those organizations that areformally established for
explicit purpose of achieving certain goals.
Functional Organization - The functional responsibility of each functional manager is
limited to the particular activity over which he has control, regardless of who performs
the function.
Henry Allen - a captain, first chief of the constabulary.
Informal Organization - are those sharing the basic characteristic of all organizations
arise through the social interactions of individuals or through family grouping.
Leave of Absence- period, which an officer is excused from active duty by any valid
reason, approved by higher authority.
Length of Service- the period of time that has elapsed since the oath of office was
administered.Previous active services may be included or added.
Line Organization - is the simplest and the oldest types of organization where
responsibility extends in a direct line from top to bottom within the structures and
authority is definite and absolute.
line and staff organization is a combination of the line and functional types.
Off Duty - the nature of which the police officer is free from specific routine duty.
On Duty - the period when an officer is actively engaged in the performance of his duty.
Order an instruction given by a ranking officer to a subordinate.
Organization - It is a form of human association for the attainment of goal or objective.
patrol officer - is the backbone of the police department.
PD 765 - created the PC-INP.
Police - is a branch of the criminal justice system that has the specific responsibility of
maintaining law and order and combating crime within the society.
Police organization - is a group of trained personnel in the field ofpublic
safety administration engaged in the achievement of goals and objectives that promotes
the maintenance of crimes.
Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty, such as
a designated desk or office or an intersection or cross walk from traffic duty.It is a
27

spot location for general guard duty.


Ranking Officer- the officer who has the senior rank in a team or group.
RA 4864 - established Napolcom.Known as police act of 1966.
Rafael Crame - first filipini chief of the constabulary.
Report - usually a written communication unless otherwise specifies to be verbal reports;
verbalreports should be confirmed by written communication.
Route - (line beat) a length of street designated for patrol purposes.
Section - functional units within a division.
Sector - an area containing two or more beat, route, or post.
Sick leave - period which an officer is excused from active duty by reason of illness or
injury.
Special Duty - the police service, its nature, which requires that the officer be excused
from the performance of his active regular duty.
Superior Officer- one having supervisory responsibilities, either temporarily or
permanently, over officers of lower rank.
Suspension - a consequence of an act which temporarily deprives an officer from the
privilege of performing his duties as result of violating directives or other department
regulations.
Sworn Officers - all personnel of the police department who have taken oath and who
posses the power to arrest.
Unit - functional group within a section; or the smallest functional group within an
organization.

Patrol Organization and Operation


Patrol - from french patrouiller - to paddle, paw about, patrol.
- keep watch over an area by regularly walking or traveling around or through it.
- a person or group of people sent to keep watch over an area.
Patrol officers - are uniformed officers assigned to monitor specific geographical
areas, that is to move through their areas at regular intervals looking out for any signs
of problems of any kind.
History of Patrol
28

1. Ancient China - law enforcement was carried out by prefect. Prefects were
government officials appointed by local magistrates who reported to higher authorities
such as the governors who in turn were appointed by head of state usually the emperor
of the dynasty.
2. Ancient Greece - publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police.In
Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves (rod-bearers) was used to guard public
meetings to keep order and for crowd control and also assisted with dealing with
criminal, handling prisoners and making arrests.
3. Roman empire - the army rather than a dedicated police organization provided
security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra
security.Magistrates such as procurators, fiscals and quaestros investigated crime.
Under the reign of Augustus, 14 wards were created, the wards were protected by
seven squads of 1000 men called vigiles who acted as firemen and night watchmen.
Their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing run away
slaves.
The vigiles were supported by the urban cohorts who acted as a heavy duty riot
force and praetorian guard if necessary.

praetorian guard - bodyguards used by roman emperors.

urban cohorts - were created by Augustus to counter balance the enormous


power of the praetorian guard in the city of Rome and serve as the police force.

vigiles - (watchmen of the city) - were the firefighters and police of ancient
Rome.

ward - a subdivision of a municipality.

4. Medieval England - the Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order since the
Norman conquest was a private system of tithing, led by a constable to enforce the
law.

tithing - was a grouping of 10 households.

constable - is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law


enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different
jurisdiction.

5. Spain - modern police in Europe has a precedent in the Hermandus or (brotherhood)


- peace keeping association of individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval
Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of the hermandad occurred when the
towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de
compostela in galicia and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.
6. France - The first police force in the modern sense was created by the government
of king Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of Paris, then the largest city in Europe.
7. Britain and Ireland - in England, a system of sheriffs, reeves and investigative
juries to provide basic security and law enforcement.
29

Sheriff - is a contraction of the term "shire-reeve" - designated a royal official


responsible for keeping the peace through out a shire or county on behalf of the
king.

Reeve - a senior official with local responsibilities under the crown. ex., chief
magistrate of a town or district.

Shire - traditional term for a division of land in the UK and Australia.

Jury - is a sworn body of people convened to render impartial verdict officially


submitted to them by a court or to set a penalty or judgement.

Thief taker - a private individual hired to capture criminal.

Bow street runners - London's first professional police force.

Henry Fielding - a magistrate educated at Elton college who founded the Bow
street runners originally numbered just six.

Statute of Winchester - in 1285, obliged the authorities of every town to keep


a watch at the city gates and arrest all suspicious night walkers.

Sir Robert Peel - prime minister of England from Dec. 1834 to April 1835 and
again From Aug.1841 to June 1846. While home secretary, help create the
modern concept of the police force leading to officers being known as bobbies in
England and peelers in Ireland.

Patrick Colquhoun - (1745 - 1820) - a Scottish merchant and a magistrate who


founded the first regular preventive police force in England, the Thames river
police.

8. In the US - the first city police services were established in


Philadelphia in 1751, Boston 1838 and new york 1845.

August Vollmer - first police chief of Berkeley California. He is sometimes called


the father of modern law enforcement in the US.
1. He was the first chief to require that police officers attain college degrees.

2. First police chief to create a motorized force placing officers on


motorcycles and cars so that they could patrol broader areas with greater efficiency .
3. He was also the first to use the lie detector in police work.

O.W. Wilson - studied under August Vollmer. Became Chief of Police of the
Fullerton police department. He also became chief of police of the Wichita police
department. He introduced the following reforms and innovations:

1. requires new policeman to have college education.


2. use of police car for patrol, mobile radios and use of a mobile crime laboratory.
3. he believe that the use of a two way radio allowed better supervision of patrol
officers.
30

What are the 3 main task of supervision?


1. Organize - means planning the work of the department and of the personnel in an
orderly
manner.
2. Delegate - means giving someone else the responsibility and authority to do
something. The
supervisor confers upon a subordinate officer the same authority and responsibility
that the
supervisor possesses to accomplish the specific task The supervisor remain
responsible for the
completion of the delegated task.
3. Oversee - means that the supervisor ensures that the work that has been
organized and delegated is
satisfactorily completed.
Community policing - is the process by which an organized group of citizens devoted
a time to crime prevention within a neighborhood. When suspecting criminal activities,
members are encourage to contact the authorities and not to intervene.
Beat patrol - the deployment of officers in a given community, area or locality to
prevent and deter criminal activity and to provide day to day services to the
community.
Sting Operations - organized groups of detectives who deceived criminals into openly
committing illegal acts of conspiring to engage in criminal activity.
Hotspots of Crime - the view that a significant portion of all police calls in cities
typically radiate from a relatively few locations.
Models of Policing
1. Neighborhood Oriented Policing - a philosophy of police suggesting that problem
solving is best done
at the neighborhood level, where issues originate not at a far-off central
headquarters.
2. Pro Active Policing - aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol officers take
the initiative
against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to occur.
3. Problem Oriented Policing - a style of police management that stresses pro
active problem
solving instead of reactive crime fighting.
4.Community Oriented Policing - programs designed to bring the police and the public
closer together
and create more cooperative working environment between them.
5. Reactive Policing - the opposite of Pro Active policing where the police wait for crime
to occur.
Blue Curtain - describes the secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a
consequence of the police subculture.
Cynicism - the belief that most peoples actions are motivated solely by personal needs
31

and selfishness.
Civilian Review Board - ex. PLEB - organized citizen groups that examine police
misconduct.
Watchman - style of policing characterized by an emphasis on maintaining public
order.
Fleeing Felon Rule - the oldest standard relating to the use of deadly force.
Beats - designated police patrol areas.
Internal Affairs - unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct.
Deadly Force - police killing of a suspect who resists arrest or presents a danger to an
officer or the community.
Booking - the administrative record of an arrest listing the offenders name, address,
physical description, date of birth, time of arrest, offense and name of arresting officer.
It also include photographing and fingerprinting of the offender.
Line Up - placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified
by a witness.
Stop and Frisk - the situation in which police officers who are suspicious of an
individual run their hands lightly over the suspects outer garments to determine if the
person is carrying a concealed weapon. Also called Inquiry of Pat Down.
Foot Patrol - police patrol that takes officer out of cars and puts them in walking beat
to strengthen ties with the community.
Excited Delirium - an overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontation
with the police.
* Patrol reduces crime by creating an impression of omnipresence.
Responding to Crime - total response time is comprised of four dimensions.
1. Discovery Time - interval between the commission of the crime and its discovery.
2. Reporting Time - interval between the discovery of the crime and when it is reported
to the police.
3. Processing Time - interval between receiving the call and dispatching the officers for
service.
4. Travel time - the amount of time it takes for the police to travel to the scene of the
crime.
The Phantom Effect - "residual deterrence" most people believe that the police is
present even when the are not in sight.
Sworn Date - the date that a sworn employee took the oath of office for their position.
32

Advantages of Foot/Bicycle Patrol


1. Increased personal contact between the police and citizen.
2. Increased observation ability.
3. Increased ability to gather information
4. Economical
Advantages of Motorized Patrol
1. Increased speed and mobility
2. Increased conspicuousness
3. Availability of additional equipment
4. Increased transportation capability
5. Deceased response time
6. Communications
Basic Preventive Patrol Methods Utilized by an Officer
1. Frequent check and contact with business premises
2. Frequent check of suspicious persons
3. Fluctuating patrol patterns
4. Maintenance of visibility and personal contact
5. Daily individual patrol and community action plan
Factors to be Considered in Becoming Familiar with the Community
1. General population information
2. Appropriate geographical information
3. Recent criminal activity
4. Specific factors that may influence patrol functions ex. location of hospitals, high
crime areas,
community habits.
How to Prepare for a Normal Patrol Shift
1. Gathering information through crime reports and briefings
2. Gathering needed materials ex. report forms, citation books
3. Obtaining and checking equipment
4. Planning work around identified priorities
5. Preparing daily patrol and community action plan
What an Officer on Night time Patrol Should be Looking for
1. broken glasses
2. open doors and windows
3. pry marks
4. suspicious vehicles
5. persons on foot
6. differences in normal lighting (on or Off)
7. unusual sounds
8. access to roof tops or upper floors
Definition of Terms
1. Section - a primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide responsibility for
providing a
specific specialized functions.
33

2. Unit - a subdivision of a section usually small in size with personnel assigned to


perform a
specialized activity, one or two employees performing assigned work.
3. Squad - a subdivision of a unit.
4. Detail - a subdivision of a squad.
5. Precinct -the primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau.
6. Sector - the primary geographic subdivision of a precinct, supervised by a
sergeant.
7. Beat - the primary subdivision of a sector.
8. Watch/Shift - one of several tours of duty.
9. Post - a fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer.
10.Task Force - an adhoc work group normally established by bureau commander to
respond to a
specific incident or series of related incidents. Task Force assignment is temporary.
11.Chief of Police - overall commander of the department.
12.Chain of Command - a fundamental component of proper supervision.The chain of
command
requires that each employee reports and is accountable to only one direct
supervisor.

Patrol Organization and Operation Reviewer 1


1. Sir Robert Peel introduced the Metropolitan Police Act and passed
by the parliament of England on
A. 1828
B. 1829
C. 1830
D. 1831
2. Considered as the father of modern policing system.
A. Sir Robert Peel
B. August Vollmer
C. Edgar Hoover
D. Henry Armstrong
3. In the principles of law enforcement enunciated by Sir Robert Peel,
the basic mission of the police is
A. Prevention of crime
B. Enforcement of the law
C. Maintenance of peace and order
D. None of the above
4. One of the feature of this act is that no freeman shall be taken
or imprisoned except by the judgment of his peer
A. Magna Carta
B. Statute of 1295
C. Legies Henry
D. None of the above
5. The closing of gates of London during sun down. This mark
34

the beginning of the curfew hours


A. Statute of 1295
B. Statute of 1775
C. Statute of 1827
D. Statute of 1834
6. A Position having power to arrest, punish, and imposes imprisonment.
A. Justice of the Peace
B. Sheriff
C. Star Chamber Court
D. traveling Judge
7. A Special Court that tried cases against the state.
A. Shire-Reeve
B. Star Chamber Court
C. Magna Carta
D. Legies Henry
8. He is held responsible in passing judgment that was taken from the
shire-reeve in view of some abuses.
A. Legies Henry
B. star Chamber Court
C. Justice of the Peace
D. Traveling Judge
9. An Act enacted in England with the following features:
a. Policeman became public servant
b. The Police has a broad power of arrest
c. Grand Jury was created to inquire on the violations of the law.
A. Statute of 1295
B. Star Chamber Court
C. Legies Henry
D. Magna Carta
10. Shire means
A. Ruler
B. District
C. Police
D. Judge
11. Reeve means
A. Ruler
B. District
C. Police
D. Judge

Answer:
1.
2.
3.

B
A
A
35

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

A
A
A
B
D
C
B
A

Patrol Organization and Operation Reviewer 2


1. A round line or district area regularly traversed by foot
police patrol.
A. Bureau
B. Division
C. Section
D. Beat
2. One of the advantage of this patrol is that the patrolman
knows the area and people in his beat.
A. Bicycle Patrol
B. Horse Patrol
C. Motorized Patrol
D. Foot Patrol
3. Backbone of the police service in the community.
A. Police Intelligence
B. Police Investigation
C. Police Patrol
D. None of the above
4. One of the following types of police patrol is currently
not used in the Philippines.
A. Mobile Patrol
B. Foot Patrol
C. Animal Patrol
D. Aircraft Patrol
5. It is the largest segment of a police station.
A. Police Patrol
B. Police Investigation
C. Police Intelligence
D. None of the Above
6. From the time of the receipt of the call by the police
dispatcher to the arrival of the mobile patrol at the scene.
A. Response Time
B. Preparation Time
C. Speed Time
D. None of the Above
36

7. Which of the following kind of patrol is most effective in


parade and crowd control.
A. Foot Patrol
B. Horse Patrol
C. Mobile Patrol
D. Aircraft Patrol
8. One of the advantage of this kind of patrol is stealth
silence for movement.
A. Foot Patrol
B. Bicycle Patrol
C. Mobile Patrol
D. Horse Patrol
9. An electronic equipment that has helped the police in its
record, storage, and location system.
A. Walkie Talkie
B. Vault
C. File Room
D. Computer
10. One electronic gadget or equipment that has assisted
immediately the police investigation and interrogation
in his work.
A. Walkie Talkie
B. Tape Recorder
C. Computer
D. None of the Above

Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
D
C
D
A
A
B
B
D
B

Patrol Organization Reviewer 3


1. Backbone of the police department.
A. Intelligence
B. Patrol
C. Investigation
D. Vice Control
37

2. Established the fist English police department, the London metropolitan police in
1829.
A. O.W Wilson
B. Sir Robert Peel
C. Henry Fielding
D. None of the Above
3. He laid the foundation for the first modern police force. he was appointed
magistrate in Westminster in 1748.
A. Henry Fielding
B. Sir Robert Peel
C. O.W. Wilson
D. None of the Above
4. A Chicago Police department superintendent, he introduced a one man mobile patrol
except in ghetto and crime ridden section of the city. The rationale is that help is a
microphone away.
A. O.W. Wilson
B. Sir Robert Peel
C. Henry Fielding
D. None of the Above
5. Required all men in a given town to serve on the night watch.
A. Hue and Cry
B. Shires
C. Parish constable
D. Watch and Ward
6. Ten tithings or 100 families under the charge of a constable.
A. Shire
B. Parish Constable
C. Beadies
D. Hundred
7. Groups of hundreds within a specific geographic area.They were put under the
control of the King and were governed by a shire-reeve or sheriff.
A. Shires
B. Parish Constable
C. Beadies
D. Tithings
8. Ten families who grouped together to protect one another and to assume
responsibility for the acts of the group member.
A. Hundred
B. Shires
C. Tithings
D. Beadies
9. Enacted in 1285 in England, it established a rudimentary criminal justice system in
which most of the responsibility for law enforcement remained with the people
38

themselves.
A. The Hue and Cry
B. shire-reeve
C. Statute of Winchester
D. Magna carta
10.He was responsible for organizing and supervising the watch
A. Shire-reeve
B. Shire
C. Magistrate
D. Parish Constable

Answer:
1. B
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. D
6. D
7. A
8. C
9. C
10.D

Patrol Organization and Operation Reviewer 4


1. He assisted the justices of the peace by presiding the courts, ordering arrest, calling
witnesses and examining prisoners
A. Parish Constable
B. Sheriff
C. Magistrates
D. Shire
2. This office was created to assist the shire-reeve in non urban areas
A. Justice of the Peace
B. Parish Constable
C. Magistrates
D. Watchmen
3. This office was created to assist the shire-reeve in urban areas.
A. Justice of the Peace
B. Parish Constable
C. Magistrates
D. Watchmen
4. Patrolling the streets from dusk till dawn to insure that all local people were indoors
and quite and to insure that no strangers were
roaming around.
39

A. Justice of the peace


B. Parish Constable
C. Magistrates
D. Watchmen
5. A system of apprehending criminals whereby a complainant goes in the middle of the
street and shout at the top of his voice calling all males to assemble and indicates the
whereabouts of the culprit.
A. Royal Judge
B. Magistrates
C. Watchmen
D. Hue and Cry
6. He conducts Criminal investigation and give punishment.
A. Royal Judge
B. Magistrate
C. Watchmen
D. Parish Constable
7. Suspects were required to place their hands in boiling water. When not hurt, he will
be acquitted, if not he is guilty of the crime.
A. Hue and Cry
B. Shire
C. Trial by Ordeal
D. None of the Above
8. An Anglo-saxon period of policing system where the residents themselves
were required to preserve the peace and order and protect life and properties of the
people.
A. Hue and Cry
B. Royal Judge
C. Trial by ordeal
D. Tun policing system
9. The cooperative human effort to achieve the purpose of criminal justice system.
A. Civil Administration
B. Police Administration
C. Patrol Administration
D. None of the above
10.This law established the Napolcom under the office of the President. It is also known
as the Police Act of 1966.
A. R.A. 6975
B. C.A. 181
C. R.A. 4864
D. R.A. 4668

Answer:
1. C
40

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
B
D
D
A
C
D
B
C

Patrol Organization and Operation Reviewer 5


1. An area containing two or more beat, route, or post.
A. Sector
B. District
C. Area
D. None of the Above
2. A geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes usually
with its own station.
A. Sector
B. District
C. Area
D. None of the Above
3. A section or territorial division of a large city each composed of
designated districts.
A. Sector
B. District
C. Area
D. None of the Above

4. All personnel of the police department who have taken oath.


A. Duty officer
B. Subordinate officer
C. Sworn officer
D. Commanding officer
5. Describes the procedure that defines the duties of officers assigned to specific post
or position.
A. Duty Manual
B. Mission Order
C. Special Order
D. Office Manual
6. The Japanese Military Police.
A. Kempetai
B. Sepuko
C. Arigato
41

D. Kimchi
7. The Manila Police Department was formally organized on this date.
A. July 31, 1901
B. July 31. 1902
C. August 1, 1901
D. August 1, 1902
8. The PC (Philippine Constabulary) was organized as the first insular police force on
this date.
A. July 31, 1901
B. July 31, 1902
C. August 1, 1901
D. August 1, 1902
9. The First Chief of the PC (Philippine Constabulary).
A. Ronald John Hay
B. Henry Allen
C. George Cury
D. John Burnham
10. The First chief of police of Manila.
A. Henry Allen
B. George Cury
C. Howard Taft
D. Tomas Clark
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
B
C
C
A
A
A
C
B
B

Police Operational Planning


Police Operational Planning - the act of determining policies and guidelines for
police activities and operations and providing controls and safeguards for such activities
and operations in the department. Involvesstrategies or tactics, procedures, policies or
guidelines.
Operational Planning - the use of rational design or patten for all departmental
undertakings rather than relying on chance in an operational environment. The
preparation and development of procedures and techniques in accomplishing each of
42

the primary tasks and functions of an organization.


Police Planning - an attempt by police administrators in trying to allocate anticipated
resources to meet anticipated service demands. The systematic and orderly
determination of facts and events as basis for policyformulation and decision
making affecting law enforcement management.
Planning - the determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will
be attained; involves the determination of a course of action to take in performing a
particular function or activity. The process of developing methods or procedures or an
arrangement of parts intended to facilitate the accomplishment of a definite objective.
The process of deciding in advance what is to be done and how it is to be done.
Plan - an organized schedule or sequence by methodical activities intended to attain a
goal or objectives for the accomplishment of mission or assignment. A method or way
of doing something in order to attain objectives and provides answers to the 5Ws and
1H.
Strategy - a broad design or method or a plan to attain a stated goal or objective.
Tactics - are specific design, method or a course of action to attain a particular
objective in consonance with strategy.
Procedures - are sequences of activities to reach a point or to attain what is desired.
Policy - a course of action which could be a program of
actions adopted by an individual, group, organization or government or the set of
principles on which they are based.

case operational plan (COPLAN) - a definite target - specific activity


conducted in relation to an intelligence project under which it is affected. Several
case operations may fall under one intelligence project.- refers to a preparatory
plan on how to carry out a case operation which is the last resort to pursue
intelligence objectives when normal police operations fail.

command post/holding area - area where case conferences, briefings and


debriefings are being conducted by the responding agencies.

dragnet operation - is a police operation purposely to seal off the probable exit
points of fleeing suspect from the crime scene to prevent their escape.

Management or Administrative Functions


1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Directing
4. Controlling
5. Staffing
6. Reporting
7. Budgeting
43

Guidelines in Planning
1. What - mission/objective
2. Why - reason/philosophy
3. When - date/time
4. where - place
5. How - strategy/methods
Characteristics of a Good Plan
1. A Plan must have a clearly defined objective
2. A Plan must be simple, direct and clear
3. A Plan must be flexible
4. A Plan must be attainable
5. A Plan must provide standards of operation
6. A Plan must be economical in terms of resources
needed for implementation.
Types of Plan
1. Procedural/Policy Plan
2. Operational Plan
3. Tactical Plan
4. Administrative/Management Plan
5. Extra-Departmental Plan

Police Operational Planning Reviewer 1


1. The determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be
attained.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Directing
D. Controlling
2. involves the determination and allocation of the men and women as well as the
resource of an organization to achieve pre-determined goals or objectives of the
organization.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Directing
D. Controlling
3. It involves the overseeing and supervising of the human resources and the various
activities in an organization to achieve through cooperative efforts the predetermined goals or objectives of the organization.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Directing
D. Controlling
4. It involves the checking or evaluation and measurement of work performance and
comparing it with planned goals or objectives of the organization, and making the
44

necessary corrective actions so that work is accomplished as planned.


A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Directing
D. Controlling
5. The task of providing competent men to do the job and choosing the right men for
the right job-involves good selection and processing of reliable and well-trained
personnel.
A. Staffing
B. Reporting
C. Budgeting
D. Controlling
6. The making of detailed account of activities, work progress, investigations and
unusual in order to keepevery one informed or what is going on.
A. Staffing
B. Reporting
C. Budgeting
D. Controlling
7. The forecasting in detail of the results of an officially recognized program of
operations based onthe highest reasonable expectations of operatingefficiency.
A. Staffing
B. Reporting
C. Budgeting
D. Controlling
8. This is intended to be used in all situations of all kinds, which shall be outlined to
guide officers and men in the field.
A. Field Procedure
B. Headquarter's Procedure
C. Special Operating Procedure
D. None of the Above
9. To be included in these procedures are the duties of the dispatcher, jailer, matron,
and other personnel concerned, which may be reflected in the duty manual. It also
involves coordinated action on activity of several offices.
A. Field Procedure
B. Headquarter's Procedure
C. Special Operating Procedure
D. None of the Above
10.Certain special operations also necessitate the preparation of procedures as guides.
A. Field Procedure
B. Headquarter's Procedure
C. Special Operating Procedure
D. None of the Above
Answer:
45

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
B
C
D
A
B
C
A
B
C

Police Operational Planning Reviewer 2


1. A general statement of intention and typically with a time horizon.
A. Goal
B. Objective
C. Plan
D. Strategy
2. Specific commitment to achieve a measurable result within a specific period of time.
A. Goal
B. Objective
C. Plan
D. Strategy
3. An organize schedule or sequence by methodical activities intended to attain a goal
and objectives for the
accomplishment of mission or assignment.
A. Goal
B. Objective
C. Plan
D. Strategy
4. Is an attempt by administration to allocate anticipated resources to meet anticipated
service demands.
A. Police Planning
B. Planning
C. Strategy
D. Plan
5. A process of preparing for change and copping uncertainty formulating future causes
of action, the process of determining the problem of the organization coming up with
proposed resolution and finding best solution.
A. Police Planning
B. Planning
C. Strategy
D. Plan
6. It is a broad design, method, a plan to attain a stated goal or objective.
A. Police Planning
46

B. Planning
C. Strategy
D. Plan
7. It is a specific design, method, or course of action to attain a particular objective in
accordance with strategy.
A. Tactic
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Guidelines
8. A sequence of activities to reach a point or to attain that which is desired.
A. Tactic
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Guidelines
9. A product of prudence or wisdom in the management of human affairs.
A. Tactic
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Guidelines
10.A rule of action for the rank and file to show them and they are expected to obtain
the desired effect.
A. Tactic
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Guidelines
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
D

Police Operational Planning Reviewer 3


1. Set of procedure to meet varying degree of emergency while at the same
time providing continuing police coverage of areas not affected by the emergency.
A. General Emergency Plan
B. Specific Emergency Plan
C. Policy
47

D. Guidelines
2. A sub-type of plan to meet unusual needs which is similar to general emergency plan
but it is basically to certain specific situation.
A. General Emergency Plan
B. Specific Emergency Plan
C. Policy
D. Guidelines
3. It relates to plans which are strategic or long range in application, it determine the
organizations original
goals and strategy.
A. Strategic plan
B. Intermediate plan
C. Operational plan
D. None of the Above
4. It relates to plans which determine quantity and quality efforts and accomplishment.
It refers to the process of determining the contribution on efforts that can make or
provide with allocated resources.
A. Strategic plan
B. Intermediate plan
C. Operational plan
D. None of the Above
5. It refers to the production of plans which determines the schedule of special activity
and are applicable from one week to less than a year duration.
A. Strategic plan
B. Intermediate plan
C. Operational plan
D. None of the Above
6. It is the basic principle in planning, organizing, and management of the PNP in
support of the overall pursuit of the PNP vision, mission, and strategic action plan of
the national objective.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Functional Doctrine
D. None of the Above
7. The principles and rules governing the planning, organization, direction, and
employment of the PNP forces in the accomplishment of basic mission of maintenance
of peace and order, crime prevention and suppression and security and public
safety operations.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Functional Doctrine
D. None of the Above
8. This provides guidance for special activities of the PNP in the

broad field of interest


48

such as personnel, intelligence, operations, logistics, planning.


A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Functional Doctrine
D. None of the Above
9. Doctrine formulated jointly by two or more bureau in order to effect a certain
operation with regard to public safety and peace and order.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Complimentary Doctrine
D. Ethical Doctrine
10.It defines the fundamental principle governing the rules of conduct, attitude,
behavior and ethical norm of the PNP.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Complimentary Doctrine
D. Ethical Doctrine
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
B
A
B
C
A
B
C
C
D

Notes:
1. Index Crimes - crimes against person
2. Non Index Crimes - crimes against properties
3. Characteristics of a good plan - SMART
a. Simple
b. Measurable
c. Attainable
d. Realistic
e. Time Bound

Police Operational Planning Reviewer 4


1. An organization is more effective if it enables the individual to contribute to the
organization.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational Efficiency
C. The Scalar Principle
49

D. Functional Principle
2. Organizations structure is effective if it is structured to aid the accomplishment of
organizations objective with minimum cost.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational Efficiency
C. The Scalar Principle
D. Functional Principle
3. The vertical hierarchy of the organization which defines an unbroken chain of scale
of units from top to bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational Efficiency
C. The Scalar Principle
D. Functional Principle
4. This implies a system of varied function arranged into a workable pattern. The line
organization refers to the direct accomplishment of the objective. The staff refers to the
line organization which is an advisory or facilitative capacity.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational Efficiency
C. The Scalar Principle
D. Functional Principle
5. The right to exercise, decide and command by virtue of rank and position.
A. Authority
B. Doctrine
C. Discipline
D. None of the Above
6. It provides for the organizations objectives, it provides the various actions, hence,
policies, procedures, rules, and regulation of the organization are based on
the statement of doctrines.
A. Authority
B. Doctrine
C. Discipline
D. None of the Above
7. It is imposed by command or self restraint to insure supportive behavior.
A. Authority
B. Doctrine
C. Discipline
D. None of the Above
8. Procedures for coping with specific situations and locations.
A. Procedural Plan
B. Tactical Plan
C. Operational Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
50

9. Plans for the operation of special divisions like patrol, detective, traffic, vice, and
juvenile control division.
A. Procedural Plan
B. Tactical Plan
C. Operational Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
10. Standard operating procedures shall be planned to guide members in routine and
field operations and in some special operations.
A. Procedural Plan
B. Tactical Plan
C. Operational Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
B
C
D
A
B
C
B
C
A

Notes:
1. Scalar Principle
a. Unity of Command
b. Span of Control
c. Delegation of Authority
d. Chain of Command
2. Five Approaches in Planning
a. Synoptic Planning
- feasibility study
- acceptability study
- cost effective analysis
b. Must and Wants analysis
c. Incremental Planning
d. Trans-active Planning
e. Advocacy Planning

Police Operational Planning Reviewer 5


1. Standard Operating procedures shall be planned to guide members in routine and
field operations and in some special operations.
A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Tactical Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
51

2. Procedures for coping with specific situations at known locations.


A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Tactical Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
3. Plans for the operation of special divisions like patrol, detective, traffic, vice and
juvenile control division.
A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Tactical Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
4. The active interest and participation of individual office is so vital to the success of
the integrated police programs tha the integrated police shall continually seek
to motivate, promote and maintain an active public concern in its affairs.
A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Tactical Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
5. It shall map out in advance all operations involved in the organizations management
of personnel and material and in the procurement and disbursement of money.
A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Management Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
6. Forecasting future events and determining the most effective future activities for the
company.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Commanding
D. Coordinating
7. Consist of the ways in which the organizational structure is established and how the
authority and responsibility are given to managers a tasked called delegation.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Commanding
D. Coordinating
8. Managers must supervise subordinates in their daily work, and inspire them to
achieve company goals. Likewise it is the responsibility of managers to communicate
company goals and policies to subordinates.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Commanding
D. Coordinating
52

9. Concerned with activities designed to create a relationship between all the


organizations efforts and individual task.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Commanding
D. Coordinating
10. It is a manager's duty to observe and report deviations from plans and objectives,
and to make initiatives to correct potential deviations.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Controlling
D. Coordinating
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
C
B
D
C
A
B
C
D
C

Notes:
1. Types of Plans
a. Policy/Procedural Plan
b. Tactical plan
c. Operational Plan
d. Extra-Office Plan
e. Management Plan
2. Henry Fayol - (1841 - 1926) - concern was efficiency and
effectiveness of the entire organization characterized by
five specific functions.
a. Planning
b. Organizing
c. Commanding
d. Coordinating
e. Controlling
3. Five M of management
a. Manpower
b. Machine
c. Money
53

d. Means/Method
e. Material

Intelligence and Secret Service


Definition of Terms:
Intelligence Agency - is a government agency responsible for the collection,analysis
or exploitation of information and intelligence in support of law enforcement,national
security,defense and foreignpolicy objectives.
Intelligence Officer - is a person employed by an organization to collect,compile and
analyze information which is used to that organization.
Counter Intelligence - refers to effort made by intelligence organizations to prevent
hostile or enemy intelligence organization from successfully gathering and collecting
intelligence against them.
Human Intelligence - category of intelligence derived from information collected and
provided by human sources.
Dead Drop/Dead Letter Box - is a method of espionage trade craft used to
pass items between 2 individuals using a secret location and thus not require to meet
directly.
Live Drop - 2 persons meet to exchange items or information.
Dead Drop Spike - is a concealment device used to hide
money,maps,documents,microfilm and other items.
Cut-Out - is a mutually trusted intermediary,method or channel of
communication,facilitating the exchange of information between agents.
Espionage/Spying - involves a government or individual obtaining information that is
considered secret of confidential without the permission of the holder of the
information.
Agent Handling - is the management of agents,principal agents and agent networks
by intelligence officers typically known as case officers.
Case Officer - is an intelligence officer who is trained specialist in the management of
agents and agent network.
Agent - acts on behalf of another whether individual,organization
orforeign government, works under the direction of a principal agent or case officer.
Cryptography - is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in
the presence of third parties called adversaries.
54

Eaves Dropping - Is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others
without their consent.
Propaganda - is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a
community toward some cause or position.
Flip - apprehended criminals who turn informants.
Snitches - jail house informants.
Means of Information Gathering
1.Overt
2.Covert
Intelligence Cycle - is the process of developing unrefined data into polished
intelligence for the use of policy makers.
1. Direction - intelligence requirements are determined by a decision maker to meet
his/her
objective.
2. Collection - is the gathering of raw information based on requirements.
3. Processing - converting the vast amount of information collected into a form usable
by
analyst.
4. Analysis - conversion of raw information into intelligence. It includes:
(1) integrating
(2) evaluating
(3) analyzing data and preparing intelligence product.
5. Dissemination - is the distribution of raw or finished intelligence to
the consumer whose needs
initiated the intelligence requirement.
6. Feedback - is received from the decision maker and revised requirement issued.
Evaluation - systematic determination of merit, worth and significance of something or
someone using criteria against a set of standards.
Collation - is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
Crime Triangle
1. the offender
2. the victim
3. the location
Crime Intelligence - information compiled, analyzed and/or disseminated in an effort
to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity.
Strategic Intelligence - information concerning existing patterns or emerging trends
of criminal activity designed to assist in criminal apprehension and crime control
strategies for both short and long term investigative tools.
55

Tactical Intelligence - information regarding a specific criminal event that can be


used immediately by operational units to further a criminal investigation plan tactical
operations and provide for officer safety.
Open Source - refers to any information that can be legitimately obtained e. free on
request, payment of a fee.
Source - the place or person from which information is obtained.
Intelligence Assessment - is the development of forecasts of behavior or
recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organization based on a wide
range of available information sources both overt and covert.
Intelligence Analysis - is the process of taking known information about situations
and entities of strategic, operational, or tactical importance, characterizing the known
and with appropriate statements of probability. the future actions in those situations
and by those entities.
Cryptanalysis - from the Greek word Kryptos-hidden and Analyein-to loosen or to unite
- is the art of defeating cryptographic security systems and gaining access to the
contents of encrypted messages without being given the cryptographic key.

Intelligence and Secret Service Reviewer 1


1. Knowledge of a possible or actual enemy or area of operations acquired by the
collection,evaluation and interpretation of military information.
A. Combat intelligence
B. Police Intelligence
C. Military Intelligence
D. Counter intelligence
2. Knowledge of the enemy,weather and the terrain that is used in the planning and
conduct of tactical operations.
A. Combat intelligence
B. Police intelligence
C. Military Intelligence
D. Counter-intelligence
3. Activity pertains to all security control measures designed to ensure
the safeguarding of information against espionage, personnel against subversion and
installations or material against sabotage.
A. Combat intelligence
B. Police intelligence
C. Military intelligence
D. Counter intelligence
4. Those which seek to conceal information from the enemy.
A. Passive counter intelligence measures
56

B. Active counter intelligence measures


C. Strategic intelligence
D. Tactical intelligence
5. Those that actively block the enemy's attempt to gain information of enemy's effort
to engage in sabotage or subversion.
A. Passive counter intelligence measures
B. Active counter intelligence measures
C. Strategic intelligence
D. Tactical intelligence
6. When the source of the information comes from a police intelligence officer of long
experience and extensive background, the evaluation of reliability of information is
labeled.
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
7. When there is no adequate basis estimating the reliability of an information,the
evaluation of the reliability of the information is labeled.
A. A
B. F
C. E
D. D
8. The current head of the PNP directorate for intelligence is
A. Catalino Cuy
B. Cipriano Querol Jr.
C. Lina Sarmiento
D. Angelito Pacia
9. Knowledge in raw form is known as
A. Intelligence
B. Information
C. Awareness
D. Cognition
10.The resolving or separating of a thing into its component parts.
A. Analysis
B. Evaluation
C. Collation
D. Collection

Remember the ff: Intelligence and Secret Service


Methods of reporting information
A. Evaluation of reliability of information - indicated by a letter as follows:
A - completely reliable
57

B - usually reliable - informant is of known integrity


C - fairly reliable
D - nor usually reliable
E - Unreliable
F - reliability not judge - no adequate basis estimating the
reliability of the source.
B. Evaluation of accuracy of information - indicated by numerals as follows:
1
2
3
4
5
6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

confirmed by other agencies


probably true
possibly true
doubtfully true
improbable
truth can not be judged

C
A
D
A
B
A
B
B
B
A

Intelligence and Secret Service Reviewer 2


1. Ancillary materials that are included in a cover story or deception operation to help
convince the opposition or casual observers that what they are observing is genuine.
A. Walk-in
B. Warming room
C. Window Observing
D. Window dressing
2. A surveillance team usually assigned to a specific target.
A. Window observer
B. Window dressing
C. Stake-out team
D. Watcher team
3. A location out of the weather where a surveillance team can go to keep warm
and wait for the target.
A. Warming room
B. Rest room
C. Station room
D. Waiting room
4. A defector who declares his intentions by walking into an official installation, or
otherwise making contact with an opposition g government, and asking for political
58

asylum or volunteering to work in place. Also known as a volunteer.


A. Enemy traitor
B. Asylum seeker
C. Enemy defector
D. Walk-in
5. The methods developed by intelligence operatives to conduct their operations.
A. Trade craft
B. Operational technique
C. Trade secret
D. Operational secret
6. It focuses on subject or operations and usually short term.
A. Strategic intelligence
B. Counter intelligence
C. Tactical intelligence
D. Long-term intelligence
7. Concerns with the security of information, personnel, material and installations.
A. Strategic intelligence
B. Counter intelligence
C. Tactical intelligence
D. Long-term intelligence
8. Deals with political, economic, military capabilities and vulnerabilities of all nations.
A. Strategic intelligence
B. Counter intelligence
C. Tactical intelligence
D. Long-term intelligence
9. Tradecraft techniques for placing drops by tossing them while on the move.
A. Tosses
B. Dropping
C. Throwing
D. Drops
10.A dead drop that will be retrieved if it is not picked up by the intended recipient after
a set time.
A. Picked drop
B. Timed drop
C. Abandoned drop
D. Recovered drop
You may want to read the ff: intelligence and secret service
A. Four Axioms of intelligence
1. Intelligence is crucial to intel security
2. Intelligence is crucial to all types of operations
3. Intelligence is the responsibility of all intelligence agencies
4. Intelligence of the government must be superior to that of the enemy.
59

B. Intelligence - product resulting from the collection, evaluation analysis, integration


and the interpretation of all available information.
- is a processed information.
C. Data + analysis = Intelligence
D. Police intelligence - used in the preparation and execution of police plans,polices
and programs.
Answers: Intelligence and Secret Service
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
D
A
D
A
C
C
A
A
B

Intelligence and Secret Service Reviewer 3


1. Technical air sampler sensors designed to sniff for hostile substances or parties in a
dark tunnel system.
A. Chemical sniffers
B.Tunnel sniffers
C. Dog sniffers
D. Air sniffers
2. A major electronic communications line, usually made up of a bundle of cables.
A. Cable line
B. Trunk line
C. Telephone line
D. DSL
3. A counter-surveillance ploy in which more than one target car or target officer is
being followed and they suddenly go in different directions, forcing the surveillance
team to make instant choices about whom to follow.
A. ABC technique
B. Star-burst maneuver
C. AC technique
D. Sudden change maneuver
4. A chemical marking compound developed by the KGB to keep tabs on the activities of
a target officer. Also called METKA. The compound is made of nitrophenyl pentadien
(NPPD) and luminol.
A. Spy dust
60

B. Chemical dust
C. Sulfuric acid
D. Potassium nitrate
5. A ploy designed to deceive the observer into believing that an operation has gone bad
when, in fact, it has been put into another compartment.
A. Burned
B. Deceiving
C. Spoofing
D. Misleading
6. The special disguise and deception tradecraft techniques developed under Moscow
rules to help the CIA penetrate the KGB's security perimeter in Moscow.
A. Silver bullet
B. Golden bullet
C. Bronze bullet
D. Titanium bullet
7. Any form of clandestine tradecraft using a system of marks, signs, or codes for
signaling between operatives.
A. Ciphers
B. Signs
C. Signals
D. Code
8. Any tradecraft technique employing invisible messages hidden in or on innocuous
materials. This includes invisible inks and microdots, among many other variations.
A. Secret writing
B. Secret message
C. Hidden message
D. Hidden writing
9. An apartment, hotel room, or other similar site considered safe for use by operatives
as a base of operations or for a personal meeting.
A. Meeting place
B. Dead drop
C. Drop
D. Safe house
10.When an operation goes bad and the agent is arrested.
A. Rolled up
B. Rolled down
C. Burned out
D. Burned down
Remember the ff: Intelligence and Secret Service
1. Sun Tzu - The Chinese general who wrote The Art of War in about 400 b.c.
2. Smoking-bolt operation - A covert snatch operation in which a special entry team
61

breaks into an enemy installation and steals a high-security device, like a code
machine, leaving nothing but the "smoking bolts."
3. Information - unprocessed information or raw data.
4. Intelligence information - Information gathered or received which is of intelligence
interests.
5. Intelligence community - It is an integrated and neatly organized entity composed
of units or agencies which have intelligence interest and responsibilities.
6. Informant - is anyone who can furnish information.
7.Rolling car pickup - A clandestine car pickup executed so smoothly that the car
hardly stops at all and seems to have kept moving forward.
8. Terms:
1. Wanted list - It is for crime suspects with warrant of arrest.
2. Watch list - It is for those without warrant of arrest.
3. Target list - It is for organized crime groups.
4. PIR - Priority Intelligence requirement
5. OIR - Other intelligence requirements
6. SOR - Specific order request
9. R.A. 8551 - Placed PNP as support to the AFP in Counter insurgency operations thru
intelligence gathering.
10.The intelligence cycle (PNP Directorate for Intelligence)
1. Directing
2. Collecting
3. Processing
4. Dissemination and use

Definition of Terms: Next Page


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

B
B
B
B
C
A
C
A
D
A

Intelligence and Secret Service Definition of Terms


2 Methods Of Collecting Information
62

Overt/Open overt info. Are obtained from open and easily available sources like magazines,
reports and files.
Covert/Close
3 Defined Objectives Of Police Intelligence
To assist the commander in the success of the team
Discover and Identify criminal activities
To assist in the apprehension of criminals
3 Types Of Channels In Special Communication Systems
1. Regular
2. Secondary
3. Emergency
4 Phases/Steps of Informant Recruitment
1.
2.
3.
4.

Selection
Investigation
Approach
Testing

Area of Interest subject of information gathering (person,place,things or an activity)


Briefs the form in which the finished product of intelligence is presented to the commander
the police department.
Bugging the placement of a hidden microphone in a particular room to obtain information.
Burned the agent was identified and known.
CIA established in 1946.
Ciples are fundamental guides to action, broad statement of truth from which others are
derived.
Classification/Types Of Police Intelligence
1. Strategic Intelligence
2. Counter Intelligence
3. Line Intelligence
Coding is the process of putting the codes and ciphers to plain text message.
Collate to bring together and compare the truthfulness of the information.
Collection to accumulate knowledge on a subject or area of interest.
Cooperative Members of the Community - a rich source of information on criminals,
criminal activities and even subversive groups.
Criminal Syndicate it is a stable business with violence applied and directed at
unwelcome competitors.
63

Criminal World the social organization of criminals having its own social classes.
Cryptoanalysis is the process of putting the plain text message tocodes and cipher.
Cryptograph the art and science of making, devising, inventing, or protecting codes and
cipher.
Counter Intelligence type of intelligence activity which deals with defending the
organization against it criminal activities.
Counter Intelligence Security Measures

1. Physical Security a system of barrier placed between the potential intruder and the
material to be protected.
2. Personnel Security includes all security measures designed to prevent unsuitable
individuals of doubtful loyalty from gaining access to classified matter,securing
facilities and to prevent theappointment, employment, or retention as employees of
such individuals.
3. Operational Security measures taken in conducting operations or action in a secure
and efficient manner.
4. Security Survey/Inspection conducted in order to assist the chief of office in
determining the security measures required to protect key installation from possible
sabotage, espionage, subversion and unauthorized disclosure of or access to classified
defense information or materials.
5. Community Security is the protection resulting from all measures designed to deny
unauthorized person information of value which may be derived from the possession
and study of communications or to mislead unauthorized persons and the
interpretation of the result of such study.
Counter Surveillance if a surveillance team is watched by the supervisor or a designated
unknown individual to know if the team is doing its job as planned or is being watched by
companions of the subject.

Covert Operation if the information is obtained without the knowledge of the person against
whom the information or document may be used or if the method or procurement is done not
in an open manner.
Detection of Criminal the primary purpose of police counter intelligence.
Decipher to reconvert the cipher into plain text message.
Documentary Security Classifications
1.
2.
3.
4.

Top Secret
Secret
Confidential
Restricted

Encipher conversion of plain text message to ciphers.


64

Evaluation it is the critical appraisal of information as a basis for its subsequent


interpretation which includes determining the pertinence of information and the reliability of
the source.
- to judge the information as to its truthfulness or importance.
Financial Gain the most common reason why an informer is giving information.
Frederick The Great father of organized military espionage.
Information are knowledge, data, news, opinion or the like transmitted from one person to
another.
Integrate to make the entire or all the information the subject matter.
Interpret to explain the meaning or to expand the information from the unknown to known.
Intelligence product resulting from the collecting information concerning an actual and
potential situation and condition relating to foreign activities and to foreign or enemy held
areas.
- product resulting from collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and interpretation of
available information concerning area of interest.

Interpretation determining the significance of the information with respect to what is alread
known and it draws conclusions as to the probable meaning of the evaluated information.
Kinds Of Surveillance
1. Surveillance of place
2. Tailing or shadowing
3. Undercover investigation or Roping
Line Intelligence types of intelligence which is of immediate nature and necessary for more
effective police planning and operation.
Method of Casing
1.
2.
3.
4.

Personal Reconnaissance the most effective


Map Reading
Research Work
Operational Data Research

Military Intelligence it is an evaluated and interpreted information concerning an actual


or possible enemy or theater of operations including weather and terrain together with
the conclusions drawn therefrom.
Need To Know Principle in intelligence dissemination, even a ranking law enforcer who
has no business on the classified information is not furnished the report.
OB File identification, location, and knowing the intents of criminal
syndicates, notorious characters and even people with subversive desires must be made
available for use.
Order Of Battle an intelligence document describing the identity, strength, command
structure and disposition of the enemy/criminals.
65

Organized crime it is the combination of two or more persons for the purpose of
establishing criminal activity.
Overt Operation if the information or document are procured openly without regard as
to whether the subject of the investigation becomes knowledgeable of the purpose for
which it is being gathered.
Parker internal affairs is my defense and intelligence is my offensive arm.
Police Counter Intelligence it is the detection, prevention, or neutralization of any
activity inimical to the harmony and best interest of the police organization.
Police Intelligence an evaluated and interpreted information concerning organized crime
and other major police problems.
Reconnaissance to gather specific or detailed information at a particular time and place.
Roping undercover assignment, form of investigation in which the investigator assume a
different and unofficial identity/cover story in order to obtain information.
Safe House a clandestine place where the intelligence agent and his superior meet.
Schulmoister Napoleon's secret military agent.
Security Inspection conducted in order to determine degree of compliance with
established security policies and procedures.
Stool Pidgeon an individual who sells information to different groups of law enforcers.
Strategic Intelligence intelligence which is primarily long range in nature with little or no
immediate practical value.
Sun Tzu he was the writer of the book Art of War.
Surveillance to gather general information over a wide area and takes a longer time
frame.
Tactical Interrogation a process or method to obtain information from a captured enemy.
Walshingham protector of queen Elizabeth.
Wilhelm Von Stieber a CIA intelligence officer who spied for soviet union from 1985
1994, he had perpetrated the costliest breach of security in the agency's history.

Industrial Security Management


RA no. 5487 - (as amended by PD no. 11) - Private security agency law.
66

Private Detective Agency - is any person who for hire or reward or on commission
conducts or carries on or holds himself out as conducting or carrying on a detective
agency or detective service.
Private Detective - any person who is not a member of a regular police agency or
armed forces who does detective work for hire,reward or commission.
PADPAO - Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators.
Watchmen/Security Guard - person who offers or renders personal service to watch
or secure either residential or business establishment or both or any
building,compound or area for hire or compensation or as an employee thereof.
Security Agency - any person, association, partnership or corporation who recruits,
trains, muster ,furnishes, solicitindividuals or business firms, private or government
owned or controlled corporation to engage his services or those of its watchmen.
Who May Organize Security Agency
1. Any Filipino Citizen or a corporation, partnership or association.
2. With a minimum capital required by law.

In case of corporation, association, or partnership - must be 100 % owned and


controlled by Filipino citizen.
No person shall organize or have interest in more than one agency.

Qualification of an Operator or Manager of a Security Agency:


1. At least 25 years of age
2. College graduate and/or commissioned officer in the inactive service of the AFP
3. Good moral character
4. No previous record of any conviction of any crime/offense involving moral turpitude
5. Not suffering from any of the following disqualifications:
1.
2.
3.
4.

dishonorably discharged or separate from the AFP


mentally incompetent
addicted to the use of narcotic drugs
habitual drunkard

An elective or appointive government employees who may be called upon on


account of the function of their respective offices in the implementation and
enforcement of the provision of RA 5487 and person related to such government
employees by affinity or consanguinity in the third civil degree shall not hold any
interest, directly or indirectly in anysecurity guard agency.

Basic Qualification of a security Guard


1. Filipino citizen
2. High school graduate
3. Physically and mentally fit
4. Not less than 21 nor more than 50 years old
5. At least 5'4" in height
6. Not suffering from any disqualification under RA
5487

67

Veterans shall be given priority in employment as security guard or private


detective.

Person convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude shall not be employed
as security guard or private detective.

Private detective, detective agency, security guard, security agency must first
obtain license from the PNP.

Employees employed solely for clerical or manual work need not be licensed.

The license shall be displayed at all times in a conspicuous and suitable place in
the agency office.

The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operation of all private
detective and security guard agencies.

The City/Municipal Mayors has the power as director of the City/Municipal civil
defense to deputize private detective and security guards to help maintain
peace and order or prevent or arrest law violators in case of emergency or in
times of disaster or calamity. They shall take orders from the Chief of Police for
the duration of the fire, inundation, earthquakes, riots or other emergency.

A security guard or security agency is entitled to possess firearms.

Firearm must not be higher than .45 caliber.

Agency is entitled to possess firearm not exceeding one firearm for


every security guard in its employ.

Security guard is entitled to possess not more than one riot gun or shotgun.

Firearms shall be carried by the security guard only during his tour of duty in
proper uniform within the compound of the establishment except when he
escorts big amount of cash or valuables in or out of said compound.

The Chief PNP shall prescribe the uniform, ornaments, equipment and
paraphernalia to be worn by the security guards.

Uniforms must be different from the PNP/AFP.

Salary of security guard - not lower than the minimum wage prescribe by law.

Limitations and Prohibitions on a Security Agency


1. No agency operating in the City of manila and suburbs may employ more than
1000 watchmen or
security guards.
2. No agency operating in other cities and first class municipalities may employ more
than 500 watchmen
or security guards.
3. No agency operating in municipalities other than first class may employ more than
200 watchmen or
security guards.
68

4. No person, corporation, partnership or association may organize more than one


agency in any one city
or municipality.
5. No agency shall offer, render or accept services to gambling dens or other illegal
enterprises.
6. The extent of the security service being provided by any security agency shall not
go beyond the
whole compound or property of the person or establishment requesting the security
service except when they escort big amount of cash.

Who can Issue rules and regulations to carry out the purpose of RA
5487? ans. the chief PNP, in consultation with the Philippines Association of Detective
and Protective Agency Operators.
What are the penal provisions for violation of RA5487 or its implementing
rules? ans.
1. Suspension, fine or cancellation of license to operate with the forfeiture f bond filed
with the
Chief PNP.
2. Imprisonment ranging from 1 to 4 years and fine, in the discretion of the courts.
Physical security - describes the measures that are designed to deny access to
unauthorized personnel from physically accessing a building, facility, stored
information and guidance on how to design structures to resist potentially hostile acts.
- a system of barriers placed between a potential intruder and the
material or installation to be protected.
Security - the predictable state or condition which is free from harm, injury,
destruction, intimidation or fear. Freedom from fear or danger or defense against
crime.
Physical Security System - a barrier or system of barriers placed between the
potential intruder and the matter to be protected. Protective device against hazards,
threats, vulnerability and risks.
Purpose/Goals of Physical security
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

deter potential intruders - ex. warning signs, perimeter markings


distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - ex. using pass card
delay or prevent intrusion attempt - ex. wall, door lock, safe
detect intrusion and monitor/record intruders - e. CCTV, intrusion alarm
trigger appropriate incident responses - ex. security guards

How to deter potential intruders


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

install warning signs build fences


put vehicle barriers
install vehicle height restriction
implement restricted access point
install sight lighting and trenches

How to distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - access control at the


69

1. gates
2. doors
3. locks
How to detect intrusion
1. install alarms
2. install intrusion detection monitor
3. install video monitoring system - ex. cctv
Vigiles (in Rome) - origin of the watchmen although their principal duty was as a fire
brigade.

Notable security guards:


1.

Frank Wills - detected the Watergate burglars ultimately leading to the


resignation of US president Richard Nixon.

Target hardening - the reduction in criminal opportunity, generally through the use
of physical barriers, architectural design and enhanced security measures of a
particular location.
Defensible Space - the range of mechanisms that combine to bring an environment
under the control of its residents.
Demography - the study of the characteristics of population groups.
Principles of Physical Security
1. An intruder must be able to acquire access to the property in order to benefit.
2. The type of access necessary will depend upon a number of variable factors and
therefore may be
achieved in a number of ways.
3. There is no impenetrable barrier.
4. Security is built upon a system of defense in depth resulting to accumulated delay
time which may lead
to the apprehension of the intruder.
5. Each installation is different from the others.
2 Kinds of Barriers
1. Natural
2. Artificial
5 Types of Barriers
1. Human
2. Animal
3. Natural
4. Energy/Electrical/Electronic
70

5. Structural
3 Line of Defense
1. Perimeter Barrier - 1st line of defense.
2. Building Exterior - 2nd line of defense.
3. Interior Controls - 3rd line of defense.
Perimeter Barrier - main purpose is to deny or impede access or exit of unauthorized
persons.
Other Purposes
1. It defines the boundary of the property to be secured.
2. It creates a physical and psychological deterrent to unauthorized entry.
3. It delays intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of intruders.
4. It assists in a more efficient and economical employment of guards.
5. It facilitates and improves the control of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.
Components:
1. Types of Fencing (solid/full view)
2. The top guard
3. Types of Protective Alarms Systems
4. Types of Protective and Emergency Lighting's
5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers
Building Exterior - Components:
1. walls
2. Doors
3. Windows
4. Roof Openings
5. Fire Escapes
6. Protective Alarm Systems
7. Protective and Emergency lightnings
8. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers
Interior Controls - Components:
1. ID Systems
2. Protective Alarm Systems
3. Protective Emergency Lighting's
4. Communication Systems
5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers
6. Restricted Areas (storage areas/utilities)
7. Access Control
8. Key Control
9. Emergency Plans
10.Guards
Natural barriers or features - such as cliffs,ravines,and rivers which delay or make
71

more difficult to entry of intruders.


Barriers - any line of boundary and separation,natural or artificial,places,or serving as
limitation or obstruction.Anything that bars,keep out,obstruct progress,or prevents
encroachment or intrusion.
Structural barriers - features constructed by man regardless of their original intent
that tends to delay the intruder.ex.walls,ceilings,locks,safe,windows.
Human barriers - guards,charges of quarters,office personnel,shop workers etc. who
stand between the intruder and the matter to be protected.
Animal barriers - usually guard dog.ex. trained German shepherdsused as
guards,goose,and turkeys can also be included.
Energy barriers - usually electrical or electronics devices used to provide assistance
to guard personnel.ex. protective lightnings,antiintrusion devices.
Full view fence - it is designed primarily to prevent physical access between two
areas.Constructed in such a way that visual access is permitted through the fence.
Physical Security Features:
1.Natural barriers - natural terrains features must be considered from the stand point
of their values to
intruder as cover and concealment. Normally the first type considered very often we
have to accept
and work around them.
2.Fences
a. solid fence - one is constructed in such a way that visual access through the
fenced structure is
denied.
b. full view fence - constructed in such a way that usual access is permitted through
the fence.
Advantages of a full view fence
1. removing patrols and stationary guards are able to keep area surrounding of the
installation under
observation.
2. it does not create shadows which would provide cover and concealment for the
intruder.
Disadvantages of a full view fence
1. It allows visual access to the installation, its personnel, its guard and its activities.
2. It allows the intruders to become familiar with the movements and the time
schedule of the guard
patrols thereafter allowing him to pick the time for attempting penetration which
would most
advantageous to the intruder.
Advantages of solid fence
72

1. Denies visual access of the installation of the intruder.


2. Denies the opportunity for the intruder to become familiar with the personnel,
activities and the time
schedule of the movements of guards in the installations.
Disadvantages of solid fence
1. It prevents the guards from observing the area around the installation.
2. It creates shadows which may be used by the intruder for cover and concealment.
Minimum acceptable requirements for fence used security barriers
1. Height - 8 feet at a minimum.
2. Slack at the bottom - not to exceed 2 inches. If the fences are not tight then it
should extend even
closer to the ground.
3. Wooden fence post - minimum horizontal dimension of 4X4 inches.
4. Steel fence post - the round type should at least be 2 inches at the smallest
diameter.
5. Fence post - should be set in concrete or in firm soil using commercial drive anchors
to a depth of 3
feet and the maximum distance post is 10 feet.
6. Fence top (Top Guard) - there should be something on the top of the fence to deter
persons attempting
to go over fence. ex. use of barb wire overhang. The arms holding the barbwire
should be extended at 45
degree angle in the direction of the expected approach.
7. Fence area - it should be declared trees and vegetation and debris of other
materials which
would offer concealment of the intruder or would aid him in scaling the fence.
8. Fence Gates - gates should be limited to the no. necessary for efficient and sage
operation of the
installation.
9. Fence Opening - all opening in the fence in excess of 96 inches must be locked
barbed or screen in
such a way that they may be interlocked and opened from the inside and only by
selected personnel.
10. Multiple fence - is used should at least be 10 feet apart and the overhang on the
top of the inner
fence should point inward.
4 Basic functions that must be accomplished by the guard system
1. Detect intruders
2. Sound alarms
3. Apprehend unauthorized personnel
4. Identify authorized personnel
Personnel Control Identification
2 Types of identification
1. Personal Recognition - is the most effective
2. Artificial Identification - badges, passes etc.
73

System of Employment of Personnel Control Identification


1. Pass system - a method used by security to screen visitors or person admitted into
building premises.
2. Single pass or Badge system - the least expensive and the least secure.
3. Group pass and Badge system - one ID for one group.
4. Multiple pass system - separate pass is required for access to various areas in need
ex.color coding
5. Spot magnetized identification passes - a code may be placed in the device and
when passes through a
machine, the code on the device is read, if it contains wrong code or no code at
all,it will alarm.
6. Access list - it contains the names of authorized persons or personnel and is
checked against
identification cards such as drivers licenses, draft registration etc.
Visitor control - the measures used would depend on the sensibility of the installation
but could include the following:
1. Escort - expensive but most secure
2. Time traveled - if there is a long delay or time lapse between the departure and
arrival, the visitor may
be required to show cause for the delay.
3. Visitors logs - should contain identifying data, reasons of visit, time in and hour etc.
4. Visitors entrances - separate access for visitors and separate for employees .
Utility and maintenance personnel - escort system could be used. If these people visit
the installations on a regular basis some of the systems previously could be used.
Package control - there should be provisions made to check packages being taken in
and taken out.
Photography - extreme caution must be exercised in areas where classified information
is displayed to preclude unauthorized taking of pictures of the installation.
Vehicular control and identification
* Most common identification is for registering at the headquarters or gates and
putting of sticker on the windows of the vehicles.
* For visitors,the following systems are used:
1. Escort
2. Driver pool - the most secure but the most expensive.In this system,car is driven
by qualified
driver employed by the installation from the entrance to its destination and after
the conclusion of the business of the visitor.car is driven back to the installations
entrance.
3. Time travel - used in less sensitive installations
4. Grid system - a very complicated system. The installation is divided into grid ad
squares like a
map.Each square is given a no. or letter designation. The visitor is then given a
map and
shown the route to take to his destination and should not deviate from the
prescribed route,
74

otherwise he could be stopped and questioned by the guards.


5. Search of vehicles - sign should be put at the entrance to the installation that any
vehicle
entering is subject to search anytime.
Types of Protective Alarm Systems
1. Central station system - the control station is located outside the installations.When
the alarm is
sounded by a subscriber, the central station notifies the police or protection agency.
2. Property system - the control system is located inside the installations with its own
firefighter,law
enforcer,ambulance,or bomb disposal unit.
3. Local alarm - the signalling is near the alarm itself. When the intruder enters the
installation,the alarm
goes off scaring the intruder.Purpose is just to scare not to apprehend intruder.
4. Auxiliary alarm - the installation owned the protective alarm with a unit in the
nearest police
station so that in case of need,direct call is possible.
Kinds of Alarms
1. Intrusion alarm - any detecting devices using electric and their combinations to
signal an alarm
when actuated.
2. Laser beam alarm - a laser emitter floods the wall or fence with a beam so that
when this beam is
disturbed by a physical object,an alarm is activated
3. Photocell alarm - an invisible or visible beam is emitted and when disturbed,it
activates an alarm
or mechanical device that opens a door or lift movable barriers,activated by light.
Basic component of an alarm system
1. Annunciation - the heart of the system of the detecting device and is the
component that
activates the triggering unit.
2. Transmission - it transmit what is detected.
3. Triggering device - the one which emits those aural or visual signals or both.
Security Survey - The detailed check and audit of what an installation or plant does
not have in relation to its protection from hazards.
Security Inspection - a process where physical examination is conducted to
determine compliance with established security policies and procedures as a result of
security survey.
Purpose of security survey
1. To determine existing state or condition of security
2. To locate weaknesses and possible defense
3. To determine degree of protection required
Security hazards - an act or condition which result in a situation conductive to a
75

breach of the protection system and the subsequent loss or compromise of defense,
information, company secrets, or damage to property, personnel, or facilities.
Hazards - exposure to loss or injury.
Two General Categories of Security Hazards
1. Human hazard - caused by human action. Ex.sabotage, pilferage, theft
2. Natural Hazard - caused by natural phenomena.
Types of Human Hazards
1. Human carelessness
2. Accident
3. Disaffection
4. Disloyalty
5. Subversion
6. Sabotage
7. Espionage
8. Pilferage
9. Theft
10.Vandalism
Protective Security - measures taken by an installation or unit to protect against
sabotage,espionage or subversion and at the same time provide freedom of action in
order to provide the installation or unit with the necessary flexibility to accomplish its
mission.
3 Aspects of Security
1. Physical Security - measures taken to prevent physical access or entry to an
installation.
2. Personnel Security - measures taken to insure that only authorized personnel have
access to
classified documents or information.
3. Document and Information Security
Types of Security
1. Physical Security - the most broad.
2. Industrial Security - security of business installations and industrial plants.
3. VIP Security - protection of high level officers and important personnel.
4. Bank Security - security of money and assets stored or in transit.
5. Hotel Security - security for hotel guest and their personal belongings and
property as well as
properties of the hotel.
6. Document security - protection of vital records from loss or unauthorized access.
7. Communication Security - measures to prevent or delay the unauthorized person
in gaining
information through communication.
Physical Security
* Protective barrier - is the physical type of security.
* Barrier - any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying
76

illegal access into


installations.
* Perimeter barrier - a medium or structures which define the physical limits of an
installation or area
to restrict or impede access thereto. Any physical barrier used to supplement the
protection of the
inside perimeter.
* Inside Perimeter - a line of protection adjacent to the protected area and passing
through points of
possible entry into the area. ex. doors and windows
* Outside perimeter - a line of protection but some what removed from the protected
area. ex.fence
Types of Perimeter Barrier Opening
1. Gates and Doors
2. Elevators
3. Air intakes,Exhaust tunnels
4. Clear Zone
5. Top Guard
6. Guard Control Stations
7. Tower
8. Barrier maintenance
9. Sign and Notices
Protective Alarms - supplemental physical barriers in a form of sound that cause
alarm installed indoors or outdoors in an installation.
Types of Alarm Systems
1. Metallic foil wire
2. Ultrasonic Detection Device
3. Vibration Detection Device
4. Microwave Motion Detection Device
5. Audio Detection Device
6. Photo Electric or Electric Eye
Kinds of Alarms
1. Bill Traps
2. Foot Rail Activator
3. Knee or thigh button
4. Foot button
5. Double squeeze button
Protective Lighting - provide illumination on areas to be secured that adds
psychological deterrence.
Types of protective Lighting
1. Stationary luminary - consist of series of fixed luminaries to flood given area
continuously
Example: glare protection type
2. Standby Lighting - provides continuous lighting through manual operations.
77

3. Movable Lighting - stationary or portable manually operated search lights.


4. Emergency Lighting - duplication of existing lighting system that is utilized in the
event of
electric failure.
Types of Lighting Equipment
1. Street lights - used in parking areas
2. Search Lights - highly focused incandescent lamps used to pinpoint potential
trouble spot.
3. Flood Lights - project light in a concentrated beam used in boundaries and fences.
4. Fresnel Lights - wide beam units primarily used to extend illumination in long
horizontal strips to
protect approaches to perimeter barrier.
Protective Locks and Keys
1. Lock - a mechanical,hydraulic,electrical or electronic device designed to prevent
entry into a
building,room,container or hiding place and to prevent the removal of items
without the consent
of the owner.
2. Padlock - portable and detachable lock having or sliding hasp that passes through
a staple ring.
3. Peterman - A term used in England for lock picker, safe cracker and penetrators of
restricted areas
or rooms.
Types of Locks
1. Lever locks - used in cabinets,drawers,safe deposit box.
2. Disc-Tumble Locks - used in car doors.
3. Warded Locks - offer little security,used only to provide privacy.
4. Combination Locks
5. Card Operated Locks
6. Electromagnetic Locks
7. Code operated Locks
Types of Keys
1. Master Key - a special key of opening a series locks.
2. Grand Master Key - a key that will open everything in a system involving two or
more
master key groups.
3. Change Key - a key to a single lock within a master keyed system.
4. Sub Master Key - a key will open all lock with a particular area or grouping in a
given facility.
Types of Security Cabinets
1. Safe
2. vault
3. File Room
Protective Cabinets - considered as the third line of defense against unauthorized
78

persons.
Key Control - a system of controlling keys devised and regulated for disposal,
storage and withdrawals.
Close-in Security Formations
1. One Man Security - 360 degrees coverage.
2. Two Man Security - Each guard has 180 degrees coverage.
3. Three Man Security - has equal areas of coverage
4. Four Man Security
5. Five Man Security - modified diamond.
6. Six Man Security - (defensive circle) too much crowd requires arm lock formation.
Note: Six Man Security is the most effective.
Defensive In Depth Barriers
1. Outer Ring - securing sidewalks, in front of quarters or offices, covering all
entrances, front,
center, side and rear.
2. Middle Ring - security covering inside quarters, office, residence, all stairways and
elevators.
3. Inner Ring - immediately outside the high risk personnel door or the one closest to
the VIP.

Industrial Security Management Reviewer 1


1. The Private Security Agency Law is known as
A. R.A. No. 5487
B. R.A. No. 5467
C. R.A. No. 5476
D. R.A. No. 5478
2. Any Person who, for hire or reward or on commission, conducts or carries on or holds
himself or itself out as conducting or carrying on a detective agency or detective
service.
A. Private Security Guard
B. Private Detective
C. Private Security Agency
D. Private Detective Agency
3. Any Person who is not a member of a regular police agency or the Armed Forces of
the Philippines who does detective work for hire, reward or commission.
A. Private Detective Agency
B. Private Detective
C. Private Security Guard
D. Private Security Agency
4. Any Person who offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either
residential or business establishment or both, or any building, compound or area
including but not limited to logging concession, agricultural, mining, or pasture lands
for hire or compensation or as an employee thereof is known as
79

A. Security Guard
B. Private Security Agency
C. Private Detective Agency
D. Private Security Agency
5. Any Person, Association, Partnership or Corporation who recruits, trains, muster,
furnishes, solicits individuals or business firms, private or government owned or
controlled corporations to engage his service or those of its watchmen is known as
A. Private Security Guard
B. Private Detective
C. Private Detective Agency
D. Private Security Agency
6. Security Agency must be owned and controlled by how many percentage of Filipino
ownership?
A. 100% Filipino
B. 90% Filipino
C. 75% Filipino
D. 60% Filipino
7. How many security agency may a person organize or have an interest in?
A. Four
B. Three
C. Two
D. One
8. The Operator or Manager of a security agency must be at
A. 25 Years of Age
B. 30 Years of Age
C. 35 Years of Age
D. 40 Years of Age

least

9. The Operator or Manager of a security agency must be at least a


A. Ph. D. Degree Holder
B. Master's Degree Holder
C. College Graduate
D. High School Graduate
10. An Operator or Manager of a security agency must have no previous record of any
conviction of any crime or offense involving
A. Crimes Against Person
B. Crimes Against Property
C. Crimes Against Chastity
D. Moral Turpitude
Answer:
1.
2.
3.

A
D
B
80

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
D
A
D
A
C
D

Industrial Security Management Reviewer 2


1. One of the following is not a disqualification for an operator or manager of a
security agency
A. Mental Incompetent
B. Womanizer
C. Narcotic Drug Addict
D. Habitual Drunkard
2. One of the following is not a requirement to qualify as a security guard
A. Filipino Citizen
B. College Graduate
C. Physically and Mentally Fit
D. Not More Than 50 Years Old
3. A Security Guard must be at least
A. 5'2" in Height
B. 5'3" in Height
C. 5'4" in Height
D. 5'5" in Height
4. A Security Guard must not be less than
A. 19 Years of Age
B. 20 Years of Age
C. 21 Years of Age
D. 22 Years of Age
5. Who has the power to promulgate the rules and regulations to carry out the
provisions of R.A. No. 5487
A. The President of the Philippines
B. The DILG Secretary
C. The Chief of the PNP
D. The DOJ Secretary
6. Who has the power to exercise general supervision over the operation of all Private
Detective or Security Guard Agencies?
A. LGU
B. DILG
C. PNP
D. DOJ
7. A Security Agency is entitled to possess firearm in a number not exceeding
81

A. One Firearm For Every Two Security Guard


B. One Firearm For Every Three Security Guard
C. One Firearm For Every Four Security Guard
D. One Firearm For Every Five Security Guard
8. When may a security guard carry firearm outside of the establishment he
is guarding?
A. In Case of Emergency or Disaster
B. When Summoned By PNP Member For Help
C. When In Hot Pursuit Of A Thief Or Robber
D. When He Escorts Big Amount Of Cash
9. A Security Agency operating in the City of Manila may employ not more than
A. 500 Security Guards
B. 1000 Security Guards
C. 1500 Security Guards
D. 2000 Security Guards
10. A Security Agency operating in places other than Metropolitan Manila, other cities
and first class
municipalities may employ not more than
A. 500 Security Guards
B. 1000 Security Guards
C. 15000 Security Guards
D. 2000 Security Guards

Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

B
B
C
C
C
C
A
D
B
A

Notes: In case of conflict between The Private Security AgencyLaw (RA No. 5487) and
the Implementing Rules and Regulations issued by the chief PNP, The Private
Security Agency Law shall prevail.

Industrial Security Management Reviewer 3


1. A Security Agency operating in municipalities other than first class may employ
A. Not more than 200 security guard
B. Not more than 300 security guard
C. Not more than 400 security guard
82

D. Not more than 500 security guard


2. How many security agency may a person, partnership, or association organize in one
city or municipality?
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four
3. Security Agencies may offer or render services to the following establishments
except one
A. Night Clubs
B. Coffee Shops
C. Gambling Dens
D. Restaurants
4. The Chief PNP in issuing rules and regulations implementing R.A. No. 5487 or
the Private Security Agency Law must consult with the
A. SAGSD
B. PADPAO
C. DILG
D. LGU
5. A Violation of the provisions of the private security agency law may result in any of
the following except one
A. Suspension
B. Fine
C. Cancellation of License To Operate
D. None of the Above
6. In a Security Agency, All of the following except one should secure a license
A. Those employed to manage the agency
B. Those employed to supervise the security guards
C. Those employed to do investigative work
D. Those employed solely to do clerical work
7. A Written Order or Schedule issued by a superior officer assigning the performance
of private security or detective services duties is known as
A. License To Operate
B. Designation Order
C. Duty Detail Order
D. License To Exercise Profession
8. In a Security Agency, Which of the following is allowed to issue Duty Detail Order?
A. The Branch Manager
B. The Security Guard Supervisor
C. The Most Senior Security Guard
D. The Chief Of The PNP SAGSD or Representative
9. New Applicants for a license to operate a Security Agency shall be required to obtain
83

a minimum capitalization of
A. 250,000 pesos
B. 500.000 pesos
C. 750,000 pesos
D. 1,000,000 pesos
10. No regular license shall be granted to any Private Security Agency unless it has a
minimum of
A. 200 licensed private security personnel in its employ
B. 300 licensed private security personnel in its employ
C. 500 licensed private security personnel in its employ
D. 1,000 license private security personnel in its employ
Answer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
A
C
B
D
D
C
A
D
A

Industrial Security Management Reviewer 4


1. No Regular License shall be granted to any company guard force unless it has a
minimum of
A. 10 Licensed Guard Under Its Employ
B. 30 Licensed Guard Under Its Employ
C. 50 Licensed Guard Under Its Employ
D. 100 Licensed Guard Under Its Employ
2. No Regular License shall be granted to any private detective agency unless it has a
minimum of
A. 10 Licensed Private Detective Under Its Employ
B. 30 Licensed Private Detective Under Its Employ
C. 50 Licensed Private Detective Under Its Employ
D. 100 Licensed Private detective Under Its Employ
3. What is the maximum number of private security personnel that a private
security agency may employ?
A. 500
B. 1000
C. 1500
D. 2000
4. What is the maximum number of private security personnel that a company guard
84

force may employ?


A. 500
B. 1000
C. 1500
D. 2000
5. What is the maximum number of private security personnel that a private detective
agency may employ?
A. 500
B. 1000
C. 1500
D. 2000
6. A License to operate a private security agency shall be valid for how many years?
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four
7. The Application for renewal of license to operate a private security agency shall be
filed at least how many days before expiry date?
A. 15
B. 30
C. 45
D. 60
8.Under the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R.A. No 5487, What is required to
be displayed at all times in a conspicuous and suitable place in a security agencies
office or headquarters?
A. Business Permit
B. DTI Registration
C. Articles of Incorporation
D. License To Operate
9. Services of any security personnel may be terminated on which of the following
ground?
A. Expiration of Contract
B. Revocation of License To Exercise Profession
C. Physical and Mental Disability
D. All Of The Above
10. All of the following except one is a ground for the termination of the services of any
security personnel
A. Violation of Pertinent Rules Promulgated by the PNP
B. Conviction of a Crime Involving Moral Turpitude
C. Lost of Trust and Confidence
D. Filing of a Criminal Offense in the Prosecutor's Office
Answer:
85

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

B
B
B
B
B
B
D
D
D
D

Industrial Security Management Definition Of Terms


3 Categories of Security Guards Belonging to the Blue Army
1. Agency Guards
2. Company Guards
3. Government Security Guards
Access List an authenticated list of personnel given to security allowing entry to a
compound or installation or a part thereof.
Alarm a device that signals.
Clear Zone the exterior and interior parallel area near the perimeter barrier of
an industrial compound to afford better observation and patrol movement.
Controlled Area an area near or adjacent to limited or exclusive areas where entry is
restricted.
Dry Run practical test or exercise of a plan.
Ducks in England, an owner to protect his compound used and they are not only
effective but cheap to maintain.
Duress Code a type of code system so that security personnel when forced by armed
men intending to enter an installation can give alarm by the use of certain words in
casual conversation with other personnel in the installation.
Exclusion Area a restricted area containing materials of security interest.
Human Made Hazards in an Industrial Firm
1. Pilferage
2. Sabotage
3. Arson
Key Control the management of keys in a plant, office or business organization to
prevent unauthorized access.
Main Office all agencies shall maintain a main office in their registered addresses.
PADPAO Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operator
PCSUSIA/SAGSD the government agency that issues licenses for private
86

and government security guard.


Perimeter Barrier the first line of physical defense of a building, compound, or
comples viewing from the outside.
Peterman a term used in England for lock pickers, safe crackers and penetrators of
restricted/prohibited areas.
Private Detective any person who does detective work for hire, reward or commission
other than members of the PNP, NBI, AFP, BJMP and other law enforcement agency of
the government.
Private Detective Qualifications in addition to those prescribed for a security guard.
1. Holder of a Baccalaureate degree or Bachelor of Laws
2. Holder of a degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology
3. Gaduate of a criminal investigation course offered by the PNP.NBI or any police
training school or detective training with authorized/recognized training center.
4. Advance ROTC/CMT graduate
Private Security Agency Law RA 5487
Relative Criticality of Operation the importance of an establishment with reference to
the national economy and security.
Relative Vulnerability the susceptability of a plant or establishment to damage, loss,
or destruction of operation due to various hazards.
Restricted Area if access is limited only to the authorized.
Safe a metallic container used for the safekeeping of documents or other small items
in an office or installation.
SAGSD Security Agency in Guard Supervisory Division
Security Guard one who is a holder of a security guard license duly issued by the PNP
Security Guard Qualifications
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Filipino Citizen
High School Graduate
Physically and Mentally Fit
At least 18 yrs. Old but not more than 50 yrs. Old
Has undergone pre-licensing training course
Must not possess any of the disqualification for operator or manager.

Security Service Contract agreement/contract between the agency and client


stipulating among other things the money to be paid by the client and salary
of individual security guard.
Security Survey also known as security audit, risk assessment, and vulnerability
assessment.
Top Guard this is an additional outwardly inclined structure usually barbed wires
placed above a vertical fence to increase physical protection from intruders of a
certain area.
87

Vault a heavily constructed container usually part of a building structure used for
keeping and protecting cash and documents.
Victimology a special study concerned with what makes an individual a victim of
crime.

Law Enforcement Administration Review Questions


1. The amount and nature of the demands of the police service
A.Clientele
B.Purpose
C.Time
D. Process
Answer: C
2. The PNP has a program which ensures the deployment of policemen in busy and
crime prone areas. This is called
A. patrol deployment program
B. roving patrol program
C. patrol and visibility program
D. police patrol program
Answer: C
3. All regional appointments of commissioned officers commence with the rank of:
A. Senior Police Officer I
B. Inspector
C. Police Officer III
D. Senior Inspector
Answer: B
4. In busy and thickly populated commercial streets like those in Divisoria, police
patrol is very necessary. Since there are several types of patrol, which of the following
will you recommend:
A. Horse patrol
B. Mobile patrol
C. Foot patrol
D. Helicopter patrol
Answer: C
5. It is the product resulting from the collection, evaluation,
analysis, and
interpretation of all available information which oncerns one or more aspects of criminal
activity and which is immediately or potentially significant to police planning.
A. Investigation
B. Information
C. Data
D. intelligence
Answer: D
6. These are work programs of line divisions which related to the nature and extent of
the workload and the availability
of resources.
A. administrative plan
B. operational plan
C. strategic plan
D. tactical plan
Answer: B
88

7. It is the premier educational institution for the police, fire and jail personnel.
A. Philippine Military Academy
B. Development Academy of the Philippines
C. Philippine College of Criminology
D. Philippine Public Safety College
Answer: D
8. A crew
A.
B.
C.
D.

which is assigned to a mobile car usually consist of


a driver and intelligence agent
a driver and traffic man
a driver and a recorder
a driver, recorder and supervisor
Answer: D

9. An industrial complex must establish its first line of physical defense. It must have
A. the building itself
B. perimeter barriers
C. communication barriers
D. window barriers
Answer:B
10. All of the following are members of the Peoples Law Enforcement Board (PLEB),
EXCEPT:
A. Three (3) members chosen by the Peace and Order Council from among the
respected members of the community.
B. Any barangay Captain of the city/municipality concerned chosen by the
association of the
Barangay Captains.
C. Any member of the Sangguniang Panglungsod/Pambayan
D. A bar member chosen by the Integrated bar of the Philippines
(IBP)
Answer: D
11. It is the circumspect inspection of a place to determine its suitability for a particular
operational purpose.
A. Inspection
B. Surveillance
C. Survey
D. Casing
Answer: C
12. In the
A.
B.
C.
D.

civil service system, merit and fitness are the primary considerations in the
two-party system
evaluation system
promotional system
spoils system
Answer: C

13. In the
A.
B.
etc.
C.
D.

de-briefing, the intelligence agent is asked to discuss which of the following:


his educational profile and schools attended
his personal circumstances such as his age, religious affiliation, address,
his political inclination and/or party affiliation
his observations and experiences in the intelligence Answer: D

14. It is a natural or man-made structure or physical device which


89

is capable of restricting, determine, or delaying illegal access to


an installation.
A. alarm
B. wall
C. barrier
D. hazard
Answer: C
15. What form of intelligence is involved when information is
obtained without the knowledge of the person against whom
the information or documents may be used, or if the
information is clandestinely acquired?
A. covert
B. overt
C. active
D. underground
Answer: A
16. The provincial Governor shall choose the provincial Director
from a list of ___________ eligible recommended by the
Regional Director, preferable from the same province, city,
municipality.
A. three (3)
B. five (5)
C. four (4)
D. Two (2)
Answer: A
17. Republic Act 6975 provides that on the average nationwide,
the manning levels of the PNP shall be approximately in
accordance with a police-to-population ratio of:
A. one (1) policeman for every seven hundred (700)
inhabitants.
B. one (1) policeman for every one thousand five hundred
(1,500) C.inhabitants.
C. one (1) policeman for every five hundred (500)
inhabitants.
D. one (1) policeman for every one thousand (1,000)
inhabitants.
Answer: C
18. In disaster control operations, there is a need to establish a
______where telephones or any means of communication
shall
A.ensure open lines of communication.
B.command post
C.operations center
D.field room
Answer:B
19. Registration of a security agency must be done at the______.
A.Securities and Exchange Commission
B.National Police Commission
C.Department of National Defense
D.PNP Criminal Investigation Group
Answer:D
90

20. The cheapest form of police patrol.


A. Bicycle Patrol
B. Foot Patrol
C. Motorcycle Patrol
D. Helicopter Patrol
Answer: B
21. The budget is a _________________ in terms of expenditure
requirements.
A.tactical plan
B.financial plan
C.work plan
D.control plan
Answer: B
22. The term used for the object of surveillance is a subject while
the investigator conducting the surveillance is:
A.rabbit
B.surveillant
C.traffic enforcement
D.patrol
Answer: A
23. It is a police function which serves as the backbone of the
police service. In all types of police stations, there is a specific
unit assigned to undertake this function in view of its
importance.
A.vice control
B.criminal investigation
C.traffic management
D.patrol
Answer: D
24. It is the weakest link in security chain.
A.managers
B.Barriers
C.Personnel
D.inspections

Answer:

25. Which of the following is considered as the most important


factor in formulating an effective patrol strategy?
A.training of station commander
B.adequacy of resources of the police station
C.rank of the patrol commander
D.salary rates of police personnel
Answer: B
26. Who among the following have summary disciplinary powers
over errant police members?
A.District Director
B.Provincial Director
C.Chief of Police
D.Chief, PNP
Answer: D
27. You are the Patrol Supervisor for the morning shift. You dont
91

have enough men to cover all the patrol beats. Which of the
following will you implement?
A. assign roving mobile patrol with no foot patrol
B. assign mobile patrols only in strategic places
C. maintain your patrolmen at the station and just wait
for calls for police assistance
D. assign foot patrol in congested and busy patrol beats
but assign a roving mobile patrol to cover beats which
are not covered by foot patrol
Answer: B
28. The father of organized military espionage was:
A. Akbar
B. Alexander the Great
C. Genghis Khan
D. Frederick the Great
Answer: D
29. Which of the following is the most common reason why informer
can give information to the police?
A.wants to be known to the policeman
B.monetary reward
C.as a good citizen
D.revenge
Answer: B
30. To improve delegation, the following must be done, EXCEPT:
A. establish objectives and standards
B. count the number of supervisor
C. require completed work
D. define authority and responsibility
Answer: C
31. What administrative support unit conducts identification and
evaluation of physical evidences related to crimes, with
emphasis on their medical, chemical, biological and physical
nature.
A. Logistics Service
B. Crime Laboratory
C. Communication and Electronic service
D. Finance Center
Answer: B
32. Those who are charged with the actual fulfillment of the
agencys mission are ________.
A. staff
B. supervision
C. management
D. line
Answer: D
33. When the subject identifies or obtains knowledge that the
investigation is conducting surveillance on him, the latter is:
A. cut out
B. sold out
C. burnt out
92

D.

get out

Answer: C

34. Small alley like those in the squatters area of Tondo can be
best penetrated by the police through:
A. foot patrol
B. mobile patrol
C. highway patrol
D. helicopter patrol
Answer: A
35. Some of the instructions in foot surveillance are the following,
EXCEPT
A. stop quickly, look behind
B. drop paper, never mind what happens to the paper
C. window shop, watch reflection
D. retrace steps
Answer: B
36. On many occasions, the bulk of the most valuable information
comes from:
A. business world
B. newspaper clippings
C. an underworld informant
D. communications media
Answer: B
37. Highly qualified police applicants such as engineers, nurses and
graduates of forensic sciences can enter the police service as
officers through:
A. regular promotion
B. commissionship
C. lateral entry
D. attrition
Answer: C
38. Police Inspector Juan Dela Cruz is the Chief of Police of a
municipality. He wants his subordinates to be drawn closer to
the people in the different barangays. He should adopt which
of the following projects?
A. COPS on the blocks
B. Oplan Bakal
C. Oplan Sandugo
D. Complan Pagbabago
Answer: A
39. What should be undertaken by a Security Officer before he can
prepare a comprehensive security program for his industrial
plan?
A. security conference
B. security check
C. security survey
D. security education
Answer: C
40. This patrol method utilizes disguise, deception and lying in wait
rather than upon high-visibility patrol techniques.
93

A.
B.
C.
D.

low-visibility patrol
directed deterrent patrol
decoy patrol
high-visibility patrol

Answer: A

41. It enforces all traffic laws and regulations to ensure the safety
of motorists and pedestrians and attain an orderly traffic.
A. Civil Relations Unit
B. Traffic Operations Center
C. Traffic Management Command
D. Aviation Security Command
Answer: C
42. A method of collecting information wherein the investigator
merely uses his different senses.
A. observation
B. casing
C. research
D. interrogation
Answer: A
43. In stationary surveillance, the following must be observed,
EXCEPT
A. never meet subject face to face
B. avoid eye contact
C. recognize fellow agent
D. if burnt out, drop subject
Answer: C
44. Pedro is a thief who is eying at the handbag of Maria. PO1
Santos Reyes is standing a few meters from Maria.The thiefs
desire to steal is not diminished by the presence of the police
officer but the _______________ for successful theft is.
A. ambition
B. feeling
C. intention
D. opportunity
Answer: A
45. Graduates of the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) are
automatically appointed to the rank of:
A. Senior Superintendent
B. Inspector
C. Senior Police Officer 1
D. Superintendent
Answer: C
46. PNP in-service training programs are under the responsibility of
the:
A. PNP Directorate for Plans
B. PNP Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine
Development
C. PNP Directorate for Personnel and Records
Management
D. PNP Directorate for Comptrollership
Answer: C
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47. One way of extending the power of police observation is to get


information from persons within the vicinity.In the police work,
this is called:
A. data gathering
B. field inquiry
C. interrogation
D. interview
Answer: B
48. Dogs have an acute sense of _______________ thus, their
utilization in tracking down lost persons or illegal drugs.
A. smell
B. hearing
C. eating
D. drinking
Answer: A
49. Intelligence on _________________ makes heavy use of
geographic information because law enforcement officials must
know exact locations to interdict the flow of drugs.
A. Logistics
B. Human Cargo Trafficking
C. Narcotics Trafficking
D. Economic resources
Answer: C
50. Which of the following is most ideally suited to evacuation and
search-and-rescue duties?
A. motorcycle
B. helicopter
C. patrol car
D. bicycle
Answer: B
51. A method of collection of information wherein the investigator
tails or follows the person or vehicle.
A. research
B. undercover operation
C. casing
D. surveillance
Answer: C
52. This is a person who does detective work for hire, reward or
commission, other than members of the AFP, BJMP, provincial
guards, PNP or any law enforcement agency of the
government.
A. Secret Agent
B. Tiktik
C. Private detective
D. Undercover
Answer: C
53. The uprightness in character, soundness of moral principles,
honesty and freedom from moral delinquencies is referred to as
A. integrity
95

B.
C.
D.

loyalty
discretion
moral

Answer: A

54. Going east while foot patrolling and turning right after reaching
the end of your beat and turning right after reaching the other
end of the road and again turning right until you completed
the cycle by reaching back to your origin of patrolling.What
patrol pattern have you applied?
A. clockwise
B. straightway
C. counter clockwise
D. free-wheeling
Answer: A
55. Which theory of patrol state that police visibility increases the
opportunity to apprehend criminals by soothing them and letting
them believe that their crimes will not be detected?
A. low profile theory
B. high visibility
C. theory of omnipresence
D. team policing
Answer: A
56. Without air force capability, patrol operation that covers large
park areas, grassy fields or wooded areas requires the use of
A. bike patrol
B. horse patrol
C. marine patrol
D. helicopter patrol
Answer: B
57. Which
A.
B.
C.
D.

of the following refers to the long range planning?


Intermediate
Strategic
Medium
short
Answer: B

58. The operational plan which is designed to met everyday or


year round needs is called
A. meeting unusual needs
B. extra office
C. regular operating programs
D. special operating programs
Answer: C
59. Which
A.
B.
C.
D.

of the following is the oldest type of patrol?


horse
foot
canine
police
Answer: B

60. The act of expelling a squatter by the legal process is called:


A. demolition
96

B.
C.
D.
61. Which
A.
B.
C.
D.

squadron
eviction
tear down

Answer: C

of the following is not a commissioned officer?


Inspector
senior superintendent
asst. chief
chief superintend
Answer: C

62. Which of the following words has the same meaning as the
word credibility?
A. ability
B. capacity
C. believability
D. vulnerability
Answer: C
63. Which
A.
B.
C.
D.

of the following best defines the word self-reliant?


observation
crime prevention
called for service
criminal apprehension
Answer: C

64. All but


A.
B.
C.
D.

one are the primarily line operation in police organization


patrol
records
investigation
traffic
Answer: C

65. Criminals can hear the sound of the helicopter coming and so
element of surprise is lost which is one of the ________
of air patrol:
A. advantages
B. features
C. disadvantages
D. import
Answer: C
66. What is the patrol used to locate prowlers, burglars hiding in
large buildings or stores, and the control of unruly crowds and
riots?
A. foot
B. horse
C. bicycle
D. dog
.
Answer: D
67. Which of the following laws established the Police Organization
under the DILG?
A. R.A.
5487
B. R.A. 8551
C. R.A. 1174
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D.

R.A.

6975

Answer: D

68. Who is the most important officer in the police organization?


A. investigator
B. patrol officer
C. traffic officer
D. The Chief of Police
Answer: B
69. Which
A.
B.
C.
D.
70. What
A.
B.
C.
D.

of the following is the oldest warning device?


trumpet
horn
radio
siren
Answer: A

type of cover uses actual or true background?


artificial
multiple cover
natural
cover within a cover
Answer: C

71. What is the principle of organization suggesting that


communication should ordinarily go upward and downward
through establish channels in the hierarchy?
A. Chain of Command
B. Span of Control
C. Unity of Command
D. Delegation of Authority
Answer: A
72. What is the optional retirement for officers and new officers of
the police service?
A. 15 years
B. 25 years
C. 30 years
D. 20 years
Answer: D
73. Governors and mayors, upon having been elected and having
qualified as such,are automatically deputized as representatives
of the
A. NAPOLCOM
B. DND
C. PLEB
D. none of these
Answer: A
74. It is constitutionally and legally mandated to administer and
control the Philippine National Police.
A. DILG
B. DND
C. NAPOLCOM
D. DFA
Answer: C
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75. It is the central receiving entity for any citizens complaint


against the members and officers of the PNP.
A. DILG
B. NAPOLCOM
C. PLEB
D. IAS
Answer: C
76. When we say that a commander is directly responsible for any
act or omission of his subordinates in relation to the
performance of their official duties, we are referring to:
A. chain of command
B. delegation of responsibility
C. Command responsibility
D. span of control
Answer: C
77. A police strategy which aims to directly involve members of the
community in the maintenance of peace and order by police
officers.
A. Integrated Police System
B. Comparative Police System
C. Police Visibility
D. Community Oriented Policing System (COPS)
Answer: D
78. No person in an organization can do all the tasks necessary for
accomplishing group objective. Also, no one should exercise all
the authority for making decisions.This refers to
A. chain of command
B. command responsibility
C. unity of command
D. delegation of authority
Answer: D
79. Under RA 6975, a police officer is entitled to a longevity pay
equivalent to how many percent (%) of his monthly basic salary
for every five years of service, to be reckoned from the date of
his original appointment in the police, fire, jail or other allied
services?
A. 2 percent
B. 5 percent
C. 10 percent
D. 15 percent
Answer: C
80. This term refers to the period when a police officer is actively
engaged in the performance of his duty.
A. off duty
B. off limits
C. on call
D. on duty
Answer: D
81. The act of temporarily denying an officer the privilege of
99

performing his police duties in consequence of an offense and


violation of rules and regulations.
A. dismissal
B. restriction
C. suspension
D. reprimand
Answer: C
82. The credential extended by the Civil Service
Commission/National Police Commission for the purpose of
conferring status for permanent appointment in the police
service.
A. police credibility
B. police visibility
C. Criminology Board Examination
D. police patrol examination
E. police eligibility
Answer: E
83. In the history of our police force, who was the first Director
General of the Philippine National Police (PNP)?
A. Gen. Cesar Nazareno
B. Gen. Raul Imperial
C. Gen. Umberto Rodriquez
D. Gen. Recaredo Sarmiento
Answer: A
84. The premier educational institution for the training, human
resource development and continuing education of all the
personnel of BJMP, BFP and PNP.
A. PNPA
B. PCCR
C. PNTC
D. PPSC
Answer: D
85. Under
of __.
A.
B.
C.
D.

the law,the city/municipal jail warden should have a rank


Inspector
Chef Inspector
Senior Inspector
Superintendent

86. The required rank for the Chief of Jail Bureau.


A. Chief Superintendent
B. Director General
C. Director
D. Deputy Director General

Answer: C

Answer: C

87. It exercise supervision and control over the provincial jails.


A. BJMP
B. Bureau of Prisons
C. Department of Justice
D. Provincial Government
Answer: D
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88. The required rank for the head of the Fire Bureau.
A. Chief Superintendent
B. Director General
C. Director
D. Deputy Director General
Answer: C
89. It exercise supervision and control over all city and municipal
jails.
A. BJMP
B. Bureau of Prisons
C. Department of Justice
D. Local Government
Answer: A
90. The annual reservation percentage quota for women in the
PNP
A. 25%
B. 5%
C. 10%
D. 20%
Answer: C
91. Which of the following administers and attends to cases
involving crimes against chastity?
A. CIDG
B. DSWD
C. Womens Desk
D. Homicide Division
Answer: C
92. They are automatically deputized as NAPOLCOM
representatives to exercise supervision and control over PNP
units.
A. Chief of Police
B. Judges
C. Local Government Executives
D. Fiscals
Answer: C
93. They have the authority to recommend to the Provincial
Director the transfer, reassignment of PNP members outside
of their town residences.
A. Regional Directors
B. Priests
C. Chiefs of Police
D. Mayors
Answer: D
94. The head of a local peace and order council is the __.
A. judge
B. chief of police
C. mayor
D. governor
Answer: C
101

95. The utilization of units or elements, of the PNP for the


purpose of protection of lives and properties, enforcement of
laws and maintenance of peace and order.
A. employment
B. deployment
C. assignment
D. designation
Answer: A
96. The orderly and organized physical movement of elements or
units of the PNP.
A. employment
B. deployment
C. assignment
D. designation
Answer: B
97. One of the following exercises control and supervision over the
PNP units during elections.
A. NBI
B. Ombusdman
C. COMELEC
D. DILG
Answer: C
98. The number of eligible for which the Regional Director may
recommend for Provincial Director to the governor is __.
A. 2
B. 3
C. 5
D. 4
Answer: B
99. Who
A.
B.
C.
D.

is the current Chief of the PNP?


Nicanor Bartome
Nicanor Bartomeo
Nick Bartolome
Nicanor Bartolome

100. The
A.
B.
C.
D.

current PNP deputy director General for Administration is


Arturo Cacdac Jr.
Emilito Sarmiento
Rommel Heredia
Alexander Roldan
Answer: A

Answer: C

101. Registration of a security agency as a corporation must be


processed at what particular government agency.
A. PNP SAGSD
B. NAPOLCOM
C. DND
D. SEC
Answer: D
102. Minimum age requirement for security manager or operator of
a security agency.
102

A. 25 years old
B. 30 years old
C. 35 years old
D. 40 years old

Answer: A

103. He exercises the power to revoke for cause licenses issued to


security guards.
A. Chief PNP
B. DILG Usec
C. NAPOLCOM chairman
D. DILG Secretary
Answer: A
104. Refers to a natural or man made structure which is capable of
delaying illegal access to facility.
A. Wall
B. Fence
C. Barriers
D. Beach fronts
Answer: C
105. It refers to means and ways that personnel and employees
making them security conscious.
A. Security Promotion
B. Security Education
C. Security Investigation
D. Security Seminar
Answer: B
106. Industrial management must establish the first line of physical
defense,it refers to
A. Perimeter barriers
B. The building itself
C. Door,Locks,Window barriers
D. Entry points where security guards are located
Answer: A
107. Physical security is a system of barriers placed between the
potential intruder and the object matter to be protected.As
criminologists,this is simply a denial of
A. Opportunity to commit the offense
B. Opportunity to the object of protection
C. Access to the object of protection
D. Criminal instinct to surface in the potential offender Answer: C
108. Weakest link in the security chain.
A. Security Guards
B. Manager
C. Barriers
D. Personnel

Answer: D

109. Perimeter barriers,protective lighting and ______ system are


known in industrial security as physical security.
A. Guarding
103

B. Reporting
C. Relieving
D. Accounting

Answer: A

110. This is an additional outward inclined fixed structure usually


barbed wires placed above a vertical fence to increase
physical protection from intruders of a certain area,this is
known as
A. Cellar Guard
B. Tower Guard
C. Top Guard
D. Top Tower
Answer: C
111. The exterior and interior parallel area near the perimeter
barrier of an industrial compound to afford better observation
and patrol movement is known as
A. Protective zone
B. Clear zone
C. Twilight zone
D. Patrol lane zone
Answer: B
112. Protective guarding in a compound can be done by the use of
electronic hardware,human guards and even animals.In
England,an owner to protect his compound used this and they
are not only effective but also the cheapest to maintain.This
man is using
A. Doberman
B. Tame Tigers
C. Geese
D. Duck
Answer: C
113. The government agency that issues licenses for private and
government security guard is
A. PNP SOSIA
B. Mayors office
C. PNP FEO
D. PNP SAGSD
Answer: D
114. If access is limited only to unauthorized personnel,this
particular place is referred to as
A. Compromise area
B. Restricted area
C. Danger area
D. Exclusive area
Answer: B
115. First measure undertaking before a comprehensive security
program for an industrial plan could be developed.
A. Security education
B. Security check
C. Security survey
104

D. Security Inspection

Answer: C

116. A security of a plant or industrial firm is also known by other


terms except
A. Robbery evaluation
B. Vulnerability
C. Risk Assessment
D. Security Audit
Answer: B
117. Today there are 3 categories of security guards belonging to
the blue army.
A. Government security guards
B. Company guards
C. Agency guards
D. Body guards
Answer: D
118. Whether to put up its own security guard organic to the firm
or hire contractual agency guards have their individual merits
and disadvantages.To determine which type of guarding
system an industrial firm will require management must consult
A. A security consultant not connected to or owning a
security agency
B. A military intelligence officer
C. A police officer
D. A security agency owner
Answer: A
119. As a security officer,you can not prevent nor protect natural
hazards like storm,earthquakes,floods and the like.In order to
reduce the disastrous effects of these natural hazards you
will
A. Call PAGASA and inquire when the next storm is coming
B. Alert your guards when hazards occur
C. Not take any concern of such hazards
D. Prepare a disaster or emergency plan
for these hazards for the firm
Answer: D
120. Practical exercise or test of a plan or activity to determine its
effectiveness is called
A. Sham drill
B. Fire drill
C. Dry run
D. Evacuation plan
Answer: C
121. The main reason for a personnel security investigation is
A. To weed out undesirable employees
B. To check loyalty of employees to the organization
C. To determine the character and reputation of certain
employees secretly tagged as risks.
D. Preclude assignment to sensitive positions for those
who are security risks.
Answer: D
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122. In an industrial firm there is a need for document security.As


security officer,you can advice management on this aspect
although this is not totally your assigned work.Document
security is not a protection of vital records from
A. Authorized handlers
B. Theft or loss
C. Compromise or destruction
D. Unauthorized access
Answer: A
123. As a security chief of an industrial firm,inventory shows that
pilferage is rampant in the warehouses.What will be your
choice of action
A. To resign if you have failed your job
B. Deploy intelligence men in pilferage prone areas to
catch the culprit
C. Prepare your protective plans and confer with
management for their immediate implementation
D. Tighten checking at exists of vehicles of the
compound/complex
Answer: B
124. There are many types of electronic and electric protective
devices available for security buildings,storehouses and
compounds.One of the ff: is true
A. Electronics/electrical devices provide total protection
for the place to be safeguarded
B. Types of alarms needed can best be given by the
dealers of said devices
C. Each building or compound requires particular
electronic/electrical protective devices
D. Electronic/electrical devices eliminate human guards
Answer: C
125. The management of keys used in plant office or business
organization to prevent unauthorized access is referred to as
A. Security key control
B. Lock control
C. key control
D. Key management
Answer: C
126. It is defined as system of barriers placed between the matters
protected and the potential intruder
A. Computer security
B. Personnel security
C. Document security
D. Physical security
Answer: D
127. This type of alarm system utilizes a station located outside
the compound
A. Auxiliary system
106

B. Proprietary system
C. Central alarm system
D. Local alarm system

Answer: C

128. It is installed as part of the building which holds up to 10,000


cubic meters of essential items.At least 12 ft. in height with
enough ventilation and fire proof of at least one hour.
A. Protective cabinet
B. File room
C. Vault
D. Safe
Answer: B
129. It is the susceptibility of a plant or establishment to
damage,loss or disruption of operations due to various
hazards.
A. Risk analysis
B. Risk assessment
C. Relative vulnerability
D. Relative criticality
Answer: C
130. It refers to the importance of the establishment with
reference to the national economy and security.
A. Risk analysis
B. Relative vulnerability
C. Risk assessment
D. Relative criticality
Answer: D
131. The association of all licensed security agencies operators
A. POAPAD
B. PADPAO
C. PODPAO
D. PAOPAD
Answer: B
132.Who among below can own or operate security agency?
A. A Filipino citizen
B. Anyone provided he knows the job
C. An alien but living in the Philippines
D. All of them
Answer: A
133. A licensed issued to operate security agency or company
forces.
A. Business license
B. License to engage in business
C. License to operate
D. All of them
Answer: C
134. R.A. No. 5487 governs the operation of
A. Private detective
B. Company security
C. Private security forces/agencies
107

D. All of them

Answer: D

135. A fact-finding prove to determine a plant adequacy and


deficiency all aspects of security with the corresponding
recommendation.
A. Security audit
B. Security survey
C. Security inquiry
D. Security operations
Answer: B
136. Barrier which includes but not limited to wall,fences,grill etc.
A. Structural barriers
B. Man made barriers
C. Physical barriers
D. Natural barriers
Answer: B
137. One who steals due to his inability to resist the unexpected
opportunity and has little fear of detection.
A. Systematic
B. Outsider
C. Casual
D. Insider
Answer: C
138. A barrier which includes but not limited to mountains, cliffs,
ravines, cliffs, etc.
A. Energy
B. Human
C. Natural
D. Animals
Answer: C
139. Issued by the security guard for personnel to be admitted to
the company.
A. Duress code
B. Pass system
C. ID
D. Access list
Answer: B
140. In a close-in security formations, a one man security covers
A. 360 degrees
B. 180 degrees
C. 45 degrees
D. 90 degrees
Answer: A
141. A mechanical device of supplying water which can be manual
or motor driven.
A. Stand pipe
B. Fire extinguisher
C. Fire hydrant
D. Fire pump
Answer: A
108

142.Intrusion alarm devices are designed to ______ and not


prevent criminals from trespassing and should be used normally
as an independent adjunct and not a replacement of the
human guard forces.
A. Detect
B. Deterred
C. Provide
D. Impeded
Answer: A
143. An authenticated list of personnel given to security allowing
entry to compound or installation or part thereof.
A. Pass system
B. ID
C. Access list
D. Duress code
Answer: C
144. The act or condition affecting the safe operation of the
facility caused by human action,accidental or intentional.It
includes sabotage,espionage,pilferage and
theft,disloyalty,disaffection and subversive activities.
A. Electronic hazard
B. natural hazard
C. Artificial hazard
D. Human hazard
Answer: D
145. Example of the Security Communication system.
A. Telephone
B. Paging system
C. Radio
D. All of them
Answer: D
146. The revised rules and regulations governing the organization
and operation of private detective and private security
agencies and company security forces throughout the
country.
A. Private security law
B. International law
C. Private law
D. Security law
Answer: A
147. A metallic container used for the safekeeping of documents
or small items in an office or installation.
A. Steel cabinet
B. Drawer
C. Basket
D. Safe
Answer: D
148. A heavily constructed fire and burglar resistant container
usually a part of the building structure used to keep and
protect cash,document and negotiable instruments.
109

A. Basket
B. Vault
C. Steel cabinet
D. Concrete coffin

Answer: B

149. Steal or plastic pipes located in the building from the lowest
to the top floor with water under pressure for use in case of
fire.
A. Lowering pipe
B. Wet pipe
C. Top pipe
D. Stand pipe
Answer: D
150. Who among below are exempted from pre-licensing training?
A. AFP and PNP retirees
B. Graduate of ROTC basic or advance
C. AFP and PNP veterans
D. All of the above
Answer: D
151. Tenure of security personnel is based on
A. Can be extended by the client
B. The service contract between the agency and the
client
C. Labor only contracting between the agency and the
guard
D. Tenure provided by the labor code
Answer: B
152. Before private security agencies render security services to
its clients,there must be a contract that must bind them,it is
called
A. Contract service
B. Service contract
C. Security contract
D. Security service contract
Answer: D
153. Which below is a qualification for the operator or manager of
security agency.
A. Commissioned officer of AFP or PNP,inactive or retirees
B. At least 25 years of age
C. Filipino citizen
D. All of them
Answer: D
154. A security force maintained and operated by any private
company for its own security requirements only.
A. Insular security force
B. Company security force
C. Government security unit
D. Private security unit
Answer: B
155. A person who offers or renders personal services to watch or
110

secure a residence or business establishment or both is


A. Watchman
B. Security guard
C. B only
D. B and A
Answer: D
156. Include all the security measures designed to prevent
unsuitable individuals or persons of doubtful loyalty to the
government from gaining access to classified matter or to any
security facility and to prevent appointment or retention as
employees of such individuals.
A. Security personnel
B. Employee security
C. Personnel security
D. Both A and C
Answer: C
157. It is an inquiry into the character,reputation,discretion and
loyalty of individual in order to determine a persons suitability
to be given security clearance.
A. BI
B. LAC
C. NAC
D. PSI
Answer: D
158. Consist of the investigation of the background of an individual
but limited only to some of the circumstances of his personal
life which are deemed pertinent to the investigation.
A. PSI
B. PBI
C. CBI
D. BI
Answer: B
159. A thorough and complete investigation of all or some of the
circumstances or aspect of a persons life is conducted.
A. PSI
B. PBI
C. CBI
D. BI
Answer: D
160. Among the following,which is the least expensive and least
secure personnel control identification system?
A. Multiple pass system
B. Group pass and badge system
C. Spot magnetized identification pass
D. Single pass or badge system
Answer: D
161. Factors considered in background investigation except:
A. Integrity
B. Character
C. Personal prestige
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D. Loyalty
162. Motives that cause people to be disloyal
A. Character
B. Revenge
C. Moral
D. Reputation

Answer: C

Answer: B

163. Weakness that makes people susceptible to pressure


A. Jealousy
B. Weakness of character
C. Close relative in foreign land
D. All of them
Answer: D
164. A security unit maintained and operated by any government
entity.
A. Insular security force
B. Company security force
C. Government security unit
D. Private security agency
Answer: C
165. Cosnsist of the investigation of the background of a person
particularly all the circumstances of his personal life
A. PSI
B. PBI
C. CBI
D. BI
Answer: C
166. Any person,association,partnership,firm or private
corporation,who contracts recruits,trains,furnishes or post
any security guards to do its functions.
A. Insular security force
B. Company security force
C. Government security unit
D. Private security agency
Answer: D
167. Shall be responsible to the detachment commander as far as
his shift is concerned.
A. Officer in charge
B. Shift in charge
C. Security guard on duty
D. Assistant detachment commander
Answer: B
168. Before a security guard can practice his profession,he shall
possess a valid security license,What is this license?
A. Firearm license
B. License to operate
C. Drivers license
D. Security guard license
Answer: D
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169. How many firearms issued for every two guards employed by
the security agency is allowed by law?
A. 4
B. 3
C. 2
D. 1
Answer: D
170. Firearms of security agency should be covered with firearms
license issued by the PNP through its Firearm Explosive
Division under the civil security group renewable every
A. 4 years
B. 3 years
C. 2 years
D. 1 year
Answer: D
171. The aspect of security which involves the application of
security measures For the protection and safeguarding of
classified information
A. Top secret
B. Information security
C. Personnel security
D. Documents security
Answer: D
172. Refers to assigned information by one of the four classification
categories
A. Reclassify
B. Classified
C. Declassify
D. Security clearance
Answer: B
173. Refers to the administrative determination that an individual is
eligible for access to classified matter.
A. Reclassify
B. Classified
C. Declassify
D. Security clearance
Answer: D
174. Means loss of security which results from an unauthorized
persons obtaining knowledge of classified matter.
A. Vulnerability
B. Criticality
C. probability
D. Compromise
Answer: D
175. These are information and material,the unauthorized disclosure
of which would cause exceptional grave damage to the
nation,politically,economically or from a security aspect,this
category is reserved for the nations closest secret and is to
be used with great reserve.
A. Restricted matters
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B. Secret matters
C. Confidential matters
D. Top secret matters

Answer: D

176. These information and material,the authorized disclosure of


which would endanger national security,cause serious injury to
the interest or prestige of the nation or of any governmental
activity or would be of great advantage to a foreign nation.
A. Restricted matters
B. Secret matters
C. Confidential matters
D. Top secret matters
Answer: B
177. These information and material,the unauthorized disclosure of
which while not endangering the national security would be
prejudicial to the interest or prestige of the nation or any
government activity or would cause administrative
embarrassment or unwarranted injury to an individual or
would be of the advantage to a foreign nation.
A. Restricted matters
B. Secret matters
C. Confidential matters
D. Top secret matters
Answer: C
178. It is information that in some special way relates to the status
or activities of the possessor and over which the possessor
asserts ownership.
A. Transmission security
B. Trade secret
C. Patents
D. Proprietary information
Answer: D
179. It maybe a formula for a chemical compound,a process of
manufacturing,treating or preserving materials,a pattern for
machine or device or a list of customers.
A. Transmission security
B. Trade secret
C. Patents
D. Proprietary information
Answer: B
180. It is the protection resulting from the application of various
measures which prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized
persons in gaining information through communication.
A. Transmission security
B. Cryptographic security
C. Communication security
D. All of the above
Answer: C
181. That component of communication security which results from
the provisions of technically sound crypto system and their
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proper use.
A. Transmission security
B. Cryptographic security
C. Communication security
D. All of the above

Answer: B

182. A system which uses words as the smallest element.


A. Transposition system
B. Code
C. Concealment
D. Cipher
Answer: B
183. A system that manipulate 1,2 or 3 characters at a time.
A. Transposition system
B. Code
C. Concealment
D. Cipher
Answer: D
184. It is the potential damage or loss of an asset.
A. Adversary
B. Risk
C. Security hazard
D. Criticality
Answer: B
185. It is the impact of a loss as measured in financial terms.
A. Adversary
B. Risk
C. Security hazard
D. Criticality
Answer: D
186. Eliminating or removing the risk totally from the
business,government or industrial environment for which the
risk manager has responsibility.
A. Risk self-assumption
B. Risk spreading
C. Risk avoidance
D. Risk avoidance
Answer: C
187. It is an act of spying.
A. Saboteur
B. Espionage
C. pilferer
D. Sabotage

Answer: B

188. It is one of the most annoying and common human hazards


which security has to deal with.
A. Casual pilferage
B. Systematic pilferage
C. Pilferage
D. None of the above
Answer: C
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189. One who steals with pre conceived plans and takes always
any or all types of items or supplies for economic gain.
A. Casual pilferage
B. Systematic pilferage
C. Pilferage
D. None of the above
Answer: B
190. What date is the Republic Act No. 5487 or the private security
agency law passed?
A. June 13, 1999
B. June 13, 1969
C. June 7, 2009
D. June 31, 1969
Answer: B
191. A natural hazards or acts of god.
A. Calamity
B. Phenomenon
C. Disaster
D. Force majeure

Answer: D

192. A restricted area where visitors are limited in movement and


are usually escorted.
A. Exclusive area
B. Limited area
C. Restricted area
D. Protected area
Answer: B
193. A structure placed above a vertical fence to increase
protection from intruder.
A. Guard house
B. Clear zone
C. Tower guard
D. Top guard
Answer: D
194.A conference similar to entrance conference,this is only done
after the completion of security survey.
A. Entrance conference
B. Briefing
C. Debriefing
D. Exit conference
Answer: D
195. It is the lost that would be sustained if a given target or
combination of target where totally removed,destroyed or
both.
A. Risk reduction
B. Probable maximum loss
C. Risk transfer
D. Possible maximum loss
Answer: D
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196. Refers to the amount of loss a target would be likely to


sustain through theft and robbery.
A. Risk reduction
B. Probable maximum loss
C. Risk transfer
D. Possible maximum loss
Answer: B
197. A term used in England for lock pickers,safe crackers and
penetrators of restricted rooms or area.
A. Superman
B. Peterpan
C. Batman
D. Peterman
Answer: D
198. The badge or pass coded for authorization to enter specific
areas is issued to an employee who keeps it in his possession
until his authorization terminates.
A. Pass system
B. Pass exchange system
C. Single pass system
D. Multi pass system
Answer: C
199. Company owned alarm system with a unit in the nearest police
station so that in case of need, direct call is possible.
A. Auxiliary alarm
B. Proprietary system
C. Local alarm system
D. Central station station system
Answer: A
200. The system consists of ringing up a visual or audible alarm
system near the object to be protected.
A. Auxiliary alarm
B. Proprietary system
C. Local alarm system
D. Central station system
Answer: C

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