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Alex Zhao

Greg Kerr
IB Chemistry HL
September 7, 2012
Lets start with copper Lab
Background
When a chemical changes take place, we may observe one or
more of the following:
A substance disappears.
A gas is given of
A color change takes place
A solid is precipitated
The temperature changes
A new odor appears.
Aim/Objective:
Through the various parts of the lab and reactions that take
place, we will observe and identify signs of chemical changes.
Starting with approximately 1.5 grams of copper, we strive to
recover the same amount of copper after five diferent reactions. In
addition, familiarize oneself with laboratory techniques and identify
the science of a chemical reaction
Materials/Equipment:
Small pieces of Copper
(Cu) 1.5 grams
Nitric acid (HNO3)
250 mL Beaker (2~3)
Weighing boat
Fume hood
Watch glass
3M Sodium Hydroxide
(NaOH)

IB Chemistry HL Lab 1

Hot plate/ Bunsen burner


Glass Stirring rod
Wash bottle (with
distilled water)
Measuring Cylinders of
various sizes
3M Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)
Zinc Metal (Zn) 5 grams

September 7, 2012


Stage One: Reaction between copper, Cu, and a
solution of nitric acid, HNO3, in water.

Procedure:
Given vial containing approx. 1.5 grams of copper.
Weigh vial and find mass of copper
Tip copper into 250 mL beaker
Mix 15mL of nitric acid solution with copper under
fume hood (gas produced is poisonous)
Put watch glass on top of beaker (to keep most of the
gas in for observation.
Observe. Has a chemical reaction occurred?

Observations:

Weighing Boat + Copper: 3.58 grams 0.01g

Weighing Boat: 2.09 grams 0.01g

Mass of Copper: 1.49 grams 0.01g

Copper: Shiny, solid, malleable, ductile, odorless,


brownish color, with traces of oxidation.

Nitric Acid: Liquid, odorless, clear, colorless,


transparent.

During Reaction:
Gas is given of at the surface of the copper.
Possibly Hydrogen Gas
As the reaction progresses, the amount of gas
increases. The solution turns blue-green color.
A brown gas is formed, along with an unwelcoming
odor
Copper turns milky white
Temperature rises slightly
Copper eventually disappears. Solution left behind
is bluish, liquid, clear, transparent, with odor
(though possibly caused by odor of the brownish
gas produced)

I believe a chemical reaction has occurred


because: A substance disappeared, a gas is given of, a
color change took place, the temperature changed, and
a new odor appeared. In addition, I believe the copper
has dissolved and taken the form of an aqueous
compound.

Equation(s):
Cu(s) + 4NO3(aq)2NO2(g) + 2H20(l) + Cu(NO3)2(aq)

1 mol of Copper solid + 4 mols of Nitric Acid Solution


Yields 2 mols of Nitrogen Dioxide gas+ 2 mols of
water + 1 mol of Copper (I) Nitrate.

Stage two: The addition of a solution of 3 molar sodium


hydroxide, NaOH, in water

Procedure:
Add 40 mL of sodium hydroxide solution to solution in
beaker (yielded after stage 1) while stirring with glass
rod
Record observations

Observations:

Sodium Hydroxide solution: liquid, transparent,


colorless, odorless, uniform, clear.

During reaction:
A solid, dark blue precipitate forms
Color is darker than original solution, rather milky.
Temperature increase.

I believe a chemical reaction has occurred


because: a precipitate was formed, a color change took
place, and the temperature changed.

The copper should be part of the precipitate


(speculation).

Equation:
Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
1 mol of Copper (I) Nitrate solution + 2 mol of
Sodium Hydroxide solution yields 1 mol of Copper (I)
Hydroxide solid and 2 mols of Sodium Nitrate
solution.

Stage three: Heating

Procedure:
Add 100 mL of distilled water to the beaker
Gently heat the beaker and its contents while stirring
with glass rod.

Observations:

During reaction:
Color of solution becomes even darker.
The precipitate turns into a greenish black particle
As heating continues, the greenish black particles
turn completely black, and retain a powdery
characteristic.
After the particles settle down, the solution above
it is colorless, odorless, liquid, clear, and
transparent.

There was a chemical reaction that took place


because: a color change took place, and a new
substance was formed (milky bluish precipitate becomes
blackish, powdery solids).

The copper should now be part of the blackish,


powdery solid that settled down.

Equation:
Cu(OH)2(s) + Heat CuO(s) + H20(l)
1 mol of Copper (I) Hydroxide solid + Heat yields 1
mol of Cupper (II) Oxide solid + 1 mol of water.

Stage four: Addition of a solution of 3 molar sulfuric


acid, H2SO4, in water

Procedure:
Carefully add 50mL of the acid solution to beaker. Stir
until no further reaction takes place.
Observe and record

Observations:

Sulfuric acid: colorless, clear, transparent, liquid,


odorless

During reaction:
Solution turns blue green and ends up as bright
blue, clear, transparent, liquid solution.
Blackish powder disappears

A chemical reaction took place because: A


substance disappears, and a color change took place.

The copper should now be completely dissolved in


the homogeneous solution.

Equation:
CuO (s)+H2SO4(aq) CuSO4(aq) + H2(l)
1 mol of Copper (I) Oxide + 1 mol of Sulfuric acid
solution yields 1 mol of Cupper (II) Sulfate + 1 mol of
Hydrogen gas.

Stage Five: addition of zinc Metal, Zn

Procedure:
Add 5 g of zinc metal to product in beaker. Place
watch glass on top of beaker
Observe any changes
Allow reaction to finish
Observe and record

Observations:

Zinc: Solid, opaque, rather shiny, greyish, hard,


and in the form of small pellets.

During reaction:
Bubbles from at the surface of the zinc pellets.
The zinc eventually turns blackish brown, and
finally disappears, leaving behind a solid, blackish
precipitate and a homogeneous, clear,
transparent, and colorless solution.

Equation (s):
Zn(s)+H2SO4 (aq)H2(g)+ZnSO4(aq)
Zn(s)+CuSO4(aq)Cu(s)+ZnSO4(aq)
1 mol of Zinc + 1 mol of Sulfuric acid yields 1 mol of
hydrogen gas + 1 mol of Zinc Sulfate
1 mol of Zinc + 1 mol of Copper (II) Sulfate + 1 mol
of Zinc Sulfate.

Stage 6: Recovery

After washing and decanting to obtain the substance


from the solution, and boiling of excess water, we get:

Mass of Evaporating dish + Copper: 40.41 g 0.01 g

Mass of Evaporating dish: 38.71g 0.01 g

Final mass of copper: 1.70 g 0.01g

Conclusion:
The initial mass of copper: 1.49 g 0.01g
The final mass of copper: 1.70 g 0.01g
The percentage discrepancy:
experimental valueexpected value
1.701.49
0.21
100 =
100 =
100 =0.1409 100 =14
expected value
1.49
1.49

Notice that that final weight of the copper is more than the
initial mass. We have take special care to wipe any water vapor from
the bottom of the evaporating dish after taking it of the water bath
to get an as accurate measurement of the mass of copper as
possible, but there is still surplus mass. I suspect there is some
residue zinc sulfate that contributed to this final mass of copper.
Nonetheless, I feel this lab was a success; during this lab, I
have familiarized myself with laboratory techniques and now I
definitely know the 6 signs of chemical change: gas produced, color
change, solid precipitated, heat change, substance disappears, odor
produced.