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Tractors - Implements

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What are some safety tips for using post drivers?

What are tips for using augers?

What are tips for using mowers and blades?

What are some safety tips for using post drivers?

Ensure that all shields and guards are in place.

Steady the post with a safety fork or guide to prevent injury if the post breaks or
slips.

Lower the hammer and shut off the engine when making adjustments or
lubricating.

Lower and lock hammer in place to prevent accidental movement.

Do not place any part of your body between the hammer and the top of the post.

What are tips for using augers?

Keep hair, clothing, hands and feet away from augers.

Keep the area free of objects that may cause slips or falls.

Shut off the engine and disengage the power before attempting to unclog the
auger.

Make sure all guards are in place, properly secured and functional.

Watch for overhead powerlines when moving or towing augers.

Do not use hands or feet to push material away from the auger.

What are tips for using mowers and blades?

Ensure that all guards are in place.

Ensure that the engine is shut off and all power disengaged before making
repairs.

Know how the blades operate and where they are located. Keep hands away from
blades.

Do not mow grass on slopes with an incline steeper than three to one.

Do not cut with mower or blades on downhill side. Cut on the upside of a slope to
maintain tractor stability.

Do not remove materials when blade is running.

Tractors - Attachments & PTO

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What should you know when using attachments?

What should you be aware of when using the Power Take-Off (PTO)?

What should you know when using attachments?

Check that all hydraulic lines are in good condition, securely connected and leakfree.

Add front counterweights to tractors with rear-mounted attachments for improved


steering control and stability.

Use correct brackets and recommended sizes and types of bolts for mounting
equipment.

Use jacks, hoists or blocks to position equipment.


Avoid crushing and entanglement points. Do not stand between a tractor and an
implement.

Ensure that safety locks and catches are fastened.


Attempt to line up the hitch holes from the tractor seat, then shut off the engine
before dismounting to attach the hitch.

Do not crawl under anything supported only by a hydraulic lift. Always use blocks
or implement stands.

Make sure all guards are in place (master and integral shields). Damaged guards
and shields should be repaired or replaced immediately.

What should you be aware of when using the Power


Take-Off (PTO)?
The power take-off is extremely dangerous. The PTO spins quickly enough to trap a
person and can easily catch loose clothing or long hair.

When attaching or detaching PTO-driven equipment:

Lower hydraulics.

Shut off the tractor engine.

Apply tractor parking brake.

Hitch tractor to implement.

Ensure that universal joints are in the correct phase when connecting the shaft.

Do not wear loose clothing. Tie back long hair. Do not wear shoe laces dangling.

Do not remove shields from the PTO shaft.

Use the correct size drive for the machine being powered.

Match the correct PTO speed for the machine being used.

Do not step over a rotating shaft. Even PTO shafts with guards are dangerous.
Walk around the equipment.

Tractors - Front End Loaders

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Why should you be careful when using a front end loader?

What should you do when using a front end loader?

What should you avoid?

Why should you be careful when using a front end


loader?
Tractors with front-end loaders are often involved in accidents. When a loader is raised,
the tractor's centre of gravity is raised and moved forward. The tractor's stability is
reduced; thus, increasing the chance of overturning.

What should you do when using a front end loader?

Ensure that everyone is well back from the tractor when operating a front-end
loader.

Add recommended wheel ballast or counterweight.

Move wheels to widest recommended setting.

Travel with the load as close to the ground as conditions permit. (If the rear of
the tractor lifts, the bucket will hit the ground before the tractor tips.)

Operate controls from the operator's seat only.

Watch for overhead powerlines, depressions, obstructions, and uneven ground.

Operate and turn tractor at low speeds.

Avoid travelling downhill with a loaded bucket.

Drive the tractor in a straight line while loading the bucket. Keep the load in the
bucket balanced.

Lower loader to the ground, stop the engine and lock the brakes before leaving
operator's platform.

Travel in a straight line when raising the bucket to unload.

Go as close to the dump site as possible before raising the bucket.

Remove the loader from the tractor when not in use, if possible.

What should you avoid?

Do not try to load and turn at the same time. Hitting a solid object could easily
overturn the tractor.

Do not turn with a load raised above the tractor. A quick turn can tip the tractor.

Do not allow anyone to ride or work in the bucket of a front-end loader.

Do not use the bucket as a work platform.

Do not stand or work under a raised loader.

Do not allow anyone to walk under bucket, even by accident.

Do not drive with an elevated load.

Tractors - Maintenance

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What are some safety tips to know when working on a tractor?

What are some safety tips for working with hydraulics?

What are some safety tips to know when working on a


tractor?

Read, understand, and follow the instructions in the manufacturer's maintenance


manual.

Disengage power, lower hydraulics and stop engine before doing any
maintenance.

Remove ignition key.

Disconnect batteries before doing any electrical work.

Support equipment on blocks or stands. Do not rely on hydraulic hoists or


cylinders. They are designed for lifting only and can fail without warning.

Provide ventilation when running engine indoors. Engine exhaust fumes contain
carbon monoxide--a colourless, odourless and deadly gas.

Protect yourself from sharp edges and protruding parts. Wear gloves and cover
sharp edges with tape or guards.

Replace damaged or missing guards or shields.

Keep hands, feet and clothing away from moving parts.

Adjust right and left brakes so they are equal on rear wheels.

Check steering and control mechanisms, warning devices, lights and governors.

Keep work area clean and well lit.

Clean up spilled oil, grease or hydraulic fluid immediately.

Remove all tools and parts before starting engine.

Do not start engine, engage power or raise or lower an implement without


warning other people in the area.

Follow manufacturers guidelines for maintenance and repair. Keep a log of all
service and maintenance.

What are some safety tips for working with


hydraulics?
Improperly maintained or adjusted parts can cause serious injury.

Always use caution when working on a hydraulic system. Even when the system is shut
down, hydraulic oil can still be under very high pressure.
Before Servicing:

Lower hydraulic-powered equipment to the ground or block mechanically.

Shut off the engine which powers the hydraulic pump.

Move the hydraulic lever back and forth a few times to release pressure.

Let hydraulic system cool down.

Follow manufacturer's instructions. Servicing procedures vary from one hydraulic


system to another.
Hydraulic fluid escaping through pinhole leaks is difficult to see but its high pressure can
puncture skin. Have a physician treat any hydraulic fluid skin punctures immediately.

Check for leaks by passing a piece of cardboard or wood over the suspected area.

Relieve the pressure and replace the defective part.

Tractors - Operation

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What should you do when operating a tractor?

What are some safe driving tips?

What should you avoid doing?

What should you do when operating a tractor?

Wear close-fitting clothes that are not frayed. Tuck in shirts, and tie back long
hair.

Use footwear with slip-resistant soles.


Wear a seat belt when the tractor is equipped with ROPS (roll-over protection
structure).

If there is the risk of falling objects, install a fall-protective structure.

Check to see that no one is near the tractor before starting the engine.

Operate controls from the tractor seat only.

Use hearing protection unless you are enclosed in a soundproof cab.

Hitch loads to the draw bar only. Set the draw bar on a three-point hitch and no
higher than the fixed draw bar. Use a draw bar pin which locks into place and is the
right size for the job.

Use counterweights (front end or wheel weights) to help keep the tractor stable
when necessary.

Engage the clutch slowly at all times.


Disengage the power take-off (PTO) and turn off the engine before unclogging,
adjusting or servicing equipment.
Maintain safe operating speed according to surface conditions.
Take breaks when working long hours. Be aware of fatigue. Never operate
machinery when under the influence of alcohol, drugs, etc.

What are some safe driving tips?


Watch out for:

stumps, logs, rocks,

holes, ruts, cave-ins, excavations,

ditches, embankments, ravines,

people, machinery, debris, buildings, and

overhead powerlines.
Slow down when:

turning,

driving near ditches, ravines, buildings, trees, posts, fences, people, or animals

working on slopes,

pulling heavy, high, swaying, or unstable loads,

driving on rough, soft or slick ground, or when plants or darkness restricts


visibility.
Engage the parking brake and put into park or neutral. Remove the ignition key before
leaving tractor.

What should you avoid doing?

Do not permit another person to ride on a tractor except during training.

Do not get on or off a tractor while it is moving.

Do not overload a tractor.

Do not start the engine while standing beside the tractor.

Do not drive so quickly that the tractor wheels bounce.

Do not move loads that are poorly stacked.

Do not drive a tractor with greasy or slippery steering wheel.

Do not idle a tractor inside a building.

Do not drive a tractor up to anyone standing in front of a fixed object, such as a


building, wagon or implement.

Tractors - Road Operation

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What should you do when driving a farm tractor on a road?

What should you avoid doing?

What should you do when driving a farm tractor on a


road?

Choose routes with care. Avoid busy routes. Avoid routes with narrow roads and
restricted distance visibility.

Use an escort vehicle if you must travel busy routes or if you have obscured
visibility.

Lock brake pedals together for even operation.

Obey all traffic laws.

Adjust travel speed to road conditions and towed equipment.

Occupy the entire traffic lane. Do not straddle one-half of the lane and the
shoulder--it confuses other drivers.

Slow down and pull over to let traffic pass if safe to do so. Choose a level location
with good visibility in both directions.

Use the throttle rather than the brakes to slow down if towing one or more pieces
of machinery on a highway to avoid jack-knifing equipment.

Descend a hill in the same gear you would use to ascend when carrying a load.
Stay off the roads after dark unless necessary and then only when equipment is
properly lit (white light(s) in front; red light at rear).

Always signal your plan to slow, stop or turn.

Use hand signals if your tractor does not have signal lights.

Equip your vehicle with signals if load or equipment does not allow other drivers
to see hand signals.

Ensure that there is enough room to maneuver safely before entering or crossing
a road, or turning across a lane.

Keep signs and lights clean.


Ensure that tractor and towed equipment are equipped with SMV (Slow-Moving
Vehicle) signs and be sure it is clearly visible.

Replace faded or damaged Slow-Moving Vehicle signs.

Indicate size of equipment with flags during the day and with lights at night.

What should you avoid doing?

Do not allow riders on tractor or towed equipment.


Do not take equipment out of gear to "freewheel" downhill. The resulting speed
could cause severe steering and braking problems. Tractors are not designed for
downshifting gears while moving.
Do not drive on the shoulder of the road.

ractors - Roll-over Prevention

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How do you prevent backward upsets?

How do you prevent sideways upsets?

How do you prevent backward upsets?


In a backwards tip, the tractor can hit the ground in less than one and a half seconds.

Factors that cause a tractor to tip over backward depend upon the load and the height of
the hitch from the ground.

Hitch only at the manufacturer's recommended height.


Engage the clutch pedal slowly and smoothly. Be ready to disengage power
quickly if the front end begins to come up.
Start forward motion slowly and change speed gradually.
Use counterweights to increase tractor stability. Follow manufacturer's
instructions.

Avoid backing downhill.

Drive around ditches, not across them.

Back your tractor out when stuck or tow the stuck machine out with another
tractor. Tractors are also prone to tipping when the wheels are stuck. For example, in
mud or snow, or in contact with boards, logs, chains, etc. used in an attempt to
improve traction, but which actually prevent the wheels from turning.

Turn downhill when working across a slope.

Drive straight down even the gentlest slope. Do not drive diagonally across it.

Do not hitch a load higher than the tractor draw-bar.

Do not coast downhill. Before starting down, shift to a lower gear that prevents
freewheeling and excessive braking. Try to use the same gear to go down a hill that
you would use to pull the load uphill.

How do you prevent sideways upsets?

Set wheels as wide as practical for maximum stability.

Avoid depressions and obstacles.

Turn downhill, not uphill, if stability becomes uncertain on slopes or ramps.

Keep loads, implements, or loader buckets close to ground.

Keep side-mounted implements on the uphill side.

Match speed to conditions and loads.

Back up steep slopes or ramps.

Lock brake pedals together before high speed travel.

Slow down before turning.

Use engine for braking when going downhill.

Stay away from the edge of ditches and streams.

Do not try to cross steep slopes.

Tractors - Servicing

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What should you know before servicing a tractor?

What should you know before checking the radiator?

What should you do when refuelling a tractor?

What should you avoid doing?

What should you know before servicing a tractor?

Follow manufacturer's instructions for servicing and lubrication.


Shut off the engine and set park brake before leaving the operator's platform to
adjust, re-fuel, lubricate, clean or unclog machine.

Wait until all moving parts have stopped before inspecting or servicing.

Check hydraulic lines, belts and hoses, electrical wiring, braking system, and
steering system thoroughly. Repair as required.

Block hydraulically-operated equipment and release the line pressure on


hydraulics before disconnecting fittings. Refer to OSH Answers: Tractors Maintenance.

Replace all guards and shields securely after servicing.

Replace defective lights, warning signals and signs.

Check roll-over protective structure (ROPS) for cracks and corrosion.

Keep exhaust and muffler system in good repair.

Shut off the engine before checking the water level in the battery to prevent the
battery from "spitting" acid.

What should you know before checking the radiator?


The engine cooling system is pressurized at operating temperature. If this pressure is
released quickly, the liquid will turn to steam and forcefully blow out the cooling system.

Let the engine cool before checking the coolant level.

Remove the radiator cap very slowly when the engine is hot.

Protect your hand by using a rag over the radiator cap.

What should you do when refuelling a tractor?

Post "No Smoking" signs in all fuel storage and handling areas.

Have fire extinguishers and other firefighting equipment near.

Shut off engine and allow it to cool.

Fuel tractor outside. Store fuel outside and away from buildings. Keep area free of
vegetation or other burnable material.
Position yourself so you cannot slip.

Remove the fuel cap slowly, holding it at the semi-locked position until pressure is
released.

Keep the nozzle in the filler opening for a few moments after shutting off fuel flow
to allow the nozzle to empty.

Check that the filter cap vent is not clogged before replacing the filter cap.

Allow fuel to evaporate before closing hood that covers fuel tank.

What should you avoid doing?

Do not smoke or have an open flame while refuelling. Gas fumes are heavier than
air and will drift downward. The vapour, not the liquid, burns.

Do not spill any fuel on a tractor. If you do, wipe it up and allow any residue to
dry before starting the engine.

Do not run if your clothing catches fire. Drop to the ground and roll slowly or
wrap yourself in a blanket.

Tractors - Stability

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How can you maintain stability on various gradients?

How can you maintain stability on various gradients?


A tractor tips when the centre of gravity moves outside the "stability baseline" - an
imaginary line connecting each wheel.

Side-mounted implements shift the centre of gravity toward the implement.

Operate the tractor with the mounted implement on the uphill side of slope.

Adjust the tractor's stability with wheel weights and counterweights.

Beware of depressions in the ground and obstructions such as rocks and stumps.
These hazards can change tractor stability on slopes or at speeds greater than a few
kilometres per hour.
Instability can tip a tractor sideways. The outside wheels become pivot points.

The outward tipping force varies according to the tractor speed and turning radius. Sharp
turns increase the force.
A tractor is more unstable when turning uphill. Avoid this type of turn whenever possible
or make it at slow speed.
The force becomes more dangerous as the tractor's centre of gravity is moved higher.
Examples are when a front-end loader is raised, or when spray tanks are mounted high
on a tractor chassis.

Tractors - Start up

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What are some safety tips to know when starting up a tractor?

What should you check before start-up?

What should you do before operating the tractor?

What are some safety tips to know when starting up a


tractor?

Read and follow the manufacturer's operating manual for safely operating and
maintaining the tractor.
Walk around the tractor to check for obstructions or people.

Clear controls, pedals and steps of mud, grease and other debris.

Check tires for proper inflation, wear or damage. Inflate tires or replace worn or
damaged tires.

Check fluid levels, including fuel, coolant, engine oil and hydraulic system. Add
fluids, as needed.

Ensure that all guards and components are present and securely in place.

Inspect the Power Take Off (PTO) shaft for proper shielding and guarding (rotate
the shield and make sure it moves freely).

Set the wheels as wide as practical for maximum stability.

Provide ample ventilation if starting up in the garage.

Check hitch connections, including locking devices, for security and damage.

Use front or rear counterweights to balance tractors that have mounted


equipment.

Keep a selection of shear pins, bolts and cotter pins in a container which is solidly
attached to the tractor.

Remove all tools and accessories which may restrict operation of controls.

Face the tractor and use handgrips and footholds to mount and dismount.

What should you check before start-up?


Check:
Fire extinguisher - missing, discharged, or compacted from vibration?
Bolts, nuts, guards, chains, or hydraulic hose reels - missing, loose or damaged?
Chain Anchor Pins - worn, loose or bent?
Fluid Leaks - damp spots or drips?
Battery - exposed wires in cables, low electrolyte levels in cells and secure mounting?
Hydraulic Lines - loose, worn or rubbing?
First Aid Kit - fully stocked?
Safety belt and roll-over protection structure (ROPS) - worn or damaged?

Have parts and equipment replaced, repaired, or put in good operating condition, as
needed.

What should you do before operating the tractor?

Adjust seat and controls as required.

Fasten seat belt if equipped with roll-over protection structure (ROPS).


Check for correct operation of:
Parking Brake - holds against slight acceleration.
Foot Brake - holds, stops vehicle smoothly.
Clutch and Gearshift - shifts smoothly without jumping or jerking.
Steering - moves smoothly.
Lights - headlights, warning lights, and turn signals operational.
Dash Control Panel - all lights and gauges operational.
All Moving Parts - no strange noises.
Horn - operational.
Have parts and equipment serviced and put in good operating condition, as needed.

Tractors - Start up

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What are some safety tips to know when starting up a tractor?

What should you check before start-up?

What should you do before operating the tractor?

What are some safety tips to know when starting up a


tractor?

Read and follow the manufacturer's operating manual for safely operating and
maintaining the tractor.

Walk around the tractor to check for obstructions or people.

Clear controls, pedals and steps of mud, grease and other debris.

Check tires for proper inflation, wear or damage. Inflate tires or replace worn or
damaged tires.

Check fluid levels, including fuel, coolant, engine oil and hydraulic system. Add
fluids, as needed.

Ensure that all guards and components are present and securely in place.

Inspect the Power Take Off (PTO) shaft for proper shielding and guarding (rotate
the shield and make sure it moves freely).

Set the wheels as wide as practical for maximum stability.

Provide ample ventilation if starting up in the garage.

Check hitch connections, including locking devices, for security and damage.

Use front or rear counterweights to balance tractors that have mounted


equipment.

Keep a selection of shear pins, bolts and cotter pins in a container which is solidly
attached to the tractor.

Remove all tools and accessories which may restrict operation of controls.

Face the tractor and use handgrips and footholds to mount and dismount.

What should you check before start-up?


Check:
Fire extinguisher - missing, discharged, or compacted from vibration?
Bolts, nuts, guards, chains, or hydraulic hose reels - missing, loose or damaged?
Chain Anchor Pins - worn, loose or bent?
Fluid Leaks - damp spots or drips?
Battery - exposed wires in cables, low electrolyte levels in cells and secure mounting?
Hydraulic Lines - loose, worn or rubbing?
First Aid Kit - fully stocked?
Safety belt and roll-over protection structure (ROPS) - worn or damaged?

Have parts and equipment replaced, repaired, or put in good operating condition, as
needed.

What should you do before operating the tractor?

Adjust seat and controls as required.

Fasten seat belt if equipped with roll-over protection structure (ROPS).


Check for correct operation of:
Parking Brake - holds against slight acceleration.
Foot Brake - holds, stops vehicle smoothly.
Clutch and Gearshift - shifts smoothly without jumping or jerking.
Steering - moves smoothly.
Lights - headlights, warning lights, and turn signals operational.
Dash Control Panel - all lights and gauges operational.
All Moving Parts - no strange noises.
Horn - operational.
Have parts and equipment serviced and put in good operating condition, as needed.

Tractors - Start up

What are some safety tips to know when starting up a tractor?

What should you check before start-up?

What should you do before operating the tractor?

What are some safety tips to know when starting up a


tractor?

Read and follow the manufacturer's operating manual for safely operating and
maintaining the tractor.
Walk around the tractor to check for obstructions or people.

Clear controls, pedals and steps of mud, grease and other debris.

Check tires for proper inflation, wear or damage. Inflate tires or replace worn or
damaged tires.

Check fluid levels, including fuel, coolant, engine oil and hydraulic system. Add
fluids, as needed.

Ensure that all guards and components are present and securely in place.

Inspect the Power Take Off (PTO) shaft for proper shielding and guarding (rotate
the shield and make sure it moves freely).

Set the wheels as wide as practical for maximum stability.

Provide ample ventilation if starting up in the garage.

Check hitch connections, including locking devices, for security and damage.

Use front or rear counterweights to balance tractors that have mounted


equipment.

Keep a selection of shear pins, bolts and cotter pins in a container which is solidly
attached to the tractor.

Remove all tools and accessories which may restrict operation of controls.

Face the tractor and use handgrips and footholds to mount and dismount.

What should you check before start-up?


Check:
Fire extinguisher - missing, discharged, or compacted from vibration?
Bolts, nuts, guards, chains, or hydraulic hose reels - missing, loose or damaged?
Chain Anchor Pins - worn, loose or bent?
Fluid Leaks - damp spots or drips?
Battery - exposed wires in cables, low electrolyte levels in cells and secure mounting?
Hydraulic Lines - loose, worn or rubbing?
First Aid Kit - fully stocked?
Safety belt and roll-over protection structure (ROPS) - worn or damaged?

Have parts and equipment replaced, repaired, or put in good operating condition, as
needed.

What should you do before operating the tractor?

Adjust seat and controls as required.

Fasten seat belt if equipped with roll-over protection structure (ROPS).


Check for correct operation of:
Parking Brake - holds against slight acceleration.
Foot Brake - holds, stops vehicle smoothly.
Clutch and Gearshift - shifts smoothly without jumping or jerking.
Steering - moves smoothly.
Lights - headlights, warning lights, and turn signals operational.
Dash Control Panel - all lights and gauges operational.
All Moving Parts - no strange noises.
Horn - operational.
Have parts and equipment serviced and put in good operating condition, as needed.