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In mathematics, a finitely generated module is a module that has a finite generating set. A finitely

generated R-module also may be called a finite R-module or finite over R.[1]

Related concepts include finitely cogenerated modules, finitely presented modules, finitely

related modules and coherent modules all of which are defined below. Over aNoetherian ring the

concepts of finitely generated, finitely presented and coherent modules coincide.

A finitely generated module over a field is simply a finite-dimensional vector space, and a finitely

generated module over the integers is simply a finitely generated abelian group.

Contents

[hide]

1 Formal definition

2 Examples

3 Some facts

4 Finitely generated modules over a commutative ring

5 Generic rank

6 Equivalent definitions and finitely cogenerated modules

7 Finitely presented, finitely related, and coherent modules

8 See also

9 References

10 Textbooks

Formal definition[edit]

The left R-module M is finitely generated if there exist a1, a2, ..., an in M such that for all x in M, there

exist r1, r2, ..., rn in R with x = r1a1 + r2a2 + ... + rnan.

The set {a1, a2, ..., an} is referred to as a generating set for M in this case. The finite generators need

not be a basis, since they need not be linearly independent over R. What is true is: M is finitely

generated if and only if there is a surjective R-linear map:

for some n (M is a quotient of a free module of finite rank.)

If a subset S of a module M generates a finitely generated submodule N, then the finite

generators of N can be taken from S (since only finitely many elements in S are needed to

express the finite generators.)

Any module is a union of an increasing sequence of finitely generated submodules.

In the case where the module M is a vector space over a field R, and the generating set

is linearly independent, n is well-defined and is referred to as the dimension of M (welldefined means that any linearly independent generating set has n elements: this is

the dimension theorem for vector spaces).

Examples[edit]

Let R be an integral domain with K its field of fractions. Then every finitely generated Rsubmodule I of K is a fractional ideal: that is, there is some nonzero r in R such that rIis

contained in R. Indeed, one can take r to be the product of the denominators of the

generators of I. If R is Noetherian, then every fractional ideal arises in this way.

Finitely generated modules over the ring of integers Z coincide with the finitely generated

abelian groups. These are completely classified by the structure theorem, taking Zas the

principal ideal domain.

Finitely generated (say left) modules over a division ring are precisely finite dimensional

vector spaces (over the division ring).

Some facts[edit]

Every homomorphic image of a finitely generated module is finitely generated. In

general, submodules of finitely generated modules need not be finitely generated. As an

example, consider the ring R = Z[X1, X2, ...] of all polynomials in countably

many variables. R itself is a finitely generated R-module (with {1} as generating set). Consider

the submodule K consisting of all those polynomials with zero constant term. Since every

polynomial contains only finitely many terms whose coefficients are non-zero, the R-moduleK is

not finitely generated.

In general, a module is said to be Noetherian if every submodule is finitely generated. A finitely

generated module over a Noetherian ring is a Noetherian module (and indeed this property

characterizes Noetherian rings): A module over a Noetherian ring is finitely generated if and only

if it is a Noetherian module. This resembles, but is not exactly Hilbert's basis theorem, which

states that the polynomial ring R[X] over a Noetherian ring R is Noetherian. Both facts imply that

a finitely generated algebra over a Noetherian ring is again a Noetherian ring.

More generally, an algebra (e.g., ring) that is a finitely-generated module is a finitely-generated

algebra. Conversely, if a finitely generated algebra is integral (over the coefficient ring), then it is

finitely generated module. (See integral element for more.)

Let 0 M M M 0 be an exact sequence of modules. Then M is finitely generated

if M, M are finitely generated. There are some partial converses to this. If M is finitely generated

and M'' is finitely presented (which is stronger than finitely generated; see below), then M is

finitely-generated. Also, M is Noetherian (resp. Artinian) if and only if M, M are Noetherian

(resp. Artinian).

Let B be a ring and A its subring such that B is a faithfully flat right A-module. Then a left Amodule F is finitely generated (resp. finitely presented) if and only if the B-module B AF is

finitely generated (resp. finitely presented).[2]

For finitely generated modules over a commutative ring R, Nakayama's lemma is fundamental.

Sometimes, the lemma allows one to prove finite dimensional vector spaces phenomena for

finitely generated modules. For example, if f : M M is a surjective R-endomorphism of a

finitely generated module M, then f is also injective, and hence is anautomorphism of M.[3] This

says simply that M is a Hopfian module. Similarly, an Artinian module M is coHopfian: any

injective endomorphism f is also a surjective endomorphism.[4]

Any R-module is an inductive limit of finitely generated R-submodules. This is useful for

weakening an assumption to the finite case (e.g., the characterization of flatness with theTor

functor.)

An example of a link between finite generation and integral elements can be found in

commutative algebras. To say that a commutative algebra A is a finitely generated

ringover R means that there exists a set of elements G = {x1, ..., xn} of A such that the smallest

subring of A containing G and R is A itself. Because the ring product may be used to combine

elements, more than just R-linear combinations of elements of G are generated. For example,

a polynomial ring R[x] is finitely generated by {1,x} as a ring, but not as a module. If A is a

commutative algebra (with unity) over R, then the following two statements are equivalent:[5]

A is both a finitely generated ring over R and an integral extension of R.

Generic rank[edit]

Let M be a finitely generated module over an integral domain A with the field of fractions K. Then

the dimension

is called the generic rank of M over A. This number is the

same as the number of maximal A-linearly independent vectors in M or equivalently the rank of a

maximal free submodule of M. (cf. rank of an abelian group.)

Since

free

is a

-module. Then the rank of this free module is the generic rank of M.

Now suppose the integral domain A is generated as algebra over a field k by finitely many

homogeneous elements of degrees . Suppose M is graded as well and

let

generic rank of M.[6]

. Then

is the

A finitely generated module over a principal ideal domain is torsion-free if and only if it is free.

This is a consequence of the structure theorem for finitely generated modules over a principal

ideal domain, the basic form of which says a finitely generated module over a PID is a direct

sum of a torsion module and a free module. But it can also be shown directly as follows: let M be

a torsion-free finitely generated module over a PID A and F a maximal free submodule. Let f be

in A such that

. Then

is free since it is a submodule of a free module and A is a

PID. But now

is an isomorphism since M is torsion-free.

By the same argument as above, a finitely generated module over a Dedekind domain A (or

more generally a semi-hereditary ring) is torsion-free if and only if it is projective; consequently, a

finitely generated module over A is a direct sum of a torsion module and a projective module. A

finitely generated projective module over a Noetherian integral domain has constant rank and so

the generic rank of a finitely generated module over A is the rank of its projective part.

The following conditions are equivalent to M being finitely generated (f.g.):

some finite subset F of I.

, then

for

If

is an epimorphism, then the restriction

epimorphism for some finite subset F of I.

is an

From these conditions it is easy to see that being finitely generated is a property preserved

by Morita equivalence. The conditions are also convenient to define a dual notion of afinitely

cogenerated module M. The following conditions are equivalent to a module being finitely

cogenerated (f.cog.):

some finite subset F of I.

, then

If

is a monomorphism, then

some finite subset F of I.

for

is a monomorphism for

Both f.g. modules and f.cog. modules have interesting relationships to Noetherian and Artinian

modules, and the Jacobson radical J(M) and socle soc(M) of a module. The following facts

illustrate the duality between the two conditions. For a module M:

M is Artinian if and only if every quotient module M/N is f.cog.

M is f.g. if and only if J(M) is a superfluous submodule of M, and M/J(M) is f.g.

M is f.cog. if and only if soc(M) is an essential submodule of M, and soc(M) is f.g.

If M is a semisimple module (such as soc(N) for any module N), it is f.g. if and only if f.cog.

If M is f.g. and nonzero, then M has a maximal submodule and any quotient module M/N is

f.g.

If M is f.cog. and nonzero, then M has a minimal submodule, and any submodule N of M is

f.cog.

If N and M/N are f.g. then so is M. The same is true if "f.g." is replaced with "f.cog."

Finitely cogenerated modules must have finite uniform dimension. This is easily seen by

applying the characterization using the finitely generated essential socle. Somewhat

asymmetrically, finitely generated modules do not necessarily have finite uniform dimension. For

example, an infinite direct product of nonzero rings is a finitely generated (cyclic!) module over

itself, however it clearly contains an infinite direct sum of nonzero submodules. Finitely

generated modules do not necessarily have finite co-uniform dimensioneither: any ring R with

unity such that R/J(R) is not a semisimple ring is a counterexample.

Another formulation is this: a finitely generated module M is one for which there is

an epimorphism

f : Rk M.

Suppose now there is an epimorphism,

: F M.

for a module M and free module F.

Since M is isomorphic to F/ker(), this basically expresses that M is obtained by

taking a free module and introducing finitely many relations within F (the generators

of ker()).

If the kernel of is finitely generated and F has finite rank (i.e. F=Rk), then M is said

to be a finitely presented module. Here, M is specified using finitely many

generators (the images of the k generators of F=Rk) and finitely many relations (the

generators of ker()).

A coherent module M is a finitely generated module whose finitely generated

submodules are finitely presented.

Over any ring R, coherent modules are finitely presented, and finitely presented

modules are both finitely generated and finitely related. For a Noetherian ring R, finitely

generated, finitely presented, and coherent are equivalent conditions on a module.

Some crossover occurs for projective or flat modules. A finitely generated projective

module is finitely presented, and a finitely related flat module is projective.

It is true also that the following conditions are equivalent for a ring R:

1. R is a right coherent ring.

2. The module RR is a coherent module.

3. Every finitely presented right R module is coherent.

Although coherence seems like a more cumbersome condition than finitely generated or

finitely presented, it is nicer than them since the category of coherent modules is

anabelian category, while, in general, neither finitely generated nor finitely presented

modules form an abelian category.

See also[edit]

Integral element

ArtinRees lemma

Countably generated module

References[edit]

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Jump up^ Bourbaki 1998, Ch 1, 3, no. 6, Proposition 11.

Jump up^ Matsumura 1989, Theorem 2.4.

Jump up^ Atiyah & Macdonald 1969, Exercise 6.1.

Jump up^ Kaplansky 1970, p. 11, Theorem 17.

Jump up^ Springer 1977, Theorem 2.5.6.

Textbooks[edit]

Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass.-London-Don Mills, Ont.,

pp. ix+128,MR 0242802 (39 #4129)

Bourbaki, Nicolas, Commutative algebra. Chapters 1--7. Translated from the

French. Reprint of the 1989 English translation. Elements of Mathematics (Berlin).

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998. xxiv+625 pp. ISBN 3-540-64239-0

Kaplansky, Irving (1970), Commutative rings, Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon Inc.,

pp. x+180, MR 0254021

Lam, T. Y. (1999), Lectures on modules and rings, Graduate Texts in Mathematics

No. 189, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-98428-5

Lang, Serge (1997), Algebra (3rd ed.), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-55540-0

Matsumura, Hideyuki (1989), Commutative ring theory, Cambridge Studies in

Advanced Mathematics 8, Translated from the Japanese by M. Reid (2 ed.),

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. xiv+320, ISBN 0-521-367646, MR 1011461 (90i:13001)

Springer, Tonny A. (1977), Invariant theory, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 585,

Springer.

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