Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

Unit:

#1

Topic:

Learning: Nature, theories, transfer and styles

Audience:

4th year BScN. Student Nurses (NCU)

Date:

September, 2014

Time:

11: 30 pm

Duration:

35 Minutes

Venue:

Lecture Room (The Annex)

Methodology: Lecture Discussion


Number of participants: 93
Learning Theories:

Ausubel: Emphasized the use of advance organizers which he said was

different from overviews and summaries. His use of an advance organizer acted to bridge the
chasm between learning material and existing related ideas. The advanced organizer used; sought
to bridge new knowledge with what was known (sometimes what is known is uncertain and not
concrete). Though he specified that his theory applied only to reception learning in schools, it
was utilized because it introduced the topic and aided the sequence of the information to be
imparted. (Ormrod & Rice, 2003).
Rogers: Dealt with the adult learner, he posited that learning is student centered and
personalized and the educators role is that of a facilitator. Affective and cognitive needs are
central and the goal is to develop self-actualized persons in a cooperative, supportive
environment. This theory was used because all the participants were adult learners, thus they
were responsible for their learning experience and the teacher sought to guide them through this
experience. (Quinn, 2006).

Bruner: Believed that learners were not blank slates but brought past experiences to a new
situation, he also stated that new information was linked to prior knowledge, thus mental
representations are subjective. Bruners Discovery learning is an inquiry-based, constructivist
learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or
her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new
truths to be learned. (Quinn, 2006). Students interact with the world by exploring and
manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. As
a result, students may be more likely to remember concepts and knowledge discovered on their
own (in contrast to a transmissionist model). (Quinn, 2006). Models that are based upon
discovery learning model include: guided discovery, problem-based learning, simulation-based
learning, case-based learning, incidental learning, among others. The advantages of this theory
are: it encourages active engagement, promotes motivation, a tailored learning experience, and
promotes autonomy, responsibility, independence, the development of creativity and problem
solving skills. (Quinn, 2006) Bruners theory was used because it encouraged active engagement,
promotes motivation, a tailored learning experience, and promotes autonomy, responsibility,
independence and the development of creativity and problem solving skills for this presentation.
Vygotsky: Posited that individuals learn from each other through social interaction and the
teacher and the learner collaborate in a reciprocal relationship where each learns from each other
through the same process of social interaction (Quinn, 2006). This theory was chosen since it
lays the overall foundation for human behaviours that of interaction, where students learn from
the more knowledgeable other (MKO) it coincides with the topic and the overall mode of
delivery of the topic.

Aim of the activity: To educate nursing students about the learning, its nature and styles
Scientific Principle: All the above theories cited, each gives a different perspective on the
concept of teaching making the lesson a whole.
Resources:

Nurse Instructor, lap top computer, multimedia, white board, markers


handouts.

Objectives:

At the end of 45 minutes interactive session students should be able to:


1. Define the term learning from a behaviourist, cognitivist and humanist
perspectives according to Sequiera, (2012); Bastable, (2013); Gage and
Berliner, (1998); Rogers, (1994).
2. Explain the concept of learning as cited by Sequiera, (2012)
3. Discuss the nature of learning as proffered by Bastable (2013), White,
(2002) and Merriam Websters Dictionary
4. Discuss 13 major proponents of learning theories utilized in nursing as
proposed by Sharma, (2009); Quinn & Hughes; (2007); Bastable, 2013);
Sternberg, (1991, 1996); Sherif, (1976); Garcia, Baker and deMayo,
(1999); Branshaw and Lowenstein (2014); Schultz and Schultz (2011);
Gagn, (1985); Gagn, Briggs, Wagner (1992); Hooyman and Kiyak
(1999); Bigge and Shermis (1992).
5. Explicate the school of the hereafter according White (2002)

Evaluation:

Formative and Summative. Questions will be asked before and after each
objective as well as demonstration followed by a test at the end

References:
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bastable, S. (2013). Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing
practice. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Barlett
Branshaw & Lowenstein (2014). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related
health professions. Burlington: Jones and Barlett

Bigge, M. L & Shermis, S. S. (1992). Learning theories for teachers. (5th ed.). New York:
Harper Collins.
Gage, N & Berliner, D. (1998). Educational psychology. (6th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Gagn, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning. (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart &
Winston.
Gagn, R. M., Briggs, L. J & Wagner, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.).
Fort Worth, TX: HBJ College Publishers.
Garcia, C., Baker, S & deMayo, R. (1999). Academic anxieties: A gestalt approach. Gestalt
Review. 3, 239250.
Hooyman, N. & Kiyak, H. A. (1999). Social gerontology. (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Merriam Websters Dictionary
Ormrod, J & Rice, F. (2003). Lifespan development and learning. Boston MA: Pearson
Publishing.
Quinn, F. (2006). The principles and practice of nurse education. London: Stanley Thornes
Quinn, F & Hughes (2007). The principles and practice of nurse education. London: Nelson
Thornes
Rogers, C. (1994). Freedom to learn. (3rd ed.). New York: Merril
Schultz, D & Schultz, S. (2012). A history of modern psychology. Australia Belmont, CA:
Thomson/Wadsworth
Sequiera, (2012) Introduction to concepts of teaching and learning. Retrieved from SSRN:
http://ssrn.com/abstract=2150166
Sharma, T. (2009). Models of teaching. Retrieved on July 6th, 2014 from
http://www.scribd.com/doc/14554184/Models-of-Teaching-Methods
Sherif, C. W. (1976). Orientation in social psychology. New York: Harper & Row.

Sternberg, R. J. (1996). Styles of thinking. In Balters, P. B & Staudinger, U. M. (Eds.).


Interactive minds: Life-span perception on social foundation of cognition (pp, 347-365).
New York: Cambridge
Sternberg, R. J. (1991). A triarchic model for teaching intellectual skills. In A. McKeough & J.
L. Lupart (eds.), Toward the practice of theory-based Instruction (pp. 92116).
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
White, G. (2002). Education. California: Pacific Press Publishing Association

Time

Objectives

1 min

Ice-breaker
David
Ausubel:

5min

Define the
term
learning
from a
behaviourist,
cognitivist
and
humanist
perspectives
according to
Sequiera,
(2012);
Bastable,
(2013); Gage
and Berliner,

Contents

A Behaviourists Perspective
In this perspective learning occurs when experience causes a
relatively permanent change in individuals knowledge or behaviour
(Sequiera, 2012).
A Cognitivist Perspective
While behaviorists generally ignore the internal dynamics of learning,
cognitive learning theorists stress the importance of what goes on
inside the learner. As such educators and those trying to influence
the learning process must recognize the variety of past experiences,
perceptions, ways of incorporating and thinking about information,
and diverse aspirations, expectations, and social influences affecting
any learning situation. Therefore to promote transfer of learning, the

Teacher
Activity
Teacher will
ask students to
identify the
issue/s in
picture and
consequently
ascertain the
topic of the
presentation

Learners
Activity
Students will
attempt to
identify the
issues in the
picture and
ascertain the
topic for
presentation

Teacher will
randomly ask
three students
to define the
term learning
from the
perspectives of
a behaviourist,
cognitivist and
a humanist in
their own words

Three students
will attempt to
define the term
learning from
the perspective
of a
behaviourist,
cognitivist and
a humanist in
their own
words.

Teacher will
define the term
learning using

Students will
listen
attentively and

Evaluation
Students
will
correctly
identify the
topic of
presentation
subsequent
to looking at
the picture
Students
will be able
to correctly
define the
term
learning
according to
the content
using terms
such as a
relatively
permanent
change in
behaviour
..to promote

(1998);
Rogers,
(1994).

learner must mediate or act on the information in some way


(Bastable, 2013).
A Humanists Perspective
Underlying the humanistic perspective on learning is the assumption
that each individual is unique and that all individuals have a desire to
grow in a positive way. Spontaneity, the importance of emotions and
feelings, the right of individuals to make their own choices, and
human creativity are the cornerstones of a humanistic approach to
learning (Gage & Berliner, 1998; Rogers, 1994).

3 min

Explain the
concepts of
learning as
cited by
Sequiera,
(2012)

CONCEPTS OF LEARNING
Learning is about a change: the change brought about by developing a
new skill, understanding a scientific law, changing an attitude. The
change is not merely incidental or natural in the way that our
appearance changes as we get older.
Learning is a relatively permanent change, usually brought about
intentionally (a behaviourist perspective).When we attend a course,
search through a book, or read a discussion paper; we set out to learn
(Cognitivist approach)! Other learning can take place without
planning, for example by experience.
Generally with all learning there is an element within us (humanistic)
wishing to remember and understand why something happens and to

PowerPoint/Fla
shcards
according to the
content.

follow on
PowerPoint as
definition of
learning is
shown and
stated.

Teacher will
ask three
student seated
at the back of
class to define
the term
learning
according to the
content
Teacher will
ask students to
explain the
concepts of
learning

Three students
seated at the
back of class
will define
learning
according to
the content

Teacher will
explain the
concepts of
learning and
learning using
PowerPoint
presentation,

Students will
follow on
white board
and on
PowerPoint
presentation
and ask

Students will
attempt to
explain the
concepts of
learning

learning
transfer, the
learner must
mediate on
the
information
.individ
uals have
the right to
make their
own
choices.

Students
will
correctly
explain the
concepts of
learning by
using key
terms such
as,
learning is
about a
change
it is setting

do it better next time (Sequiera, 2012)

10mi
n

Discuss the
nature of
learning as
proffered by
Bastable
(2013),
White,
(2002) and
Merriam
Websters
Dictionary

white board and questions


markers
where
necessary

out to
learn.with
all learning
there is an
Teach will ask
Three students element
three students
seated in the
within us
in the middle
middle and
wishing to
and two at the
two at the front remember
front to explain of the class
and
the concepts of will explain
understand
learning
the concepts of .
according to the learning
content
according to
the content
THE NATURE OF LEARNING
Teacher will
Students will
Students
ask each
locate pieces
will
Learning is a personal process (a humanistic approach). This process
student to
of papers
correctly
is shaped by the individuals life and the society in which they live.
locate pieces of placed under
discuss the
When one think of learning, we often think about studying and school papers placed
their desks and nature of
or subjects or skills intended to master. Learning, however is not
under their
will attempt to learning by
limited to school, we learn every day of our lives. (Bastable, 2013).
desks and will
discuss the
utilizing
discuss the
concepts that
terms such
Some people learn best when they see what is been taught (visual
concept that is
are written on
as,
learner). Others process information best by what they hear
written on them them
learning is a
(auditory learner). Many will prefer movement or touching to make
personal
the learning complete (kinesthetic and motor learner).Therefore, the Teacher will
Students will
process, it is
best approach to learning styles should be multisensory. With the
discuss the
follow on
shaped by
multisensory approach, the learners who are primarily kinesthetic or
nature of
PowerPoint
the
motor learner would be able to learn through touch and movement.
learning by
and in
individuals

20mi
n

Discuss 13
major
proponents
of learning
theories
utilized in
nursing as
proposed by
Sharma,
(2009);
Quinn &
Hughes;
(2007);
Bastable,
2013);
Sternberg,

The multisensory approach also allows the visual learner to see the
concept being taught and the auditory learner to hear and verbalize
what is being taught.
NB: the desire to learn is in our nature as human beings.
God created us to be inquisitive and creative (White, 2002).
The way in which we learn and reason could be different individually.
NB: to learn is to acquire knowledge or skills by study, instructions or
by experience (Merriam Websters Dictionary)

utilizing
PowerPoint
presentation
and handouts
on the types of
learners
according to the
contents

handouts and
ask questions
as necessary as
teacher discuss
the nature of
learning
according to
the contents

MAJOR PROPONENTS OF BEHAVIOURISM

Ivan Pavlov explored automatic responses and found that stimuli


could be connected to these. Notably, a formerly-neutral stimulus that
had no particular effect could be made to have an effect by pairing it
with a stimulus that has an effect (Schultz et al., 2012). In this way
even thoughts can become a stimuli. For example, an image or
thought of public speaking can make one sweat or nervous.
Pavlov is most famous for his work with dogs. Getting them to
salivate when he rang a bell and his consequent description of the
theory

Teacher will
ask one student
from each row
to write the
name of one
theorist on the
board and
briefly say what
the theory is
about; he/she
can call on row
members for
assistance

One student
from each row
will write on
white board
one learning
theorist and
will attempt to
briefly say
what it is,
he/she can call
on row
members for
assistance

John Watson

Teacher will
discuss 13

Students will
sit, listen, ask

Ivan Pavlov (Classical conditioning)

life and the


society they
live
in..some
people
learner best
by sight, by
what they
hear and
some by
movement
or
touching.
Students
will be able
to correctly
discuss at
least 13
major
proponents
of learning
by using
names such
as Pavlov,
Watson,
Skinner,
Ausubel,
Piaget,
Bruner,

(1991,
1996);
Sherif,
(1976) ;
Garcia,
Baker and
deMayo,
(1999);
Schultz and
Schultz
(2012)

Made great advances in social science through the rigor of his work
and his concern for observable behaviour rather than musing about
internal mechanisms. He translated Pavlovs work with dogs into
everyday life and in particular the field of advertising
(Schultz et al., 2012)
B.F. Skinner (Operant conditioning)
From the 1940s Skinner revised the ideas of Pavlov and Watson into
what he calls operant conditioning. He realized that much human
actions could not be explained by simple conditioning that seem to
predict animal responses, though he did much work with pigeons that
helped to explain more complex behaviour. Skinner paid particular
attention to reinforcement and punishment, positive and negative and
their effect. He also noticed that the predictability and removal of a
reinforcer was important (Schultz et al., 2012; Quinn & Hughes,
2007)
Albert Bandura
In the 1960s Bandura added social learning to behaviourism
It shows interactions with others and explains much of how we think
and react. He identified rehearsal and modeling as key learning
mechanisms. Further, reinforcement is a two-way street (reciprocal
influence, teacher & student learn from each other) When
reinforcement is used successfully or not, it affects the tendency to
use that methods again (Schultz et al., 2012).

major
proponents of
learning with
the aid of
PowerPoint
presentation,
white board and
markers
according to the
content

questions
where
necessary as
teacher
discusses 13
proponents of
learning
according to
the contents

Teacher will
randomly ask
13 persons to
name one
theorist and
briefly say what
the theory
entails
according to the
content

Thirteen
students
randomly
chosen will
state one
theorist and
briefly say
what the
theory entails
according to
the content

Bandura,
Gagne,
Vygotsky,
Rogers and
Maslow

MAJOR PROPONENTS OF COGNITIVISM


Jean Piaget (Cognitive Development)
Piaget developed a comprehensive theory of intellectual development.
His theory has four stages, thus is called a stage theory.
It looks at the cognitive development of individuals from 0-15 years
(Quinn & Hughes, 2007)
Stages

Sensori-motor stage (birth to age 2)


Pre-operational stage (ages 27)
Concrete operational stage (ages 711)
Formal operational stage (ages 1112+)

David Ausubel (Assimilation theory/Advanced organizer)


This theory primarily explains cognitive learning. Its central idea
being that learning occurs through assimilation of new concepts into
existing frameworks held by the learning. Ausubel stated that
effective learning is a process in which learners comprehend the
structure of knowledge and consciously make new structures. These
structures fit with existing organization of concepts in the brain. He
refers to this process where new ideas or concepts are linked with
previously acquired knowledge as meaningful learning. He also stated

that the single most important factor influencing learning is what the
learner already knows (Branshaw & Lowenstein, 2014; Quinn et al.,
2007)
Jerome Bruner (Discovery learner)
This theory takes a constructivist approach. It is an inquiry based
learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations, where
the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing
knowledge to discover facts and new truths. Students interact with the
world by exploring and manipulating objects wrestling with questions
and controversies or performing experiments, Thus students are more
likely to remember concepts and knowledge discovered on their own
(as against a transmissonist model) (Quinn et al., 2007)
Robert Gagne (The conditions of learning)
This theory stipulates that there are several different types or levels of
learning. The significance of these classifications is that each different
type requires different types of instruction. Gagne identifies five
major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills,
cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes.
(Gagne, 1985; Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992)
Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type
of learning. For example, for cognitive strategies to be learned, there
must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problems; to
learn attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or
persuasive arguments.

In addition, the theory outlines nine instructional events and


corresponding cognitive processes:
(1) gaining attention (reception)
(2) informing learners of the objective (expectancy)
(3) stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)
(4) presenting the stimulus (selective perception)
(5) providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)
(6) eliciting performance (responding)
(7) providing feedback (reinforcement)
(8) assessing performance (retrieval)
(9) enhancing retention and transfer (generalization).
While Gagne's theoretical framework covers all aspects of learning,
the focus of the theory is on intellectual skills.
The following example illustrates a teaching sequence corresponding
to the nine instructional
events for the objective, Recognize an equilateral triangle:
1. Gain attention - show variety of computer generated triangles
2. Identify objective - pose question: "What is an equilateral
triangle?"
3. Recall prior learning - review definitions of triangles
4. Present stimulus - give definition of equilateral triangle
5. Guide learning- show example of how to create equilateral
6. Elicit performance - ask students to create 5 different examples
7. Provide feedback - check all examples as correct/incorrect
8. Assess performance- provide scores and remediation
9. Enhance retention/transfer - show pictures of objects and ask
students to identify equilaterals (Gagne, 1985; Gagne, Briggs &
Wager, 1992)

Information Processing
Information processing is a cognitive perspective that emphasizes
thinking processes: thought, reasoning, the way information is
encountered and stored, and memory functioning (Bigge & Shermis,
1992; Gagne, 1985; Sternberg, 1991, 1996). How information is
incorporated and retrieved is useful for health professionals to know,
especially in relation to older peoples learning (Hooyman & Kiyak,
1999).
Gestalt Psychology
The gestalt perspective emphasizes the importance of perception in
learning (Garcia, Baker, & deMayo, 1999). Rather than focusing on
discrete stimuli, gestalt refers to the configuration or patterned
organization of cognitive elements, reflecting the maxim that the
whole is greater than the sum of the parts.A principal assumption is
that each person perceives, interprets, and responds to any situation in
his or her own way.
Another basic principle is that psychological organization is directed
toward simplicity, equilibrium, and regularity. For example, study the
bewildered faces of some patients listening to a detailed, evasive
explanation about their disease, when what they desire most is a
simple, clear explanation that settles their uncertainty and relates
directly to them and their familiar experiences.
Another central gestalt principle is that perception is selective, which
has several ramifications. First, because no one can attend to all the
surrounding stimuli at any given time, individuals orient themselves

to certain features of an experience while screening out or habituating


to other features. For example, patients in severe pain or worried
about their family may not attend to well-intentioned patient/student
education information.
Second, what individuals pay attention to and what they ignore are
influenced by a host of factors: past experiences, needs, personal
motives and attitudes, reference groups, and the particular structure of
the stimulus or situation (Sherif, 1976)
Assessing these internal and external dynamics has a direct bearing on
how a health educator approaches any learning situation with an
individual or group.
MAJOR PROPONENTS OF THE HUMANISTIC MODEL
Abraham Maslow (Maslows Hierarchy of needs)
The best-known pioneer of the humanist phenomenon is Maslow his
model can be seen as a form of self-actualization, it contributes to
psychological health. It is also called a hierarchy of human motivation
The theory further argues that while people aim to meet basic needs,
they seek to meet successfully higher needs in the hierarchy
(Sharma, 2009)
Carl Ransom Rogers (The Self & Self-concept)
Rogers stated that a person cannot teach another directly a person
can only facilitate. He spoke about self and self-concept among other
things.

He stated that:
the development of the personality were based on principles
and not stages
the self-concept emerged from undifferentiated self to being
fully differentiated
In the development of the self-concept he saw conditional and
unconditional positive regard as key. Those raised in an environment
of unconditional positive regard can fully actualize themselves
While those raised in an environment of conditional positive regards
feel worthy only if they match conditions that have been laid down for
them by others (Schultz, 2012).
The fully functioning person:

Not defensive open to new experience


Is existential lives each moment fully, allows their selfconcept to come from experience results in tolerance,
spontaneity, adaptability, impulse control, not hurt by what
other say
Organismic trust trust and make own judgment, and ability
to choose behaviour appropriate for each moment
Freedom of choice not shackled by restrictions that restrict
incongruent individuals, can make wide range of choices,
believe they play a role in own behaviour. Therefore tend to
feel responsible for own behaviour, doesnt make excuses
Creativity feels free to be creative, will adapt to their own
circumstances with feeling a need to conform (knows how to
act in different situations)
Freedom of choice not shackled by restrictions that restrict

incongruent individuals, can make wide range of choices,


believe they play a role in own behaviour. Therefore tend to
feel responsible for own behaviour, doesnt make excuses
Creativity feels free to be creative, will adapt to their own
circumstances with feeling a need to conform (knows how to
act in different situations) (Schultz et al., 2012)

MAJOR PROPONENTS OF THE MOTIVATION THEORY


Abraham Maslow
In 1943 A theory of human motivation
Stated that human actions are directed towards goal attainment
Any given behaviour could satisfy several functions (motivation) at
the same time
For example going to a party could satisfy ones needs for selfesteem, social interaction and belonging (Sharma, 2009)
Mclleland
SOCIAL THEORIES
Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura, a blend of cognitive and
behaviourism)
This theory posits that people learn from one another via observation,
imitation and modeling. It has often been called a bridge between
behaviourist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses
attention, memory and motivation. Speak to reciprocal determinismwhere both student and teacher learns from each other
(Quinn et al., 2007; Bastable, 2013; Bandura 1977)

Lev Vygotsky

5min

Explain the
school of the
hereafter
according to
White,
(2002)

This theory states that social interaction precedes development


consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and
social behaviour. Refers to the teacher/instructor as the more
knowledgeable other (MKO)
Heaven is a school, its field of study is the universe and its teacher is
the Infinite one. A branch of school was established in Eden and the
plan of redemption was accomplished. Education again will be taken
up in the Eden school.
eye hath not seen, nor ears heard, neither have it entered into the
hearts of man the things which God has prepared for them that love
Him (1 Cor. 2v 9)
Only through His word can a knowledge of these things be gained and
even this just affords, but a partial revelation (White, 2002)

QUIZ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Define the term learning from a behaviourist, cognitivist and humanist perspectives
Explain the concept of learning
Discuss the nature of learning
Discuss any five major proponents of learning
Explicate the school of the hereafter
ANSWERS

1. A Behaviourists Perspective - In this perspective learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in
individuals knowledge or behaviour
A Cognitivist Perspective - While behaviorists generally ignore the internal dynamics of learning, cognitive learning theorists
stress the importance of what goes on inside the learner. As such educators and those trying to influence the learning process
must recognize the variety of past experiences, perceptions, ways of incorporating and thinking about information, and diverse
aspirations, expectations, and social influences affecting any learning situation.
A Humanists Perspective - Underlying the humanistic perspective on learning is the assumption that each individual is
unique and that all individuals have a desire to grow in a positive way. Spontaneity, the importance of emotions and feelings,
the right of individuals to make their own choices, and human creativity are the cornerstones of a humanistic approach to
learning.
2. CONCEPTS OF LEARNING - Learning is about a change: the change brought about by developing a new skill,
understanding a scientific law, changing an attitude. The change is not merely incidental or natural in the way that our
appearance changes as we get older.
3. THE NATURE OF LEARNING - Learning is a personal process (a humanistic approach). This process is shaped by the
individuals life and the society in which they live. When one think of learning, we often think about studying and school or
subjects or skills intended to master. Learning, however is not limited to school, we learn every day of our lives.
4. Ivan Pavlov (Classical conditioning) - Ivan Pavlov explored automatic responses and found that stimuli could be connected
to these. Notably, a formerly-neutral stimulus that had no particular effect could be made to have an effect by pairing it with a
stimulus that has an effect.
John Watson - Made great advances in social science through the rigor of his work and his concern for observable behaviour
rather than musing about internal mechanisms. He translated Pavlovs work with dogs into everyday life and in particular the
field of advertising
B.F. Skinner (Operant conditioning) - realized that much human actions could not be explained by simple conditioning that
seem to predict animal responses, though he did much work with pigeons that helped to explain more complex behaviour.
Skinner paid particular attention to reinforcement and punishment, positive and negative and their effect. He also noticed that
the predictability and removal of a reinforcer was important

Albert Bandura (social learning) - It shows interactions with others and explains much of how we think and react. He
identified rehearsal and modeling as key learning mechanisms. Further, reinforcement is a two-way street (reciprocal influence,
teacher & student learn from each other) When reinforcement is used successfully or not, it affects the tendency to use that
methods again
Jean Piaget (Cognitive Development) - Piaget developed a comprehensive theory of intellectual development. His theory has
four stages, thus is called a stage theory. It looks at the cognitive development of individuals from 0-15 years
David Ausubel (Assimilation theory/Advanced organizer) - This theory primarily explains cognitive learning. Its central
idea being that learning occurs through assimilation of new concepts into existing frameworks held by the learning. Ausubel
stated that effective learning is a process in which learners comprehend the structure of knowledge and consciously make new
structures.
Jerome Bruner (Discovery learner) - This theory takes a constructivist approach. It is an inquiry based learning theory that
takes place in problem solving situations, where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to
discover facts and new truths. Students interact with the world by exploring and manipulating objects wrestling with questions
and controversies or performing experiments, Thus students are more likely to remember concepts and knowledge discovered
on their own.
Robert Gagne (The conditions of learning) - This theory stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning.
The significance of these classifications is that each different type requires different types of instruction. Gagne identifies five
major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes
Abraham Maslow - The best-known pioneer of the humanist phenomenon is Maslow his model can be seen as a form of selfactualization, it contributes to psychological health. It is also called a hierarchy of human motivation. The theory further argues
that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successfully higher needs in the hierarchy.
Carl Rogers - Rogers stated that a person cannot teach another directly a person can only facilitate. He spoke about self and
self-concept among other things.
He stated that:

the development of the personality were based on principles and not stages
the self-concept emerged from undifferentiated self to being fully differentiated

In the development of the self-concept he saw conditional and unconditional positive regard as key. Those raised in an environment of
unconditional positive regard can fully actualize themselves
Information Processing - Information processing is a cognitive perspective that emphasizes thinking processes: thought,
reasoning, the way information is encountered and stored, and memory. It also looks at how information is incorporated and
retrieved is useful for health professionals to know, especially in relation to older peoples learning
Gestalt psychology - The gestalt perspective emphasizes the importance of perception in learning. Rather than focusing on
discrete stimuli, gestalt refers to the configuration or patterned organization of cognitive elements, reflecting the maxim that
the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. A principal assumption is that each person perceives, interprets, and responds
to any situation in his or her own way.
Lev Vygotsky - This theory states that social interaction precedes development consciousness and cognition are the end
product of socialization and social behaviour. Refers to the teacher/instructor as the more knowledgeable other (MKO)
5. Heaven is a school, its field of study is the universe and its teacher is the Infinite one. A branch of school was established in
Eden and the plan of redemption was accomplished. Education again will be taken up in the Eden school.