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For each and every transaction, few applications instantiate the new TCP connection.

establish the connection between any client and a server machine in a network through the TCP
takes certain time, contributes extra RTTs and it is a slow start. TIME-WAIT consumes system
resources and it is established in each and every closed connections. Connecting heavy
applications are very general in TCP because the creation process is easy, it is easy to test and
controlling the error is very tranquil. It will take considerable effort to detect the errors or faults
in any determined connection and in some cases; it is difficult to complete the detecting process.
For this type of connections or circumstances the only thing is to reuse the same TCP
connection. By using this process there is a chance of causing repeated connections in the same
network unless there are multiple connections in which the transactions are multiplexed which is
explained in the following figure 5.

FIG 5: process of multiplexing and demultiplexing in the TCP/IP

To avoid these types of loops, the solution is to frontier the connections to two and along
with this process application layer framing and error handling are very important.
Connection Establishment Functions:
To create a connection between the client and server in a network there are certain tasks
to accomplish. They are:
Contact and Communication:
To establish a communication between client and server, they need to contact with each
other and also by sending each other messages. Before this point, the server doesnt know who is
sending the messages and from which client those messages are coming. With the help of the
establishment of the communication the server knows who is sending the messages.
Sequence Number Synchronization:
For the first transmission, each and every device has to spread the sequence number to
the other devices or systems to establish the communication. Without the sequence number it is
very difficult to establish the communication between the devices.
Parameter Exchange:
For each and every TCP connection between the two devices, the devices must exchange
certain parameters which control the connection operation. Otherwise, the data overlaps or
diversified and the establishment of connection between the devices is miscarried.

Zero buffer
In every systems buffers are very important, if there are lack of buffers in a system leads
to slow throughput for TCP connections and also if UDP is used, the datagrams will be missed in
communication between the systems. Netstat m command is used to evaluate the performance
of buffer in UNIX environment. Netstat m is sometimes available to illustrate the buffer
utilization and this problem will be visible only through the analyzer. The window sizes in the
TCP segments will reduces to a low value or zero, which is also called as zero-length send
buffers. To increase the buffers, many systems provide a management system function and it
allows improving the performance.
With the help of the setsockopt function, turning off the buffering is easy and to make the
send buffer to zero, which is similar to the turning off disk caching.
Large number of simultaneous connections:
In special tenacity applications only, establishing the concurrent connections between two
systems or devices is possible. In general, going for the two concurrent connections is not
virtuous if it does; there is a chance of wasting the resources. For each destination, four short
lived connections or two tenacious connections is considered as a virtuous rule.