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Introduction to Rome


sRome comes onto the world map around the year 509
The year romans picked as their founding
Rome is just emerging while Greece is already in their heyday
Their half of the Mediterranean was a lot behind, as opposed to the near
Emerge around 338
338-290 they have all of Italy
241 sicily Corsica Sardinia
190 spain, parts of Italy
Rome in 1 BC was huge
Mare nostrum
Imperium sine fine, empire without borders
Cultural identity was that they were destined to rule
753-509 BC: Regal Period
509-31 BC Republic
in the concept of rei publicae, all citizens have a share of the empire
the English took this and came up with a term, commonwealth
31BC 476 AD: Empire, Imperial
starting here, there was an emperor
meant general
they created a new kind of rome
In contrast to Greece, Italy is a great place to start a civilization

Moutains with timber, lowlands, volcanic mountains, have lots of minerals

Can feed a much greater population per square mile
The volcanic mountain range, that continues into sicily are called the
The winds blow clockwise in the mediterannean
Its very hard for the Greeks to sail there
Moisture from the ocean blows from the west, hits the west coast
and rain collects in Italy when it hits the mountains
Greeks and Phoenicias c 800
The romans are not terribly important at this time
3 main cultures are dominant
the greek colonists, sought out southern italy
Phoenicians didnt live in Italy, but traded with them
The Phoenicians dominated the seaways, the closest colony was
The first non-italian power the romans signed a treaty wit were the
Etruscans 700-480
Third early power the Italians met with
Dominant during this period, in land called Etruria
The etruscans were very influential on the romans, who were viewed by
other powers as barbaric
Scientific breakthroughs
Federation of 12 cities, with each city governing a certain region
At one point Etruria absorbed rome, and at one point rome became
a region of Etruria
By roman standards they were cultured
Literate when romans were functionally illiterate

Examining the liver
Believed you could tell the future by taking the liver and
interpreting the discoloration
Greek imitations, gorgon, temple
Influence by anything from the east
Etruscans would trade raw materials for culturally advanced things from
the east
Entruscan tombs : tarquinia
Would bury their dead in sarcophagi
Stick the sarcophagus in a bay
They had images of symposia, wrestling
They probably didnt do this stuff, but there was a valuable market
for greek things
There is a question of whteher greek stuff found in other places reflect
greek or foreign interests
Etruscan depiction of women is very independent to the Greeks
Women on Etruscan tombstones were almost equal in stature
Looked like they were more involved
found at the city of villanova
culture cremates their dead and buries them in little tiny urns that look
like huts
on the basis of these urns we recreate what earliest rome was like
thatched roofs, no paved roads
they had a particular method of making pots


two cones meeting

dressed with a robe that was pinned down
these were the luxury goods
knives, pins

Romulus and Remus, Aeneas

Romulus and Remus are descendents of Aeneas, a prince of troy
Great great grandfather of the twins
Numitor was deposed by his brother Amulius
Slaughtered all of numitors sons
Rhea Silvia is made a vestal virgin
Mars is sent to impregnante rhea silvia, who gives birth to the twins
They are put into a basket, and are sent down the river
They are found by a shewolf,
Then found by a shepherd
Finds out who they really are
Restores their grandpa
Goes off to find their own city, fights, remus is killed
Romulus founds rome, just dudes
Runaway slaves, criminals, etc join
Holds a festival, invite them to bring their daughters of
neighbouring places
They kidnap the girls, and take them as wives
They start to fight, but the sabine women step in and stop the fight
Romulus disappears, and is taken up to heaven

Another myth he was ripped apart

753-509: Regal Period

there were 7 kings
no historical evidence
its too neat, 245 years, with 7 kings who each rules for 35 years
if you didnt know how long, the go to number was 35 years
they have the year 509, same year as Athenian democracy
every king is responsible for one cultural advance or activity
all suspiciously tidy
instead of kings, we define things thematically with decades
first king was Romulus
credit for inventing almost all primal institutions
roman senate, etc
numa pompilius (numen = spirit)
religious things
tullus hostilius
war stuff
tarquinius priscus builds stuff
came from the etruscans, who was a greek who emigrated
was assassinated
built stuff
servius tullius
was arrangedby previous kings wife

having been a slave

tarquinius superbus
the girl married lazy brother, married the ambitious brother,
convinced him to run over her father with a carriage
did it herself
the boy took over, and became the seventh king
forces the romans to work, dig sewers, pave roads
he has an awful son, who decides to rape the most faithful wife,
calls together everyone, tells everyone about it and then kills
brutus, picks up the knife and swears that by this pure blood rome
will never allow a king to rule
theyre both driven out from the city
brutus pretended to be dumb, and was allowed to hang around the king
he stepped forth and gave this great speech after lucretias death
revealed he wasnt a derp
Villanovan Rome 900-500
753 mythic founding
900/800 rome was inhabited
750 huts and a wall
600 stone houses
650-550 drainage
550 new construction
525 paved road, villas
500 widespread destruction

nRank and status were really important

It was awfully difficult to rise to the top of roman society
Easy to get in, hard to get up there
Cubby holes for all the mementos of a familys accomplishments
A funeral would be public
You would bring all the images of famous people in your family
The entire family, including the dead, would be there to pay honor
to a person
As a man, you had a burden
Reminded of your status, and comparison to your father
Their idea of culture comes from farming
Season after season, you cultivate a culture
Groom, snip, and develop over time
Your job is to promote your family to raise it and
Theres a huge room that pays tribute to everything the family does
Room with a collection of stuff
Main room, would greet whoevever the guest was
First thing a guest saw
Paterfamilias; husband and wife
Husband should farm, be able to fight in war
Industrious, working etc

The wife
Comes with property, outside the family
Brings property to the family, but if they divorce, she takes that
property back
3 nights in a row apart is enough to break a marriage contract
Patron and client
Related to the idea of the father figure
When you needed help, you would address someone as a father
figure, patron, to seek help
A real roman would say absolutely!
They wanted to exercise power and authority, part of manliness
The dream was to have people lined around asking for help
Patricians and Plebeians
Influential romans were patricians
The fathers, they loved the father figure idea
Plebians are regulars
Heirarchy and Social Climbers
Theres no way to buy your way in
In the distant past, someone had owned a bakery, generations ago,
but this made them lower than others
They finally made it into the aristocracy,
Finally a descendant was invited to the elite
He shook the hand one of cicero, who said I think I got some flour
on myself to remind him that he is from the business world

Struggle of the orders 509-287

Instead of the kings, the new ruling elite is called the patricians
Every year, they will elect two consuls who work together to rule
There were a group of romans as opposed to the plebians
Patricians insisted only they could be priests, officials, hold any
position of responsibility
Only patricians could marry other patricians
In reaction, over 220 years, there was a struggle of the years between
the classes
Lower class citizens would just get up and leave the city
They wanted Tribues, whose sole job is to look over plebeian interest
They have veto power 494 bc
They could stop the rule of the consuls
They didnt have any power
Ends in 287, with breakthrough that people are allowed to pass their own
They can come together as a body and vote on their own laws
Plebeian assembly
Laws of the 12 tables and decemvirs
Plebeians can marry patricians
Plebains can be consuls
Plebeian laws binding on all Romans 287
Cursus Honorum, annual and collegial
Had a very status run government
Elected annualy, consul, praetor, aedile, quaestor
You couldnt run for the higher office, unless you were elected for
everything below

Chain of commad
You could only be a dictator or censor if you had already been
Tribune of the plebs
In every one of these offices, there are other people you share
responsibility with
2 Consuls, imperium, ware, executes laws, 1 year
2 praetors, legal disputes, back up imperium, 1 year
when the consuls are gone, they have power
eventually they get full control of the law courts
2 aediles, city maintenance, 1 year
4, (8,20) quaestors. Finances, 1 year
accountants, bureacrats, taxes
10 tributes, civil rights, 1 year
2 censors, census, audit, 5 years
every five years Rome has a census, to make sure people who say
they are citizens are
all elected officials have no business connections
you couldnt run for office with any business interests
1 dictator, martial law, 6months
in emergency, consuls can elect to hire a dictator
only as long as the crisis exists
The Fasti
The list of every single person who was elected consul

There were certain super influential families

1st name is regular
2nd is family name
3rd name is funny
The ways people elected public officials was confusing
Lots of different ways to elect and pass laws
Based on how much wealth you had, you got more votes
The Senate
Life time membership, unless kicked out by a censor
The collection of old guys/elders
Composed of all who held office in the curusus honorum
No real power
Couldnt pass laws, taxes
They gave advice
Influential, patrons, ex officials
Like parents giving students advice
You really should listen to them
Tremendous unofficial power
Mix of monarchy, democracy, oligarchy
American constitution was formed on the lines of the roman
Senate appoints interim king

It took a LOT for the roman people to challenge the paternal authority
Early Roman Religion
Before contact with greeks
Sky god, war god, etc
Numina: animism
Believed in spirits
Related to Numa
Believe that things are animated, such as a grove, spring, etc
Traditional, typically human worship
Most early cultures are mono-theistic
Theres Etruscan influence
Predicting the future, looking at entrails
When the greeks conquered the Romans, the romans quickly adopted it
Original roman literature, gone
Religion, philosophy, theatre disappears largerly
Replaced by Greek stuff
Sky god turns to Jupiter, war god turns into mars
Names are changed, but gods are superimposed onto the roman
The conquered greeks conquered the romans
Ancestors; Pietas
Looked at strange phenomena, tried to divine things

Ancestors played a big role in Roman religion

Small structure that had statues and figurines that represented gods of
the household
Would claim it had its own spirit creature protectors
Gods are called lares
Snakes for health
Called the gods the genius, group or one of gods, animating force
behind something/someone
Families would emphasize things that run in the family, tried to ignore
things that didnt go in line
A boy who wants to do poetry but comes from a legal family
Some would reshape their history in line with their new identity
Pietas gives the word piety
Show pietas, piety to wife, husband, gods of the household,
ancestors by remembering and honoring them
Devotion to fulfilling observations
Religious Formalism
Very proper ceremonies, with procedures
Really really complex
If the priest stumbles, the priest has to start again
Restart ceremony if someone fucks up
Equipment, engineering for order, science
Great force in science of engineering
Ocd about straight roads
Earliest bridges, straight roads were for religious reasons
Go from one place to another in an absolute straight line
Religious mode affects the roman desire for perfection

This religious OCD was a sign of pietas

Every fort had to look exactly a certain way
First bridges were built by priests
Pontifex means maker of bridges
Made bridges at first needlessly for religion
When demand came for useful roads and stuff, they had experience
in doing so
Church and state
If you wanted to be a successful politican, youd also want ot be a priest
Non-professional priesthood
You wouldnt go to religious school, it was part of the education
Priesthoods were just part of the duty of the roman people
Priestly Colleges
Administrative: religious contracts
Arranged the calendar, holy days, festivals
Tell you what to do for something
Priests who oversaw the oracles, took omens
Required to ask augurs for opinions
Dismissed started meetings

Priests to specific gods
Carried out the actual ceremonies
Vestal Virgins: the home fire
Great honor, were virgins for a period and lived at the temple of
Goddess of the hearth, fireplace
Kept the fire
If you wanted to depositi your will, put in temple
It was very safe
Roman Syncretism
Romans were very open to outside cultures and ideas
If they saw practicality, theyd adopt them
Piety was combined with pragmatism
When they were told they must do something because of piety, they took
a very pragmatic attitude and usually agreed
Magna mater temple
Even though it seemed bizarre, they maintained traditions
Because of this acceptance of things for piety, eventually isis, other gods
all had temples in rome
Became the religious centre of the world
Totally ok to be superstitious, believe in magic
Mystery Religions
Roman religion previously discussed had manual code
They believed however that if you prayed to gods, when you made a
mistake they would grant stuff maybe

Like the greeks, explain the gods

Offer moral code
Direct contact with the god
Life after death
Bacchanalian cult: Dionysus
Considered acceptable for romans to go to the countryside and get drunk
and celebrate this god
When rumors spread that these worshippers were planning to kill political
opponents and those who opposed this religion, the romans shut it down
Magna mater (Cybele)
Worship of pure iron meteorite
Never an official relgion, but many relgions
Almost as popular as Aphrodite
Cleopatra deliberately identified herself with isis
Sensory Overload
Intellectuals in Rome left more information about it
Chanting, other stuff
Mithras: Zoroastrian
Persian story

Zoroasters most famous human assistant became divine

Roman soldiers worshipped him
Mithras said to be born on December 25, in a cave from a virgin mother
Like the bible
Christians were so offended that satan sent Mithras to offend and
decieve true believers
There were levels or religion, temple recently found in Britain
Name the jews gave for their one god
Judaea and the empire
When the jews said that they could not do certain things, the roman
soldiers complied
However, when it became to great of a problem, they crushed the
revolt and revolution
Made Palestine as a state
Scam Artists
There were people who were scam artists using religion as a front
To take money, or to sleep with women
Large transformation in roman relgion when the emperor augustus takes
Seeing its popularity, tries to create a public religion that has some of
these elements
Before him, there was a distinction between state religion and mystery
War with the Latin League: 498-493

The romans came into war with the other cities in latium
Rome vs. the rest of the latins
This war lasted 5/6 years
Cassian Treaty
Cassius, in the battle against other latins offered them a deal
Rome would alternate leadership with other cities, rome then the
Band together to attack outsiders
Rome gest half the spoils
All cities have free trade, marriage, and immigration
Similar to the delian league
Like a merger/acquisition
Incredibly effective
Professional army: 405
Rome decides to pay its soldiers
As a citizen, in most other cities you wouldnt have compensation for your
Rome decides to give compensation
You still have to fight, but pay
Opens to the idea that soldiers have a right to something in return
Big benefit, soldiers can afford to be away from home
So they can hire someone who hasnt been conscripted to maintain
their farms
Can be away for long periods of time on military duty
Economically feasible for extended military campagins

Gauls sack Rome 387

Part of gaul culture to wreak destruction and havoc on their surroundings
Right of massage, mark of pride
More feared, the more isolated they were
Took this as a mark of valor in their tribe
Once in a while, they would make an expedition for their own glory
Geese quacked when guals were entering, romans fled to highest hill
Forever after honored these geese
For generations after, these geese were fed
3 samnite wars
back and forth battles, war took 53 years
1. Rome v samnites, then latins revolt
2. Etruscans and samnites v. Rome
3. Vs. Samnites, etruscans, gauls, umbrians, sabines, and lcanians
War with Pyrrhus 280-272
Immediately after the previous war, they go to southern Italy to fight
Rome entered on behalf of a greek city
Other greek city called Pyrrhus, descendant of alex the great
He crossed western Greece and Adriatic to fight against the romans
Southern Italy was at stake
After 3 victories, he left and returned to the greeks

Rome now left in control of most of italty

From Etruria down, but not sicily
How did Rome hold on to her Empire?
Rome was never that generous again after the cassian league
After rome conquered a palce, they would typically offer different degrees
of deals
1. Full roman citizenship
citizens of rome
cities with full citizenship, romans who went abroad
roman colonists sent to protect borderlands
cities with civil rights but no vote
freed slaves
2. Latins and Allies
didnt have to pay tax
had to supply troops, if rome declared war; rome could draft
3. Italians, and provincials
no civil rights
had to pay tribute
had to supply troops
Romans t
Rome had a stubborn attitude of continually fighting was because central
Italy was so rich that the population base of rome was huge
Had much man power to draw on
Phoenicians were known for trade, and business

Their empire was based almost entirely on trade

Would set up colonies in the mediterannean, and go from one to
another part of the world to make profit offof goods
Didnt hear much about Phoenicians because they didnt have much
military ambition
They did want trade monopoly however
First roman official treaty said rome would not allow any other
merchant ships into the region to trade with rome
Rome granted to carthage access to the coastal regions, carthage
was allowed to sink any other merchant ships
Carthage was the main Phoenician colony
Close to sicily
Well defended
Phoenicians established colonies to stake monopoly on trade
Hired non carthagineans to fight, mercenaries
Carthaginean commanders would be in charge of these armies
1st punic war 264-241 BC
rome often entered wars that didnt seem very material
if romes dignity was challenged
did rome take on communities knowing they would enter a fight
Sons of mars, bandits roamed sicily and seized the city
Greek neighbours and besieged the city to return it
The bandits appealed to carthage, offered trade alliance
Bandits renege and refuse to pay, carthagineans are pissed
Bandits then ask the romans, consuls werent sure, people wanted
to vote, senate got together and said they were against this
Accoutns said soldiers and commanders told the roman people,
sicily as rich , carthage was richer
People voted, and thus soldier go down

Greeks withdraw, carthagineans and romans keep fighting

Realizing they had no skill, the Romans built a corvus, raven
Giant plank that dropped onto enemy ship, made a bridge and then
stormed the enemy ship, but was imbalanced
Then they tried to sail right for carthage, this fleet got destroyed
Build a third fleet, tried a naval battle
They got destroyed
Fourth fleet, finally won stuff, but wasnt decisive
After 23 years, the carthagineans retreated because they felt it wasnt
worth it probably
The general was pissed at this
Peace Terms
Romans demanded a bunch of money, carhtagineans paid it off
Wanted sicily, islands between sicily and Italy
Army defected and took Corsica in carthage since they were unhappy the
war ended early
Carthagineans took rest of the army and tried to fix the issue
These Corsican soldiers appealed to rome, who agreed
Carthage did not forget this insult
Commander made his son swear that he would take revenge on the
Spain, the Ebro River, Saguntum Hannibal
Carthagineans, Hannibal were in spain
Used wealth to train his army
Hannibal then became involved in a dispute with the roman empire

Forever after in an argument about who was right

Treaty said carthage got spain and Africa
Hannibal besieged saguntum
Saguntum said they were allies with rome
Romans said he had to leave
Hannibal ignored roman warnings, they went to war
Second punic war starts 218-201
Hannibal has fleets, so rome fortifies all of its ports
Hannibal planned to enter Italy with a small trained army and march right
down the length of Italy
Preaching freedom, the roman allies would rise up
2 accounts of Hannibal marching
wanted to have African elephants marching through Italy
wanted to turn the roman allies
failed miserably
tried to cross the alps
hannibals plan failed, he was stuck in rome
stayed in Italy for 13 years, foraging and wandering
never lost a battle
battle of Cannae, 85000 romans were slaughtered by the carthagineans
Hannibal was a psychological and military genius
Such as lake tresamine, would pretend to retreat on a misty day,
Hannibal won, but didnt march on rome
Instead, sent soldiers around proclaiming freedom

Know how to win a battle, but couldnt take advantage of it

In the meatime, they appointed quintus fabius maximus to dictator
Aboslute control
Started getting called cunctator because he wouldnt fight the
Shadowed him
Instead attacks small groups
Refuses to fight because soldiers are less experienced
Hannibal looted everything except fabius maximus house
To make it look like hes in cahoots
Hannibal didnt attack rome, rome gathered its power, attacked at zama
After that, carthage lost everything
Most of their properties, power, etc
The romans were pragmatic, in the middle of this war,
Publius Cornelius scipio africanus
Got honor after lead command against Hannibal, defeated
Was brilliant tactition
Not a consul yet, but roman people insisted
Was harassed by senate rest of his life for skipping system of power
Roman people became aware of their power
Means a unit in the army
Comes from the latin word legio (army) from leger, to choose
Adult males at sometime in their lives mostly
Selection of the roman army, levy would happen around the same time as
the elections

Greek like : The Phalanx Period (8th Century 350 BC)

With shield formation
Greek influence via the Etruscans
3 tribes, 3000 troops
servius Tulius came up with reforms to the army
put people from three tribes put into groups called centuries
would vote together in elections
people would be levied from these centuries, juniors and seniors
Campus Martius, outside of the Pomerium
Sacred border of rome
Mentality of what was sacred and roman
Everything inside the border was considered roman, consuls had full
imperium inside these walls
No army was allowed to bring arms inside this border
Outside of rome, consuls could keep discipline from their dangerous
Armys domain is outside the city
Introduction of Manipular Legion 350-100
Maniplus handful
When the gauls attack and annihilate rome, rome is very shaken up
Later, during the samnite wars seen, rome changes the way they fight
their wars
Instead of a phalanx, maniplus was handfuls of men
They were much more mobile
Much more effective, didnt need one general

4 battle lines
velites, skirmishers, youngest, light armor, create confusion
hastati spearmen 2nd youngest,
principes leaders fresh men, older, experienced
triari third guys last resort
Thinking about winning battles decisively
They can crush them without waiting for the enemy to approach
Because these armies are divided, each manipul was made up of 2
Each had a centurion, commander
General for each, easier to maneouver
Easier because of chain of command, less running back and forth
Roman manpower
Even though they lost, they had a lot of men
For every legion rome raised, the allies would have to raise one too
Romans could double their army just by having allies
Would get allies to supply cavalry
Rome used all its resources
An Army of Half Asses: Marius Reforms 107-101
Reorganizes cohort from manipole
When it breaks off to fight its larger
Pilum, throwing spear
Gladius hispaniensis Spanish sword
Sharp on both sides and tapered

Marius made these two weapons the standard

State system, where state pays to arm them
New pool of people
Legions permanent, represented by symbols and bands
Training programme standardized based on gladiatorial training
Promotion was a new incentive within the army, not in politics
Trend towards no land requirement
4 phases of battle
3stuff happens
I legionary
1 century is 60 legions
manipule is 2 centuries
legion growing

The Army In Action: Cynoscephalae

fighting happens
new manipular army premarius against Alexandrian phalanx
roman army is more affective
o phillip was winning at first, but then romans break off
o flexibility, since they dont need a general to dictate every move

But the Fourth Fleet,,: Aegates Islands

Corvus was very effective, but in storms was too top heavy
Marsala was seized and romans blockaded it, roman navy then protected
Later, rome use navy to control pirates
Romans didnt have a fixed siege plan
End of hannibalic wars, battle where Archimedes legend has it built
mirrors, etc to defeat romans
o Romans tried to siege with machines, but it didnt work
o Romans snuck in one day during a festival because straight attack
didnt work
To take it, they built giant structure to block carthaginean harbor
Frontal attack after
Burned and razed the city
Waited for them to starve
Dug under the walls, which collapsed
Then they marched in
They got really good at besieging cities
Citizen Soldier
Citizens who were capable of bearing arms had to fight

o 17-46
o up or down in emergencies
property qualifications then nothing
service of 16 seasons, with maxmimum of 6 consecutive
o you didnt fight every year necessarily
if there was emergency, you would be put into an emergency pool
state paid for you under service
o compensation
Army became a business, especially a livelihood for some
Wars become longer, further away
o Army carried everything they could individually
o Expected to live off the land
o Marius mules
o Before, armies had baggage trains
o More mobile, effective
Allies and Italians wanted better treatment for service after a while
Discipline and Training
Strict, had to be very disciplined
Trained through experience until marius time
You were expected to build stuff
o Everynight you had to build a fort
o Engineering and building
o Roads, permanent fort, aquaducts, etc

If you acted against a consul you could be dead

Regular killings, beatings, trickle down
Centurions had the right to beat you
If there was a mutiny attempted, regardless of your involvement
o Every tenth man was killed
o To foster brotherhood
Your class also defined your position in the army
Equities were businessmen
o Could hold high positions in the army
o Could become very powerful
Senators would use the army as a stepping stone for consulship
The Triumph
If you were super successful, a triumph was awarded to successful
Youd come with the army and hold a parade
You would showcase slaves, plunder, booty
Shifting loyalties
There are people that have land, who will go out and fight then return to
their lands
Now there are careers in the army for a job, they dont care about coming
o Instead of seeing the senate all the time, they are more interested
in their generals
If the generals are good, they could set aside land to the veterans
o Soldiers would have a portion of the loot
Would be very loyal to the army and their general

Motivation behind conquest

We see mass militarization
o When Hannibal is defeated, rome has 120000 men in arms
o Expand constantly to 150000
They have the rest of the Mediterranean
Even after expansion, they still only have 2 consuls
o No systematic way to run these new places
o Very reluctant to accept new territories
Since romes birth, they were fighting almost every year
They were constantly fighting
Necessity in some cases
Roman attitudes always say that war was necessity
o Was necessary to win every war
Part of their culture
Impossible to separate rome and its success
Tested by Hannibal, Italy, spain, Africa at sea
After they were unleashed on the rest of the world

Philip V of Macedon; the gauls

After the war, rome is now in control of spain and northern Africa
Rome then turns and attacks Macedonia
Because the Macedonians promised assistance to Hannibal

This promise was enough to deserve getting attacked

Around 33 legions, at the end of the 2nd punic war
Only needed 3 to conquer Macedonia
Forced him to give up all of his land other than Macedonia itself
Greece,the islands, thrace, Illyria
2nd Macedonian war 200-197
3 years in 3 legions
15000 people
roman armies said the greek, etc people were free to go
enough for romans that Macedonians were punished, then left
barely got back before other people from asia minor heard about the
proclamation in Corinth, and asked to be free from the seleucids
The Syrian war 192-188
Seleucid Syria; the Parthians
After the greeks were freed, people ruled by the seleucids asked for help
The romans helped
Romans won the first battle
Syrian king regrouped and agreed to negotiate with the romans
Syrian king decided to withdraw and give power to the romans
Instead of facing them
All of a sudden, after the 2nd punic war, the romans became a
Mediterranean power
Declared to the powers they were free
Rome didnt absorb these regions, they could have

The roman senate was strongly against roman interaction with the
Senate gave this up willingly, persuaded the people to agree to this

Roman Rule 188-146

Expanded mostly in Africa and spain
Romans took out central powers, and destabilized these regions
Many smaller conflicts arose because there was no one to absolutely rule
Romans kept being asked to come back and settle issues, because there
was no central power
Romans became increasingly impatient
Patronship works well over short distances, but in long distance is not as
Cato the Elder
Roman senators were tough men who had proven themselves through
decades of civil service
The image of the patron
Cato believed in the dignity of the senate
This period, senate is enacting rules to maintain their control
Administering an empire
Imperium, 2 consuls, 2 praetors
6 praetors later
The roman senate wanted to hold power, would divide all of the land
outside rome into provinces
Prorogation: appoint a consul/praetor in the present year to be a
governor of a province the next year
You had absolute authority in that province, but you could not leave your
Less people with power in rome, and limits the ruling class

Aristocrats not in the senate
Could conduct business
Serve a public service, and get paid
Tax collection was the most notorious
Could offer loans, at awful rates
A lot of these equites reap the benefits
Upper class will appeal to rome, and be protected by the romans
Now become important as fabulously wealthy businessmen
Through aristocratic connections and wealth in expansion
Make themselves wealthier because government is so small, the roman
government turns to these equites
Larifundium, latifundia, slaves
Veterans came home to find they didnt like farming,
Veterans began selling off their farms to equestrians
Then equestrians would set up huge farms, plantations
Farms are moving from small families to wealthy equestrians
Italians and Provincials
Italians in Italy
Provincials living outside Italy

No rights, but verbal protection from rome

Rome is increasingly abusing their powers
4 periods of roman law
primitive 800-200
formative 200-30
classical 30 bc 250
vulgarizing 250-534
o Justinians digest 529-534
Primitive, an eye for an eye
Ultimate judge is priest, king
Rigid, inflexible or open to whims of an individual
Romans came up with a way to maintain law without this rigidity
A barber and a woodcutter
It starts to fix, and get outside of the rigifity

Very smart people, dedicated to the art


Practice is declining

Justineans digest was usd by napoleon, many Europeans

Civil Procedure
Between two citizens, not interested in passing laws by government
Wise judge forming a ruling
Used civil procedure to decide what is rape, etc
Two people would argue, judge would make a decision
Would determine a precedent
Relied on lawsuits between citizens to decide what types of laws would be
in place
If you had a problem with a citizen, you had to go to a legal authority to
formulate the problem, to a magistrate
What is the essence of the dispute
If there had already been a legal decision on this case, the judge
could say you have no lawsuit
If there was a lawsuit, then youd select a judge
Both parties had to agree on a judge
Judge had to be a senator, could not accept payment
Obligated as part of public duty
Trial conducted in one day, you could say whatever you want only about
the problem
Each time there was a decision, the official in charge of law that year
would encode it
Formula system
If you go to a judge, and refine it
Able to deal with complex cases

Case Law vs. Statutory Law

Contract, tort, and criminal law
Didnt care much for criminal law
Criminal law needs a public prosecutor
Didnt like the idea of a DA or crown prosecutor
This person can end up bein a bully
Legal Experts
Jurists, who know the law front and back
Lawyers, knew how to plead a case
Criminal procedure; permanent courts
If it happened that you were charged with a public crime
Need to be punished by rome itself
Embezzling public funds
These had fixed jury members, a jury of experts who would hear case
after case after case
End of the roman republic, first emperor made adultery a crime
Threat to marriage
Infrequently lower class sued one another

How happy upper class romans were with the system, where very few
cases were criminal
Military success, but social disaster
Citizens are increasingly unhappy with the organization of the empire
This is seen by a fracture in the roman senate
Populares, optimates
Lables upon certain kinds of people
Populares were the first to designate themselves, for the people,
emphasized social reform, attention to the needs of the people
Optimates were a reply to the populares, said the oppulares used the
Called themselves the best
Focus on promoting the best of what is rome, sticking to the old
First of the populares are of the Gracchi brothers
Tiberius and gaius Gracchus
Tiberius ran for the lowest office , quaestor, and was snubbed
Senators didnt lend his support, and were unsuccessful
Was twice shut down for public office
Then took the unusual step of running for tribune
As a tribune, you cant undertake anything, you have no right to do
stuff. Its a negative position, but has no active power
Becoming a tribune doesnt allow you to become a senator
Used this position in a very dramatic way
Tribunes push for a public land bill
Anyone who doesnt own land should be given free land by the
roman government
Told the public to show up to work for it

Advised the roman people as a tribune to come to this and vote

Most senators were violently against for this
By giving them all land, he would become their patron
Senate fears hes trying to make himself king
Proposed: whenever rome conquered an enemy and absorbed them,
rome would keep a certain portion as public land
According to law, 500 acres was maximum amount you could lease
Any land in excess of 500, they would take
Turns out aristocratics had thusands of acres
Generals like this because you couldnt fight unless you owned land
Roman people are excited for this bill
Tribune steps forward and vetos this bill
Tribune was forced out of the city
Then he set up another meeting, and passed the land bill
He got no funding from the consul
Everytime he gathered the romans, the votes swayed in his favor, but he
was only in office for a year
Roman senate in a meeting said you must arrest Tiberius
People tried to sieze Tiberius, 300 of his supporters surrounded him
He, plus most of his supporters were killed
First politically motivated death in roman history
In the aftermath, no one knew what to do
Rome turned a blind eye, kind of inexplicable
Many approved of the idea, but didnt approve that this young man
dictated the ideas, senate was concerned about their authority
Tiberius said this land would not be leased, but be given to poor people
Came from wealthy, influential familis

10 years later Gaius also becomes tribune

proposes a very provocative bill, with lots of features
land, cheap grain,
non senators, equestrians acted
senate was not interested in business opportunities, equestrians
promised equestrians increased opportunities
all Italians will be a roman citizen
gaius committed suicided, 3000 people were killed too
seems too neat
sents clear message senate still has full control
War with Numidian Jugurtha 111-105
Defied rome
Lived in desert
Bribed soldiers and commanders so that they would not pursue them
Embarrassing spectacle to open admission that soldiers were accepting
Gaius Marius
He was a new man,
Born outside of Italy
First of his family to be elected to senate
Consul 107
Proconsul 106-105, in Africa latin term for governeor

After consul, you have to still be a governor

Was a very good soldier, achieved what he did through his military
Only honors I have, youll see are the scars on the front of my body
Defeated jugurtha
The Celts 113-101
The celts had sacked rome way back in the day
Blue eyed blond haired, 6 feet tall,
Romans were terrified, army was defeated
In a panic, they voted marius consul
Kept voting him consul, year after year until he finally defeated the,
Saturninus convinced him to use his position
To put on bills,
Use abilities to become a champion of the working people
When he went to propose a bill, he had all of his soldiers with him
(without weapons)
Marius had brute force to this
Saturninus also added to the bill, that every roman senator had to
stand up and swear an oath to uphold the law
Marius was a great soldier, and he used it to max effect
Saturninus pushed it a little too far
Next elections, riots broke out, senate commanded marius to arrest
Arrested his own political ally
Saturninus died in prison
Marius complained: im like a sword, without use I rust

Was a superb commander

Tribune M, Livius Drusus
Cheap food, free land, Italian citizenship
Hes assassinated
All of Italy revolts
Sulla leads roman army, second in command of marius
Romans are fighting fellow Italians, 3 years
Bloody, caused a lot of hatred
Mithradates of Pontus
Named himself after a great king
Lives in the far east
Persuaded east to rise up against the romans
Arranged for a coup
Specific day, hunt down and kill romans
80 thousand died
every soldier in rome wants to be a part of this war, since its against the
oldest, largest, richest cities
whoever leads the expedition picks the soldiers
marius or sulla to lead the army
marius, old war horse, support of equestrians, lwer classes, his own
marius won the command at the vote
next time sulla won, after he marched into rome with his soldiers
all of his ranking officers refused to go into rome, working class

as soon as sulla leaves, all the veterans take up arms and support marius
rules were bent, and gradually it came to this
marius in rome, sulla in the east, marius waiting for sulla
sulla goes east, marches rome in a second time
way pack home, loots every major city to gather funds to invade
rome to fight marius
Dictatorship of Sulla Felix 82-80
Many young romans flocked to Sullas side
Wealthly romans raised their own unofficial armies and joined sulla
When sulla got to Italy, Italians sided with marius because Sulla had lead
the war against the Italians in the social war
Sulla won, in 82 bc held a summit
Believed luck would carry him trhough
Sulla made him dictator for life
Absolutely unconstitutional
Proscription was a list for kill on sight
If you assisted them, you could also be put to death
If you were an enemy of the state, your property would be collected
You would lost your property
Sulla had absolute control, those who supported him also profited
After two years, he left, and never came back to rome
Died 18 months after
Set down his dictatorship
Minimum age before you were elected consul 43
38 before you could have military command

tribune only once, never have political office again

reforms were ignored by ambitious romans
all were young men when sulla came to power
pompey the great
kid butcher met with sulla to fight
marched with sulla into rome
wants to be governor
said he wanted to fight mithridates
making his way to mithridates, on the way there, went to repair buildings,
assist people to earn the goodwill of the people, won the war easily
rumor is when he comes back, hell do the same thing as sulla did when
he came back
the rich
not officially, but by far the richest man in rome
put down Spartacus revolt in 73
pompey and crassus were rivals
pompey thought crassus had too much credit
senate was terrified of the both of them
popmey is then offered command of pirate elimination
pompey gets rid of all the pirates
told pirates, if you give up ill give you a farm
almost all of them gave up voluntarily

pompey finally defeats mithridates

cicero 106-43
new man
lawyer, orator rose to power
took on cases for free to gain a following
catilines conspiracy 63
best examples of persuasive speech
came from a humble background, was a great writer
through his speeking ability, he was elected consul
cataline was setting up a conspiracy, the romans were terrified of him
collected evidence, written letters, signed by these men
planning to burn the city, in the confusion bring an army of slaves,
celts, gladiators and supporters to make themselves dictators
cato the younger
tried to form a coalition of conservative senators to oppose all of these
did everything they could to stop pompei, cicero, crassus
Julius Caesar
roman aristocrat that said to pompey, cicero and crassus JOIN US
this was Caesar
convinced pompey and crassus to put aside their differences
cicero did not want to join
last name was very old, claimed to come from venus

his branch of the family wasnt doing well, but was an aristocrat
his uncle was marius, married a woman who belonged to marius faction
sulla told Caesar at 18, to divorce, refused, fled rome
was exiled
his friends pleaded, to let him come back
sulla said in this young boy there are many mariuses
Julius was kidnapped, said double the ransom
Kidnapped by pirates
Laughed, joked at his poetry
Said hed hunt them and crucify them, they laughed, but then did it
Was a great poet, public speaker, historian
He hadnt accomplished a lot, until he paired up with pompey and crassus
But persuaded them to accept him as an equal
Went into a huuuuuge debt to get himself elected to the highest office
Spent so much money
Set up the first triumvirate
First triumvirate
Pompey, crassus,Caesar
Had enough prestige to challenge the rest of the senate, after they
Caesar, consulship, province of gaul
Crassus in Parthia, pompey stays in rome
Crassus, killed in Parthia
Julia, pompeys wife dies

Caesar in Gaul
Conquered all of gaul
Caesars account is riveting, but is propaganda
Soldiers loved their asshole
Caesar ended the dissent for soldiers fighting gauls by saying
Parthians killed crassus, took his army
Pompey becomes a widow, Julia dies
Senate says come to our side, we will make you head of the senate
Pompey agrees
Finally, Caesar is going to end his rule as governor
The elections
In the middle, Caesar says he wants to run for consul again
If hes not re-elected, hes going to be hit with a bajillion lawsuits
Stuck running elections in rome
Makes decision to cross the rubicon, at the edge of his river
As soon as he crosses it, hes committing an illegal act
Alea jacta est
Caesar has many supporters coming
Pompey leaves to Greece where his veterans are
Caesar follows pompey
Pompey keeps waiting for veterans to come

Caesar besieges pompey, with 30k, to pompeys 60k

Pharsalus, Caesar pwns
Before Caesar leaves, makes Cleopatra queen
Cleopatra was smart, cunning etc
Thats what attracted Caesar
Stays for 2 years, have a love child
Brings her back to rome, with honor for his bastard child
Has himself named dictator for life
Cato fights in north Africa, Caesar kept forgiving them after putting them
No patience for civilian life
March 15, 44 The Ides of March
Caesars best friend
Possibly bastard child
60 aristocrats
Coins were published celebrating ides of march
Two knives funny hat to celebrate freedom
We all stopped being slaves
The romans liked Caesar