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Multiplexing: FDM, WDM and TDM

Multiplexing is a scheme that sends multiple signals or stream of information in


the forms of analog data or digital data over a single physical trunk (also cal
led as transmission lines /circuits/ channels).
These multiplexing scheme can be divided into two basic categories: FDM ( Freque
ncy Division Multiplexing) and TDM (Time Division Multiplexing ).
In FDM, the frequency spectrum is divided among the logical channels or sub-chan
nels of different frequency widths /bands within the main channel. And TDM, the
multiple signals are carried over the same channel and each signal periodically
getting the entire bandwidth for a little burst of time.
FDM (Frequency Division multiplexing):
FDM concerns with analog signals. It allows transmitting multiple data stream si
multaneously over the same channel. Figure shows how three voice grade telephone
channels are multiplexed using FDM.
When many channels are multiplexed together, first the voice channels are raised
in frequency, each by a different amount then they can be combined with some ga
ps (guard bands) between the channels. Even though there are gaps between the ch
annels, there is some overlapping between adjacent channels, because the filters
do not have sharp edges. This overlapping means nonthermal noise between the tw
o channels.
Example:
1. Radio broad casting (AM and FM) provides multiple signals or stations of diff
erent frequencies with the inter channel separation to prevent interference.
2. Cable TV or Television transmission relay centre transmit all channels simult
aneously and at the receiving end the TV tunes in to select a particular channel f
or watch.
WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing):
Frequency Division multiplexing can be applied to fiber optics called as Wavelen
gth Division Multiplexing. This scheme is a variation of frequency division mult
iplexing.
Actually WDM is a
of its energy in
m or grating, and
nation point they

scheme of combining two or multiple bibers at a prism and each


a different band or variety of signals passed through the pris
transmit it to a single shared fiber optic media, at the desti
are split again with the help of prism.

WDM is more popular than FDM because the bandwidth of a single fiber is about 25
,000 GHz or more than that, and also the great potential for multiplexing many c
hannels together over long-hual routes.
Example: WDM is used in the FTTC (fiber to the curb). Initially, a telephone com
pany used fibers between the end office to nearly junction box where it met up w
ith twisted pairs from the houses.
Time Division Multiplexing:
Time division Multiplexing is a scheme or method of carrying multiple signal ove
r the same channel and each signal periodically getting the entire bandwidth for
a short duration. It can handle digital data, so it has become more widespread.
The local loop for telephone circuit (see structure of telephone circuit ) prod
uce analog signals, a conversion is takes place from analog to digital by using

Codec (Coder Decoder ) device. The codec makes 8000 samples per second and this
is sufficient to capture all the information from the 4-KHz telephone channel ba
ndwidth. At the lower sampling rate, information would be lost; at a higher one,
no information would be gain. This technique is called PCM (pulse rate modulati
on).

Example:
TV channels and advertising , they use entire bandwidth for shorttime. first pro
gram then advertise; again program , advertise and so on.