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ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero.[1][2] Integral domains are

generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. In an

integral domain the cancellation property holds for multiplication by a nonzero element a, that is, if a

0, an equality ab = ac implies b = c.

"Integral domain" is defined almost universally as above, but there is some variation. This article

follows the convention that rings have a 1, but some authors who do not follow this also do not

require integral domains to have a 1.[3][4] Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes

admitted.[5] This article, however, follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term

"integral domain" for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including

noncommutative rings.

Some sources, notably Lang, use the term entire ring for integral domain.[6]

Some specific kinds of integral domains are given with the following chain of class inclusions:

Commutative rings integral domains integrally closed domains unique

factorization domains principal ideal domains Euclidean domains fields

Algebraic structures

Group-like[show]

Ring-like[show]

Lattice-like[show]

Module-like[show]

Algebra-like[show]

Contents

[hide]

1 Definitions

2 Examples

3 Non-examples

4 Divisibility, prime elements, and irreducible elements

5 Properties

6 Field of fractions

7 Algebraic geometry

8 Characteristic and homomorphisms

9 See also

10 Notes

11 References

Definitions[edit]

There are a number of equivalent definitions of integral domain:

An integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero

elements is nonzero.

An integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring with no nonzero zero divisors.

An integral domain is a commutative ring in which the zero ideal {0} is a prime ideal.

An integral domain is a commutative ring for which every non-zero element is cancellable

under multiplication.

An integral domain is a ring for which the set of nonzero elements is a

commutative monoid under multiplication (because the monoid is closed under

multiplication).

An integral domain is a ring that is (isomorphic to) a subring of a field. (This implies it is

a nonzero commutative ring.)

An integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which for every nonzero element r, the

function that maps each element x of the ring to the product xr is injective. Elements r with

this property are called regular, so it is equivalent to require that every nonzero element of

the ring be regular.

Examples[edit]

Every field is an integral domain. Conversely, every Artinian integral domain is a field. In

particular, all finite integral domains are finite fields (more generally, by Wedderburn's little

theorem, finite domains are finite fields). The ring of integers Z provides an example of a

non-Artinian infinite integral domain that is not a field, possessing infinite descending

sequences of ideals such as:

Rings of polynomials are integral domains if the coefficients come from an integral

domain. For instance, the ring Z[X] of all polynomials in one variable with integer

coefficients is an integral domain; so is the ring R[X,Y] of all polynomials in two variables

with real coefficients.

For each integer n > 1, the set of all real numbers of the

form a + bn with a and b integers is a subring of R and hence an integral domain.

For each integer n > 0 the set of all complex numbers of the

form a + bin with a and b integers is a subring of C and hence an integral domain. In

the case n = 1 this integral domain is called the Gaussian integers.

The ring of p-adic integers is an integral domain.

If U is a connected open subset of the complex plane C, then the ring H(U) consisting of

all holomorphic functions f : U C is an integral domain. The same is true for rings

ofanalytic functions on connected open subsets of analytic manifolds.

A regular local ring is an integral domain. In fact, a regular local ring is a UFD.[7][8]

Non-examples[edit]

The following rings are not integral domains.

The quotient ring Z/mZ when m is a composite number.

The product ring Z Z.

The zero ring in which 0=1.

(since, for

example,

).

See also: Divisibility (ring theory)

In this section, R is an integral domain.

Given elements a and b of R, we say that a divides b, or that a is a divisor of b, or that b is

a multiple of a, if there exists an element x in R such that ax = b.

The elements that divide 1 are called the units of R; these are precisely the invertible

elements in R. Units divide all other elements.

If a divides b and b divides a, then we say a and b are associated

elements or associates.[9] Equivalently, a and b are associates if a=ub for some unit u.

If q is a nonzero non-unit, we say that q is an irreducible element if q cannot be written as

a product of two non-units.

If p is a nonzero non-unit, we say that p is a prime element if, whenever p divides a

product ab, then p divides a or p divides b. Equivalently, an element p is prime if and only if

the principal ideal (p) is a nonzero prime ideal. The notion of prime element generalizes the

ordinary definition of prime number in the ring Z, except that it allows for negative prime

elements.

Every prime element is irreducible. The converse is not true in general: for example, in

the quadratic integer ring

the element 3 is irreducible (if it factored nontrivially,

the factors would each have to have norm 3, but there are no norm 3 elements

since

divides

without dividing either factor). In a unique

factorization domain (or more generally, a GCD domain), an irreducible element is a prime

element.

While unique factorization does not hold in

of ideals. See LaskerNoether theorem.

Properties[edit]

A commutative ring R is an integral domain if and only if the ideal (0) of R is a prime

ideal.

If R is a commutative ring and P is an ideal in R, then the quotient ring R/P is an integral

domain if and only if P is a prime ideal.

Let R be an integral domain. Then there is an integral domain S such

that R S and S has an element which is transcendental over R.

The cancellation property holds in any integral domain: for any a, b, and c in an integral

domain, if a 0 and ab = ac then b = c. Another way to state this is that the

function x ax is injective for any nonzero a in the domain.

The cancellation property holds for ideals in any integral domain: if xI = xJ, then

either x is zero or I = J.

An integral domain is equal to the intersection of its localizations at maximal ideals.

An inductive limit of integral domains is an integral domain.

Field of fractions[edit]

Main article: Field of fractions

The field of fractions K of an integral domain R is the set of

fractions a/b with a and b in R and b 0 modulo an appropriate equivalence relation,

equipped with the usual addition and multiplication operations. It is "the smallest field

containing R" in the sense that there is an injective ring homomorphism R K such that

any injective ring homomorphism from R to a field factors through K. The field of fractions of

the ring of integers Z is the field of rational numbers Q. The field of fractions of a field

is isomorphic to the field itself.

Algebraic geometry[edit]

Integral domains are characterized by the condition that they are reduced (that is x2 = 0

implies x = 0) and irreducible (that is there is only one minimal prime ideal). The former

condition ensures that the nilradical of the ring is zero, so that the intersection of all the

ring's minimal primes is zero. The latter condition is that the ring have only one minimal

prime. It follows that the unique minimal prime ideal of a reduced and irreducible ring is the

zero ideal, so such rings are integral domains. The converse is clear: an integral domain has

no nonzero nilpotent elements, and the zero ideal is the unique minimal prime ideal.

This translates, in algebraic geometry, into the fact that the coordinate ring of an affine

algebraic set is an integral domain if and only if the algebraic set is an algebraic variety.

More generally, a commutative ring is an integral domain if and only if its spectrum is

an integral affine scheme.

The characteristic of an integral domain is either 0 or a prime number.

If R is an integral domain of prime characteristic p, then the Frobenius endomorphism f(x)

= x p is injective.

See also[edit]

DedekindHasse norm the extra structure needed for an integral domain to be

principal

Zero-product property

Notes[edit]

1. Jump up^ Bourbaki, p. 116.

3. Jump up^ B.L. van der Waerden, Algebra Erster Teil, p. 36, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,

Heidelberg 1966.

4. Jump up^ I.N. Herstein, Topics in Algebra, p. 88-90, Blaisdell Publishing Company,

London 1964.

5. Jump up^ J.C. McConnel and J.C. Robson "Noncommutative Noetherian Rings"

(Graduate studies in Mathematics Vol. 30, AMS)

6. Jump up^ Pages 9192 of Lang, Serge (1993), Algebra (Third ed.), Reading,

Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., ISBN 978-0-201-55540-0, Zbl 0848.13001

7. Jump up^ Auslander, Maurice; Buchsbaum, D. A. (1959). "Unique factorization in

regular local rings". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45 (5): 733

734. doi:10.1073/pnas.45.5.733. PMC 222624.PMID 16590434.

8. Jump up^ Masayoshi Nagata (1958). "A general theory of algebraic geometry over

Dedekind domains. II". Amer. J. Math. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 80 (2):

382420.doi:10.2307/2372791. JSTOR 2372791.

9. Jump up^ Durbin, John R. (1993). Modern Algebra: An Introduction (3rd ed.). John

Wiley and Sons. p. 224. ISBN 0-471-51001-7. Elements a and b of [an integral domain]

are called associates if a | band b | a.

References[edit]

Adamson, Iain T. (1972). Elementary rings and modules. University Mathematical Texts.

Oliver and Boyd. ISBN 0-05-002192-3.

Bourbaki, Nicolas (1998). Algebra, Chapters 13. Berlin, New York: SpringerVerlag. ISBN 978-3-540-64243-5.

Mac Lane, Saunders; Birkhoff, Garrett (1967). Algebra. New York: The Macmillan

Co. ISBN 1-56881-068-7. MR 0214415.

Dummit, David S.; Foote, Richard M. (2004). Abstract Algebra (3rd ed.). New

York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-43334-7.

Hungerford, Thomas W. (1974). Algebra. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston,

Inc. ISBN 0-03-030558-6.

Lang, Serge (2002). Algebra. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 211. Berlin, New

York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-95385-4. MR 1878556.

Sharpe, David (1987). Rings and factorization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-33718-6.

Rowen, Louis Halle (1994). Algebra: groups, rings, and fields. A K Peters. ISBN 156881-028-8.

Lanski, Charles (2005). Concepts in abstract algebra. AMS Bookstore. ISBN 0-53442323-X.

Milies, Csar Polcino; Sehgal, Sudarshan K. (2002). An introduction to group rings.

Springer. ISBN 1-4020-0238-6.

B.L. van der Waerden, Algebra, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1966.

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