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Physical

Deterioration

Physical Deterioration

Deterioration by surface wear


Abrasion: dry attrition (wear on pavements
and industrial floors by traffic).
Erosion: wear produced by abrasive action of
fluids containing solid particles in suspension
(canal lining, spillways and pipes).
Cavitation: loss of mass by formation of
vapor bubbles and their subsequent collapse.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Abrasion and Erosion


The deterioration starts at the surface,
therefore special attentions should be given
to quality of the concrete surface.
Avoid laitance (layer of fines from cement and
aggregate).

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Cavitation
Good-quality concrete shows excellent resistance to
steady high-velocity flow of clear water; however
nonlinear flow at velocities exceeding 40 ft/sec. may
cause severe erosion of concrete due to cavitation.
Note: In contrast with erosion or abrasion, a strong
concrete may not necessarily be effective in preventing
damage due to cavitation. Solution = eliminate the
causes of cavitation (review hydraulic design such as
surface misalignments or abrupt change of slope).

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Crystallization of salts
The crystallization of salts in the pores of
concrete can produce stresses that may
damage the concrete structure. This can
happen when the concentration of the solute
(C) exceeds the saturation concentration (Cs).
Higher C/Cs ratio (degree of supersaturation)
produces higher crystallization pressure.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Deterioration by frost action


When water freezes, there is an expansion of
9%. However, some of the water may migrate
through the boundary, decreasing the
hydraulic pressure.
Hydraulic pressure depends on:
(a) rate at which ice is formed;
(b) permeability of the material;
(c) distance to an "escape boundary."

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

The problem
The transformation of ice from liquid water generates a
volumetric dilation of 9%. If the transformation occurs in
small capillary pores, the ice crystals can damage the
cement paste by pushing the capillary walls and by
generating hydraulic pressure.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

The solution
Air voids can provide an effective escape boundary to
reduce this pressure.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Air-Entraining

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Degree of Saturation

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Degree of Saturation

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Degree of Saturation

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Low-temperature SEM

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Images of Frozen Paste

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Images

Ice

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Freezing of concrete

Ice

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Does the air void increase or decrease when


ice forms?

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Observation of ice growth


inside an air-void.

The diameter of the air


void decreases as more
ice forms because the
cement paste matrix
shrinks.

Physical Deterioration

Frost action on the aggregate


Aggregates are also porous bodies and depends on:
size of the pores;
number of pores;
continuity of pores.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Frost action on the aggregate


There are three classes of aggregate:
Low permeability and high strength
No problem! The rock is strong
enough to support the hydraulic pressure.
Intermediate permeability
Potential depending on
(a) rate of temperature drop;
(b) distance the water must travel to find an
escape boundary Critical Aggregate Size
(a large aggregate may cause damage but smaller
particles will not).
High permeability
May cause problem with the transition zone.
P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Factors Controlling Frost


Resistance of Concrete

MSA (in)

air content (%)

(A) Air entrainment = void spacing


of order of7.5
0.1 to 0.2
3/8
mm
1/2

3/4

4.5

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

D-cracking

Aggregate problem! Appearance of fine


parallel cracks along transverse and
longitudinal joints and free edges of
pavements.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Deterioration by fire

Concrete is able to retain sufficient strength


for a reasonably long time.

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Effect of temperature on the cement paste


degree of hydration
moisture state
de-hydration:
ettringite > 1000C
Ca(OH)2 500-6000C
CSH ~ 9000C

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Fire in tunnels

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Physical Deterioration

Consequence

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials

Fire in the
Chunnel

Physical Deterioration

Effect of High Temperature on the Aggegate

Siliceous quartz: 573 C sudden volume change


Carbonate: MgCO3 > 700 C, CaCO3 > 900 C

P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials