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Finitely-generated module

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In mathematics, a finitely generated module is a module that has a finite generating set. A finitely
generated R-module also may be called a finite R-module or finite over R.[1]
Related concepts include finitely cogenerated modules, finitely presented modules, finitely
related modules and coherent modules all of which are defined below. Over aNoetherian ring the
concepts of finitely generated, finitely presented and coherent modules coincide.
A finitely generated module over a field is simply a finite-dimensional vector space, and a finitely
generated module over the integers is simply a finitely generated abelian group.
Contents
[hide]

1 Formal definition
2 Examples
3 Some facts
4 Finitely generated modules over a commutative ring
5 Generic rank
6 Equivalent definitions and finitely cogenerated modules
7 Finitely presented, finitely related, and coherent modules
8 See also
9 References
10 Textbooks

Formal definition[edit]
The left R-module M is finitely generated if there exist a1, a2, ..., an in M such that for all x in M, there
exist r1, r2, ..., rn in R with x = r1a1 + r2a2 + ... + rnan.
The set {a1, a2, ..., an} is referred to as a generating set for M in this case. The finite generators need
not be a basis, since they need not be linearly independent over R. What is true is: M is finitely
generated if and only if there is a surjective R-linear map:
for some n (M is a quotient of a free module of finite rank.)
If a subset S of a module M generates a finitely generated submodule N, then the finite
generators of N can be taken from S (since only finitely many elements in S are needed to
express the finite generators.)
Any module is a union of an increasing sequence of finitely generated submodules.
In the case where the module M is a vector space over a field R, and the generating set
is linearly independent, n is well-defined and is referred to as the dimension of M (welldefined means that any linearly independent generating set has n elements: this is
the dimension theorem for vector spaces).

Examples[edit]

If a module is generated by one element, it is called a cyclic module.

Let R be an integral domain with K its field of fractions. Then every finitely generated Rsubmodule I of K is a fractional ideal: that is, there is some nonzero r in R such that rIis
contained in R. Indeed, one can take r to be the product of the denominators of the
generators of I. If R is Noetherian, then every fractional ideal arises in this way.
Finitely generated modules over the ring of integers Z coincide with the finitely generated
abelian groups. These are completely classified by the structure theorem, taking Zas the
principal ideal domain.
Finitely generated (say left) modules over a division ring are precisely finite dimensional
vector spaces (over the division ring).

Some facts[edit]
Every homomorphic image of a finitely generated module is finitely generated. In
general, submodules of finitely generated modules need not be finitely generated. As an
example, consider the ring R = Z[X1, X2, ...] of all polynomials in countably
many variables. R itself is a finitely generated R-module (with {1} as generating set). Consider
the submodule K consisting of all those polynomials with zero constant term. Since every
polynomial contains only finitely many terms whose coefficients are non-zero, the R-moduleK is
not finitely generated.
In general, a module is said to be Noetherian if every submodule is finitely generated. A finitely
generated module over a Noetherian ring is a Noetherian module (and indeed this property
characterizes Noetherian rings): A module over a Noetherian ring is finitely generated if and only
if it is a Noetherian module. This resembles, but is not exactly Hilbert's basis theorem, which
states that the polynomial ring R[X] over a Noetherian ring R is Noetherian. Both facts imply that
a finitely generated algebra over a Noetherian ring is again a Noetherian ring.
More generally, an algebra (e.g., ring) that is a finitely-generated module is a finitely-generated
algebra. Conversely, if a finitely generated algebra is integral (over the coefficient ring), then it is
finitely generated module. (See integral element for more.)
Let 0 M M M 0 be an exact sequence of modules. Then M is finitely generated
if M, M are finitely generated. There are some partial converses to this. If M is finitely generated
and M'' is finitely presented (which is stronger than finitely generated; see below), then M is
finitely-generated. Also, M is Noetherian (resp. Artinian) if and only if M, M are Noetherian
(resp. Artinian).
Let B be a ring and A its subring such that B is a faithfully flat right A-module. Then a left Amodule F is finitely generated (resp. finitely presented) if and only if the B-module B AF is
finitely generated (resp. finitely presented).[2]

Finitely generated modules over a commutative ring[edit]


For finitely generated modules over a commutative ring R, Nakayama's lemma is fundamental.
Sometimes, the lemma allows one to prove finite dimensional vector spaces phenomena for
finitely generated modules. For example, if f : M M is a surjective R-endomorphism of a
finitely generated module M, then f is also injective, and hence is anautomorphism of M.[3] This
says simply that M is a Hopfian module. Similarly, an Artinian module M is coHopfian: any
injective endomorphism f is also a surjective endomorphism.[4]
Any R-module is an inductive limit of finitely generated R-submodules. This is useful for
weakening an assumption to the finite case (e.g., the characterization of flatness with theTor
functor.)
An example of a link between finite generation and integral elements can be found in
commutative algebras. To say that a commutative algebra A is a finitely generated

ringover R means that there exists a set of elements G = {x1, ..., xn} of A such that the smallest
subring of A containing G and R is A itself. Because the ring product may be used to combine
elements, more than just R-linear combinations of elements of G are generated. For example,
a polynomial ring R[x] is finitely generated by {1,x} as a ring, but not as a module. If A is a
commutative algebra (with unity) over R, then the following two statements are equivalent:[5]

A is a finitely generated R module.


A is both a finitely generated ring over R and an integral extension of R.

Generic rank[edit]
Let M be a finitely generated module over an integral domain A with the field of fractions K. Then
the dimension
is called the generic rank of M over A. This number is the
same as the number of maximal A-linearly independent vectors in M or equivalently the rank of a
maximal free submodule of M. (cf. rank of an abelian group.)
Since

is a torsion module. When A is Noetherian,

by generic freeness, there is an element f (depending on M) such that


free

is a

-module. Then the rank of this free module is the generic rank of M.

Now suppose the integral domain A is generated as algebra over a field k by finitely many
homogeneous elements of degrees . Suppose M is graded as well and
let

be the Poincar series of M. By the HilbertSerre theorem,

there is a polynomial F such that


generic rank of M.[6]

. Then

is the

A finitely generated module over a principal ideal domain is torsion-free if and only if it is free.
This is a consequence of the structure theorem for finitely generated modules over a principal
ideal domain, the basic form of which says a finitely generated module over a PID is a direct
sum of a torsion module and a free module. But it can also be shown directly as follows: let M be
a torsion-free finitely generated module over a PID A and F a maximal free submodule. Let f be
in A such that
. Then
is free since it is a submodule of a free module and A is a
PID. But now
is an isomorphism since M is torsion-free.
By the same argument as above, a finitely generated module over a Dedekind domain A (or
more generally a semi-hereditary ring) is torsion-free if and only if it is projective; consequently, a
finitely generated module over A is a direct sum of a torsion module and a projective module. A
finitely generated projective module over a Noetherian integral domain has constant rank and so
the generic rank of a finitely generated module over A is the rank of its projective part.

Equivalent definitions and finitely cogenerated modules[edit]


The following conditions are equivalent to M being finitely generated (f.g.):

For any family of submodules {Ni | i I} in M, if


some finite subset F of I.

For any chain of submodules {Ni | i I} in M, if

, then

for

, then Ni = M for some i in I.

If
is an epimorphism, then the restriction
epimorphism for some finite subset F of I.

is an

From these conditions it is easy to see that being finitely generated is a property preserved
by Morita equivalence. The conditions are also convenient to define a dual notion of afinitely
cogenerated module M. The following conditions are equivalent to a module being finitely
cogenerated (f.cog.):

For any family of submodules {Ni | i I} in M, if


some finite subset F of I.

, then

For any chain of submodules {Ni | i I} in M, if

, then Ni = {0} for some i in I.

If
is a monomorphism, then
some finite subset F of I.

for

is a monomorphism for

Both f.g. modules and f.cog. modules have interesting relationships to Noetherian and Artinian
modules, and the Jacobson radical J(M) and socle soc(M) of a module. The following facts
illustrate the duality between the two conditions. For a module M:

M is Noetherian if and only if every submodule N of M is f.g.


M is Artinian if and only if every quotient module M/N is f.cog.
M is f.g. if and only if J(M) is a superfluous submodule of M, and M/J(M) is f.g.
M is f.cog. if and only if soc(M) is an essential submodule of M, and soc(M) is f.g.
If M is a semisimple module (such as soc(N) for any module N), it is f.g. if and only if f.cog.
If M is f.g. and nonzero, then M has a maximal submodule and any quotient module M/N is
f.g.
If M is f.cog. and nonzero, then M has a minimal submodule, and any submodule N of M is
f.cog.
If N and M/N are f.g. then so is M. The same is true if "f.g." is replaced with "f.cog."

Finitely cogenerated modules must have finite uniform dimension. This is easily seen by
applying the characterization using the finitely generated essential socle. Somewhat
asymmetrically, finitely generated modules do not necessarily have finite uniform dimension. For
example, an infinite direct product of nonzero rings is a finitely generated (cyclic!) module over
itself, however it clearly contains an infinite direct sum of nonzero submodules. Finitely
generated modules do not necessarily have finite co-uniform dimensioneither: any ring R with
unity such that R/J(R) is not a semisimple ring is a counterexample.

Finitely presented, finitely related, and coherent modules[edit]


Another formulation is this: a finitely generated module M is one for which there is
an epimorphism
f : Rk M.
Suppose now there is an epimorphism,
: F M.
for a module M and free module F.

If the kernel of is finitely generated, then M is called a finitely related module.


Since M is isomorphic to F/ker(), this basically expresses that M is obtained by
taking a free module and introducing finitely many relations within F (the generators
of ker()).
If the kernel of is finitely generated and F has finite rank (i.e. F=Rk), then M is said
to be a finitely presented module. Here, M is specified using finitely many
generators (the images of the k generators of F=Rk) and finitely many relations (the
generators of ker()).
A coherent module M is a finitely generated module whose finitely generated
submodules are finitely presented.

Over any ring R, coherent modules are finitely presented, and finitely presented
modules are both finitely generated and finitely related. For a Noetherian ring R, finitely
generated, finitely presented, and coherent are equivalent conditions on a module.
Some crossover occurs for projective or flat modules. A finitely generated projective
module is finitely presented, and a finitely related flat module is projective.
It is true also that the following conditions are equivalent for a ring R:
1. R is a right coherent ring.
2. The module RR is a coherent module.
3. Every finitely presented right R module is coherent.
Although coherence seems like a more cumbersome condition than finitely generated or
finitely presented, it is nicer than them since the category of coherent modules is
anabelian category, while, in general, neither finitely generated nor finitely presented
modules form an abelian category.

See also[edit]

Integral element
ArtinRees lemma
Countably generated module

References[edit]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Jump up^ For example, Matsumura uses this terminology.


Jump up^ Bourbaki 1998, Ch 1, 3, no. 6, Proposition 11.
Jump up^ Matsumura 1989, Theorem 2.4.
Jump up^ Atiyah & Macdonald 1969, Exercise 6.1.
Jump up^ Kaplansky 1970, p. 11, Theorem 17.
Jump up^ Springer 1977, Theorem 2.5.6.

Textbooks[edit]

Atiyah, M. F.; Macdonald, I. G. (1969), Introduction to commutative algebra,


Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass.-London-Don Mills, Ont.,
pp. ix+128,MR 0242802 (39 #4129)
Bourbaki, Nicolas, Commutative algebra. Chapters 1--7. Translated from the
French. Reprint of the 1989 English translation. Elements of Mathematics (Berlin).
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998. xxiv+625 pp. ISBN 3-540-64239-0

Kaplansky, Irving (1970), Commutative rings, Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon Inc.,
pp. x+180, MR 0254021
Lam, T. Y. (1999), Lectures on modules and rings, Graduate Texts in Mathematics
No. 189, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-98428-5
Lang, Serge (1997), Algebra (3rd ed.), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-55540-0
Matsumura, Hideyuki (1989), Commutative ring theory, Cambridge Studies in
Advanced Mathematics 8, Translated from the Japanese by M. Reid (2 ed.),
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. xiv+320, ISBN 0-521-367646, MR 1011461 (90i:13001)
Springer, Tonny A. (1977), Invariant theory, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 585,
Springer.