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Lunar Solar Power Project

uttermost need to find some renewable and non-


Abstract-- The solar energy is the best known energy
available till now. But the drawback is the availability of polluting sources. So among all renewable and non-
the catchment point on the earth. The moon receives
approximately 13000Tw of the absolute solar energy. So polluting sources of energy, LSP or lunar solar power is
the basic idea behind the solar lunar power project is to supposed to be the solution to the problem in all respect.
provide an extra large solar directing surface which can As the name implies, LSP is concerned with the
grab enough solar energy and transmit it to earth surface collection of solar power on moon and transmitting it to
using microwave. Now the earth has different receiving earth using microwave.
station which are strategically located so that the
continuity of the power transmission can be maintained.
The microwave receiving antennas are called retinas.
II. NEED: ADEQUATE GLOBAL POWER
Each retina converts the microwave power to electricity In the today’s existing global power system, 1 million
that is fed to the local electric grid. The LSP system uses rich persons require greater than 2 kWe/person, whereas
10-20 pairs of bases one of each pair on the eastern edge 5 billon poor persons use less than 0.6 kWe/person. In
and the other on the western edge. Each base consists of the present scenario, global power use is equivalent to
thousands of power plots distributed in an elliptical area 220 millions barrels of oil per day or 4.8*10^12 watt-
to form fully segmented, phased array radar that are electric. The sources in use today are non-renewable,
solar powered. The buried electrical wires carry the solar and polluting and too expensive for poor people. By
energy as electric power to microwave generators to 2050, there will be around 10 million persons and the
generate microwave of correct phase and amplitude and global power system requires about 20*10^12 watt-
after screening they are transmitted to earth.
electric power. Also, the power needed to be clean, safe,
The waste product in the lunar surface are silicon, iron,
TiO2, etc which can be used for solar cell fabrication. The affordable, dependable and sustainable.
microwaves of frequency range below 2 GHz are used .
because of low losses and penetrating capability through III. PRINCIPLES OF LSP
the atmosphere. The LSP concept, solar power is collected in the moon.
The LSP thus will bring a lot of merits to the power The LSP system uses 10-20 pair of bases with one of
system in earth like availability of large amount of power, each pair on eastern edge and other on western edge.
lower running, reduce pollution etc. thus the LSP system These bases on moon convert solar power in microwave
will establish a permanent and planet economy between beams. These beams, unlike sunlight are safe and
the earth and the moon.
reliable and are able to pass through clouds, rain, dust
and smoke. The different microwave beam of 12 cm
I. INTRODUCTION
wavelength would deliver power to receivers, also
The energy conservation process play’s a great called rectennas, located on earth worldwide.
role in everybody from years. By the year 2050,we
would require about 60,000 GWe of power generation,
which would exhaust most of the non renewable sources
of energy such as coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium
etc. The threat of disappearing of fossil fuel within few
decades has forced the search for better feasible system
in terms of production, efficiency & environment
friendliness at a non-stop pace. Now, the terrestrial
renewable system are subjected to global climatic
changes by various means such as volcanoes, natural
variation in regional climate etc. So there has arisen an
IV. PROCESS
About 13000 TWe of reliable energy sun sends to the
lunar surface. There are number of pair of bases (10-20 V.FABRICATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS
in number). One of each pair on eastern side and other The silicon film is a proprietary process, and only a
on the western side. Each base consists of thousands of very general process is designed. The generic process
power plots distributed in an elliptical area to form fully consists of ceramic formation, metallurgical barrier
segmented, phased array radar that are solar powered. formation, polycrystalline layer deposition, emitter
These bases on moon converts solar power falling on diffusion and contact fabrication. The conductive
moon’s surface into microwaves (power) beams. The ceramic substrate is fabricated from selected low-cost
intensity of each power beam is restricted to 20% or materials. The metallurgical barrier prevents the
less, of the intensity of noontime light The microwaves substrate impurities from entering and contaminating
of frequency range below 2 GHz are used because of the active thin silicon layer. The randomly textured and
low losses and penetrating capability through the highly reflecting metallurgical barrier improves light
atmosphere. These beams are 12 cm in diameter would trapping. A suitable p- type doped 30 - 100micro-cm
deliver power to receivers, also called rectennas, located active layer is deposited from a liquid solution.
on earth worldwide. These beams are able to pass Phosphorus and aluminium impurity gathering are used
through clouds, rain, dust, smoke etc so safe and for bulk quality improvement. Cells with large areas of
reliable. These beams are received by receivers, also 240, 300 and 700 cm2 are developed. A cell with an
called rectennas, would consist of a large field of small area of 675 cm2 has demonstrated the record efficiency
rectifying antennas. Each rectenna converts the of 11.6 – 17.7%.The waste products present in the lunar
microwave power to electricity that is fed into the local surface are silicon, iron, TiO2, etc. These products can
electric grid. Several thousand individual rectennas be used as raw materials for solar cell fabrication. A
strategically located around the globe, with a total area special compound called anorthite is used for extracting
of 100,000 km2, could continuously provide the 20 TW the above said components. Carbothermal reduction of
of electric power, or 2 kW per person, required for a anorthite,
prosperous world of 10 billion people in 2050
extremely large platforms in space. LSP components
can be manufactured directly from the lunar materials
and then immediately placed on site. This eliminates
most of the packaging, transport, and reassembly of
components delivered from Earth or the Moon to deep
space.

VII. ADVANTAGES/MERITS OF LSP


1. Energy cost get reduced to 10 to 100 times
2. There is no air or water to degrade large area
thin film devices
3. There is fast growth in capacity and profits
because of beamed power that reduces space
and lunar operational costs. Also enhancement
Carbon compounds can also be used to extract Oxygen, in profit is caused by low rectenna costs and
Fe, and TiO2 from Lunar Ilemenite. The iron is used for dual use of rectenna sites.
interconnect and TiO2 for anti reflect. 4. The high cost of transportation is to and from
the moon is eliminated by sending
machines and small factors to the moon that produce
hundreds to several thousand
Times their own mass in components and
supplies.
5. LSP eliminates the need for hazardous facilities
(nuclear mines, dams etc.)
6. It does not produces green house gases, fuel
spills, nuclides, dust, industrial waste
VI.COST INVOLVED etc.

To achieve low unit cost of energy, the lunar portions of


the LSP System are made primarily of lunar derived VII. CONCLUSION
components. Factories, fixed and mobile, are Enormous attention is directed to discovering and
transported from the Earth to the Moon. High output promoting "sustainable" sources of energy and seeking
greatly reduces the impact of high transportation costs more efficient means of utilizing conventional
from the Earth to the Moon. On the Moon the factories commercial and renewable energy. However, there are
produce 100s to 1,000s of times their own mass in LSP clear limits to the conventional options. It makes sense
components. Construction and operation of the only if it is produced most of the produced electricity
rectennas on Earth constitutes greater than 90% of the use in the world.i.e, it means it doesn’t make any sense
engineering costs. Any handful of lunar dust and rocks for small systems. The LSP System is a reasonable
contains at least 20% silicon, 40% oxygen, and 10% alternative to supply earth's needs for commercial
metals (iron, aluminum, etc.). Lunar dust can be used energy without the undesirable characteristics of current
directly as thermal, electrical, and radiation shields, options. The system can be built on the moon from
converted into glass, fiberglass, and ceramics, and lunar materials and operated on the moon and on Earth
processed chemically into its elements. Solar cells, using existing technologies. More-advanced production
electric wiring, some micro-circuitry components, and and operating technologies will significantly reduce up-
the reflector screens can be made out of lunar materials. front and production costs. The energy beamed to Earth
Soil handling and glass production are the primary is clean, safe, and reliable, and its source-the sun-is
industrial operations. Selected micro circuitry can be virtually inexhaustible.
supplied from Earth. Use of the Moon as a source of
construction materials and as the platform on which to
gather solar energy eliminates the need to build
IX. .REFERENCES
1. Rai, G.D., “Power Generation Techniques”, Dhanpat
Rai Publications.
2. acm library http://www.acm.org.
3. Google search (http:/google.com)