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S/W Testing Techniques


Static Testing
Dynamic Testing

Static Testing
Informal Reviews
( Peer Review )
Technical Review
Lead Reviews
Management Review
Formal Review
( Inspections & Audits )

Walk Through

Approaches or Methodologies of Dynamic Testing

1) White Box Testing
2) Black Box Testing
3) Gray Box Testing ( Ex : Data Base
Testing )
Dynamic Testing
White Box Testing
Structural Testing
Unit Testing
Integration Testing

Black Box Testing

Specification Based Testing
System Testing



1)Statement Coverage

1)ECP ( EC / EP )
2)Path/Branch/Condition 3)Decision Table Testing
4)State Transition Testing
5)Use Case Testing
* These Techniques are used to
Identify the Dead Code or Dead
Variables (That code or var not used
at any Point of time)

* BVA & ECP are used to Prepare Test

* 3 , 4 , 5 are used to Prepare Test Cases

* Due to this Dead Code Memory

Leakages will be Occur .

Static Testing:
Static Testing Is Considered As Verification Of The Documentation.
It Is Also Called As Verification Testing, Which Can Be Part Of All
The Stages In The Development Process And Which Starts At Very
Initial Stage.
There Are 2 Techniques Followed In The Static Testing Process, They
1) Reviews:

2) Walkthroughs:
Reviews Are Part Of Static Testing Performed By The Quality
Assurance Team.
Benefits Of Reviews:
1. Defects Are Identified At Early Stage Of The Development Process
2. The Defects In The Later Stages Can Be Prevented.
3. Time And Efforts In Fixing The Defects Would Be Reduced
4. Will Improve The Quality Of The Product/Software/Application
5. Will Improve The Customer Satisfaction.
There Can Be Five Types Of Reviews Performed In A Project Process:
A) Peer Review (Informal Review):
A Review Phase On The Documentation Prepared, Conducted By The
Colleague With The Same Role Played In The Project.
B) Technical Review:
These Reviews will be conducted Among Technical Members to Decide
The Best Approach of Implementation when ever there is a Technical
C) Lead Review:

A Review Phase Conducted By The Leader Of The Team.

D) Manager/Customer Review:
A Review Phase Conducted By The Manager Or The Customer(If
Customer Is Involved). This Is Considered To Be The Final Review
Phase, If The Document Is Approved At This Level Then It Is
Considered As Approved Or Signed Off
E) Inspections & Audits ( Formal Review ):
It Is Also Part Of Review, Which Is Verification Of Documentation.
It Is Considered As A Formal Phase Where The Activity Is Identified
Along With The Time in Which It Has To be Conducted.
Inspection Might Have The Team With Following Roles:
1) Inspection Leader or Moderator :
Who Is Responsible For Initiating The Inspection Process, Who Is
Also Responsible For Identifying The Team Activity On Which The
Inspection Has To be Conducted Along With Time And The Venue For
The Inspection.
Ex: Managers Or Analysts
2) Inspector or Reviewer :

The Person Who Is Responsible For Monitoring The Inspection

Process And To Monitor The Progress Of The Inspection Process, Will
Be The Leader During The Inspection Process.
Is The Person, Who Is Actually Involved In Reading The
Documentation, On Which The Inspection Process Is Conducted And
Is Also Responsible For Identifying The Deviations Or Enhancements
To be Done, Generally Called As "Anomalies"
4) Recorder or Scribe :
Is The Person Responsible For Documenting The Anomalies Or
Deviations Or Enhancements Identified By The Reader.
5) Author:
Is The Actual Owner Of The Document, Who Is Responsible For
Updating The Document, If Any Changes Or Comments Or Updates
Documented By The Recorder.
Phases of Formal Review ( Inspection )
1) Planning
2) Kick off Meeting
3) Preparations
4) Review Meeting
5) Re Work
6) Follow Up

1) Planning :
It is the First Phase of Formal Review Where the Author will send A
Formal Request to Moderator . Now the Moderator will Perform a
Entry Check to Confirm whether The Document is Eligible For
Review or Not , If Eligible Moderator Prepares A Review Plan and
Defines Exit Criteria.
a) Entry Criteria / Entry Check / Entry Condition
A Set of Pre Conditions to Start an activity is called
Entry Criteria
b) Exit Criteria / Exit Check / Exit Condition
A Set of Pre Conditions to Stop an activity is called Exit
2) Kick Of Meeting :
This Meeting is helpful For Moderator to Explain The
Review Task and Also To Take The Time Commitment Form
3) Preparation :
In This Phase All Reviewers will Start Reviewing The Job
Individually. During This Review Questions and Defects will be
Documented By Every Reviewer Individually.
4) Review Meeting :
All Participants Of Review Process That is Reviewers ,
Moderators including The Author Will Assemble & Discuss About The
Questions and Defects They Identified .The Accepted Defects Will be
Documented Separately By a Person Called Scribe / Recorder .

5) Re Work :
In This Phase Author will Rework on the Document to Fix
6) Fallow Up : It is a Last Phase in Formal Review
Where the Moderator will Fallow Up all Reviews to
Ensure the Fulfillment Of Exit Criteria.
It Is Also A Technique In Static Testing, But In Audit, The Process In
Implementing The Software Is Checked Rather Than The
Functionality Inside The Application Constructed.
As Part Of Audit The Audit Team Will Be Held Responsible To Check
The Following Things:
Checklist For Audit:
1. Are The Templates Used In All The Activities are Valid As Per The
Organizational Standards
2. Have The Naming Conventions Followed.
3. Are The Activities Carried As Per The Plan
4. Is Documentation Done For Every Single Activity Performed.
5. Are The Deliverables Prepared And Delivered In Time As Per The

People Involved Are Auditors, Any Deviations In The Audit Process

Will Be Documented And Will Be Considered As
"Non Conformance"(Nc), The Collection Of All The Ncs In A Project
Is Called As "Non Conformance Report"(Ncr)
Audits Can Be Of Two Types:
Internal: An Audit Phase Conducted By The Team With in The
External: An Audit Conducted By The Audit Team From Standard
Bodies Like(Iso, Cmm, Sei...)
It Is Also A Technique In Static Testing.
A Step By Step Presentation Conducted By Author About a Subject to
Provide Common Understanding to a team is called Walkthrough.
( Knowledge Transfer Sessions are Called Walkthrough )
--------------------------------------------------------Dynamic Testing:
It Is A Testing Phase Conducted On The Constructed/Developed
System, By Providing The Inputs And Validating The Outputs From
The System.

There Are 2 Major Levels Of Dynamic Testing Performed:

1) White Box Testing
Or Structural Testing
A) Unit Testing
B) Integration Testing
A)Unit Testing:
It is Also Called As Component Testing.
In Which The Validation Is Done Based On The Knowledge Of The
Internal Structure Of The System .
B) Integration Testing:
Every Unit Or Module Tested And Stable, All The Modules Are
United To Form A System And The Process Of Combing The Modules
Is Called As Integration, Checking The Integration Part Is Called As
Integration Testing.
Stub : A Simulation Program That Replaces The Called Program Is
Called Stub .
Driver : A Simulation Program That Replaces The Calling Program Is
Called Driver .
Note : If There Are Any Incomplete Programs Then Instead Of
Waiting Till All Programs Are Completed , Programmer Will Develop
Stubs And Drivers To Carry Out Integration Testing .

2) Black Box Testing


Specification Based Testing

A) System Testing
B) Acceptance Testing
A) System Testing:
A System Is A Final Product, Which Is Integrated. Testing The Whole
Application/Product Without The Internal Structural Knowledge Is
Called As System Testing
Often Test Engineers Are Responsible In Conducting It.
B) Acceptance Testing:
A Testing Phase Conducted By The Customer For Whom The
Software Is Constructed, To Accept The Application Is Called As
"User Acceptance Testing"
--------------------------------------------------------------------Testing Terminologies:
Is A Software Which Is Developed For A Specific Customer.
A Software Which Is Developed For Multiple Potential End Users.
It is the Person Or A Firm, Who Is Involved In Developing The
Software Or Providing The Services In Both Project And Product.

The Person Or A Firm For Whom The Software Is Constructed.
Is The Actual Person Or A Firm Which Uses The Software
Note: The Customers And Client Are The Same In terms Of A Project
But Different For A Product.
It Is A Predefined Structure With One Or Multiple Fields.
Templates Are Organizational Level, Which Are Developed Based On
The Inputs From The Standards.
Common Templates Should Be Used For Similar Type Of Activities In
All the Projects.
Clarification Document (RCN):
It Is A Collection Of All The Queries Or Concerns For The Team
While Analyzing Or Understanding The Customer Requirements.
Understanding Document:

A Document Prepared By The Team, With The Level Of

Understanding The Requirements During The Requirement Analysis
Knowledge Transfer(Kt):
It Is Session Conducted To Make The Team Understand What The
Requirements Are, This Is Carried Out By The Functional Expert.
Sme(Subject Matter Expert):
An Expert In The Domain Or Technology.
It The Portion Or A Complete System/Software/Application/Work
product, Which Is Constructed And Ready For Testing.
It The Process Of Moving The Constructed System(Build) From The
Development Environment To The Test Environment For Further
The Document Or The Summary Of An Activity, Which Is Provided
To A Team Or A Person Is Called As Deliverable.
Ex: Test Deliverables:
Test Cases, Test Data, Test Scenarios, Reports....
SRN ( Software Release Note ) :

It Is A Release Note Created By The Developer And Provided To The

Test Team While Deploying The Build
DD ( Deployment Document ):
A Document Which Consists Of The Deployment Process
Installation Document:
An Installation Guide Prepared And Provided By The Developer To
The Tester, While Deploying The Build
Unit Test Report:
It Is The Summary Of The Test Performed By The Developer.
Test Set:
It Is A Collection Of Several Test Cases To be Executed On Given
It can Be The Collection Of Manual Test Cases Or Automation Test
Script Or Combination Of Both.
Test Cycle:
Executing All The Test Cases Documented In A Test Set On A Given
Build For One Iteration Is Called As Test Cycle.
Issue Log:
The Problems Or The Challenges Faced By The Team During The
Process Of Validating The System.

Every Issue Should Be Documented With The Completed Resolution

Test Execution:
It Is The Process Of Validating The System Or
Build (Executing The Test Case).
In This The Status Of The Test Would Be Passed: If The Expected Is Matching With The Actual Response From
The System
Failed: If The Expected Is Not Matching The Actual Response.
Note: Every Failed Scenario Is Considered As A Deviation And The
Deviation Should Be Reported.
Traceability Matrix:
It Is Mapping Between The Test Cases And The Customer
It Is To Analyze The Coverage of TC With Respect To The