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Cover:

CIP's research organization reflects the full range


of problems encountered by national programs
and farmers in developing countries, ranging
from distribution of new germplasm to studies
on potato marketing and consumption. Here,
a Rwandese farmer brings her potatoes to a
local market.

International Potato Center

Annual Report 1985

INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER


P.O. Box 5969, Lima, Peru
1986

The International Potato Center (CIP) is a nonprofit,


autonomous scientific institution established in 1972
by agreement with the Government of Peru for
developing and disseminating knowledge for greater
use of the potato as a basic food in the developing
world. CIP is one of 13 nonprofit international
research and training centers supported by the
Consultative Group for International Agricultural
Research (CGIAR). The CGIAR is sponsored by
the Food and Agriculture Organization (F AO) of the
United Nations, the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP), and the International Bank
for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank),
and comprises more than 45 countries, international
and regional organizations, and private foundations.
CIP received funding in 1985, through the CGIAR,
from the following donors: the governments of
Australia, Belgium, France, Germany , Ireland, Italy,
Japan, Mexico , Netherlands, Norway , People's
Republic of China, Philippines, Spain, and
Switzerland ; the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); the Danish In ternational
Development Agency (DANIDA); the European
Economic Community (EEC) ; the Inter-American
Development Bank (IDB) ; the International
Fund for Agricultural Development (IF AD) ; th e
Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with
Developing Countries (SAREC) ; the United
Kingdom Overseas Development Administration
(UKODA); the United States Agency for International Development (USAID); the OPEC Fund
for International Development ; and the World
Bank (IBRD).
The 1985 Annual Report is published in English and
Spanish by the International Potato Center (CIP).
This report covers the period from 1 November 1984
to 31October1985 . Mention of specific products
by trade name does not imply endorsement of or
discrimination against such products by CIP.
Citation:
International Potato Center. 1986. Annual Report
CIP 1985. Lima, Peru. 176 p.

Printed by the International Potato Cen ter,


P.O. Box 5969, Lima, Peru, July 1986.
Copies printed: 3072

Contents

Foreword

Board of Trustees

Staff

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

12

Impact of CIP Research 1985

15

Summary of Research and Regional Programs

20
29

Agroecological Zones of Peru


R ESEARCH THRUSTS

Maintenance and Utilization of Unexploited


Genetic Resources

31

Production and Distribution of Advanced


Breeding Material

37

III

Research on Bacterial and Fungal Diseases

47

IV

Potato Virus Research

63

II

v Integrated Pest Management

73

VI

Warm Climate Potato Production

83

VII

Cool Climate Potato Production

95

VIII

Postharvest Technology

105

Seed Technology

115

IX

x Potatoes in Developing
Country Food Systems
....__

133

National Manpower Development

144

Publications

157

Research and Consultancy Contracts

163

Financial Statement

167

CGIAR Information

175

Foreword

hange has to be a part of any institution that is keeping its program


adjusted to the evolving priorities of rapidly emerging developing
countries. Although the research to produce needed technologies requires
stability and continuity, an institution's ability to react quickly to opportunities for progress in developing countries must be maintained within
its program. This is not always easy.
Some unwanted changes cannot be avoided such as the retirement of
Dr. Orville Page, CIP's first and only director of research during the past 15
years. His dedicated service at CIP started with a sabbatical from Canada
Agriculture Research Station in Alberta. His capability for organizing
research was quickly demonstrated and he was asked to become the director
of research. Dr. Page was instrumental in developing the successful research
thrust strategy at CIP, which uses interdisciplinary teams of scientists to
address priority research areas. Also under his direction, research and consultancy contracts on core funding became a unique cost-effective method
of increasing the research capacity at CIP and within the CGIAR system.
He will continue to be available for short-term consultancies and is already
scheduled to help develop CIP's new regional program in China during 1986.
CIP's new Region VIII was established in China on September 7, 1985,
in association with the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. CIP is
the first CGIAR center to have a regional base in China, which is the result
of many exchange visits between scientists during the past seven years.
With 25/o of the world's population and over four million hectares of
potatoes produced annually , there is more than adequate justification for
a CIP regional base to be located in this country. With the large number of
institutions and scientists working on potatoes in China, strong collaboration
is anticipated on programs that will be of mutual benefit to China and the
rest of CIP's client countries. China needs the broad base of germplasm
available at CIP and we need to learn of their experiences in intercropping
and commercial use of true seed technology.
During 1985, CIP's Board of Trustees looked carefully at the possibility
of CIP becoming involved with sweet potato. The idea was brought to CIP
by several donors and members of the Technical Advisory Committee as
a result of the CGIAR priorities study, which indicated that sweet potatoes
were not being given enough attention in the CGIAR system in relation

to their importance in the developing world . CIP's Board of Trustees ,


at their annual meeting in 1985 , formerly approved the inclusion of sweet
potato in the Center's mandate. The relationship between CIP and the
other international agricultural centers working on this commodity is being
established, based on the comparative research advantages of each center.
The advantage of being located in the area where the sweet potato originated
has enabled CIP to assume leadership in gathering a world collection of sweet
potato germplasm.
Today, CIP is on the cutting edge of science in developing techniques
for the identification and elimination of potato viruses and viroids , an ability
that can be transferred quickly to sweet potato viruses, which have not yet
been adequately researched. CIP's regional network could be used equally
for potatoes and sweet potatoes in helping to distribute the technologies
of the other centers working with this commodity. The sweet potato will
complement the potato as CIP continues to serve clients living in regions
of the world with scarce resources, marginal soils, and hot climates.
As CIP goes into 1986, the CIP Profile, the long-term plan , is being
updated. This plan, the fourth updating of this vital and valuable document ,
provides goals and strategies that will take C!P through to the year 2010,
long after I will have completed my task as director general. If increases in
potato production continue in developing countries as they have since CIP
was first funded in 1972, the potato will have become by 2010 a major staple
food in many tropical countries, helping to solve the problems of famine such
as the situation that occurred in Rwanda during a recent crisis. Potato and
sweet potato, as a combination, will probably be outranked only by rice
as the major food and cash crops and they will have a wider range of climatic
flexibility than any other major food commodities in the developing world.
The potato alone will have more climatic flexibility than any other major
commodity addressed by the CGIAR system.
I would like to thank the loyal donors who have supported CIP's
collaborative efforts with national programs to make this highly nutritious
tuber - the potato - become a major staple food in the developing world.

Director General

Board of Trustees

Executive Committee
DR. JACK MEAGHER, Chairman
Chief, Division of Plant Research
Department of Agriculture , Victoria
P.O. Box 4041 G.P .O.
Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia

DR. FLAVIO COUTO , Secretary


President
Empresa de Assistencia Tecnica e
Extensao Rural do Distrito Federal
C.P. 04 235
70.770 Brasilia D.F., Brazil

DR. RICHARD L. SAWY ER


Director General
International Potato Center
P.O. Box 5969
Lima, Peru

Program Committee
DR. MAGNHILD UMAERUS, Chair
Professor of Plant Breeding
Swedish University of
Agricultural Sciences
Department of Plant Breeding
P.O. Box 7003
S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

DR. VICTOR PALMA VALDERRAMA


Victor Matirtua 526
San Isidro, Lima, Peru
DR. KLAUS RAVEN
National Agrarian University
P.O . Box 456
La Molina, Lima, Peru

DR. DAVID CALL


Dean
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
Cornell University
Ithaca , New York 14853
U.S.A.

DR. MAX RIVES


Senior Breeder Geneticist
INRA
289 rue Lecourbe
75015 Paris, France

DR. DELY GAPASIN


Director
Crops Research Department
PCARRD
Los Banos, Laguna , Philippines

DR. NOBORU T AKASE


Sugar Crop Development Fund
Sukai Building
West 7 Ave ., South 1 St.
Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Japan
7

Staff

SENIOR MANAGEMENT

Richard L. Sawyer, Ph.D., Director


General
Jose Valle Riestra, Ph.D ., Deputy
Director General
William A. Hamann, B.S., Assistant to
the Director General
Orville T. Page, Ph.D., Director of
Research (until June 1985)
Peter Gregory, Ph.D., Director of
Research (from July 1985)
Kenneth J. Brown, Ph.D., Director of
Regional Research
Primo Accatino, Ph.D., Associate
Director, Transfer of Technology
Adrian Fajardo, M.S., Executive Officer
Leonardo Hussey, Controller
RESEARCH THRUSTS

(Leaders and Co-Leaders)


1.

Maintenance and Utilization of


Unexploited Genetic Resources
(P. Schmiediche-Z. Huaman)

II.

Production and Distribution of


Advanced Breeding-Material
(H. Mendoza-M. Iwanaga)

III.

Research on Bacterial and


Fungal Diseases
(E. French-C. Martin)

IV.

Potato Virus Research


(L. Salazar-U. Jayasinghe)

V.

Integrated Pest Management


(F. Cisneros - P. Jatala)

VI.

Warm Climate Potato Production


(D. Midmore - H. Mendoza)

VII. Cool Climate Potato Production


(J. Landeo-D. Midmore)
VIII . Postharvest Technology
(R. Booth- R. Rhoades)
IX . Seed Technology
(P. Malagam~a-A. Monares)
8

X.

Potatoes in Developing Country


Food Systems
(R. Rhoades - D. Horton)

R ESEARCH DEPARTMENTS

Breeding and Genetics


Humberto Mendoza, Ph.D., Head of
Department
Enrique Chujoy, Ph.D., Geneticist
Ali M. Golmirzaie, Ph.D., Geneticist
Zosimo Huaman, Ph.D ., Geneticist
Masaru Iwanaga, Ph.D., Cytogeneticist
Juan Landeo, Ph.D., Breeder
Fermin de la Puente, Ph.D., Breeder+
Deborah Rabinowitz, Ph.D ., Biologist+
Franr,;oise Rousselle, Ph.D., Breeder*+
Patrick Rousselle, Ph.D., Breeder* +
Roberto Ruiz, Lie., Breeder +
Peter Schmiediche, Ph.D., Breeder
Maria Scurrah, Ph.D., Breeder
Nematology and Entomology
Parviz J atala, Ph.D., Head of Department
Javier Franco, Ph.D ., Nematologist
K. V. Raman, Ph.D., Entomologist
Severino A. Raymundo, Ph.D., Plant
Protection Specialist
Luis Valencia, M.A., Entomologist (Reg. I)
Pathology
Edward R. French, Ph.D., Head of
Department
John Elphinstone, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
Enrique Fernandez-Northcote, Ph.D.,
Virologist
Jan Henfling, Ph.D., Mycologist (Reg. I)*
Upali Jayasinghe, Ph.D., Virologist
Carlos Martin, Ph.D., Pathologist
Victor Otazu, Ph.D., Pathologist
Luis Salazar, Ph.D., Virologist
Physiology
Patricio Malagamba, Ph.D., Head of
Department
Cornelia Almekinders, Ir., Physiologist +
Robert H. Booth, Ph.D., Physiologist

John H. Dodds, Ph.D., Tissue Culture


Yoshihiro Eguchi, B.S., Physiologist+
Peter Keane, B.S., Processing Specialist
David J. Midmore, Ph.D., Physiologist
Riccardo Morpurgo, M.S., Physiologist +
Noel Pallais, Ph.D., Physiologist
Siert Wiersema, Ph.D., Agronomist
Taxonomy
Carlos Ochoa, M.S., Head of Department
Social Science
Douglas E. Horton, Ph.D., Head of
Department (on sabbatical)
Robert E. Rhoades, Ph.D., Acting Head
of Department
Peter T. Ewell, Ph.D., Economist
Anibal Monares, Ph.D., Economist
Vera Niiiez, M.A., Anthropologist +
Gordon Prain, Ph.D., Anthropologist+
Gregory J. Scott, Ph.D., Economist
Norio Yamamoto, Ph.D., Ethnobiologist+
Research Support
Fausto Cisneros, Ph.D., Head of
Department
Dennis Cunliffe, Ing. Agr., Field &
Greenhouse Supervisor, Lima
Lombardo Cetraro, B.S., Field Supervisor,
San Ramon
Miguel Quevedo, Ing. Agr., Field &
Greenhouse Supervisor, Huancayo
Pedro Ruiz, Ing. Agr., Field Supervisor,
Yurimaguas
Marco Soto, Ph.D., Superintendent,
Huancayo
REGIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING

Headquarters
James E. Bryan, M.S., Seed Technologist
Region I- Andean Latin America
Apartado Aereo 92654
Bogota 8, D.E., Colombia
Oscar Malamud, Ph.D., Regional
Representative

Fernando Ezeta, Ph.D., Co-leader Potato


Program (Peru)+
Cesar Vittorelli, Ing. Agr., Seed
Production Team Leader (Peru)+
Juan Aguilar, Ing. Agr., Seed Production
(Peru)+
Claude Auroi, Ph.D., Economist (Peru)+
Karin Luther, Agr. Eng. ETH, Virologist
(Peru)+
Urs Scheidegger, Ph.D., Agronomist
(Peru)+
Region II - Non-Andean Latin America
c/o Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de
Hortalir;:as, Caixa Postal ( 11) 1316
70.000 Brasilia, D.F., Brazil
Oscar Hidalgo, Ph.D., Regional
Representative
Anna Strohmenger, M.S., Agronomist+
Region III - Tropical Africa
P.O. Box 25171
Nairobi, Kenya
Sylvester Nganga, Ph.D., Regional
Representative
Gerrit De Vries, Ir., Agronomist
(Burundi)+
Angelique Haugerud, Ph.D.,
Anthropologist (Rwanda)+
Anton Haverkort, Ph.D., Agronomist
(Rwanda)
George L. T. Hunt, T. Eng., M.I. Agr. E.,
Storage+
Michael Potts, Ph.D., Agronomist
(Burundi)+
Region IV -Near and Middle East
P.O. Box 2416
Cairo, Egypt
Sidki Sadik, Ph.D., Regional
Representative
Cristoph Engels, Ph.D., Agronomist+
Region V - Nor th and West Africa
11 Rue des Orangers
Ariana, Tunis, Tunisia
9

Roger Cortbaoui, Ph.D ., Regional


Representative
Jurgen Benz, Ir., Storage+
Roland von Arx, Ph.D ., Entomologist +
Region VI - South Asia
c/ o NBPGR
Indian Agricultural
Research Institute
New Delhi, 110012, India
Mahesh Upadhya, Ph.D ., Regional
Representative
Bharat L. Karmacharya, Ph.D.,
Agronomist (Bhutan)+
Lyle Sikka, M.S., Seed Technologist
(Bangladesh)+
Region VII - Southeast Asia
c/o IRRI
P.O. Box 933
Manila, Philippines
Peter Vander Zaag, Ph.D ., Regional
Representative.
Jeroen Kloos, Ir., Agronomist +
Ponciano Batugal, Ph.D ., CoordinatorSAPPRAD +
Region VIII - China
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Bai Shi Qiao Rd., No. 30
West Suburbs of Beijing
People's Republic of China
Song Bo Fu, Dr., CIP Liaison Scientist

TRAINING AND COMMUNICATIONS


DEPARTMENT

Manuel Pina, Jr., Ph.D., Head of


Department
Linda Peterson, B.F.A., Senior Editor
Carmen Podesta, M.A., Librarian
Hernan Rincon, Ph.D., Communication
Support Coordinator
Garry Robertson, M.A., Training Program
Coordinator
Carmen Siri, Ph.D., Training Materials
Specialist+
Rainer Zachmann, Ph.D., Training
Materials Specialist
ADMINISTRATION

Office of the Executive Officer


Carlos Bohl, Transportation Supervisor
10

Gustavo Echecopar, Ing. Agr., Plant &


Equipment Supervisor
Ana Dumett, Asist. Soc., Social Worker
Juan Iladoy, Recreation Supervisor
Lucas Reano, C.P.C., Administrative
Supervisor
German Rossani, M.D., Medical Officer
Jacques Vandernotte, Pilot
Office of the Controller
Oscar Gil, C.P.C., Assistant Controller
Blanca Joo, C.P.C., Accountant
Edgardo de los Rios, C.P.C., Accountant
Guillermo Romero, Head Accountant
SCIENTIFIC ASSOC IA TES

Manuel Canto, Ph.D., Nematologist (Peru)


Romulo del Carpio, Ing. Agr. ,
Taxonomist (Peru)
Nelson Estrada, Ph.D., Breeder
(Colombia)
Cesar Fribourg, M.S., Virologist (Peru)
Alfredo Garcia, M.E.S ., Biometrics
Consultant (Peru)
L. V. Turkensteen, Ph.D., Micologist
(Netherlands)
Sven Villagarcia, Ph.D., Physiologist
(Peru)
SCIENTIFIC AND OTHER ASSISTANTS
(By Department or Region)

Walter Amoros, M.S ., Breeding & Genetics


Luis Calua, M.S., Breeding & Genetics
Jorge Espinoza, Ing. Agr., Breeding &
Genetics
Rosario Galvez, M.S., Breeding & Genetics
Luis Manrique, Ing. Agr., Breeding &
Genetics
Jose Luis Marca, Ing. Agr., Breeding &
Genetics
Rodomiro Ortiz, Biol., Breeding &
Genetics
Roger Vallejo, M.S., Breeding & Genetics
Jesus Alcazar, Ing. Agr., Nematology &
Entomology
Rosa Canicoba, B.S., Nematology &
Entomology
Arelis Carmen Garzon, B.S., Nematology
& Entomology
Alberto Gonzales, M.S., Nematology &
Entomology
Angela M.atos, Ing. Agr., Nematology &
Entomology

Raul Salas, Ing. Agr., Nematology &


Entomology
Maria Villa, Biol., Nematology &
Entomology
Jorge Abad, M.S., Pathology
Ilse Balbo, Biol., Pathology
Carlos Chuquillanqui, B.S., Pathology
Wilman Galindez, Ing. Agr., Pathology
Liliam G. Lindo, Ing. Agr., Pathology
Charlotte Lizarraga, B.S., Pathology
Josefina Nakashima, Biol., Pathology
Ursula Nydegger, Tech. Dip.,
Pathology
Hans Pined o, In g. Agr., Pathology
Herbert Torres, M.S., Pathology
Ernesto Velit, Biol., Pathology
Nilda Beltran, Ing. Ind ., Physiology
Donald Berrios, Ing. Agr., Physiology
Fausto Buitron, Ing. Agr., Physiology
Rolando Cabello, Ing. Agr., Physiology
Nelson Espinoza, Biol., Physiology
Nelly Fong, M.S., Physiology
Rolando Lizarraga, B.S., Physiology
Norma de Mazza, Q.F., Physiology
Jorge Roca, B.S., Physiology
Daniela Silva, Biol., Physiology
Dora Tovar, Biol., Physiology
Jesus Amaya, Tech. Dip., Taxonomy
Matilde Orrillo de Jara, Biol., Taxonomy
Alberto Salas, Ing. Agr., Taxonomy
Adolfo Achata, Ing. Agr., Social Science
Pierre Bidegaray , B .S., Social Science*
Beatriz Eldredge, B.S., Social Science
Hugo Fano, B.S., Social Science
Rosa Antunez, B.S., Research Support*
Nelson Melendez, Tech. Dip ., Research
Support
Luis Zapata, Ing. Agr. (Reg. I)
Jorge Queiroz, Ing. Agr. (Reg. II)
Stan Kasule, B.S. (Reg. III)
John- Kimani, B. S. (Reg. III)
M. Shahata, B.S. (Reg. IV)
M. Sharkani, B.S. (Reg. IV)
M. Kadian (Reg. VI)
K. C. Thacur (Reg. VI)
Richarte Acasio, M.S . (Reg. VII)*
A. Demagante, M.S . (Reg. VII)
V. Escobar, M.S. (Reg. VII)
B. Fernandez, M.S. (Reg. VII)
C. Montierro, M.S. (Reg. VII)
B. Susana, B.S. (Reg. VII)
Qin Yu Tiang, B.S. (Reg. VIII)
Jesus Chang, M.S. Ed., Training &
Communications

Martha Crosby, B.A., Training &


Communications
Jorge Palacios, Dip., Training &
Communications
Christine Graves, M.A., Writer/Editor,
Director General's Office
Luis Cabanillas, B.S., Executive Office
Eleana Bardales, C.P.C., Controller's
Office
Jorge Bautista, B.S., Controller's Office
Jose Belli, B.S., Controller's Office
Vilma Escudero, B.S., Controller's Office
Alfredo Gonzalez, B.S., Controller's
Office
Alberto Monteblanco, C.P.C., Controller's
Office
Djordje Velickovich, Copilot, General
Operations
Rocio Jimenez, B.S., Auxiliary Services

Staff as of Dece mber 31, 1985 are listed by


Department or Region.
* Left during the year.
+These positions are separately funded as
Special Projects by the fo llo wing donor
agencies:
Australian Development Assistance Agency
Belgium , General Administration for
Cooperation and Development (AGCO)
Canadian International Development Agency
(CIDA)
Fed. Rep . Germany , German Society of
Technical Coo peration (GTZ)
Food and Agr iculture Organization of the
United Natio ns (FAO)
Netherland s, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Rockefeller Foundation
Spain, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Swiss Deve lopment Cooperation and
Humanitarian Agency
United Kingdom, Overseas Development
Administration (ODA)
United States Agency for International
Developmen t (USAID)
W. K. Kellogg Foundation
World Bank

11

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

AMV
APLV
APMV
avg
AVRDC

alfalfa mosaic virus


Andean potato latent virus
Andean potato mottle virus
average
Asian Vegetable Research & Development Center (Taiwan)

BARI
BW

Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute


bacterial wilt

CEC
CGIAR
CIAAB
CIAT
CIP
cm
CNPH
CPE
CPRI

cation exchange capacity


Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
Centro de Investigaciones Agricolas "A-Boerger" (Uruguay)
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (Colombia)
Centro Internacional de la Papa (Peru)
centimeter
Centro N acional de Pesquisa de Hortaliyas (Brazil)
centrally planned economy
Central Potato Research Institute (India)
coefficient of variation
cultivar

CV
CV.

DLS
DNA

day
diffused-light stores
deoxyribonucleic acid

EB
ELISA
EMBRAPA

early blight
enzymelinked immunosorbent assay
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (Brazil)

FAO
FDR

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


-first division restitution

GA
GCA

gram
gibberellic acid
general combining ability

h
ha

hour
hectare

IADS
IBPGR
IBTA
ICA
IDRC
IITA

International Agricultural Development Service


International Board for Plant Genetic Resources
Instituto Boliviano de Tecnologia Agropecuaria
Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (Colombia)
International Development Research Centre (Canada)
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (Nigeria)

12

INIA
INIAP
INIPA
INPT
INRA
INRAT
INTA
IPO
ISABU

Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Chile)


lnstituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Agropecuarias (Ecuador)
lnstituto Nacional de Investigaci6n y Promoci6n Agropecuaria (Peru)
Institut National de la Pomme de Terre (Togo)
Institut National de la Recherche Agricole (Senegal)
lnstitut National de la Recherche Agronomique de la Tunisie
lnstituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (Argentina)
Research Institute for Plant Protection (Netherlands)
lnstitut des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi

liter
latitude
late blight
land equivalent ratio
longitude
least significant difference
light use efficiency

lat.
LB
LER
long.
LSD

LUE
m
meq
min
MJ

ml
mm
mo
NASH

meter
milliequivalent
minute
megajoule
milliliter
millimeter
month

NS

nucleic acid spot hybridization test


not determined
nanometer
not significant
not studied

ODD
OP

Ouch terlony double diffusion


open-pollinated

Pf/Pi
PLRV
PNAP
ppm
PRACIPA

final population density /initial population density


potato leafroll virus
Programme National de l'Amelioration de la Pomme de Terre (Rwanda)
parts per million
Programa Andino Cooperativo de Investigaci6n en Papa
(Andean region)
Programme Regional d'Amelioration de la Culture de Pomme de
Terre en Afrique Centrale (Central Africa)
Programa Regional Cooperativo de Papa (Central America-Caribbean)
Programa Cooperativo de Investigaciones en Papa (southeast region
of South America)
potato spindle tuber viroid
potato tuber moth
Peru tomato virus
potato virus M
potato virus S
potato virus V

ND

nm
ns

PRAPAC
PRECODEPA
PROCIPA
PSTV
PTM
PTV
PVM
PVS
PVV

13

PVX
PVY

potato virus X
potato virus Y

RH
RNA

relative humidity
ribonucleic acid

SAPP RAD

Southeast Asian Program for Potato Research and Development


standard deviation
second
standard error of difference

SD

sec
SEO

TPS

ton
true potato seed

UNA
UNDP

Universidad Nacional Agraria (Peru)


United Nations Development Programme

var.
vol
vs.

variety
volume
versus

wk
wt

week
weight

yr

year

14

Impact of CIP Research

A CIP anthropologist is studying farmer


reaction to technological
innovation in Rwanda

1985 When
CIP and the other
international agricultural
research centers became a part of
the CGIAR (Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research) ,
it was known that the system was
looking toward a medium- to longterm investment in terms of achieving
technological impact in the developing world. After 14 years, CIP has
started to record examples of technology adoption and national potato
program development that are having
significant impact at the farmer level.
The major developments recorded
during 1985 are highlighted below.
Technology
Rapid multiplication techniques and
true potato seed (TPS) technology
have complementary features - both
have be en used effectively to provide
planting materials in several developing countries. In Vietnam, both of
these technologies have resulted in
two aggressive programs by farmers
on the use of sprout cuttings and
TPS for producing potatoes. In the
1984 -85 season, 14 hectares of
potatoes were grown from sprout
cuttings and TPS , thus stimulating
the planting of over 100 hectares
by each method in the 1985-86
season. Looking to the future, the
government of Vietnam is now
anxious to expand the area under
TPS to many thousands of hectares.
Rapid multiplication is also a
feature of other national seed pro-

16

grams; for example , the basic seed


production project in Peru, which
started in 1983, has enabled the
national program to produce more
than 200 tons of high-quality potato
seed in 1985. Given the good
climatic conditions at the start of
the 1985-86 season, the program
expects a sevenfold increase in seed
production during 1986.
Other countries where these technologies are making a significant
impact on supply of seed are the
Philippines, South Korea, Ecuador,
Cuba, and Guatemala. Ecuador
adapted the rapid multiplication
system originally developed at CIP,
and with a few simple modifications, particularly in the handling
of mother plants, has reduced the
original seed multiplication program
by three generations, or by about
two years. This has enabled more
rapid dissemination of new varieties
to farmers, putting the first seed in
the hands of farmers in 1985.
Adoption of a rapid multiplication
program based on in vitro propagation has also permitted the Centro
Nacional de Pesquisa de Hortalic;:as
(CNPH) of Brazil to produce , for the
first time, small quantities of basic
seed in the areas around Brasilia.
Antisera production for virus
detection in seed improvement
programs has been another technology where CIP has given strong
technological support to national
programs. Several countries have
already been trained in how to

produce their own antisera and are


now beginning to use this antisera
in latex and ELISA serological tests.
In Brazil, CNPH has produced latex
kits and distributed them to several
seed producers to complement visual
inspection of crops for symptoms
of virus infection. Colombia and
Tunisia are two other countries who
are also producing their own antisera .
The adoption of diffused-light
stores (DLS) by national programs
has already been well documented in
other CIP reports. Following an
earlier program of DLS training and
demonstrations in Thailand, a 1985
survey of the adoption of DLS
technology showed that more than
200 stores had been constructed by
farmers in the potato-producing
areas of Thailand.
In North Africa, failure to control
potato tuber moth (PTM) in storage
can completely destroy the produce
within three months. A collaborative study on the epidemiology
of PTM in Tunisia, by CIP and the
Institut National de la Recherche
Agronomique de la Tunisie, has confirmed that effective control of this
pest requires early harvesting (before
June 7), since the moths rapidly
increase their egg laying after this
period. Early harvest combined with
the use of a synthetic pyrethroid
insecticide in stores reduced losses
after three months of storage to
less than ten percent. Even more
important, this new system has made
it possible for the government of

Tunisia to ban the use of the toxic


chemical parathion as a pest control
in stores.
For more than ten years, CIP has
been studying the problems of potato
production in warm climates. This
research, starting with the selection
of heat-tolerant clones, has passed
through several years of testing
improved agronomical methods for
potato production as well as the
control of potato pests and diseases.
In the lowland plains of the Philippines, three to five farmers in each
of five communities grew potatoes
using a technological package that
combined the use ofDLS for seed,
and agronomic practices such as
mulching, optimum planting date,
frequent irrigation, and planting in
rice paddies after harvest to avoid
bacterial wilt. These practices had
already been evaluated by CIP's
regional team headquartered in the
Philippines. Farmer yields ranged
from 16 to 25 tons per hectare on
the best farms, with only 6 out of
26 farmers getting less than 5 tons
per hectare. After harvest, there
was a ready market for this crop in
nearby towns.
Presently, the lowland crop is
new, quite small, and is harvested
before the main highland crop , thus
the the urban consumer must pay
high prices for lowland potatoes,
or wait until the mainland crop
becomes available at lower prices.
If a more stable potato supply could
be available throughout the year by

17

producing a lowland crop, the market


supply could be extended by an
extra two months. When a greater
number of farmers adopt lowland
production, increased supplies should
result in lower market prices for this
crop. The success in the Philippines
in demonstrating the feasibility of
lowland potato production has
become one of the important technologies that SAPPRAD, the Asian
potato research network, is transferring to its member countries.
Several countries released new
varieties in 1985 or now have
advanced clones ready for release,
selected from segregating materials supplied by CIP. Bolivia ( 1),
Burundi (1), and Peru (2) released
new varieties, while Cuba and the
Dominican Republic both have
selected advanced clones, which are
being multiplied prior to official
release as varieties. In the Philippines, the first selections of bacterial
wilt-resistant progenies, with resistance derived from crosses using four
wild species, have shown excellent
resistance to bacterial wilt. This
resistance is considerably better than
that derived from Solanum phureja,
which was the only source previously
available.
Country Network and National
Program Development
The cooperative national research
networks, which are an integral
part of CIP's regional research pro-

18

gram, have further consolidated


their research and transfer activities
during 1985. The oldest of these,
PRECODEP A (Programa Regional
Cooperativo de Papa), an association of programs in Central America,
Mexico , and the Caribbean, has now
completed seven years of operation.
One of the outstanding successes of
this association is that the national
programs with no previous research
results of direct benefit to other
group members have now matured
and are producing practical technologies through their research, and
are therefore contributing actively
to solving production problems
of member countries. Much of
the credit for the research strength
that now exists in Honduras, the
Dominican Republic, and El Salvador
must be given to the active technical
support received from other group
members in the earlier years.
Another achievement of this association has been to offer technical
assistance to other nonmember countries located within the geographical
area. In 1985, the association invited
Haiti to become a member, even
though Haiti will require a large supportive effort from the group to help
develop its potato program to meet
the farmers' priority needs.
SAPPRAD (Southeast Asian
Program for Potato Research and
Development) started from a relatively small scientific base when
it first formed in 1980. By 1985,
Thailand had an active national

potato program, which is making


considerable impact at the production level, particularly in seed storage
and germplasm selection. Sri Lanka
is already well advanced in TPS
research and its use by farmers, and
in the Philippines, lowland potato
production is beginning to show
impressive results.
PRACIP A (Program a Andino
Cooperativo de Investigaci6n en
Papa), an association formed in 1983
between five countries in the Andean
zone of South America, is still developing a stronger interaction between
its member national programs.
Research results from member countries have amply demonstrated this
year that it is of great importance to
choose research projects that are
specifically related to the needs and
within the capabilities of national
programs.
Bolivia chose to study an urgent
problem on how to improve the seed
stock of its poorest farmers, who
could not afford to buy certified
seed. The study showed that these
small-scale farmers can improve their
own seed by learning how positive
selection of healthy plants in existing

seed stocks can greatly increase yields.


The results were very impressive,
and two other member countries are
now incorporating this approach
into their own programs.
The brief summary presented
above on the impact of CIP's research
in 1985 has focused on the transfer
and adoption of practical measures
to improve potato production in both
the traditional and nontraditional
potato-growing areas in developing
countries. This is a collaborative
experience between CIP and national
scientists, however the credit for
successful adoption of improved
technologies must go to the scientists
themselves.
CIP's regional scientific team,
charged with the task of evaluation,
adaption, and transfer of new technologies arising from CIP's research
program, numbers less than 15 scientists worldwide dealing with more
than 70 countries. The country
network systems for cooperative
research reinforce the horizontal
contact between group members,
enabling them to benefit from each
other's research, and complement
CIP's regional research activities.

19

Summary of Research and


Regional Programs

World Potato Germplasm Collection


A project designed to simplify the taxonomy of the series Tuberosa has
been concluded. The species Solanum canasense and S. multidissectum
were found to be synonyms of S. bukasovii, and S. gourlayi and S. spegazzini were found to be synonyms of S. leptophyes. Excellent frost resistance was confirmed in S. bukasovii, and several genotypes of S. bukasovii
and S. leptophyes exhibited useful levels of resistance to potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida). The useful traits of these two wild species can
be exploited in breeding since there are no crossability barriers between
them and diploid cultivated potatoes.
Resistance to early blight ( Alternaria) was found in the tetraploid wild
species S. acaule, thus adding one more useful trait to the relatively long
list of tolerances and resistances already identified in this species. More
than 6400 seedlings, representing 27 species and 44 specific hybrid combinations, were evaluated for resistance to bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum). The 32 genotypes that survived the screening tests have now
entered CIP's regular breeding program for bacterial wilt resistance.
As a result of collecting trips in Ecuador, 146 accessions comprising 65
genotypes were added to CIP's world potato collection. This germplasm
was collected as a joint effort between CIP, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP) in Ecuador, and the International Board
for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR). The total number of accessions
of native Andean cultivars now preserved in vitro is 955; of these, 92 are
virus-free and 53 are being freed of viruses. Formal agreements to maintain duplicates of the in vitro pathogen-tested collection have been made
with the Institute of Resistance Genetics in West Germany and with INIAP
in Ecuador. A computerized data-management system is now in operation
at CIP for the in vitro potato collections.
Somatic embryo culture has been improved by the development of a
new liquid medium that promotes rapid, vigorous growth of cultured embryos and facilitates the culturing and rescue of embryos from seeds of
interspecific hybrid combinations. In a research contract with Louisiana
State University (U.S.), genetic engineering has been used to improve the
quality of potato protein. Synthetic DNA fragments were constructed
that code for proteins with a high content of the five essential amino acids,
which are normally deficient in plant-derived proteins. The synthetic DNA
20

fragments were inserted successfully into a number of potato clones by


using Agrobacterium sp. plasmid vectors.

Sweet Potato Collection


An international genebank for sweet potato has been started at CIP
with an initial acquisition of 1808 cultivated and 297 wild accessions,
representing 20 lpomoea species. Collecting expeditions in Peru and Ecuador contributed 341 cultivated and 297 wild accessions of sweet potato,
which included 20 Jpomoea species and 3 natural hybrids. A total of 150
selected genotypes have already been transferred to in vitro cultures. A
field-management system for evaluating and describing the sweet potato
collection has been established; and yield performance and morphological
characteristics have already been described for 1704 cultivated accessions,
of which 660 are of hybrid origin. All data on the sweet potato collection
are now stored in a computerized data bank and are available for use.

Breeding and Distribution of Advanced Clones


A new clone that is high-yielding, early maturing, heat tolerant, and
virus immune, code-named LT-8, has been introduced into CIP's seed program. After being freed from diseases it will be ready for regional distribution in early 1987.
Research on the inheritance of resistance to early blight (A. solani)
has indicated that rapid progress can be achieved in selecting for resistance
to this disease. Although lateness and resistance to A. solani are generally
associated, a few early maturing progenies have been found that are resistant, e.g., Maine 47 x 378015.16. Several clones that transmit good
levels of resistance have been identified, but the most resistant progeny is
65.ZA.5 x 378676.6, which, even though late-maturing, also shows a high
level of resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans).
In the international trials for selecting late blight-resistant clones, 120
of 1541 clones were selected in Colombia for resistance, yield, and earliness. The highest-performing clones yielded up to 4400 grams per plant.
The top-yielding progenies were P-13 x India 1035 and 73.13.16 F 2 x bulk
Phy.
21

In Peru, the use of CIP's materials with resistance to bacterial wilt


(P. solanacearum) has increased . For example, in the Department of Cajamarca, the area planted to potatoes, using the Peruvian variety Molinera
(released from CIP's germplasm), increased from 19/o in 1982 to about
78/o in 1984. A sister clone, BR63 . l 5 - resistant to late blight, bacterial
wilt, powdery scab, and potato leafroll virus-has been selected by the
University of Huanuco to be released as a new variety.
Significant progress has been made through contract research at Cornell
University (U.S.) in combining resistances to potato viruses X, Y, and
potato leafroll virus (PLRV). Also at Cornell, experiments have shown
that glandular trichomes on the foliage of potato cultivars give protection
against both primary and secondary spread of PVY and other nonpersistent viral diseases. In another research contract with the Potato Research
Institute in Poland, six selected clones - two diploids and four tetraploids with .combined resistances to PLRV, PVY, PYX, and PYM were sent to
Lima for use in CIP's virus breeding program.
At CIP, progress has been made in the area of ploidy level manipulation.
The number of diploid clones that produce FDR (first division restitution)
2n pollen has increased to more than 200; many of these clones carry
resistances to potato pests and diseases.
In the use of true potato seed (TPS) for commercial potato production,
advances have been made in breeding for yield, earliness, and tuber uniformity , with three clones being identified as good general combiners for
these characteristics. These clones are being freed from diseases and will
be available for distribution as parental material in early 1987.
CIP distributed pathogen-tested germplasm to 65 countries during the
year, which included tubers and in vitro plantlets as well as TPS progenies.
The present list includes 182 advanced cultivars and varieties free from disease, 28 advanced cultivars and varieties being freed, 95 primitive cultivars
free from disease, and 52 primitive cultivars being freed from diseases.

Disease Research
Following the successful development of a population bred for resistance to bacterial wilt disease in cool climates, CIP is developing a new population designed for use in warm climates. This population will include
heat tolerance and resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.),
which interact synergistically with the bacterium. Field trials of these materials in both Peru and the Philippines have indicated good progress with
respect to resistance and yield; however, extreme earliness in this population - required for most tropical lowland situations-is lacking, thus emphasis will be placed on crosses with the best early, heat-adapted clones.
In 1985, 1582 clones and 296 tuber families from CIP's late-blight
breeding program were sent to ten countries. In Peru, 12 good general
22

combiners were selected for future crossing work on late blight research.
Plans were made to establish a second population exclusively for field
resistance to late blight. This population would be free of the major genes
that are vulnerable to changes in the pathogen. In Burundi, two advanced
clones with late blight resistance have been selected for use in multilocational trials. A CIP clone, recently approved as a variety in Kenya, is being
considered for release in seven other African countries.
Collaborative research with the University of Wisconsin (U.S.) on developing control measures for bacterial pathogens has now confirmed
that calcium fertilization of potato plants can increase their resistance to
Erwinia soft rot.
Good progress has been made in selecting PLRV-resistant materials for
breeding work. Through an intensive screening effort, high levels of PLRV
resistance were identified in 4 clones from CIP's world germplasm collection and in 20 from the Sturgeon Bay Potato Introduction Station in Wisconsin. Seedling screening for PLRV resistance has been refined by carefully evaluating the number of viruliferous aphids required per plant for
infestation. By using this methodology , it may be possible to reduce
the number of susceptible plants escaping into the field during seedling
screening.
International trials on virus resistance , carried out in several Latin
American countries, have made important advances. A clone originally
selected in Argentina, B71-240.2, is now being named as a variety in several countries worldwide because of its resistance to PLRV and PVY.
Another clone, 380507 .1 , has been selected in Chile for high resistance to
PLRV and good agronomic characters. Three clones selected in Brazil are
being multiplied for inclusion in the 1985-86 national potato trials.
Modifications to the ELISA test for detection of PLRV and PVY have
resulted in a 301o increase in sensitivity. During 1985, 40 ELISA and 30
latex kits for virus detection in I 00,000 samples were sent to several developing countries. This represents a hundred-fold increase in the use of
serology between 1984 and 1985 by national potato programs. Use of
nucleic acid spot hybridization (NASH) for detection of potato spindle
tuber viroid (PSTV) has streamlined CIP's ability to guarantee the health
of exported and imported germplasm. The number of samples tested for
PSTV by this test increased from 5000 in 1984 to 35,000 in 1985. During
the year, 40 NASH kits for testing 3865 samples were sent to ten developing countries.
To facilitate more efficient immunological detection of potato viruses
worldwide, CIP has implemented two approaches to help national programs produce their own antisera. In the first , a country is selected from a
region to produce antisera for other countries in the same region, and
excellent progress has been made in Brazil, Colombia, and Tunisia. In the
second, organizations such as the national potato program ofINIPA (Peru)

23

and the country network PRECODEPA (Central America-Caribbean) have


been producing their own antisera by contracting the use of CIP facilities.

Integrated Pest Management


In Ecuador, six clones with resistance to potato cyst nematode (G.
pallida) have been selected for yield and good tuber characteristics. Similarly, in Peru, seven clones were selected by the national potato program
for G. pallida resistance and good agronomic characters.
In screening clones for resistance to potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea
operculella) in rustic and diffused-light stores at CIP's San Ramon site in
Peru, 43 of 445 resistant clones were identified. Eleven clones were also
identified in Colombia as having different levels of resistance to P. operculella. Repellent plant barriers continued to give stored potatoes excellent protection against tuber moth damage . For example, dried crushed
leaves of Eucalyptus globulus layered over tubers were very effective
against Symmetrischema plaesiosema, and layers of Eucalyptus globulus or
Lantana camara leaves were effective in controlling P. operculella. Use of
sex pheromone traps in Egypt significantly lowered tuber moth infestation
in the field, and in Tunisia, several formulations of the biological control
agent Bacillus thuringiensis and two synthetic pyrethroids were effective
against this pest in stores. Mass rearing techniques have been developed in
Peru to multiply the wasp Dibrachys cavus-an ectoparasitoid of tuber
moth-for testing its potential usefulness in controlling P. operculella.

Warm and Cool Climate Potato Production


In warm climates the generally recommended application of mulch at
the time of planting to improve crop emergence and establishment has hindered the customary side-dressing of a split nitrogen application. Experiments at two sites in Peru , however, have shown that splitting nitrogen
applications does not benefit tuber yield . For the soil characteristics at
these two sites, the application of all nitrogen fertilizer at planting was
satisfactory. Such a practice would obviate the need to hill-up and would
therefore reduce the possible entry of bacterial wilt or other pathogens
into the crop. The quantity and temporal distribution of water are major
determinants for achieving high potato yields in warm climates. Through
detailed studies on the use of irri~ation water for potato production in
these climates, the optimal practices for maximum growth have been
quantified .
In studies on intercropping potato and maize, the most beneficial association was when these two crops were planted simultaneously and systematically at a proportion of 9: 1. Equidistant spacing between maize
plants in the mixed plots gave minimum clustering, and therefore maximum shading late in the potato crop cycle. The incidence of several pests
24

and diseases, including bacterial wilt and potato tuber moth, was reduced
by this intercropping system.
Two major constraints to warm-climate potato production are lack of
seed tubers and field space due to demographic pressure; however, these
constraints can be managed by beneficial systems that assist small-scale
farmers in improving their production needs. For example, a new lowinput system, with little or no reliance on seed tubers, has been developed
that can satisfy the year-round potato production requirements of a sixmember family . This system is based on the use of stem cuttings and TPS
seedlings.
Screening and selection for heat-tolerant materials has shown good results in the countries of Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the
Caribbean. Progeny testing of second generation clones at CIP's lowland
site in Yurimaguas, Peru, has reemphasized the breeding values of LT-7
and 7XY. l as parents. Also, two new clones have emerged as good parents
in a sample of 700 first generation clones. In Senegal, clones LT-5, LT-6,
and CFK-69. l had comparable yields to those of Desiree and acceptable
tuber characteristics. On-farm evaluations of recently released varieties in
Burundi have confirmed their superiority over local varieties, the early
bulking variety Muziranzara was particularly outstanding. In Southeast
Asia, the cultivars Serrana and B71-240.2 are widely adapted throughout
the area, but the lack of seed is a major constraint to increasing their use.
Efforts have been made to solve this problem by promoting rapid multiplication techniques in the individual countries concerned. In Cuba, two
clones have been selected from the heat-tolerant tuber families supplied by
CIP and are being rapidly multiplied by in vitro techniques.
In research on potato production in cool climates, collaborative breeding work in Colombia has resulted in the development of new clones
with frost resistance. The highly successful collaborative project with the
Chilean potato program, on the evaluation of the adaptability of the highland tropic population to long days, has resulted in the selection of 32
clones for local use . The national program has reported that 72/o of these
clones had marketable yields equal to or greater than those of the locally
adapted cultivars.

Postharvest Technology
As a result of three years of on-farm storage trials in Peru, it has been
shown that storage losses in small quantities of consumer potatoes can be
reduced from an average of 3.8/o a month in traditional storage systems
to 1.4/o a month by using simple storage boxes and a chemical sprout
inhibitor. Storage research in Tunisia has resulted in the development of
an excellent, inexpensive alternative to cold storage of seed tubers. The
new system comprises a sequential combination of storage in traditional
25

stores (dark storage under straw) and diffused-light storage. The new system provides seed for the early planting season and is rapidly gaining
farmer acceptance.
The dried potato mixture M-6 continues to receive good acceptance in
consumer tests in Peru. Various mixture formulations of potato and other
locally available products, as well as alternative products and processes, are
being evaluated for use in Peru and other developing countries.

Seed Technology
The production and use of TPS have received major emphasis throughout the year. Research on TPS production in Peru and Chile has shown
that factors such as the amount of nitrogen, pruning of excessive flowers,
and stem density significantly affect TPS quantity and quality. In Chile,
through a collaborative project with the national potato program, massive
production of hybrid seed was achieved under optimum environmental
conditions in Osorno, located in the southern part of the country. The
average production was about 8 grams of hybrid seed per square meter.
The five kilograms of seed produced at Osorno will be distributed to other
national programs around the world.
In Peru, newly selected hybrid and open-pollinated (OP) progenies to
be used as seedling transplants showed an improvement in average tuber
size and yield. Selection for rapid recovery from transplanting shock has
also progressed and modifications in agronomic practices have improved
tuber bulking in this material. Highly promising results have been obtained
in intensive TPS progeny testing and related agronomic research carried
out in Peru and other Latin American countries, as well as in Africa, and
South and Southeast Asia. For example, in Chile, two hybrids transplanted
as seedlings (Atzimba x RI 28.6 and DT0-33 x RI 28.6) gave better yields
than the two varietal controls. In Bangladesh, Atzimba x Rl 28.6 and OP
progenies CIP 800226 and P-111 were among the highest yielders, with
yields equal or superior to yields of standard seed sown from seed tubers.
TPS progenies evaluated in the Philippine lowlands gave good yields, but
the hybrid LT-2 x I gave yields of more than 30 tons per hectare (on a per
plant basis). In Vietnam, at least 8 kilograms of OP seed of two cultivars,
CFK 69.1 and Atzimba, will be collected for distribution to farmer cooperatives during 1986.

Potatoes in Developing Country Food Systems


In I 985, dot maps were developed and overlaid with agroclimatical and
socioeconomic maps, giving the most up-to-date information on potatoproduction areas in the developing world. Analysis of country-level statistics indicated that the potato ranks among the top five food crops in
tonnage and in monetary and food value. Total potato production in the

26

developing world has tripled since 1960, with the greatest increases occurring in Africa, Asia, and Central America. Since 1960, potato production
has tripled in Rwanda, Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, and more than
doubled in Madagascar, Cuba, Mexico, and several North African and Middle Eastern countries. China alone now produces more potatoes than all
of Western Europe . Potato consumption in most developing countries has
grown somewhat more rapidly than production since 1960, and better
technology has reduced postharvest losses, while increasing yields have
lowered the proportion of the crop that must be reserved for seed. Potato
yields are now, on the average, 80/o higher in developing countries than in
the 1950s and have increased, except for the Far East, by at least as much
as cereal yields and much more than yields of other root crops.
Studies on adoption and use of potato varieties by farmers in Peru and
Rwanda showed that farmers' decisions are strongly influenced by socioeconomic factors. Marketing research has suggested that the potato has an
unexploited potential for helping to satisfy the growing rural demand for
food in sub-Saharan Africa; while in Bhutan, the national program, through
collaborative work with CIP , is now beginning to identify and solve potato
marketing problems for that country.

27

Arid

------.J

Highlands - - - - - - - - - '
Mid-elevation tropics

---------~

Low, humid tropics - - - - - - - - - - - - - - '

28

Agroecological Zones of Peru

he cultivated potato originated on the


high plains (altiplano) in what are now
parts of Peru and Bolivia. This center of
diversity is not only for the potato but
also for its major pests and diseases.
CIP has four experimental stations
located between latitudes 6 and 12 S
that represent the four major agroecological zones of Peru : Lima-La Molina, arid;
Huancayo, highlands; San Ramon, midelevation tropics; and Yurimaguas, low,
humid tropics. The small range of latitudes gives little variation in daylength,
but the geographical location of CIP's stations ensures wide variation in altitude,
temperature , rainfall regimes, soil types,
and incidences of pests and diseases. All
major climatic characteristics of tropical
zones found in the developing world are
represented within Peru's four agroecological zones.

CIP research sites in Peru and the potato-growing seasons, with meteorological data
for 1985.
Lima-La Molina
Site :
Latitude :
12 OS'S
Altitude:
240m
Growing season : Jan-Mar May-Nov
Air max (C)
Air min (C)
Evaporation
(total mm)
Rainfall
(total mm)
Solar radiation
(daily MJ/m 2 )

28.25
19.20

Huancayo
1207'S
3280 m
Oct-May

San Ramon
Yurimaguas
l 108'S
54l'S
800m
180m
Nov-Mar May-Aug May-Aug

20.41
13.72

19.69
6.63

28.88
18.21

711.81

1096.0*

736.61

2.5

6.9

703.7

19.14

10.73

600.S

18.73

1062.9
18.75

28.60
15.02

30.77
20.52

562.2

260.1*

304.7

521.7

14.49

no data

*Evaporation using Piche evaporimeter.


29

THRUST I

Maintenance and Utilization


of Unexploited Genetic Resources

aluable new sources of genetic resistance to bacterial wilt, early blight,


soft rot, potato cyst nematode , and frost have been identified in CIP's
potato germplasm collection. Six important species of the series Tuberosa
were shown to represent only two good species. The taxonomic simplification of this material will streamline its use in breeding. In 1985 CIP's world
potato collection received 146 new accessions as a result of INIAP/IBPGR/
CIP collecting trips in Ecuador. Work continues on identifying and eliminating duplicates. In both the newly acquired and world potato collections,
904 duplicates were identified. Of the 955 native Andean cultivars now preserved in vitro, 92 are virus-free and 53 are being freed of viruses. A computerized data-management system for the in vitro collection has been developed.
Formal agreements for maintaining duplicates of this in vitro collection have
been made with the Institute of Resistance Genetics in West Germany and
also with the National Institute of Agricultural Research in Ecuador. Preliminary findings suggest that the use of in vitro tubers may dramatically improve
germplasm conservation by increasing storage time before vegetative renewal
of the material is required.
Through genetic engineering, synthetic DNA fragments that code for amino
acids, which are normally deficient in potato, have been inserted into the
potato genome by using Agrobacterium plasmid vectors. The production of
the corresponding messenger RNA and synthetic protein with the potato has
been confirmed.
A sweet potato gene bank with 1808 cultivated and 297 wild accessions,
representing 20 Jpomoea species, has been established at CIP. Data on morphological characteristics and yield are being accumulated and stored in a
computerized data-management system.

Work in the newly established sweet potato germplasrn


collection at CIP.

31

n.

p1VJV1,.,l

VH

UJV,)y,)u:::Uldll\....

dHU

l!llYlU~

genetic studies in the taxonomic series


Tuberosa was successfully concluded in
1985 , reducing a group of six species to
two, which simplifies the taxonomy of
the series considerably. The species Solanum canasense and S. multidissectum
were found to be synonyms of S. bukasovii; and S. gourlayi and S. spegazzini
were found to be synonyms of S. leptophyes. In several evaluations, the high
frost resistance of S. bukasovii was confirmed and , in addition, various genotypes
.of this species were found to have resistance to several pathotypes of the cyst
nematode Globodera pallida. Resistance
to G. pallida was also identified in several
genotypes of S. leptophyes . Since there
are no crossability barriers between these
two wild species and diploid cultivated
potatoes, this gene pool is available for
breeding.

UTILIZATION STUDIES

Sixty accessions representing ten species


were evaluated for their resistance to early
blight (Alternaria sp.). Relatively good resistance was found in the tetraploid wild
species S. acaule, adding one more resistance to the relatively long list of tolerances and resistances already identified in
this species.
A total of 6500 seedlings, representing
27 species and 44 specific hybrid combinations, were evaluated for their resistance to bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas
solanacearum). In the first step of this
screening program, the seedlings were inoculated with strain 204 (biovar II, race 3)
from Peru; the resistance of the survivors
of this test was challenged in a second
test against the same pathogen strain by
using plants grown from tubers. The survivors of the second screening were tested
32

L'-VV'111U'1.

v111y

JL,, Ul

Lilt:: UJVV gt::IIULypes

survived the rigors of these three screening


tests, and this material has now entered
the regular CIP breeding program for resistance to bacterial wilt .
In a continued search for further
sources of resistance to bacterial wilt, we
conducted a second set of screening tests
in which evaluation was done on 800 seedlings from ten progenies of S. sparsipilum
(until now the major source of resistance
in wild species), 800 seedlings from nine
progenies of S. bukasovii, and 750 seedlings from seven specific hybrid progenies
(each involving S. sparsipilum as one parent) . All progenies tested exhibited resistance. In S. sparsipilum, resistance ranged
from 25/o to 85/o of resistant genotypes
per seedling progeny and in S. bukasovii
from 20/o to 70/o per progeny. The hybrid combinations generally exhibited a
higher degree of resistance than the pure
S. sparsipilum progenies. In the combination S. marinasense x S. sparsipilum, the
proven resistance of the S. sparsipilum
parent did not find expression, and the
hybrid progeny exhibited extremely low
levels of resistance. These results provide
CIP's breeding program for resistance to
bacterial wilt with well-tested parental
material.
From a group of native Andean cultivars with a high level of resistance to soft
rot (Erwinia sp.), 22 progenies were produced for further evaluation and eventual
incorporation into germplasm adapted to
warm climates where Erwinia is a serious
constraint to potato production.

GERMPLASM MAINTENANCE,
DISTRIBUTION, AND
EVALUATION

New potato germplasm was collected in


Ecuador in a joint effort by CIP, the Na-

tional Institute of Agricultural Research


(INIAP), and the International Board for
Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR). A total of 146 accessions, comprising approximately 65 genotypes, were added to CIP's
world potato collection. Duplicates were
identified in a collection of Andean cultivars that had been received in 1983
from the Bolivian Institute of Agricultural
Technology (IBT A) and the University of
Ayacucho in Peru . These two donors provided 1218 accessions, of which 528 were
identified as duplicates of 170 different
cu ltivars. CIP has provided these two donor institutions with evaluation data on
this new material. During clonal propagation of the world potato collection , 376
additional duplicates of 105 genotypes
were identified on the basis of morphological and electrophoretic data.
The total number of accessions of
native Andean cultivars now preserved
in vitro is 955; of these, 92 accessions
are virus-free and 53 are in the cleanup
process. During the year, CIP developed
a computerized data-management system
for the in vitro collections. Duplicates
of the in-vitro pathogen-tested collection
have been maintained for several years
at the Institute of Resistance Genetics in
Gri.inbach, West Germany, on an informal agreement with CIP, and in 1985 the
agreement to maintain this duplicate collection was formalized. Another arrangement has been made to store a duplicate
set of the in vitro cultures of the germplasm collection in an INIAP laboratory
in Ecuador.
The use of in vitro tubers is being
studied in several experiments such as the
yield of these tubers in seedbeds, methods of breaking dormancy, and their possible use in germplasm distribution and
conservation. In vitro tubers were shipped
to nine national programs in 1985 on an
experimental basis as a collaborative pro-

Figure 1. In vitro tubers induced on the c lone


Mariva, mean diameter of tubers is approximately 5mm. The tubers are induced by adding
chlorocholine chloride to the culture medium.

gram to test the potential of using these


tubers for international germplasm distribution (Fig. 1). Some important advantages to exporting germplasm in vitro are
year-round availability, further and rapid
propagation of the material in vitro after
receipt, and reduced shipping and handling costs. In the germplasm conservation studies, in vitro tubers from a selected number of genotypes were stored
on growth-restricting media at 6 -8 C.
Preliminary results indicated that this
procedure could add an additional year to
33

the time needed between vegetative renewals and transfers of this material.

IN VITRO TECHNIQUES FOR


GERMPLASMIMPROVEMENT

A new liquid medium was developed for


the culture of somatic embryos. Use of
the medium results in rapid and vigorous growth of cultured embryos and has
also been successful in the culturing and
rescue of embryos from seeds of interspecific hybrid combinations. The tissue
culture rescue of these embryos is of valuable assistance to both potato breeders
and taxonomists in producing progeny
from crosses that would otherwise be impossible .
Plants have been regenerated from cultured roots of four potato clones, and the
morphology of plantlet regeneration has
been studied in detail. Plant regeneration
from leaf disks has also been successful:
when leaf disks were cultured on an appropriate medium, small calluses formed
around the cut edge of the disk and two
weeks later plantlets began to regenerate.
In 1984, contract research with Louisiana State University (U.S.) led to production of a series of synthetic DNA fragments that were constructed to code for
proteins with a high content of the five
essential amino acids-methionine , lysine,
isoleucine, threonine, and tryptophan which are deficient in plant-derived proteins. During 1985 the tissue culture component of this project was conducted at
CIP where we successfully inserted DNA
fragments into a number of potato clones
by means of Agrobacterium sp. plasmid
vectors. The insertion of these fragments
into the potato was confirmed by biochemical methods. We also proved that
the plant produces the corresponding messenger RNA and the final synthetic protein, rich in essential amino acids.
34

ESTABLISHMENT OF SWEET
POTATO CO LLECTION

An international gene bank for sweet


potato was established at CIP in 1985 ,
with the acquisition of 1808 accessions
of cultivated material, of which 1467
were donated to CIP and 341 were collected through IBPGR-sponsored expeditions. Sources of the material are shown
in Table 1. Fourteen collecting expeditions were completed by a CIP scientist
during 1985: 12 covered large areas of
Peru and 2 were in Ecuador. In total , 638
accessions were collected in 314 localities,
and areas of high genetic diversity were
identified. The total collection consisted
of 341 cultivated and 297 wild accessions,
comprising at least 20 Jpomoea species
and 3 natural hybrids.

Table 1. Source s of sweet potato germplasm


assembled at CIP .

Sou rce

Country

R . d el Carpio (private)

Peru

Ayacucho Un iversity

Peru

T ac na University

Peru

U .S. Vegetable Laboratory (So. Carolina)

USA

CIP/ IBPGR Collection

Peru

CIP/ IBPGR Collection

Ecuador

Total

No . of
accessions

1119
306
19
23
308
33
1808

All available information on the collections donate d to CIP as well as information obtained from the IBPGR-sponsored
collections have been stored in a computerized data bank. A total of 150 selected genotypes have been transferred to
in vitro cu ltures. A field-management system for the evaluation and description of

the sweet potato germ plasm collection has


been set up at CIP. Morphological evaluation has already advanced on a large part
of the cultivated collection. Yield performance has also been evaluated and de-

scribed for 1704 cultivated accessions, of


which 660 are of hybrid origin. All information is readily available to breeders, national programs, and research institutions
working with this crop.

35

JJ1Dt;t.:;, _5,., ,.,,,_,Lr


J2 d<:

THRUST II

Production and Distribution


of Advanced Breeding Material

new clone, LT-8, which is high-yielding, early maturing, heat tolerant,


and immune to potato viruses X and Y, was introduced into CIP's seed
program for disease cleanup and regional distribution. Genetic research on
resistance of potato to early blight (Alternaria solani) has indicated that rapid
progress can be made in selecting desirable material. Early maturing clones
with resistance to A. solani have also been identified. Considerable progress
has been made in selecting clones for resistance to late blight and bacterial
wilt and to a combination of both.
In the area of ploidy manipulation, an increased number of clones have
been selected that produce FDR (first division restitution) 2n pollen and carry
resistance to pests and diseases. Great differences in general combining ability
for yield and other attributes have been found within a set of highly selected
diploid clones that produce 2n pollen by the FDR mechanism.
The international true potato seed (TPS) progeny evaluations, carried out
in six countries, permitted the identification of three promising progenies that
have shown stability of performance and good tuber uniformity. Three new
clones have been introduced into the seed program for disease cleanup; they
have a very high general combining ability for yield and tuber uniformity and
are to be used for production of TPS progenies. CIP genetic materials were
distributed to 65 countries in 1985, where there is an increased interest to use
CIP's advanced germpJasm.

LT-8, a heat-tolerant and early maturing clone (1.2 kg/plant


in 82 days), immune to both PVX and PVY.

37

DEVELOPMENT OF ADV AN CED


CLONES

During the 1985 summer and winter seasons in Lima, 2400 clones at various
stages of selection were tested. In the
summer evaluations, the performance and
early maturity of clone 379706.27 (LT-Ix
XY bulk) was confirmed, with a yield of
1560 g/plant in 90 days. This clone, with
the code LT-8, has been introduced into
the seed program to be cleaned from diseases and should be ready for regional distribution in early 1987. LT-8 , under heat
stress, does not show tuber cracking or
secondary growths and is also immune to
potato viruses X and Y (PVX and PVY).
During the winter evaluations, over 100
clones yielding more than 3000 g/plant
were identified. The top-yielding clone
was C83-245 x Yur bulk, with 11 plants
producing 4300 g/plant in 120 days.
In Bangladesh, two clones, CIP 720088
and Kufri Lalima, have been selected by
the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) after extensive evaluation
and have been recommended for official
release in 1986 . Both possess a high degree of field resistance to late blight and
are high yielding; CIP 720088 also has
long dormancy and excellent storability.
GENETIC RESEARCH

Early blight (Alternaria solani). Several


experiments, including three diallels, three
line x tester designs, and one North Carolina Design I, were evaluated at San Ramon to investigate the inheritance of resistance to early blight (A. solani). Plants
from these experiments were inoculated
with a suspension of A. solani spores
45 days after transplanting, and no pesticide was applied during the entire 90-day
growing season. From the diallel experiments an estimate of narrow sense heritability of h 2 = .72 was obtained for A .

38

solani, indicating that rapid progress is


possible in selecting for resistance to this
pathogen.
Although lateness and resistance to A.
solani are generally associated , a few early
maturing progenies with resistance (e.g.,
Maine 47x 378015.16) have been found.
From the experiments at San Ramon,
a number of clones were identified that
transmit a good level of resistance, the
most remarkable ones being 378676.6,
LT-7, BL 2.9, and 7XY.l. The progeny
65.ZA.5 x 378676.6 was the most resistant to A. solani, and even though latematuring, it also showed a high level of
resistance to late blight.
International collaborative research.
Argentina. Through a research contract
with the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) in Balcarce, a
collection of 15 highly selected tetraploid
clones with field resistance to potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and PVY or both has
been made available to CIP for use in its
virus breeding program.
Canada . New collaborative research
with the Agriculture Canada Research Station includes studies on environmental effects on the nutritional value of breeding
materials. Sixteen clones, including tuberosum cultivars and sel!'!ctions of andigena, tuberosum x andigena , diploid-haploid
and 4x-2x hybrids, were evaluated in New
Brunswick during 1985. Agronomic data,
yields, specific gravities, and boiling and
chipping scores have been recorded, and
nutritional analyses are in progress. Additionally , 29 more clones have been multiplied for 1986 trials in Peru and Canada.
Netherlands . The Department of Plant
Breeding at the I.V.P. Agricultural University, Wageningen, has started a highly
promising breeding program using wild
potato species. Different accessions of
Solanum brevidens (a source of high levels of resistance to PLRV and PVY) , S.

jamesii Pl 275265 (a potential source of


resistance to Pseudomonas solanacearum),
S. verrucosum (a source of late blight resistance) are being combined with S. tuberosum cultivars chosen for earliness
and complementary resistances. Pseudogamous apomictic seed production has
been observed in diploid as well as in
tetraploid genotypes by using S. phureja
as pollinator. Research on the use of
cytoplasmic male sterility (ems) for efficient TPS production is in progress. Two
accessions of S. verrucosum crossed to
a dihaploid and a homozygous diploid
clone have produced F1 progenies showing eclipse and tetral cytoplasmic sterility, respectively. Inheritance studies on
both types of ems at the diploid level are
being conducted.
Poland. At the Potato Research Institute in Koszalin, diploid clones have
been produced that combine resistance
to PLR V with 2n pollen production. In
an effort to combine resistance to PLRV
with other viruses in diploid material , 60
clones were selected for good yield and
tuber characteristics in a preliminary evaluation . In 27 of these clones, resistances
to PLRV, PVY, and PVM were found , and
in the remaining 33 resistances to PLRV
and PVY were recorded . Six selected
clones, two diploids and four tetraploids,
with combined resistances to PLRV, PVY,
PVX, and PVM were sent to CIP for use
in the virus breeding program.
United States. Significant progress has
been made at Cornell University, New
York, in combining resistances to PLRV,
PVX, and PVY. The five traits of heat
tolerance and resistances to bacterial wilt,
root-knot nematode, late blight, and PVY
are being combined in a population for
warm environments. For this purpose,
four specific sources of germplasm have
been used: S. sparsipilum, S. phureja, tuberosum, and neotuberosum.

In trials testing for resistance to early blight (A. solani), clones N503 .158,
NY67, and NY72 , and the variety Elba
showed high levels of resistance. In research on insect resistance, larvae of the
Colorado beetle, confined to the wild Bolivian potato S. berthaultii, suffered slow
growth, retarded development, and high
mortality compared to larvae feeding on
the cultivated potato S. tuberosum. Experimental field and greenhouse work has
shown that the glandular trichomes of S.
berthaultii limit spread of PVY. The results of these experiments indicated that
a potato cultivar with glandular trichomes
is protected against both primary and secondary spread of PVY and other nonpersistent viral diseases.
Through contract research at North
Carolina State University, diploid clones,
highly selected for various traits such as
heat tolerance, high dry matter content,
and resistances to early blight and Erwinia, have been assessed for pollen production. Several of these clones produce
FDR (first division restitution) 2n pollen
and are thus very valuable for breeding
purposes. High levels of resistance to early blight have been found in progenies of
4x -2x crosses between susceptible tetraploids and resistant diploids. Resistance
in the diploid clones to soft rot and black
leg was studied in the laboratory as well
as in the field . The field results revealed a
high degree of correlation with the laboratory data.
Field evaluations conducted by the University of Wisconsin on selected haploidwild species F1 hybrids showed that these
hybrids had a high yield potential; in
some cases they yielded as much as tetraploid cultivars. The yield of 2x parents
has not been found to correlate to the
yield of the 4x hybrid following 4x -2x
crosses. Consequently, a careful assessment of the parental value of 2x parents

39

is necessary. Research on the evaluation


of haploids (2n=2x=24) as a method of
gametic sampling, enabling the researcher
to draw conclusions on how a character is
genetically controlled, is underway. Studies on the inheritance of specific gravity,
on reducing sugar accumulation, and dormancy are being conducted with the haploids extracted from Merrimack, Chippewa, and W23 l tetraploid cultivars. These
studies will provide the basis for further
improvement of these characteristics in
commercial potato varieties.
Also at Wisconsin, studies relating to
the use of TPS were conducted by using
tetraploid clones that have low to variable male fertility and that produce tubers
with white flesh. These clones were interplanted with diploid clones that produce
tubers with yellow flesh as well as FDR
2n pollen with no crossover. Since yellow flesh is dominant over white flesh,
hybrids had yellow flesh and selfed genotypes had white. Only 24 of the 445
progenies (about 5/o) grown from the
open-pollinated (OP) seeds produced by
the tetraploids had yellow tuber flesh,
indicating their hybrid origin. These hybrids yielded on the average 0.69 kg/hill,
while the plants that originated from
self-pollination yielded only 0.31 kg/hill.
Open-pollinated fruit set was higher on
the hybrids, which had 2.75 fruits per
plant versus 0.05 fruits on plants that had
originated from self-pollination. Thus the
hybrids, which constituted only 5/o of
the first generation OP progeny, produced
78/o of the second generation OP fruit.
These results will help to improve the use
of TPS technology in commercial potato
production for the developing world.

POPULATION DEVELOPMENT

Late blight resistance. International testing and selection of clones with resist40

ance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) continued in Colombia. A sample


of 1541 clones grouped in 118 families
was sent to Colombia for testing at ICA's
research station in Rionegro. At harvest,
120 days after planting, 120 clones were
selected for earliness, yield, and resistance
to late blight. The highest performing
clones yielded up to 4400 g/plant; the
top-yielding progenies were P-13 x India
1035 and 73.13.16 FxbulkPhy.
Bacterial wilt resistance. The use of
CIP materials with resistance to bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) has
increased in Peru. Farmer cultivation
of the variety Molinera-previously released from CIP's advanced germ plasm increased from 19/o in 1982 to an estimated 78/o in 1984 in the Cajamarca Department (northern highlands). A sister
clone of Molinera, BR63.15, has been selected by the University of Huanuco to
be released as a new variety. In addition
to being resistant to P. solanacearum, it is
resistant to late blight, powdery scab, and
PLRV.
In the South Pacific, farmers on Fiji
continue to grow the bacterial wiltresistant variety Domoni, released from
CIP's materials in 1983. In Sri Lanka,
the potato program of the Department
of Agriculture, after five years of testing
clones for bacterial wilt resistance, has
selected CIP clones 800224 and 800226
for resistance to races 1 and 3 of P. solanacearum. Three more clones selected
from tuber families also showed promise: 3778475, 377850.2, and 377852.2.
All three were resistant to race 1, while
3778475 and 377852.2 were also resistant to race 3 and still remain resistant to
late blight.
Development of 2x populations with
2n pollen production and specific attributes. The goal of potato breeding at
the 2x level is to select 2x clones with a

specific attribute, good agronomic characters, and FDR 2n pollen production.


Until last year, only several clones were
available with both 2n pollen production
and specific attributes. Thus a new 2x
population was created by making crosses
among selected diploids with specific resistances and/or FDR 2n pollen. More
than 5000 seedlings from 206 families
with different attributes and genetic background were checked for 2n pollen production, which was found with different
frequencies in 689 seedlings. Of these,
288 seedlings had more than 1/o of 2n
pollen frequency and will be useful for
4x-2x crosses; however, at harvest some
were eliminated due to poor tuber traits.
From the original group of 5000 seedlings, a total of 216 clones were selected
as 2n pollen producers with potential resistance to important pests (Table 1) .
This year's progress was highly significant in two aspects. First, the number
of clones with 2n pollen production was
increased from 7 or 8 for 1984 to 216

Table 1. Clones selected for production of 2n


pollen with specific resistances to pests or diseases.
Resistance

Root-knot nematode (RKN)


Bacterial wilt (BW)

No. of clones

63
4

Late blight (LB)

12

Cyst nematode (CN)

13

Potato virus Y (PVY)

10

Potato leafroll virus (PLRV)

16

BW/RKN

24

LB/RKN

28

PLRV/RKN
PVY/RKN
CN/RKN

6
15
4

PLRV/LB
Early blight/others

20

in 1985 . Second, many clones had combined resistances such as bacterial wilt
and root-knot nematodes, which are important for potato production in warm
areas.
TRUE POTATO SEED

Progress has been made in breeding for


yield, earliness, and tuber uniformity for
the use of true potato seed (TPS) in commercial potato production. After several
years of testing, three clones have been
identified as good general combiners for
these three characteristics. These clones
have been introduced into CIP's seed program for cleanup from diseases and will
be ready for regional distribution as parental material in early 1987. The first
clone (379706.34) is a tuberosum x andigena PVY immune clone, and the other
two (378015.13 and378015.16) are heattolerant tuberosum clones from the same
cross.
In 1985, the international TPS progeny evaluation trials were started by testing a sample of 25 TPS progenies in six
countries: Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Rwanda, Philippines, and Peru. Several progenies such as Serranax LT-7 (Fig. 1), Atzimbax7XY.1, and C83.551xLT-7 were
stable in yield and tuber attributes. Similar trials will be repeated on a yearly basis
to permit national potato programs to select in situ progenies adapted to local
conditions.
At CIP-Lima, the performance of advanced OP progenies (OP2 and OP3 ) was
tested against that of OP1 progenies. The
results indicated that in most of the OP2
and OP3 progenies, quantitative and qualitative characters were better than in the
OP1 . This suggests that it is possible to remove the effect of inbreeding depression,
expressed in vigor and yield, by selecting
appropriate genetic starting material.
41

Figure 1. High-performing TPS progeny in the 1985 international TPS progeny evaluation trials .

42

The effect of parental line selection on


the earliness of TPS progenies was studied at San Ramon by using two families
of the 1984 TPS populations. Progeny
No. 1 was rated as very early while No. 2
was rated as early. Harvesting the crop
at two different periods only affected
the yield of progeny No. 2. The yield of
progeny No. 1 ranged from 20 to 24 t/ ha
at 60 and 90 days, while for No . 2 the
difference was much larger (Fig. 2). The
results have shown that by selecting very
early progenies, the growing period of
TPS will be reduced and that the adaptation to tropical environments of TPS
progenies will be increased.
Early selection of seedlings for vigor
in the performance of OP progenies was
very effective in experiments conducted
at San Ramon, Huancayo , and Lima.
Open-pollinated seed of ten clones was
used for the early selection of seedlings.
Within each OP seed lot, the following
levels of selection were applied: 80/o,
40/o, 26/o, 201o and 16/o. These experiments showed clearly that by increasing the number of seed in the nursery and

Weight/plant (g)
1000
800

600

400

200

0'--=-

2
TPS progenies

Figure 2. Comparison of yield per plant for


two TPS progenies harvested at 60 and 90 days,
San Ramon.

kg

9.5

r-------------.---,-~

7.6
5.7

3 .8
1.9

2
3
4
Levels of selection

Figure 3 . Effect of the level of selection in


tuber yield per plot.

by selecting the most vigorous seedlings


for transplanting, a significant increase in
yield as well as other characters in the OP
progenies can be obtained (Fig. 3).
GERMPLASM DISTRIBUTION

During 1985, CIP distributed pathogentested germplasm to 65 countries in both


developed and developing countries (Table 2). The shipments included tubers and
in vitro plantlets from pathogen-tested as
well as TPS progenies; also distributed
were advanced populations segregating for
pest and disease resistance as well as stress
tolerance . The inventories of tubers and
TPS progeny are sufficient to respond to
immediate requests, and tuber families
are being produced for distribution in
1986. The pathogen-tested list includes
182 advanced cultivars and varieties free
from disease, 28 advanced cultivars and
varieties being freed, 95 primitive cultivars free from disease, and 52 primitive
cultivars being freed from diseases.
In southern Chile, collaborative TPS
production with the Agricultural Research
Institute (INIA) greatly increased with
43

Table 2 . Genetic materials exported from CIP-Lima, October 1-September 30, 1985.
Cultivars
CIP
region

A cc essions

Units

In vitro plants

Tuber families

Accessions

A cc essions

Units

TPS families

Units

Accessions

TPS progeny

Units

Accessions

4,980
11,270

25
77
19

92,000

30

489,000

410

7,609

42

2,947

46

886

10,356

244

359
1,220

215

11

231

8,464

111

268

1,789

30

82

113

4,251

99
20

IV

32

359

25

87

87

2,257

48

4,000
13,000

Units
209,000
358,000

75

909

15

54

1,808

20

4,000

34

202,000

VI

119

1,648

33

88

5,203

20

4,000

41

912,833

VII

305

2,498

73

291

295

11,670

78

18,805

42

291,000

VIII

63

251

76

152

20

4,000

Othersa

75

503

302

615

200

7,803

62

13,875

6
13

46,000

2,233

25,922

798

2,854

1,283

44,403

413

77,930

287

2,612,633

Total

12,000

a Developed market economies and centrally planned economies .


NOTE: Regions 111 and VI I have also been distributing materials within their regions, but this
material is not included in the table.

production of over 5 kg seed of six hybrid progenies. As a result of this last production, CIP's export of TPS progenies
increased fivefold over that of 1984.

TRAINING
Two CIP germ plasm management courses,
one held in Kenya and Rwanda and the
other in the Philippines, were attended

Participants in the CJP germplasm course in Kenya discuss variety performance with the manager of the Agricultural Development Corporation seed
farm at Molo.

44

by 27 scientists from Africa and Asia .


This was the first such course in East and
Central Africa and the second in Southeast Asia. The courses were planned specifically to train scientists from those
countries that receive CIP's germplasm
from the distribution centers near Nairobi (Kenya) and Los Banos (Philippines).
Since 1981, eight CIP germplasm man-

agement courses have been given throughout the developing world with more than
115 scientists participating. During the
year, more than 50 scientists attended CIP
courses on tissue culture and rapid multiplication techniques, presented in the
Near and Middle East, North and West
Africa, and Southeast Asia.

45

THRUST Ill

Research on Bacterial and


Fungal Diseases

new population bred for resistance to bacterial wilt in warm climates is


being developed. CIP's initial bacterial wilt-resistant population is being
used in cool climates; however, it lacks resistance to heat and root-knot nematode , which interact synergistically with the bacterial wilt pathogen (Pseudomonas solanacearnm). A rapid method for visually distinguishing strains of
P. solanacearnm in culture has been developed . In contract research at the
University of Wisconsin, greater strain specificity of antisera for P. solanacearum was achieved ; it appears that unique antigenic determinants in the outer
membranes of the bacteria are related to pathogenicity. Selection for bacterial wilt resistance has continued in several regional locations. In Burundi
and Kenya, clone 720118 (Cruza 148) and several others are exhibiting useful levels of resistance. Clone 720057 has been eliminated due to poor performance in multilocational trials. Experiments in the Philippines confirmed
that root contact can increase spread of bacterial wilt. Also at Wisconsin, it
was confirmed that tuber soft rot can be controlled by applying calcium to
the soil.
CIP's late-blight breeding program distributed 1582 clones and 296 tuber
families to ten countries in 1985. In Peru 12 good general combiners were
selected for future crossing work in late blight research. Plans were established to develop a second population exclusively for field resistance to late
blight, without the major genes that are vulnerable to genetic changes in
the pathogen. In Burundi, two advanced clones with late blight resistance,
720123 and 720125, have been selected for use in multilocational trials. In
Kenya, CIP clone 800224 has been approved as a variety - and is being considered in seven other African countries-but has not yet been named. The
screening methodology for field resistance to early blight was refined for both
seedlings and plants. Acceptable levels of field resistance have been found in
selections. Five clones from various sources in the USA were found to have
high levels of tolerance to Verticillium wilt.

CIP-INIPA (Peru) screening for late blight resistance


in tropical rain forest, Acomayo (2200 m).

47

BACTERIAL DISEASES
Breeding for resistance to bacterial wilt
(Pseudomonas solanacearum). The initial
population bred for resistance to bacterial
wilt (BW) disease has been successful in
the cooler climates, but not in the warmer
climates where tolerance to heat and resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) are needed, since they interact
synergistically with the bacterium. In the
initial population , the cultivated diploid
Solanum phureja was used as a source of
resistance to P. solanacearum. The need
for a second population became apparent, and it was developed using the resistance to P. solanacearum and Meloidogyne
spp. from the wild species S. sparsipilum, S. chacoense, and S. microdontum.
Mass screening under warm greenhouse
conditions was performed with strains of
both races 1 and 3 of P. solanacearum
during several cycles of selection. Resistant diploid selections were crossed with
selections from the initial BW-resistant
tetraploid population. This was done in
tetraploid-diploid (TD) crosses involving
unreduced diploid gametes. Tetraploid
progenies were evaluated under naturally
infested field conditions at Cajabamba and
Cauday , in the Cajamarca Department of
northern Peru , and are now being tested
in the Philippines.
In the trials at Cajamarca, 75/o of
the genotypes were significantly more resistant than the controls: Molinera, a resistant Peruvian variety, and BR 69.84, a
resistant farmer selection known as Molinera II (var. Domoni in Fiji). In addition,
58/o of the genotypes were superior in
yield. This population lacks the extreme
earliness required for most tropical lowland situations, thus it has been crossed
with the best early, heat-adapted clones.
Screening for bacterial wilt resistance
by national programs. Burundi. Bacterial
wilt continues to be a serious problem in
48

Burundi; to date the only clone showing


useful resistance is 720118 (Cruza 148).
A further 68 clones selected from the
1983 CIP introductions were retested by
the national program of ISABU (Institut
des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi)
and 24 were retained . Sixty-six clones selected from the 1984 introductions were
retested and 19 retained. Because of
heavy BW infection confounded with Erwinia chrysanthemi, it has been difficult
to identify BW-tolerant clones. Consequently, ISABU devised another method
for testing. Five tubers of the test clone
were planted in the same row on either
side of the BW-susceptible variety Kenya
Baraka. The rate of BW progression along
the line of test plants was measured, assuming that disease spread was principally
by root contact. The results are shown
in Figure 1, where the most susceptible
clones show a steep slope , indicating the
rapid spread of disease. The most resistant clone was 720118, but there were indications that some useful variation in
resistance exists among the others. Clone
720057 has since been eliminated due
to poor performance in multilocational
trials.
Kenya. Through a research contract
with the National Agricultural Laboratories (NAL), in Nairobi, additional clones
were tested for BW resistance in both
pot and field experiments. Both systems
gave similar results, with clone 720118
being the most resistant. In the future,
this clone will be included in all NAL
trials as the resistant control. This contract included studies on the relationship
between the log dilution of bacterial inoculum and mean time to wilting, which
showed a linear relationship .
Brazil. In Brasilia, the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Hortali9as (CNPH) is
collaborating in the evaluation and selection of BW-resistant clones. Progress in

Plants infected (O/o);


expressed as loge -1 -

1-x

2 .6

Weeks after planting


Figure 1. Development rate of bacterial wilt incidence in advanced clones grown
in an infected area in Burundi. The slope of the line indicates the degree of susceptibility of a clone: the steeper the slope the more susceptible a clone.

selection has been slow due to difficulty


in maintaining a constant level of field
infection and low temperatures during
the growing season. In 1984, 239 clones
were tested and 130 clones showing no
apparent symptoms were selected; however, climatic conditions during the field

evaluation were cooler than usual and the


results of this test were inconclusive. The
test was repeated in 1985 with similar
results, including unseasonably low temperatures during the growing period. The
effectiveness of field evaluations under
these conditions will be reevaluated.
49

Philippines. Bacterial wilt resistant


clones selected by CIP showed improved
adaptation to the short days in Mindanao where the disease is severe. Yields of
these clones were better than those of
currently used varieties; however, by the
third generation, these clones exhibited
more disease , more latent infection, and
increasing infestation by root-knot nematodes. A new group of heat-adapted progenies, incorporating resistance to BW and
root-knot nematode derived from three
wild potato species, was planted in Mindanao in late 1985. This material should
be a valuable source of new clones for the
warm tropics.
In collaboration with the Central Mindanao University, three experiments were
conducted on the effect of intercropping
potato with corn or sweet potato on BW
incidence in the potato and on the population of P. solanacearum in the soil.
Intercropping potato with any crop or
simply leaving more space between potato plants reduced BW incidence. Soil
inoculum levels decreased approximately
50/o, compared with the levels observed
after monoculture. Similar results were
obtained in Burundi in 1984, indicating
that root contact is probably an important means of disease spread.
Ecology of P. solanacearum. A strain
of both race 1 and race 3 simultaneou sly
occurred in one plant in a field in Huambos, Cajamarca Department (highlands,
2450 m) of Peru, and in another plant as
well as independently in several plants in
Yurimaguas, Loreto Department (tropical
rain forest, 170 m). The strains of different races were recognized by differences
in formazan pigmentation on modified
Kelman's medium (Fig. 2) . This technique permitted the separation of the two
strains from a given plant and recognition
of different strains from a given field.
These differences may be useful for fur50

ther ecological studies. It is known that


many strains of P. solanacearum produce
bacteriocins antagonistic to other strains;
thus there is an a priori expectation that
it would be unlikely to find two strains
acting together.
Bacteriocinogenicity tests (Fig. 3) were
conducted between P. solanacearum
strains of similar or different origin,
known to be different because they belong to a different physiological grouping
or biovar (Bv). The Bv classification of
180 isolates from different provinces in
the Departments of Cajamarca and Loreto
are shown in Table 1. Among the highland Cajamarca isolates, only one of 130
isolates was Bv I (equivalent to race 1),
the rest were Bv II (considered equivalent
to race 3). The 180 lowland Loreto isolates included 37 Bv I and 143 Bv II
strains. There was mutual bacteriocinogenicity between three pairs of isolates
from similar ecological niches, but none
between two isolates from different locations. Among the first three , the bacteriocinogenicity was greater by Bv I to Bv II
than vice versa. No conclusions can yet
be drawn on the ecological significance of
these observations, because few isolates
have been tested so far; therefore, this
work will be expanded in the future.
Serological specificity in P. solanacearum. At the University of Wisconsin
(U.S.), contract research has continued on
improving the strain specificity of antisera prepared against whole P. solanacearum cells. Because components of the
bacterial outer membrane are implicated
in the antigenic specificity of many bacteria, rabbit antisera were prepared against
membranes isolated by sucrose density
centrifugation from a Bv I and a Bv III
strain from potato and a Bv I strain from
banana. The antisera were tested by the
Ouchterlony double diffusion (ODD) technique against 57 strains of P. solanacea-

Figure 2. Different colony formazan pigmentation that permitted the separation of isolate 203 (Bv I) on the right, from isolate 202 ( Bv 11) on the left. These strains were
together in the same stem of a plant infected with P. solanacearum.

Figure 3. Example of a bacteriocinogenicity test. First, colonies of different strains


are grown, which may diffuse bacteriocin into the surrounding agar (A). Th is becomes
evident when the colonies are overlaid with agar seeded with a sensitive test strain of
P. solanacearum.

51

Table 1. Biovars of P. so/anacearum from potato in the highland provinces (2400-3100 ml of Cajamarca Department (C), and in the low, humid zone of Yurimaguas (170 m), Loreto Department
(L), Peru.
Number of isolations
Provinces

Years of isolation

Huambos (C)
Chota (C)
Cajamarca (C)
Celendin (C)

1973-1982
1974-1984
1967-1984
1978-1984

Biovar I

Biovar II

Total

44

45

38

38

29
18

29
18

129

130

19
0
17

0
4
10

19
4
27

Total (L)

36

14

50

Overall total

37

143

180

0
0
0

Total (C)
Yurimaguas (L)

1975, 1981, 1984


1977
1976, 1978, 1979

rum isolated from potato, tobacco, tomato, pepper, and banana.


With the antiserum against the Bv I
(race 1) potato strain, serological identification of several Bv II (race 3) strains
was possible. Apparently all Bv II strains
lacked one antigen, probably a lipopolysaccharide component. When antiserum
to the Bv III strain from potato was crossabsorbed with sonicates from the Bv I
strain, only the strain used as immunogen,
two strains from potato (Bv II), and one
strain from tobacco (Bv I) gave positive
reactions by ODD. This indicated that
the absorbing strain (Bv I) had antigenic
determinants in common with Bv I, II ,
and III strains, and that the antiserum had
antibodies specific for antigenic determinants in the immunogen but absent in the
absorbing strain.
When the antiserum raised against the
banana Bv I strain was absorbed with the
potato Bv I strain, only the banana strains
gave positive reactions. This indicated the
presence of unique antigenic determinants
in the outer membrane of banana strains
52

(race 2). Thus, there are determinants related with pathogenicity in the outer membrane of P. solanacearum , which might be
determined with more sensitive immunochemical techniques such as the use of
monoclonal antibodies. This approach will
soon be initiated at Wisconsin.
Bacterial soft rot (Erwinia spp.). Ecological studies were conducted in Peru
to assist in planning control measures to
combat increasing problems of bacterial
soft rot at CIP's San Ramon station. Assays of environmental contamination by
Erwinias showed irrigation water was consistently contaminated with more than
100,000 cells of E. carotovora pv. carotovora (Ecc) per liter (L). The 88 isolates collected all caused soft rot in potato slices. Irrigation water came from
two sources: 1) the Tarma River, which
had greater than 10,000 Ecc/L even at
its source at 3000 m; and 2) a mountain
stream, which had 1,000,000 Ecc/L or
more up to an altitude of 1200 m. Common weed species growing in shallow
water usually harbored high populations

of rhizosphere Erwinias (see Thrust VI).


Field soil samples in San Ramon were
also contaminated consistently with Ecc
immediately after irrigation, but in 5-cm
deep samples kept in plastic trays, these
populations dropped to undetectable levels after 96 hours. Samples of soil, up to
20 cm deep, that had never been irrigated
had no Ecc. Similarly, Erwinias were not
detected at this depth in nonirrigated fallow soil. Soil samples taken from depths
of 30-90 cm in fields under rotation crops
revealed the occasional presence of small
Ecc populations.
Soft rot resistance by calcium nutrition. Contract research at the University
of Wisconsin has shown that increasing
calcium fertilization of potato plants increases the calcium content in tuber tissues, and that higher calcium tubers of a
given cultivar are more resistant to Erwinia soft rot than those of the same cultivars with lower calcium content. Additional testing was carried out using various
sources of calcium. Three application
rates were used (100, 200, and 300 lb
Ca/ A) and three methods of application
(preplant strip, broadcast, and sidedress).
Tubers were inoculated with E. carotovora pv. atroseptica (Eca) and incubated
in a mist chamber at 20 C for 96 hours.
Tubers harvested from various treatments
were compared on the basis of percent surface area decay. In a study on the effectiveness of different sources of calcium,
triple superphosphate and one source of
calcium sulphate (Smith-Douglas) were
not significantly different from the controls. The treatments that gave significantly less rot were, in the order of most
to least rot, calcium sulphate (U.S. Gypsum, sieve), calcium sulphate (Ampel),
lime, calcium nitrate, and calcium chloride; however, differences among these
were not significant. The use of calcium
sulphate (U.S. Gypsum) at rates of 100,

Table 2. Bacterial soft rot of Russet Burbank


potato tubers in relation to various application
methods of calcium sulphate and calcium chloride, shown as percent surface area decayed. 0
Calcium source
Application
methodb
Preplant strip
Broadcast
Sidedress
Control

Calcium
sulphate

Calcium
chloride

22.3 b
22.3 b
18.5 b
45.5 a

18.5 b
22.3 b
26.1 b
42.5 a

Mean of 40 tubers (10 per replicate, 4 replicates per treatment) . Values in the same column
followed by the same letter are not significantly
different at the 5/o level.
bPlots were treated with calcium sulphate (U.S.
Gypsum-sieve) and calcium chloride by each application method at 300 and 200 lb Ca/ A, respectively.

200, and 300 lb/ A gave significantly better control of rot with all three treatments
but no significant difference among rates.
When calcium sulphate (U.S. Gypsum)
was compared with calcium chloride, both
applied as either a preplant strip, broadcast or sidedress, there were no significant differences among treatments, but
all were superior to the control (Table 2).

FUNGAL DISEASES

Breeding and screening for late blight


(Phytophthora infestans) resistance. During 1985, about 26,000 true potato seed
(TPS) were used in a seedling screening
test in Huancayo. Approximately 10/o
were selected and multiplied and sent for
field testing at Rionegro, Colombia, in
collaboration with the national program
of ICA (Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ). Selections from the previous cycle
are being tested at Toluca, Mexico-the
final testing site in the scheme-prior to
being distributed to requesting national
programs. In 1985, ten countries received

53

advanced genetic materials with resistance


to late blight (LB) and also bred for earliness, involving 1429 clones and 4088 individuals in 296 tuber families (Table 3).
Collaborative field tests on predominantly andigena materials were conducted
in Peru with the national potato program
ofINIPA (Instituto Nacional de Investigaci6n y Promoci6n Agropecuaria) in Acomayo, near the city of Huanuco (2200
m), where LB is severe and predictable,
but where the racial complexity is not
well known. One hundred clones were arranged in a single lOxlOlattice, and 241
clones in ten-plant observation plots. Of
these 341 clones, 113 were selected for
LB resistance and desirable agronomic
characteristics. Thirty- five clones conformed to local standards and were selected by the national program for further
testing.
A progeny test for parental line selection was conducted in the LB testing field
at Acomayo by growing the progenies in
flats arranged in a randomized complete
block design with two replications of 100
seedlings each. Parents were 30 advanced

Table 3. Advanced clones and tuber families,


bred for resistance to late blight and earliness,
distributed by Cl P du ring 1985.

Country
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Guatemala
Kenya

No. clones

32/1001
32
51
143
46

Mexico
Philippines

388
245

Rwanda

356

Turkey
Venezuela

168

Total

54

No. families/
individuals

135/1919
17/208

1429

112/960
296/4088

selections (LB-resistant) crossed to two


male testers. Results indicated that the
general combining ability (GCA) effects
associated with the additive portion of
the total genetic variation was more important than the specific combining ability associated with the nonadditive genetic
variance. Twelve clones were selected as
having good GCA effects.
A second breeding population with
only field resistance, i.e., without major
R-genes that can interfere in making selections for durable resistance, is being assembled by accumulating field-resistant
clones of Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena, S. phureja, and S. tuberosum subsp.
tuberosum that have been tested for absence of R-genes. This population will be
screened with race zero.
Screening for late blight resistance by
national programs. Burundi. The national
potato program of ISABU continues to
select advanced clones and tuber families
with adaptation to local growing conditions. Of 117 clones selected in 1984 and
replanted and harvested in 1985, 50 were
selected after being exposed to a moderate attack of late blight. Seven CIP tuber
families (662 tubers) containing potential
LB resistance were screened under a severe LB attack in March-July 1985, and
only 40 plants were retained. Two advanced clones, 720123 and 720125, will
be included in multilocational trials in
Burundi for the first time in late 1985.
On-farm trials were carried out for
two seasons in three districts of Burundi
to compare the yield performance (under conditions of farmer management) of
the new varieties selected by ISABU. An
important factor in these trials was that
the new varieties, all of which have good
LB resistance, were planted early in the
season to get maximum yield. This is a
new practice for the farmers as they tend
to plant late in the rainy season to escape

LB attack. A total of 67 trials were harvested with Sangema as control, the most
common variety for which seed is currently available . Early planting of the
new variety Ndinamagara (720118, reported above as resistant also to BW) gave
50/o greater yield than the same variety
planted one month later. The yield from
both plantings exceeded that of Sangema by 35-80/o, due to LB resistance in
Ndinamagara.
Kenya. The germplasm multiplication
and distribution center in Kenya, which
CIP operates in collaboration with the
Plant Quarantine Station at Muguga, continues to multiply a wide range of potato germplasm for testing. The test sites
range from the high elevation site at Mau
Narok (3100 m) down to the coastal site
at Mtwapa , thus clones are challenged with
a wide range of climatic conditions and
disease complexes. In 1985 , the CIP clone
800224 (resistant to late blight, bacterial
wilt, and potato leafroll virus) was finally
approved as a variety by the Ministry of
Agriculture, but has not yet been named.
This clone is also under consideration as a
variety in Burundi, Ethiopia, Madagascar,
Malawi , Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda.
At medium elevations (1850 m) three
advanced clones, 720084, 720088, and
678019, continue to give stable yields.
The first two are now included in the
Kenya national performance trials.
At the coastal lowland site, clone
800938 (moderately LB resistant but resistant to BW) was outstanding for yield,
tuber size, and early maturity. This clone,
originally selected at the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center
(AVRDC) in Taiwan, exhibits adaptability to lowland tropical climates in other
countries, including the Philippines and
El Salvador.
Philippines. In the Philippine highlands,
the Mountain State Agricultural College

conducted replicated on-farm trials of LBresistant clones, confirming that I-1035


and B71-240. 2 were the highest yielders
with moderate LB resistance. They are
ready for release to farmers as soon as
they are officially approved. Trial yields
at the farmer level were between 33 and
45 t/ha, 50/o to 100/o greater than the
local controls Cosima and Conchita.
The seed of 46 TPS families with frost
and LB resistance was divided and planted
during two seasons. From the first (dry)
season, 197 clones were selected but LB
pressure was only moderate. During the
second season, which had higher rainfall
and severe LB attack, plant survival was
lower but 67 clones were selected. Selected clones appeared to be distributed
across all families and most had acceptable agronomic characters. They will be
evaluated further in 1986.
Early blight (Alternaria so/ani) . CIP
initiated this project in late 1984 to study
1) Alternaria species causing early blight
(EB) in Peru, 2) the identification of resistance sources, 3) the development of
reliable screening methods, and 4) the development of resistant clones with good
agronomic characters. Studies on conidial morphology have indicated the occurrence of at least three species causing
early blight. Isolates from San Ramon
fit characteristics described for A. solani,
whereas isolates from the Mantaro Valley
(central highlands) fit those described for
A. solani, A. porri, and A. brassicae (the
last two are to be reconfirmed). All these
Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on potato
seedlings.
Of the several media tested for best
sporulation of A. so Zani, V- 8 agar medium
with constant light at 18 C gave the
better result. Isolates from San Ramon,
however, sporulated easily in V-8 agar
and very slowly in potato dextrose agar
medium, as compared to isolates from
55

the Mantaro Valley in which the reverse


occurred.
Data on EB incidence at San Ramon
during the 1985 rainy season agreed with
data obtained for the 1984 dry season in
showing high levels of incidence that are

suitable for progeny evaluations and selection of EB-resistant clones. The percent
leaf area infected and plant defoliation
due to EB were intermediate for plots
naturally infected and maximum for plots
artificially inoculated with A. solani (Figs.

43 days after planting


Desiree

DT0 -33

Fungicide control led

Natural inoculum

Spore inoculation

t--;

LSD (50/o)

77 days after planting


Desiree

DT0-33

10

20

30

40

50

Leaf area infected (O/o)


Figure 4 . Percent leaf area infected by A. solani on two potato cultivars under
three treatments, two dates after planting (1985 rainy season, San Ramon).

Desiree

DT0 -33

Defoliation
Figure 5. Plant defoliation caused by A . solani on two potato cultivars under
three treatments, 85 days after planting (1985 rainy season, San Ramon). 1 =no
defoliation; 3 = 50'o; 6 =dead plant .

56

4 and 5). From these field trials, data were


also obtained on the effective control of
EB by alternating fungicide applications
such as copper oxychloride, mancozeb,
and dithiocarbamate-zinc.
During 1985, we also developed and
evaluated tests that screen for EB resistance at the seedling stage. Seedlings 3540 days old were sprayed with an inoculum suspension of 2000 spores/ ml. At
Lima, TPS were sown in trays under
screenhouse conditions, and after inoculation the seedlings were kept inside large
plastic bags at 22-25 C for four days.
At San Ramon, TPS were sown in large
seedbeds ( 10 m 2 ) under field conditions,
and after inoculation beds were covered
with a plastic sheet for four days at a
temperature range of 24-37 C. Infection and disease development occurred in
both tests when TPS from the cultivar
DT0-33 were used.
TPS from 36 families were evaluated
by these two tests and compared with a
field evaluation carried out in San Ramon
on adult plants. A significant correlation
(r = .44 Spearman's coefficient) was obtained be tween field evaluation under
high inoculum pressure at San Ramon and
the seedling test carried out in trays at
Lima. Improvements of the seedling tests
at both locations are under way.
At Lima, TPS from 36 accessions from
the germplasm collection were sown in
plastic trays inoculated with A. solani and
evaluated for their resistance to EB. The
seedling test was used for the evaluation.
Results indicated that acceptable levels
of resistance are available in the germplasm collection (Table 4). Also, more
extensive research will be conducted with
these genetic resources, especially on the
relationship between resistance to EB
and plant maturity, in order to discover
clones that possess both resistance and
earliness.

Table 4. Early blight readings ( 1 =no infection;


9 1 OOO/o infection) of 12 accessions out of
36 tested at the seedling stage (35 days old)
under controlled conditions for resistance to
early blight (Alternaria solani) . Lima, Peru.

Accession

Early
blight
reading

Accession

Early
blight
reading
2.5

HUA-332

1.5

HUA-477

CUA-565

2.5

JAK-77

2.5

700882

2 .5

HUA-358

4.0

700687

2.5

DT0-33 (control)

6 .0

OCH-3527

2.5

HUA-934

7.0

SOIL-BORNE DISEASES
Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dah/iae).
Preliminary greenhouse evaluations in
Lima of 12 advanced clones from different sources in the United States with
tolerance to Verticillium wilt indicated
that 5 clones (A-7914.3, A-7914.49, A66107.57 , JB-1.3, and Mara) had a high
level of tolerance. To study the host
range and soil survival of V dahliae in
the Mantaro Valley, several fields were
sampled under potato as well as fallow
fields to collect plants, especially weeds,
that could be hosts of this pathogen under natural conditions. A total of 65 different plant species were collected and 18
were infected with V dahliae in the vascular tissue of stems or roots. More than
50/o of the infected plant species did not
show Verticillium wilt symptoms under
field conditions.
Field evaluations of advanced clones
for their resistance to Verticillium wilt
were conducted in the coastal city of
Canete. Results indicated that the best
method of inoculation was to use V
dahliae grown for 30 days on perlite, supplemented with PDA (2 g agar/L) at the
rate of 250 ml PDA/kg ofperlite, applied
on top of the tuber at planting time .
57

Potato smut (Angiosorus solani) . Of


53 clones and cultivars tested for resistance to potato smut under field conditions at Comas, Peru (3100 m), during
the 1985 potato season, 17 were highly
resistant . Eight of these resistant cultivars and clones were not infected during
three consecutive years at that location;
the other nine were tested over two years.
Among these highly resistant materials
are some well-known cultivars such as
Cuzco, Mariva, Mi Peru, Participaci6n,
and Revoluci6n, and the advanced clones
376181.5, 6956.52, ASN 69.1, 375587 .2,
and 376608. 7. No further evaluations of
genetic materials for resistance to potato
smut will be conducted in this project unless specific requests are submitted.
Pink rot (Phytophthora erythroseptica) . On-farm studies were conducted on
the residual effects of the fungicides Basamid (300 kg/ha)+ Ridomil 5G (30 kg/ ha)
applied to soil for controlling pink rot.
Results indicated that after a second potato season, the plots under a continuous
application of these products yielded 7 .8
more times (27.8 kg/12 m 2 ) than the untreated control plot (3.6kg/12 m 2 ). Plots
treated in the previous season, but not
the second season, yielded between 27/o
to 35/o less than continuously treated
plots, but much higher than the untreated
control.
Rhizoctonia solani. Coastal (Lima and
Canete), highland (Huancayo, Huanuco,
and Cuzco), and tropical rain forest (San
Ramon) fields were surveyed for the presence of Rhizoctonia disease symptoms on
roots, stems, and tubers, and for seedling damping-off. To determine classification by the Anastomosis Groups (AGs),
we used the microculture technique by
testing the samples against each of the
tester cultures of AGs I to 5. Results
indicated that only AG-3 and AG-4 occurred in potato in Peru. Furthermore,
58

there was a clear distinction with regard


to elevation and distribution of AGs:
AG-3 was only found in the highlands as
compared to AG-4, which was found at
lowland coastal sites as well as in the tropical rain forest .
In a different experiment, nine soil
treatments were tested at Lima to control soil-borne fungi causing damping-off
and early dying, a disease complex (where
R . solani is the principal pathogen) that
causes heavy reduction of plant stands
and yields. DT0-33 seedlings were transplanted to the field and harvested 90 days
later (summer season, 1984-85). There
were no significant differences among
treatments for number of plants/ plot,
although plots treated with Rizolex +
Basamid +plastic cover, Rizolex +Basamid , and PCNB + Benlate + Basamid had
a higher number of plants than the other
treatments. In most cases, plants showing
symptoms of early dying produced some
tubers and did not die completely. Final
symptoms included early maturity, stunting, and chlorosis. Regarding yield/plot
(Fig. 6), the highest yields were obtained
from plots treated with Rizolex + Basamid +plastic cover (Trt. 2), followed
by those treated with PCNB + Basamid +
Benlate (Trt. 6), PCNB + Benlate + plastic cover (Trt. 3), and Rizolex + Basamid
(Trt. 4). The lowest yields were obtained
from plots treated with Ridomil (Trt. 7),
and PCNB + Benlate (Trt. 9, CIP's normal
field treatment at Lima) .
SUR VEY OF DISEASE INCIDENCE

A survey of fungal and bacterial diseases of the potato in Colombia was conducted for three weeks during late October and early November 1984, as part of
an agreement with the Research Institute
for Plant Protection (IPO), Netherlands,
and in collaboration with the national

Yield/plot (g)

14000
2

12000

10000
PCNB

8000

6000

9/
4000

+ Benlate

'I
5

..

Ridomil

....

2000

Without
Basamid

With
Basa mid

Basamid

plastic cover

Figure 6 . Average yield / 27 m 2 of DT0-33 seedlings at 90 days from plots treated


with nine different soil treatments (numbered 1-9) to control soil-borne fungi at
Lima.

potato program of ICA (Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario) .


Late blight (P. infestans) was important throughout the potato-growing areas,
but was generally controlled by the use
of fungicide sprays. Verticillium wilt was
generalized in the southern Narifio Department (bordering Ecuador), and seri-

ous in the Boyaca, Cundinamarca, and


Antioquia Departments in the central
highland region. The causal agents varied:
V. albo-atrum was found exclusively in
Narifio , this organism and V. dahliae were
present in Boyaca and Cundinamarca, and
V. dahliae was found mostly in Boyaca
and Antioquia. It was concluded that high
59

priority must be given to the control of


Verticillium wilts. V. albo-atrum can be
controlled more readily than V. dahliae,
the latter producing microsclerotia that
survive for lengthy periods in soil. For V.
albo-atrum , the use of clean seed and the
practice of rotation reduces its incidence,
but for V dahliae it will be necessary to
breed for resistance .
Rust (Puccinia pittieriana) and gray
mold (Bo try tis cinerea) were restricted to
the humid microclimates, located in the
highland areas of the departments visited
at altitudes above 3200 m. To control
these localized diseases it will be necessary to explore the use of fungicides.

TRAINING
The first workshop on bacterial wilt,
held in the Philippines in 1978, placed
emphasis on the isolation and identification of P. solanacearum and its epidemiology. The 1985 workshop in the Philippines included 32 scientists from seven
Asian countries, Australia, and the United
States. It provided a forum for discussions on the current status of the disease
in Asia, as well as recent findings on the
pathogen variation and control through
host resistance and cultural methods.
Two mid-career scientists from the
Central Potato Research Institute in India
studied bacterial wilt at CIP-a patholo-

[n addition to workshops and individual training for scientists o n bacterial wilt,


CIP also sup ervises graduate-level research and training in th e regions. Above,
an M.S. degree student, at the CIP research station in the Philippines, is screening CIP clones for resistance to Erwinia.

60

gist worked on serological identification


of the bacterium, and a plant breeder
studied breeding and selection procedures
for disease resistance. A scientist from
Bangladesh studied virological and bacteriological procedures for seven weeks.
Two Chileans, whose principal objective

was to spend four weeks at CIP in virological work , spent part of their time
learning new methodology developed for
serological studies on P. solanacearnm.
An Argentine scientist spent one week
acquiring a general background on fungal
diseases of the potato.

61

0.5m

Ve

THRUST IV

Potato Virus Research

igh levels of resistance to the potato leafroll virus (PLRV) were found in
four clones from Peru and in 20 clones from the potato introduction
station at Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. The efficiency of greenhouse screening
for PLRV resistance in seedlings was improved by determining the number of
viruliferous aphids required per plant for infestation. This will provide for
reductions in the number of seedlings from the screened population , which
become infected in the first field exposure. Testing for virus resistance is
continuing in several Latin American countries. Clone B71-240.2 (originally
selected in Argentina) showed good resistance to PLRV and potato virus
Y in field trials in Uruguay and is being named as a variety in several countries. In Chile , clone 380507.1 was selected for its resistance to PLRV and
good agronomic characters. In Brazil , clone 381027. 2 and three other virusresistan t clones are being multiplied for inclusion in the 1985-86 national
po ta to trials.
Stability of resistance to potato viruses PVX and PVY was studied under
field conditions during three consecutive cropping seasons. Resistance in immune clones was stable, but not in hypersensitive clones. When clones were
infected with PLRV, the resistance in those having immunity to PVX and
PVY was not altered , but clones normally hypersensitive to PVX and PVY
showed immunity to these viruses. Irrespective of resistance levels to PVX
and PVY , potato virus S exhibited the highest rate of incidence. Resistance
to PLRV infection can be greatly modified by the presence of PVX and PVY.
A 3 0/o increase in the sensitivity of ELISA tests for detection of PLR V
and PVY has been achieved. In comparison to 1984, there was a 100-fold
increase in the use of serology for detecting viruses. Forty ELISA and 30
latex virus-detection kits were sent to developing countries; excellent results
have been obtained from the 100,000 samples examined, and there is growing
demand for these kits. The number of samples tested for potato spindle tuber
viroid (PSTV) by means of the NASH kit increased from 5000 in 1984 to
35,000 in 1985. This test has been instrumental in guaranteeing the health of
exported and imported germplasm. In 1985, 40 NASH kits were distributed
to ten different countries to test 3865 samples. Several national potato programs are being assisted in producing their own virus-detection antisera.

Ultrathin section of a mesophyll cell of Ph ysalis (loridana


infected with virus SB-22. N =nucleus, V=cluster of virus
particles, and V c =vacuole.

63

RESISTANCE TO VIRUSES
Levels of genetic resistance to potato leafroll virus (PLRV) infection in clones. Major emphasis was placed on determining
levels of resistance to PLRV in clones
from CIP's world germplasm collection.
The objective was to select parents for
breeding work; the evaluation method
used has been described in the 1984 Annual Report. Of the 47 clones te sted,
only 4 showed a high level of resistance
to PLRV infection. Forty-nine clones ob-

tained from the potato introduction station at Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin (U.S.) ,
were also tested for their resistance to
PLRV infection and 20 showed a high
level of resistance to infection. These
selected PLRV- resistant clones are being
evaluated for other agronomic and disease
resistance characteristics to be used as parents in future breeding work.
Interaction of potato viruses. The resistance t o PLRV infection in potato
clones is greatly modified in the presence

Potato clone J-853 showing interference of potato leafroll virus (PLR V) on potato virus Y (PVY) infection
(left). Control plants infected with only PVY showing
systemic hypersensitive reaction (right).

64

of potato viruses PVX and PVY ( 1984


Annual R eport). This year we studied the
interaction of these viruses, using potato
clones with immunity, relative resistance,
or hypersensitivity to PVX and PVY. All
selected clones were graft-inoculated with
PLRV and inoculated two weeks later
with PVX or PVY, either by mechanical
or graft inoculation. Clones exhibiting
immunity to PVX and PVY did not alter
their -resistance to these viruses when infected with PLRV; however, clones that
werei hypersensitive to PVX and PVY
showed immunity to these viruses when
infected with PLRV. It is therefore important that the clones be free from
PLRV when evaluating their resistance to
PVX andPVY.
Screening for PLRV resistance in seedlings. At Lima seedlings are screened in
greenhouses for PLRV resistance by using
viruliferous Myzus persicae inoculation.
The efficiency of screening has not been
optimal however, as a majority of seedlings from the screened population be-

came infected in the first field 'exp'Osbrl


Consequently, we performed expenm~nts
.
1 ~ , r (' I i(f
to determine the optimal numbet dfvituliferous aphids needed to inocui~te seed'.
ling progenies during screening. Progenies from the crosses Serrana x XY 7 .6,
Serrana x XY 15 .1, and Serrana x bulk XY
were used. The experimental design was
a split plot with eight potted plants per
treatment and with six replicates. The
treatments included inoculations made
with 5; 15, 25, 35, and 50 viruliferous
aphids per plant. No significant differences were found between the treatments
with 15, 25, 3 5, or 50 aphids per seedling, but all were superior to inoculations
with 5 aphids per seedling. These results
indicated that during seedling screening
for PLRV resista~ce, a minimum of 15
aphids per plant should be used as an inoculum to minimize the escape of susceptible seedlings.
Stability of resistance to PVX and
PVY under field conditions. Potato cultivars were tested under field conditions

Table 1. Percentage of clones w ith known resistance to potato viruses PVX and PVY infected with
both viruses after three field exposures at Lima.
Exposure

Known
reaction
Clone

V-2
ARSH32
78C11 .5

la

First

CEX-69-1
MEX 750815
Heid rum
LT-4
T . Condemayta
Rosita

s
s
s

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
20

0
0

14
21

0
10

0
0

0
0

H
H

Bzura
Serrana I nta
78C8.1

Th ird

Second

0
0

0
23
0
0
10

0
0
3

I
I
H

0
0

60

0
0

20

14

64

50

20

15

43

29

100

27

a I =immune; H =hypersensitive; S =susceptible.

65

in Lima during three consecutive cropping


seasons for their stability of resistance to
PYX and PVY. The results indicated that
clones immune to PVY and PVX were not
infected; however, clones CEX 69.l and
MEX 750815 with high hypersensitivity
to PVY showed 15/o and 21/o of PVY
infection, and Tomasa Condemayta with
low hypersensitivity to PVY showed 64/o
infection (Table 1). Irrespective of the
resistance level to PVX and PVY in clones
and cultivars tested in three field exposures in Lima and Huancayo, the highest
percentage of disease incidence was due
to potato virus S (PVS) (Table 2).

Table 2 . Percentage of virus infections in 12 selected potato clones after three field exposures,
two in Lima and one in Huancayo.

Clone

PVS

PLRV

APMV

APLV

V-2

27

ARSH32
78C11.5

30
10

60
13

0
0

3
0

Bzura
Serrana I nta
78C8.1
CEX-69-1

MEX 750815

3
100

7
10

77

60

Heid rum
LT-4

T. Condemayta

43

Rosita

63

63

23

a PVS =potato virus S; PLRV =potato leafroll


virus; APMV =Andean potato mottle virus ;
APLV =Andean potato latent virus .

INTERNATIONAL TESTING
FOR VIRUS RESISTANCE

Uruguay. During the November 1984February 1985 season, the stability of resistance to viruses in 4 tuber families and
23 advanced clones (a total of 114 clones)
was tested in a collaborative project with

66

CIAAB at the Las Brujas experimental


station. Seven control varieties were included in the test. After field exposure ,
ELISA tests for PLRV and PVY were performed on all plants. Four clones were
selected showing no serological reaction
on two of the three test plants, but no
clone was completely virus-free. In a second field test carried out in 1985, these
four clones showed no visual symptoms of
either virus in the field. Clone B71- 240. 2,
originally selected in Argentina and now
being named as a variety in several countries worldwide , had the highest level of
resistance to both viruses. It should be
emphasized that the aphid population was
extremely high, and thus exposure to
PLRV and PVY was severe.
Argentina. Prior to 1984, the field
tests for virus resistance conducted by the
national potato program of INTA at the
San Pedro station showed a similar high
aphid population as in Uruguay. Thus
the evaluation for resistance is now made
only during the spring season (October).
From the tests carried out in 1984-85 ,
7 4 selected clones were multiplied and
then replanted in October 1985 for further evaluation. An additional 32 families were planted for multiplication in
February 1985 and screened for agronomic characters. Of these , 83 clones
(16/o) were selected for further field exposure in October.
Chile. In a collaborative project with
the national agricultural research institute (INIA) in Osorno, 46 clones selected
for PLRV resistance in the 1983-84 season were retested and 20 were selected
for their virus resistance. Within the 20
clones, one clone (380507.1) had good
agronomic characters and low (3.2/o)
PLRV infection . Other resistant clones,
even with high yields, were not retained
due to poor tuber shape. Other genetic
materials introduced as true potato seed

(TPS) were multiplied in January 1985


for replanting in October. Of these 674
individual progenies, 22 had acceptable
agronomic characters.
Brazil. Similar projects for selecting
virus-resistant materials in Brazil were carried out jointly with CNPH/EMBRAPA
in Brasilia. CIP clone 381027.2 and three
selected by !AC-Sao Paulo are being multiplied for inclusion in the 1985-86 national potato trials. Two field trials for
PLRV and PVY resistance were planted
at CNPH and on a commercial farm nearby to test infection under natural aphid
populations at CNPH and "normal" populations in a farmer's field subjected to
chemical sprays. The aphid population
was higher at CNPH than in the farmer's
field. Clones DT0-2 and B71-240.2 and
the variety Loman gave very high yields.

VIRUS SPREAD IN SEED


PROGRAMS
Colombia. A study of virus incidence in
the main potato-growing areas of Colombia , conducted by the national potato
program of !CA, confirmed that the lower
altitude areas in Antioquia had higher incidence of PLRV, PVS, and PVY than the
higher altitude areas of Cundinamarca.
Seed-producing zones within these two
important districts showed the same general trend , but had much lower levels of
infection. Unselected third generation tubers at ICA's Tibaitata and San Jorge stations in Cundinamarca had between 5/o
and 18/o infection of the main viruses;
whereas selected healthy seed had less
than 2/o of all viruses except for PLRV
( 5/o in Tibaitata). This illustrates that
potato producers in the higher altitude
areas can easily keep seed for three generations before replacing it.
Tunisia. Three generations of locally multiplied seed from the same initial

source, planted at the Saida site by the


national agricultural research institute
(INRAT) , were evaluated for virus content. The infection rate in the first generation was 0.63/o PLRV and 0.63/o PVY.
The third generation had only 0.5/o
PLRV and 3.0/o PVY. The yield of seed
size tubers was similar for all generations,
but the number of main stems produced
per tuber increased with successive generations.
In a complementary study, one row
of seed infected with PLRV was planted
with 30 rows of elite seed on either side
(Fig. 1). During the season , the spread of
PLRV was evaluated by the number of
plants with visual symptoms appearing in
the adjacent row, and rows 3, 9, and 27
on either side. Parallel records were made
of the number of winged and wingless
aphids found on the leaves. The first
PLRV symptoms appeared approximately
20 days after the first significant count
of winged aphids. Most of the infected
plants were in row 1 adjacent to the infected row, and only a few infected plants
were found in the more distant rows.
From these studies, it was concluded
that: 1) After three generations the
low rate of degeneration in locally multiplied seed is due to the absence of a
concentrated and sustained buildup of
aphids during the season. Aphid populations fluctuate considerably from week
to week, never reaching epidemic proportions in Tunisia as in other countries.
2) Spread of PLRV throughout the potato crop is relatively slow, therefore early
roguing can adequately maintain low infection levels. These conclusions support
the view that the Tunisian national seed
program can successfully multiply seed
for at least three generations and maintain acceptable levels of virus control.
Uruguay. A study was made by CIAAB
at the Las Brujas station on the yield
67

Figure 1. Field trial in Tunisia to study virus spread by planting a center row infected with
PLRV and 30 adjacent rows of elite seed on each side.

depression caused by PLRV and PVY in


the variety Kennebec. A total of 119 pairs
of plants were selected in commercial
fields : healthy adjacent to healthy, and

Table 3 . Effect of potato leafroll virus (PLRV)


infection on the yield of the variety Kennebec
in a commercial potato crop . Uruguay, 1984-85.

healthy adjacent to a diseased plant showing secondary symptoms of PLRV (Table


3). The results showed that although infected plants had lower yields, there was
compensation by adjacent healthy plants.
The net loss in yield for a crop with 501o
plants showing secondary symptoms of
PLRV was 23/o. Initial observations on
34 pairs of plants infected with PVY gave
results similar to those with PLRV.

Yield / plant
(mean of 120 plants)
Treatment

Total

Marketable

A. Healthy plants
adjacent to
healthy

590

578

B. Diseased adjacent
to healthy

198 (-66)a

188 (-67)

C. Healthy adjacent
to diseased

714 (+ 21)

697 (+ 20)

Mean of B and C

456 (-23)

443 (-23)

a Numbers in parentheses indicate percentage


of reductions or increases compared with treatment A .

68

VARIABILITY OF POTATO
VIRUSES

Potato virus Y isolates PVY-GL, pyyc_


AB , and PVY- UF , previously reported in
the literature as deviating strains of PVY,
have been characterized as potato virus V
(PW). These three isolates were inoculated mechanically or grafted onto sources
of Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum
tuberosum ssp. andigena, the two sources
of immunity available at CIP for PVY.

Sources from S. stoloniferum were im- the microtiter plates increased the sensimune to all the isolates tested. Sources tivity of ELISA for detecting both PLRV
of immunity from S. tuberosum ssp. andi- and PVY. These modifications resulted
gena were hypersensitive to these isolates in a 30/o increase in sensitivity over the
when graft-inoculated, indicating a geno- standard detection procedures for PLRV.
During the year, 40 ELISA and 30
typic difference between these sources of
latex kits for detection of potato viruses
resistance to PVY.
PVV isolates can be easily confused in 100,000 samples were sent to more
with PVY or PV A isolates unless sero- than 22 developing countries on request.
logical identification tests are done. The This represented a 100-fold increase over
symptoms caused in potato by PVV and the samples tested serologically in 1984
in other indicator host plants commonly by national programs. The short quesused for PVY resemble symptoms of tionnaires filled in by kit users indicated
pyyo infection. Studies on the biologi- good-to-excellent results and a demand
cal and serological properties of PVV in for more kits in the future .
comparison to a wide range of PVY isoExperiments were performed to comlates and other related potyviruses indi- pare the routine procedure of latex sencated that PVV is a strain of Peru tomato sitized with whole gamma globulins with
virus (PTV). The PTV-type strain, how- latex sensitized with fractions of these
ever, does not infect the potato.
gamma globulins (F(ab) 2 fragments). The
latter procedure resulted in five times
greater sensitivity. The modification is
TECHNIQUES FOR DIAGNOSING
laborious but can be advantageous when
VIRUS AND VIROID INFECTIONS
high sensitivity is required or when the
Serological testing for PLRV. This virus antiserum quality is poor.
Nucleic acid spot hybridization (NASH)
generally occurs in very low concentrations in the potato plant, making diag- for detecting potato spindle tuber viroid
nosis difficult . We therefore attempted (PSTV). The introduction of the NASH
to increase the sensitivity of ELISA for test for detecting PSTV has obviated the
detecting PLRV by changing the sample need for the tomato-electrophoresis test.
extraction buffers and slightly modifying By means of the NASH test, the numthe existing procedure. The use of 0.16 M ber of samples tested at CIP for PSTV
citrate phosphate buffer pH 7 .0 (CP), in- increased from 5000 in 1984 to 35,000
stead of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), in 1985 (Fig. 2). The NASH test also enresulted in greater sensitivity of PLRV de- abled us to help national programs check
tection in tomato (Lycopersicon esculen- their materials against PSTV infection by
tum); however, CP buffer was not suitable receiving spotted membranes sent to CIP
for PLRV detection in potatoes. Decreas- for testing. The sensitivity of the NASH
ing the concentration of each PVP-40 test and its ability for mass indexing
and ovalbumin from 2/o to 0.2/o in the helped us to guarantee the health of CIP's
PBS extraction buffer increased the sen- exported and imported germplasm.
The experiments we performed indisitivity of ELISA for detecting PLRV in
S. tuberosum. Postincubation of gamma cated that the use of chloroform-phenol
globulin-coated plates with 3/o bovine in the extraction buffer is indispensable
serum albumin (BSA) for 30minutes prior for the success of the NASH test. The
to loading the sap sample into the wells of sample-spotted nitrocellulose membranes

69

No. of samples

36,000

34,000

26,000t

Tomato test
Electrophoresis
NASH

24,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

Years
Figure 2. Number of samples tested for potato
spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) over a seven-year
period.

remained stable for more than 14 months


at room temperature. Membranes subjected to -15 C for 24 hours immediately followed by a 24-hour exposure to
37 C remained stable. In potato tubers,
the NASH test facilitated PSTY detection
in sprouts irrespective of location, however in dormant tubers only the apical region of the tuber flesh should be used for
detection.
Producing antisera for developing countries. The two approaches CIP implemented to help national programs produce their own antisera have been successful. In the first approach, where a
country is selected from each region to
produce antisera for other countries of
the region, activities in Colombia (Region I) , Brazil (Region II) , and Tunisia
(Region Y) progressed well during the
year. Tunisia is entering the second phase
and will soon produce antisera for pota-

70

to viruses . Brazil and Colombia have produced antisera for PVS , PYX, and PVY.
Based on CIP technology, Brazil has also
produced and distributed to local seed
growers a latex-sensitized kit for detection of these viruses.
In the second approach, organizations
such as th e national program of INIPA
(Peru) and the country network PRECODEPA (Central America-Caribbean) produce their own antisera using CIP facilities. INIPA is already using the antisera
produced for them, while a major portion
of the antisera needed by PRECODEPA
has already been produced.
Identification of other virus diseases.
A flexuous virus, 750 nm long and code
named SB-20, was isolated from wild potatoes collected in Uruguay . This virus
did not react with any antisera available
at CIP, therefore experiments are underway to identify and characterize SB-20.
A bacilliform virus, existing in different sizes and code named SB-22, was isolated from the asymptomatic potato cultivar Ticahuasi, grown in Canete on the
coast of Peru. In many indicator plants
the virus caused a latent infection except
in Physalis floridana and Nicotiana glutinosa, which reacted with a mosaic. Light
and electron microscopic studies of infected P. floridana revealed the presence
of virus inclusion bodies in the epidermal and mesophyll cells (Fig. 3). Virus
SB-22 has been purified and an antiserum
produced.

TRAINING
CIP has continued its assistance to developing countries that have , or are establishing, national seed production programs. Scientists from various countries
have been trained at CIP in serological
detection of virus diseases, as well as
in other virological techniques such as

Figure 3 . Light microscopy of the leaf mesophyll S. tuberosum clone DT0-28


infected with virus SB-22 stained with Azure A, showing inclusion bodies (I),
nucleus (N), and cell wall (CW). Magnification X 3600.

virus purification and electrophoresis and


NASH for PSTV detection.
During the year, eight scientists from
Latin America, two from the Caribbean,
three from Europe, six from Asia, and one
from New Zealand were trained at CIP
headquarters. Individual training on the

detection of PSTV and serological identification of viruses was given to five scientists from Latin America and three from
the Indian subcontinent. These scientists
are working in the basic seed programs of
their own countries.

71

THRUST V

Integrated Pest Management

ajor emphasis was placed on screening potato genotypes for resistance


to nematode and insect pests. Through advanced selections, 253 clones
representing a wide range of genetic material from wild species were tested
for their reaction to root-knot nematode; all were found to be susceptible.
In Ecuador, resistance to different races of Globodera pallida, the potato cyst
nematode, was found in 39 of 295 clones tested ; 6 of these were selected
for yield and good tuber characteristics. Of 37 clones tested in Peru, 7 were
selected for resistance to potato cyst nematode and for agronomic characters.
Under rustic and diffused-light storage conditions in San Ramon, 43 of
445 clones tested were selected as resistant to potato tuber moth (PTM). In
Colombia, 11 clones were selected with different levels of PTM resistance.
The efficacy of plants-particularly Eucalyptus globulus- as repellent barriers
against PTM infestation was confirmed. The use of sex pheromone traps in
Egypt significantly lowered PTM infestation in the field. In Tunisia, several
formulations of the biological control agent Bacillus thuringiensis and two
synthetic pyrethroids were effective in controlling PTM damage in stored
tubers. Observations on leafminer fly damage in 106 selected clones, fieldevaluated in Lima, revealed a unique resistance mechanism in some clones in
which the eggs were extruded out of the leaf tissue, exposing them to natural
enemies.
Studies on biological control included: improvement in the mass production of the nematode-parasitic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus and the development of a pelletized formulation; investigations on the fungus Beauveria
bassiana as a potential biological control agent for the Andean weevil; and the
development of a mass rearing technique for Dibrachys cavus, a parasitoid of
tuber moth.

Evaluating potato tuber moth damage in rustic stores


at San Ramon, Peru.

73

ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE
by the National Crop Production Center,
Screening for resistance. A total of 192 University of the Philippines at Los Banos,
clones representing hybrids between wild for distribution within the Philippines.
Solanum species, 24 clones from CIP's
In Burundi, the national potato propathogen-tested list, advanced selections gram of ISABU has continued studies
from tuber families, and 37 clones from on the biological control of M. incognita.
the germplasm collection were tested for The site of the 1984 experiment on contheir reaction to the root-knot nematode trol by chemicals and the biological agent
Meloidogyne incognita. All were found (P. lilacinus) was resown with a suscepsusceptible. All seedling progenies from tible pea crop to examine residual efsix different crosses between susceptible fects of the previous treatments but none
and resistant progenitors were found sus- were found. Advanced clones are routineceptible in the testing. This contradicted ly assessed for any possible nematode rethe expected genetic segregation for re- sistance. Some clones such as Montsama,
sistance. In reviewing the background of 720088, Uganda 11 , and Sangema apthe screening process, we noted that the peared best in one trial, but the lower
sources of nematode inoculum were those scores for nematode infection did not
that survived screening tests during the appear to be correlated with a reduction
last four years. Those that were successful in bacterial wilt. The problem of unin attacking resistant plants had the op- even infestation in the test sites is being
portunity to multiply and increase their studied, and 0.032 ha of one terrace is
numbers by successive propagation on po- being uniformly infested by planting tutatoes. It is possible that a new race of M. bers of Kenya Baraka with visible nemaincognita has evolved, hence the discrep- tode symptoms.
Control by soil solarization. The efancies in the expected segregation rate of
resistant progenies. Tests are underway to fectiveness of soil solarization in controldetermine the validity of this hypothesis.
ling nematodes in nursery beds has been
Biological control. Attempts were confirmed previously. Good results were
made to develop techniques for mass pro- obtained at San Ramon and Lima with
duction of the fungus Paecilomyces lila- solarization periods of 15 and 30 days,
cinus by using low-cost waste products as by using new and used transparent plastic
growth media or carriers. Fungal multipli- sheets of various thicknesses (0.05-0.42
cation was highest on chopped corncob mm). The nematode population and root
grit mixed with rice grains or coated with infection were reduced significantly (83wheat flour. Similarly, through a research 97.61o) down to a soil depth of 15 cm.
contract at North Carolina State Univer- The efficiency of solarization increased
sity (U.S.) , pelletized spores of P. lilaci- when layers of plastic sheets with a space
nus have been formulated that remain via- of 30 cm between them were used. Sigble for a long time. Refinement of these nificant raises in soil temperature were reprocesses and identification of the condi- corded as compared to one layer of plastions under which the mass production of tic sheeting (Fig. 1).
the fungus is to take place should provide
the needed information for the economical mass production of this fungus. Com- POTATO CYST NEMATODE
mercial production of the fungus, under Screening for resistance. The high sensithe name BIOCON, is being carried out tivity of the petri dish test for selection
74

Soil tempe rature


80

(OC)

60

40

---..........----_,,,,,,.'
....................... ..
-

........ _ .

/-----.......

60 .3

---........

--

47.5

................. ..

32.2

20

ol__~~~-----'-~~~~..L_~~~~l__~~~__J_~~~~l__~~~__J___j

25

31

28
March

12

April

Soil temperature at 10-cm depth in nursery beds covered with two layers
(.__) and one layer (-)of tra nsparent plastic sheeting, compared with bare ( ..) or
noncovered nursery bed . Lima, Peru, March-April 1985.
Figure 1.

of Globodera pallida-resistant plants was


confirmed in 1984 studies. Some discrepancies with the previously used pot test
were largely due to the new scale used to
measure the resistance-susceptibility plant
reaction (Table 1). The petri dish test
is expected to streamline CIP's breeding
program for G. pallida resistance . The sequential procedure of the screening program (Fig. 2) includes two possible routes:
one is to provide G. pallida-resistant material for the national potato program of
INIPA in Peru, and the other is to export

resistant clones to other national programs


in the regions.
In Ecuador, of the 295 clones tested by
the national potato program of INIAP, 39
were selected for resistance to different
races of G. pallida. Only 6 of the 39 have
been sele cted for their yield and good tuber characteristics. Some of these clones
are now being considered for release as
commercial varieties.
Out of 37 clones tested by the national
program of INIP A for resistance to G.
pallida and agronomic characters, 7 were

Table 1. Types of plant reaction in relation to multiplication rates of potato cyst nematode (Globodera pa/Iida).

Type of
resistance or
susceptibility

Pot test
(cPf/cPi)

Pot test
(ePf /ePi)

Petri
dish test
(O/o female)

Resistance

Total
Partial

1.0
> 1:0

<1
< 1

0.0
0 .1-7.0

Susceptibility

Partial
Total

< 2.0
< 2.0

>1
>1

7.0-14 .0
> 14.0

General
plant
reaction

ePf/ePi =egg multiplication rate.


cPf /cPi =cyst multiplication rate.
O/o female= number of fe males out of 100 larvae.

75

BREEDING

FLOW

Material

Information - - -

~~

Multiplication
~
plot

~
~

___

.....

__.

Yield
trials

383001.4
.8
.20
.41
Regional trials
Farmer trials
Tolerance and resistance
t rials in naturally
infested fields

tra its

Nematode
resistance

c:J

t!J

Agronomic

RESISTANT
VARIETY

Evaluation

El imination

~
~

Figure 2. Diagram for screening and selecting CIP material for resistance to potato cyst nematode {Globodera pa/Iida).

76

selected. Good levels of resistance and


good agronomic characteristics were confirmed in 3 (279139 .5, 279142.12, and
276008.16) out of 9 clones that had been
selected previously in Peru.
Identification of populations. Fifteen
potato cyst nematode populations, collected in the potato-growing areas of the
central Andean region of Peru, showed
predominance of G. pallida, but also the
presence of a mixed population of G.
rostochiensis , which represents the first
record of this species in that area. In
studying the races of these nematodes,
using cyst nematode multiplication rates
( cPf/cPi) on different clones, we found the
following G. pallida races: P 1 B (6.70/o),
P2 A (6.7/o) , P3 A (6.7/o), P4 A (40.0/o),
P5 A (33.2/o), and a mixed population of
R 1 A (6.7/o).
A new set of standard potato hostdifferentials were selected to determine
the races of G. pallida by developing preliminary modifications of the existing
classification scheme. G. pal!ida (P4 A and
P5 A) resistant clones, 278096.10 and
280090.10, were included as new host
differentials (Table 2). Solanum vernei
(VI)n 62.33.3 was replaced due to its

poor growth and lack of adaptability to


diverse climatological conditions.
Biological control. Over 50 fungal species were isolated from soil samples and
cysts of G. pallida and G. rostochiensis
collected in Arequipa, Peru. Over 54/o
of the fungal species belong to the genus
Penicillium . Several experiments are in
progress to determine the role of these
fungi as possible biocontrol agents of potato cyst nematode.

ROOT-LESION NEMATODE
The susceptible cultivar Revoluci6n and
15 selected clones (resistant to other nematodes) were tested in Lima for their reaction to the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus flakkensis. Eleven clones were
either tolerant or resistant.
In the presence of P. fiakkensis, the
wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum developed faster and was more severe than in treatments with the bacteria
alone. The resistant cultivar Molinera did
not show wilt symptoms at 16-26C
with the bacteria alone, but it became susceptible when the nematode was present.
Attempts were made to develop a

Table 2 . Reaction of a new set of standard potato host-differentials to different races of Globodera
pa/Iida. A modified race classification scheme.

Standard differential plants

S.
S.
S.
S.
S.

tuberosum ssp. tuberosum


multidissectum P55/7
kurtzianum KTT 60.21.19
vernei G LKS 58.1642.4
tuberosum ssp. andigena 278096.10
S. tuberosum ssp. andigena 280090.10

No.
designated to
the differential

Pl-

2
3
4
4,5

+
+
NT
NT

Race designations and their reaction


P2A

P3-

P4 A

P5 A

P6 -

+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+

NT
NT

* Lette r to be designated after the reaction of the nontested plant is determined .


+=indicates cPf/cPi and ePf/ePi > 1.
- =indicates cPf/cPi is equal to or slightly higher than 1, and ePf/ePi is less than 1.
NT= not tested yet.

77

simple extraction method for use in developing countries. The most practical method, although not the most precise, was
a modified Baermann funnel method in
which the funnel was substituted with
a round tray and a plastic ring with the
plastic screen placed at 2 cm above the
bottom of the tray . The soil was then
placed on a facial tissue, which had been
placed over the screen, and water was added to cover the soil. Nematodes were
collected every 2 days for up to 8 days.
POTATO TUBER MOTH

Screening for resistance. Tubers from 445


clones, obtained from crosses using clones
resistant to potato tuber moth (PTM),
were screened in an infested diffused-light
store at San Ramon. Forty-three clones
were selected as resistant to PTM (Phthorimaea operculella). Several techniques
are being evaluated in the laboratory to
determine the nature of PTM resistance.
In Colombia, 37 clones from the national
program of ICA were tested in the laboratory for PTM pupation, 11 were identified as having moderate to high levels of
resistance.
Biological control. At Lima, a parasitoid wasp, Diglyphus sp., an important
larval parasitoid of leafminer fly , was
found parasitizing PTM larvae. Parasitism
of foliar mining PTM larvae ranged from
4/o to 55/o. Mass rearing techniques
have been developed for another wasp,
Dibrachys cavus, an ectoparasitoid of
PTM. This biocontrol agent is maintained
on Sitotroga sp . larvae, a pest of stored
wheat. An entomophilic nematode , Neoplectana carpocapsae, that was multiplied
using Galeria sp. larvae, was tested under
laboratory and field conditions for PTM
control. In the laboratory tests, the nematodes were very effective in causing PTM
larval mortality. In the field , PTM ropu78

lations and damage were too low to permit a proper evaluation of this nematode.
Control with sex pheromones. A less
expensive, unpurified sex pheromone,
PTM 1 + PTM 2 at 1. 25 mg loading per
dispenser in a 2 :3 ratio , was found to be
as effective as the purified pheromone in
trap capture. A microencapsulated pheromone spray, formulated in collaboration
with Imperial Chemical Industries (U.K.)
was tested in diffused-light stores at San
Ramon at 0.261o, applied four times at
one-month intervals. Mating disruption
was over 95/o. Larval population in
pheromone-treated stores was reduced significantly (1.8 vs. 3.0 larvae in untreated
stores). Tuber damage was reduced by
15/o. Tuber protection, however, was
not total as stores were not completely
mothproofed to avoid entry of mated females from outside .
Control of PTM in the field by sex
pheromone traps was studied in two areas
of Egypt - Minia (upper) and Kalubiah
(delta)-during the spring season. Ten
pheromone traps per one feddan plot
(about 0.04 ha) were used. The percentage of infested tubers at harvest in Kalubiah was 8.6/o in the treatment field
and 27.5/o in the control field ; the figures for Minia were comparable at 10.6/o
in treated and 31. 2/o in untreated fields.
Significant differences were recorded also
in tomato fruit infestation but not on
eggplants.
Control in stores. Repellent plant barriers and insecticides were tested for PTM
control in Huancayo, San Ramon, and
Lima. The predominant PTM species were
Symmetrischema plaesiosema in Huancayo, and P. operculella in San Ramon and
Lima. In Huancayo, dried crushed leaves
of Eucalyptus globulus, layered at 2 cm
and 1 cm over tubers, and the insecticide
Phenthoate were the most effective treatments. In San Ramon and Lima, a layer

Table 3. Effect of Phenthoate insecticide and


insect-repellent plants on Phthorimaea opercufella damage in stores, San Ramon.
Tubers
damageda

Sprouts
damaged

Treatmenta

(O/o)

(O/o)

Ph e nthoate

36.3 e

44.22 d

29.6
29.9
17.8
13.5

cde
de
abc
a

14.30 abc
15.20 abc
1.42 a
3.45 a

24.2 abc
19.8 abc
17.1 ab

26.00 c
14.17 abc
7.75 ab

Barley straw
0.5cm
1.0cm
2.5 cm
5.0 cm

39.8
40.3
25.3
27.5

21 .25 be
12.72 abc
11.77abc
12.62 abc

Control

90.0 f

Eucalyptus globulus

0.5 cm
1.0cm
2.5cm
5.0cm
Lantana camara

0.5cm
1.0cm
2.5 cm

c
c
bd
bed

58.27 d

a Dried crushed weeds were used to cover stored

tubers at the depths indicated (cm).


bMeans followed by different letters withi n each
column are significantly different at the 50/0
level.

of 2.5 cm or thicker of E. globulus or


Lantana camara was effective in controlling P. operculella, but Phenthoate gave
poor control (Table 3).
In Tunisia, other methods of control
tested at Saida included biological control with Bacillus thuringiensis and chemical control with two synthetic pyrethroids, Deltamethrine and Permethrine.
PTM damage on stored tubers from an
early harvest with low initial infestation
( l.61o) was well controlled with Bacillus
application, while the same control agent
did not sufficiently control PTM damage
on stored tubers from a late harvest with
a high initial infestation (25.1/o). Therefore , the use of this biological control
agent must be integrated with an early

harvest for effective PTM control. Formulations of the two synthetic pyrethroids
also gave excellent control of PTM damage in stored tubers, with no increase in
infestation on the early harvested crop
and only slight increase in the already severely damaged tubers.
Population dynamics/ economic injury
levels. The results of 1985 studies on the
population dynamics and economic damage caused by PTM in Tunisia confirmed
previous findings that harvest must be
timed carefully to maximize yield and to
have, at the same time, a low initial PTM
infestation in tubers. During the 1985
main season crop at the Saida site, tuber
bulking cease d in early June. Crops harvested at that time had a low level of initial infestation in the tubers, and subsequent PTM damage evolved slowly while
these tu be rs were being stored for consumption. Delaying the harvest beyond
early June would, therefore, be uneconomical since 1) the higher initial infestation lead to higher storage losses from
PTM damage, and 2) a later harvest did
not increase tuber yields. To demonstrate
these differences, samples of potatoes
from the same field were harvested May
25, June 5, and June 18 and stored in
traditional dark stores (in heaps covered
with a layer of straw) for three months.
By September 11, the sample from the
first two harvest dates showed less than
10/o tuber damage , whereas the sample
harvested on June 18 contained 82/o
damaged tubers.
LEAFMINER FLY

Screening for resistance. A t otal of 106


CIP pathogen-tested clones were evaluated in the field at Lima for leafminer fly
(Liriomyza huidobrensis) damage. Oviposition was usually inside the leaf tissue .
In a few of the resistant clones the eggs

79

were observed to be extruding out of the


leaf tissue thereby exposing them to natural enemies; the percentage of eggs extruded was over 80/o. Larval antibiosis
(effect of resistant clones on larval mortality) is being studied in these selected
clones.
Biological control. Parasitoids acting as
important biological control agents of the
larval and pupal stages ofleafminer fly included Chrysocharis sp., Ganaspidium sp.,
and Opius sp. Parasitism by these natural
enemies was monitored on unsprayed potatoes planted during June, July, August,
and September at Lima. Parasitism was
initially low (12/o) in June, however, it
reached 75/o during the later period of
September.

ANDEAN WEEVILS

Screening for resistance. A laboratory


screening method to identify resistance
against the Andean weevil Premnotrypes
suturicallus has been developed at CIP.
Weevils collected from the field at Huancayo readily lay eggs when maintained at
10 C in a refrigerator. First instar larvae
hatching from these eggs are used to infest
tubers placed in plastic containers. This
test eliminates escapes found under field
conditions. There appears to be no correlation between foliar damage by adult
feeding versus tuber damage by larvae.
Biological control. A fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vaillemin, was
found infecting the weevil population in
Huancayo (Concepcion area). Infection
reached 60/o of the weevil population,
including adults, larvae, and pupae. In
greenhouse tests at Lima, 34/o adult mortality was observed. Further field tests,
using this fungus for weevil control, are
underway in Huancayo.
Socioeconomic studies. In the highlands of Peru, studies were conducted in
80

relation to farmers' perceptions of insect


pest problems and their pest management
strategies. Most of the farmers recognized
common key pests such as Andean weevils, noctuid worms, and tuber moths,
as well as large, highly distinctive insects
such as blister beetles. Many confused the
various lepidopterous larvae, but clearly
recognized different types of damage.
Leaf-infesting insects such as Diabrotica
spp., aphids, leafhoppers, and thrips are
regarded as serious pests but only in certain areas and years. The importance of
insects as disease vectors and the role of
natural enemies do not seem to be part
of common traditional knowledge among
highland farmers.
The intensification of potato production methods and the rapid growth in
urban demand, plus other changes in the
structure of the rural economy, have led
to the introduction of new potato varieties, chemical fertilizers, and other purchased inputs. Fallow periods have been
reduced and a range of traditional cultural practices has been simplified. Pesticides are increasingly used as a kind of
insurance to protect the cash investment
in production. This process of intensification is more advanced in the Mantaro Valley than in Cuzco (Fig. 3). The cost of
applied chemicals varies over a wide range,
from US$18. 00 per hectare for a single
dusting of Aldrin to over US$150.00 for
soil application of carbofuran plus four or
five sprays. Expenditures on insecticides
are correlated with the use of chemical
fertilizers.
The single, most important source of
information about pesticides in Peru is
radio advertising by chemical companies
followed by the recommendations of sales
people. Observations suggest that integrated pest management programs - combining adaptations of traditional cultural
practices and the rational use of pes-

Percent of farm families who consume all or most


of their potato production in the home
Percent of farmers who sell a significant proportion
of their potato harvest
Percent of farmers who hire in significant amounts
of labor
Percent of farmers who plant at least part of their
land with improved potato varieties
Percent of farmers who use chemical fertilizers
Percent of farmers who use some form of chemical
pest control
Percent of farmers who treat seed before planting
Percent of farmers who apply insecticide to the soil
at time of planting
Pe rce nt of farmers who spray or dust their plants
at least once during the growing season

---o
....------o

. . - - -- - - - - - 0

.----------o

.---------<O

.-------~o

.--------0

One spray application

Two spray applications


Three spray applications
Four spray applications
Five or more spray applications

Mantaro Valley;

= Cuzco

25

50

75

100

Percent of cases

Figure 3 . A survey of potato production and pest control practices used by 49 farmers in the
Mantaro Valley (central highlands) and 33 farmers in the Cuzco area (southern highlands), Peru .

ticides - could significantly reduce both


risks and costs for many Andean smallscale farmers.
TRAINING

Entomologists from countries in North,


West, and Central Africa, where tuber
moth is considered a serious problem, attended a course in Tunisia on the biology

of PTM and integrated methods for control in the field and stores. The control
methods taught had already been developed as a result of research conducted in
North Africa during the past two years.
At CIP headquarters in Peru, individual
training concentrated on nematology for
researchers in Latin American countries,
with six researchers receiving a total of 40
weeks of training in 1985.
81

THRUST VI

Warm Climate Potato Production

n combination with mulching, the application of all nitrogen at planting in contrast to the customary side-dressing of a split-nitrogen application
performed approximately four weeks after planting - obviates the need for
hilling-up and therefore reduces the possible entry of bacterial wilt and other
pathogens into the potato crop. Research on optimizing irrigation practices
has helped to maximize potato yield in warm climates. Water requirements
for maximum growth in warm climates have been quantified.
Planting of a 9: 1 mixture of potato: maize proved to be the most beneficial
association of potato and maize when planted simultaneously. Equidistant
spacing between maize plants in the mixed plots gave minimum clustering and
therefore maximum shading late in the potato crop cycle . The incidence of
several pests and diseases, including bacterial wilt and potato tuber moth, was
reduced in this intercropping system. The next stage prior to adoption of this
practice is the selection of genotypes adapted to shade in the 9: 1 regime.
Lack of seed tubers and limitations of farm space are two major constraints to warm climate potato production. A new, intensive low-input system with little or no reliance on seed tubers has been developed that can
satisfy year-round production needs for a six-member family. The system is
based on use of stem cuttings or seedlings from true potato seed. Progeny
testing of second generation clones in Peru has reemphasized the value of
LT-7 and 7XY.l as parents in breeding potatoes for warm, humid conditions.
Two new clones, 377887.35 and 377904.10, also emerged as good parents on
the basis of their high-yielding first generation clones.
Intensive large-scale screening of heat-tolerant materials with promising selections for the lowland tropics has continued in countries of West and Tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, Non-Andean Latin America, and the Caribbean .

Potato being harvested from a mixed crop of potato


and maize in Cameroon.

83

AGRONOMIC STUDIES
Emphasis during 1985 was placed on the
search for heat-adapted clones and agronomic practices that reduce heat , drought,
nutrient and disease stresses. With this
shift in emphasis away from the successful manipulation of the physical microenvironment of the potato crop , much
preliminary data has been generated by
studies on efficient use of other limiting
variables present under high temperature
conditions.
Nitrogen (N) studies. The general recommendation to apply mulch at the time
of planting to improve crop emergence and
establishment in warm climates has one
disadvantage: the mulch material makes
it difficult to side-dress a split N application. Experiments were conducted at
Lima (summer) and San Ramon (dry season) to verify whether it was necessary to
split N fertilizer applications. In the same
experiments we also wanted to quantify
the possible benefit of delaying the characteristic rapid senescence that follows
achievement of complete crop cover in
warm climates.
At Lima, 160 kg/ ha N (as urea) was
either applied at planting (0 days after
planting= 0 DAP), or split into two (0
and 25 DAP) , three (0, 25, and 40 DAP) ,
or four (0, 25, 40, and 55 DAP) equal
fractions and applied accordingly. Splitting the N applications had no significant
effect on interception of light energy over
the crop cycle (ranging from 700 to 812
MJ/ m 2 ), nor did they affect tuber yield
at 80 days (Table 1). Sequential harvests
prior to natural senescence showed, however, that maximum yield was achieved at
70 days by the treatment with all N applied at planting. Single or two-way split
N applications led to a greater tuber light
use efficiency (LUE= dry weight of tubers per unit intercepted light energy (Table 1)) than splitting into three or four
84

Table 1. Effect of nitrogen (N) applications on


tuber yield at 60, 70, and 80 days after planting, and on the efficiency of conversion of intercepted light energy to tuber dry matter ('b').
No . split
applications

60d

70d

80 d

Efficiency 'b'
(g/MJ)
0.89

Harvest date

18.11

33.90

30.41

16.54

31.03

27 .71

0.84

15.47

28.30

28.25

0.70

19.93

26.27

29.91

0.64

SEO for tuber yield within a column= 3.31.

applications. This was due mainly to the


earlier achievement of maximum tuber
yield in the former two treatments.
Data from a similar experiment in San
Ramon (using amonium nitrate as the
source of N) also indicated that there was
no benefit for tuber yield by splitting N
applications. For the soil characteristics
of these two experiments (Lima-Entisol,
San Ramon-Oxisol), application of all N
fertilizer at planting was satisfactory. In
combination with mulching, the application of all N at planting would obviate
the need to hill-up and would therefore
reduce the possible entry of bacterial wilt
or other pathogens into the crop.
Water requirements. Quantity, and
temporal distribution of water a~e major
determinants for the achievement of high
yields. Data collected from rainfed experiments in Peru indicated that 80 mm
of water is required during the first 15
days of the potato crop to achieve maximum yields in a warm climate . The present studies have concentrated on two
complementary approaches to optimize
the use of irrigation water by potato in
warm climates and to simultaneously generate data on water requirements for
maximum growth.
The first approach, at Lima during the
summer, used the line-source sprinkler

Figure 1. Harvest of a I ine-source irrigation experiment, Lima (summer).


tuber yield (right) closer to the sprinkler line.

system (Fig. 1). This comprises single,


isolated irrigation lines, with sprinklers
sufficiently close within the line to create
decreasing water application rates perpendicular to each line , with minimum variation in water application rates parallel to
the line. Varying amounts of irrigation
water may be applied with the same temporal frequ ency. The second approach,
carried out at Los Banos in the Philippines, was based on fixed irrigation frequency as the basic treatment, but maintained the same quantity of water applied
at each irrigation. Thus, infrequently irrigated treatments also received less irrigation.
Data from Lima indicated that an application of at least 400 mm of water was
required for maximum light interception
by potatoes throughout the season (Fig.
2), and that less water resulted in reduced
leaf expansion. There was, however, a
linear response of tuber yield to applied

Note the high

water beyond the amount necessary for


complete cover (Fig. 2). This suggests, in
contrast to data from most temperate climate studies, that the tuber LUE was reduced even at water levels sufficient for
maximum light interception. Total dry
matter LUE over the eight-week period
following planting was also reduced by
approximately 25/o over the range 425285 mm of applied water. When water
use efficiencies (WUE =mm water applied
to produce one t /ha fresh tuber) were
calculated, we found that heat-adapted
clones were most efficient in treatments
receiving the highest rates of water (1520 mm/ t) , compared to 30 mm / t in treatments receiving the least water. Less
canopy cover and a lower LUE would
have led to such decreases in WUE when
water was limiting, despite marginally
higher harvest indices. In temperate climates drought stress has not generally
been reported to reduce LUE, but in
85

Intercepted radiation (MJ / m 2 )

1200

0
1000

= 3.37x -

r2

= 0.40

701.2

0
0

800

0
0

600

0
0

400

= 1049.3-0.16x

r2

=n.s.

200

400

300

500

600

700

Tuber yield (g / m 2 dry weight)

500

400

300

200

y = 0.901x - 244.8

r 2 = 0.794

100

300

400

500

600

700

Irrigation water applied (mm)

Figure 2. Relationship between intercepted radiation or tuber yield and the


amount of water applied during the growing cycle of the variety Revoluci6n
during the summer, Lima.

warm climates the adverse effect of severe


leaf heating, when stomates close under
drought stress, might damage the photosynthetic apparatus and reduce rates of
photosynthesis even with a return to favorable soil moisture conditions.

86

In the Philippines, the yield of lowland potatoes was improved by applying


sprinkler irrigation at intervals of 4, 8,
and 12 days when compared to a nonirrigated control. Yields without mulching were highest at the 4-day intervals (27

t/ha, receiving 468 mm total water), but


at both 8 (13 .5 t/ha, 268 mm) and 12
(11 t/ha, 208 mm) day intervals there was
an increase of approximately 7 t/ha with
the addition of mulch. At the 4-day and
nonirrigated treatments (7 t/ha, 78 mm)
there was no significant benefit of mulch
in increasing yield.
Light, temperature, and intercropping.
Earlier work illustrated the beneficial
association between potato and maize
planted simultaneously and systematical-

O/o yield relative


to sole crop
120

80
60
40
20
10
~0
0 --~~~~~1Lo~~~~~-2Lo....:.::;J~

Maize in mixture
(O/o total population)

Mean night soil


temperature (OC)

Figure 5. Effect of maize population on relative yields of potato and maize grown as sole
and mixed crops in a farmer 's field, San Ramon.
O
Desiree (sole crop yield 11.5 t/ha); 6
Mariva (8.6 t/ha); o
Revoluci6n (6.2 t/ha);
maize (5.7 t / ha).

25

0
24

23

potato alone

9:1 mixture

t::..

4:1 mixture

maize alone

22

D
t:..

21
0

L "'

= 13.98 + 0.31x
r 2 = 0.743**

,__2~2~~2~4~~2~6~~2~8~--'3L-.0~3~2

Mean day soil temperature (C)


Figure 3 . Relationship between mean day
(0800-1800 h) and night (1800-0800 h) soil
temperatures at 7-cm depth as modified by
shade treatments.

Light interception (O/o)


by maize
90

y
60

= 13.98 + 0.31x

r2 =

0.743**

30

30
28
24
22
Mean day soil temperature (C)

32

Figure 4.
Mean day soil temperature (7-cm
depth) as a function of light interception by
maize, 70 days after planting.

ly at a proportion of 9: 1 to give mm1mum clustering and maximum shading


late in the potato crop. Recent work at
San Ramon has extended the range of
planting proportions and tested clonal
response to shade. It was evident that at
maize plantings denser than 9: 1, day and
night soil temperatures under senescing
potato plants were less than those of 9: 1
(Fig. 3). Maize intercepted up to 40/o of
the incoming light energy by 70 days at
the 4 : 1 population (Fig. 4); thus, maize
yields were favored at the expense of potato tuber yield at that population (Fig.
5). The optimum proportion of potato:
maize still appears to be 9: 1, which reduced light energy received by potato
later in the potato crop by approximately
201o-a value similar to that found when
potatoes were successfully grown beneath
coconuts palms (1979 Annual Report).
There were differential yield responses
to shade in the testing done at Lima and
87

San Ramon . At Lima, yields of DT0-33


were greater (7 .6/o) and those of LT-1
less (27/o) in a 9: 1 mixture than in sole
plots. Similarly, at San Ramon the cultivar Desiree was more tolerant to shade
than either Mariva or Revoluci6n (Fig. 5).
Clonal response to shade is now being
screened using the 9: 1 proportion of
potato: maize, since this has given the
most consistent result in terms of potato
tuber yield.
The incidence of Pseudomonas solanacearum at Yurimaguas, Phthorimaea
operculella at Lima, and Colapis chlorotis at San Ramon was reduced in potato
intercropping experiments, thus biological control is an added benefit for the potato when intercropped with maize.

transplanted to seedling trays containing


an acid soil low in soil phosphorous and
inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Infection of nonrooted cuttings was more effective in all but two clones. Differences
between infection rates ranged from 20/o
to 100/o, with Desiree, Rosita, I-931 ,
and Mariva all having more than 80/o
infection. Data from an experiment comparing the relative effectiveness of inoculation versus liming under acid soil conditions are being analyzed. Native isolates
of mycorrhiza have been collected over
an area of diverse soil and climatic conditions in Peru . These isolates are under pot
evaluation for infectivity and their specificity of performance in various soil types,
with the objective of identifying widely
adapted ecotypes.

SOIL MANAGEMENT
Collaborative work on problematical soils
was carried out with the Soils Department of the National Agrarian University
in Lima. With an acid clay loam (pH=
4.3 , CEC = 5.42meq / 100 g, lo Al saturation of CEC = 2/o), fresh tuber yield was
increased in a greenhouse trial through applications of magnesium (83-106 g/ plant
over the range 0-80 ppm MgO). There was
also a marked response in the same soil to
liming: 0, 2, and 4 meq Ca/ 100 g soil gave
68, 117, and 128 g/ plant, respectively.
Fertilizer application at the equivalent of
0, 80, 160, and 240 kg/ha of N, P2 0 5 ,
and K 2 0 resulted in tuber yields of 61 ,
81 , 114, and 160 g/ plant, respectively. A
positive interaction between liming and
fertilization was observed in the same experiment.
In the absence of liming, establishment
of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum through inoculation may enable
the root system to adequately function
under low pH conditions. Fifteen clones,
as cuttings with and without roots, were

88

PRODUCTION STRATEGIES
Sequential potato production. Limited
field space and lack of seed tubers are
two factors that limit the potential success and expansion of potato cultivation
in warm climates. Research at San Ramon on alternative intensive, low-input
systems suitable for year-round production to satisfy a six-member family, with
little or no reliance on seed tubers, has
given promising results. The performance
of seedlings from true potato seed (TPS)
and stem cuttings derived from mother
plants, transplanted into rustic nursery
beds containing 701o soil and 30/o forest humus, were compared with that of
seedling tubers. The cuttings were harvested and rooted every seven days in
four consecutive harvests. Better rooting
and earlier establishment of cuttings were
obtained with DT0-28, DT0-33 , and Desiree, even in the absence of rooting hormones. Tuber yield from stem cuttings
reached 9. 2 kg/m 2 of nursery bed, whereas the yield from TPS seedlirigs was 9.45

kg/ m 2 , and seedling tubers 10.37 kg/m 2 .


The proportion of tubers greater than
3.5 cm diameter was considerably greater
from cuttings (72-92/o) than TPS or seedling tubers (58-83/o).
In comparison of rustic structures for
the intensive production of potato from
cuttings or TPS, tuber yields from nursery beds (7.76 kg/m 2 ) surpassed those
from overlaid frames ( 4.61 kg/m 2 ), cylinders with plants planted in a spiral arrangement on the outside (4.64 kg/ m 2 ) ,
or deep planting in holes with periodic
earthing (2.31 kg/m 2 ). The methodologies of production in nursery beds are
now being refined to maximize production throughout the year. Seedlings of
the TPS progeny Atzimbax R128.6 were

transplanted in a monthly sequence to


2-m 2 nursery beds belonging to three
farmers in San Ramon. The average
monthly total yields ranged from 8.1 to
10.6 kg of tubers greater than 3.5 cm
diameter. This illustrated the usefulness
of the sequential system in providing a
continuous supply of potatoes for small
rural families.
Sources of seed tubers. In certain warm
areas of the world, where cheap, reliable
supplies of seed tubers are not available,
potato cultivation may have to rely on
continuous recycling of seed tubers produced and stored in warm climates.
Experiments were designed to provide
information on yield decline in the sequential plant/store/plant cycle at two of

Growth analysis of potato plants includes separation


of the plant into its component parts.
89

Table 2. Fresh tuber yields (TY g/m 2 ) and percent commercial -sized tubers ( 0 /o COM > 3.5 cm) of
six clones planted at San Ramon and Lima, with tuber seed from two origins.

San Ramon

Origin of tuber seed

Clone

TY

O/o

0 /o

San Ramon

Huancayo
COM

TY

/o

COM

1. Desiree

1964

96 .1

1619

91.2

2. DT0-33
3. LT-1

1747

92.0

1276

85.8

1643
2622

96.4
92.9

970
1839

2489

96.4

1357

93.7

4 . 871-240.2
5. CGN 69-1
6. 278072.10

Reduction due
to replanted seed

TY

O/o

COM

18
27

5
7

96.3

40

90.9

30

SEO (clones 1- 4) : for TY, between origin means= 176, between variety means= 191; for 0 /o COM,
between site means= 2.04, between variety means= 1.14.
Dashes (-) indicate no data available.

Lima

Origin of tuber seed


Huancayo

Clone

TY

1249
2108
1971

88.0
87.6
92.8

2548
2357
203

3157
3608

91 .6
92.1

3059
4238

93 .1
95.3

4270

91.3
58.1

3124

O/o

TY

1. Desiree

5. CGN 69-1
6 . 278072.10

Reduction due
to replanted seed

/o COM

2. DT0-33
3. LT-1
4 . 871-240.2

O/o
Lima
COM

TY

0 /o

COM

60
42

4
5

91 .9

36
40

88.2

45

42.3

94

27

SEO (clones 1-6) : for TY, between origin means=597, between variety means=204, between
any two means= 500; for 0 /o COM, between site means= 2.0, between variety means= 1.4, between any two means= 3.4.

CIP's warm sites, San Ramon and Lima.


Yield decline was measured against tuber
yield of freshly introduced, good quality
seed tubers. Although the objective was
to study physiological decline in seed tuber quality, this cannot be separated from
pathological decline. Therefore, general
virus resistance in clones adapted to warm
climates is of particular importance. The
data from the first replanting of seed
produced at San Ramon (Table 2) and
replanted two months after harvest indicated an 18-40/o yield reduction and
0-7/o reduction in the proportion of
commercial size tubers with marked differences between clones (Table 2). Reductions in yield (36-941o) and the com90

mercial proportion of yield (0-27/o) were


even greater at Lima (Table 2).
SCREENING AND SELECTION
FOR HEAT TOLERANCE

Peru. The efficiency of light interception,


LUE , and harvest index should be improved to increase tuber yields in warm
climates. Data from Huancayo and San
Ramon indicated that short leaf longevity (15 vs. 5 0 days in warm vs. cool field
conditions), less leaf growth after tuber
initiation, and an earlier onset of senescence in warm climates all contributed to
short canopy duration following tuber initiation. Therefore , light interception and

tuber growth were restricted. Selection


for faster rates of leaf appearance and expansion and delayed senescence may lead
to yield improvements. Preliminary results already show a good correlation between yellowing of leaf discs at high temperatures and a known lack of tolerance
to heat susceptibilities. Similarly, an inverse relationship was found between dry
weight production per plant and thermostability of cell membranes (as measured
by ion leakage of cell discs) at high temperatures (35 C day, 22 night).
Progeny testing of second generation
clones at Yurimaguas has reiterated the
breeding value of LT-7 and 7XY.l as parents, and two new clones, 377887.35 and
377904.10, emerged as good parents in a
sample of 700 first generation clones. At
San Ramon, 1100 first generation clones
were evaluated at three harvest dates. Five
percent of the population was harvested
at 75 days, 20/o at 82 days, and the rest,
whether mature or not, at 90 days. As
expected, the best selected clones from
the last harvest date outyielded the earlier harvested clones: however, one clone
(377935.2xLT-7) from the first harvest
yielded 1650 g/ plant. Further evaluation
of this material is in progress to identify
superior clones with adaptation to warm,
humid conditions.
West Africa. Senegal requires heat tolerance in its potato varieties in order to
cultivate the crop during the warmer seasons (October and April plantings). In
trials carried out by the national agricultural research institute (INRA) , selected
advanced clones were compared with Desin~e during the main season (January
planting). CIP clones LT-5 , LT-6, and
CFK-69.1 had comparable yields to Desin~e with acceptable tuber characteristics.
These selected clones will be tested in October 1985 and April 1986. In another
main season trial (February-April) of cul-

tivars previously selected in 1984, Greta


and DT0 -28 had acceptable yields and
tuber characteristics.
In Togo , 13 of the 89 clones tested for
heat tolerance were retained and will be
incorporated into a cropping sequence to
evaluate the feasibility of producing two
crops annually. Six of these 13 clones
were included in variety trials in September and gave yields between 13 to 17 t/ha.
The highest yield was from AVRDC1287. l 9, a clone which has shown good
heat tolerance in other regions of the
world. The remaining clones will be retested in 1986. In Cameroon, 11 clones
were received in 1985 from CIP's late
blight resistance program and have been
multiplied at the Bambui station of IRA,
together with clean seed of Sangema.
These materials will be stored and used
for variety trials in 1986.
Burundi. On-farm evaluations of ISABU's newly released varieties confirmed
their better yield potential, compared
with that of local varieties. The superiority of Muziranzara, an early bulking
variety, was particularly outstanding (Table 3) .
Far East. Evaluation of germplasm
adapted to warm climates is a major objective of potato research in Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Variety trials
have been conducted by national potato
programs in the lowlands of the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Indonesia, and Fiji. Initial evaluation of a large
range of germplasm, primarily received
from CIP, is being evaluated in the Philippines. In December 1984, five trials were
planted in the Philippine lowlands. Four
of these included 15, 19, 22, and 40 cultivars, and the fifth included 1700 clones
of tuber families .
The two cultivars Serrana and B71240.2 are widely adapted throughout the
Far East, but the lack of seed is a major
91

Table 3. On-farm trials of newly released varieties in Burundi, 1985.


Mean yield (g/ plant)
Test variety

No. trials
harvested

Test
variety

Control
San gem a

Test variety as
O/o Sangema

Muziranzara

15

747

476

Ndinamagara
Kinigi

19

576

157
127

6
20

475

453
353

125

375

Local variety

constraint to increasing their use . To


overcome this problem , great efforts are
being made by the Far Eastern countries
to adopt rapid multiplication techniques.
It is important that the storability of all
selections be tested, since , for example ,
in Vietnam nine months of storage are required from season to season.
In collaborative work with BARI , the
national agricultural research institute
in Bangladesh, five heat-tolerant clones
planted in October and grown under
mulch and high temperature conditions
gave yields from 16.6 to 23 .5 t/ha 65
days after planting. These results indicated that early maturing varieties with
heat tolerance can grow well under warm
climates and help regulate the supply of
potatoes in the markets by spreading the
harvest period.
Non-Andean Latin America and the
Caribbean. In Central America, the Caribbean , and Brazil, several national programs have been seeking ways to produce
potatoes under heat stress conditions. In
Cuba, the Ministry of Agriculture is trying to increase the availability of potatoes
at other times of the year by planting
later in the season (February-March) instead of October-November. Two clones
have been selected from the heat-tolerant
tuber families supplied by CIP and are
being rapidly multiplied by in vitro techniques.

92

135
33

The national programs in the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, and El Salvador
have each been testing a wide range of
heat-tolerant germplasm at altitudes close
to sea level. The Dominican Republic selected clones LT-4 and N.565 .l as a result of tests in 1983 and 1984. A member
of the national team sent to CIP in 1984
for training in rapid multiplication and tissue culture returned home with seven additional clones for multiplication during
the 1985-86 season. In Costa Rica, six
clones were tested at Finca Blanco (80 m).
Temperatures ranged from 21C min to
30 C max in this high rainfall environment with 3460 mm per annum . At harvest (77 days after planting) , DT0-28 was
the highest yielding clone with approximately 10 t/ ha.
In El Salvador, six clones previously
selected for yield and drought tolerance ,
were again tested ; three clones, DT0-33 ,
AVRDC-1287.19, andB71-240.2, were selected for adaptation to warm lowlands
( 460 m). Through collaborative work
with CNPH-EMBRAPA in Brazil, lowland
trials were conducted at the Itaguai Experimental Station near Rio de Janeiro.
A wide range of clones and tuber families
have been tested over the past two seasons, and from the original 1200 clones
tested, 27 were selected. From 34 tuber
families, 4 promising clones have emerged.
In agronomic trials at the same site , yields

improved 70/o due to mulching treatments.


Several clones have shown adaptability to warm lowland conditions worldwide. The most outstanding of these is
the clone B71-240.2, which is being multiplied in China, Dominican Republic,
Peru , Thailand, and Vietnam. It is al-

ready named as a variety in all of these


countries except Thailand and is now
being cultivated by small-scale farmers.
This clone originated from the INT A
breeding program in Argentina with which
CIP has maintained a research contract
for more than a decade.

93

THRUST VII

Cool Climate Potato Production

wo populations developed for genetic tolerance to frost have been improved, one for the Andean region and the other for the non-Andean
region. They will provide a basis for the development of frost-resistant
cultivars in various parts of the developing world . In the populations for the
Andean highland region , frost tolerance is combined with major virus and
cyst nematode resistances. Early maturity is being built into the population
for the tropical and subtropical non-Andean countries where early and late
frosts are problems. Considerable potential for adaptability is indicated in
the frost-resistant population for the non-Andean region. Genotypes within
this population appear to be capable of tuberizing under extremely long days.
Collaborative work in Colombia has resulted in the development of new
clones with excellent frost resistance. In several Andean countries, potentially
valuable clones with resistances to frost and late blight have been selected.
Clones with resistances to cyst nematode and late blight were also identified.
A collaborative project with the national potato program in Chile has strongly
indicated the adaptability of genotypes within the highland tropical population
to long days. Good progress has also been made in the search for nitrogenefficien t clones.

Highland tropic population being tested for frost tolerance


at Usibamba, Peru (3800 m).

95

AND ADAPT ABILITY

Frost tolerance. Two populations are


being developed to provide a base for
selecting frost-tolerant cultivars. In one
population, geared toward the development of improved genetic material for
the Andean highland region, frost tolerance is being combined with resistances
to major virus diseases and cyst nematode.
The second population is being improved
to meet the tuberosum crop standards
in tropical and subtropical non-Andean
countries, where early and late frosts are
problems and early maturity is required.
Advances during 1985 were the result
of successful crosses within both populations, seedling screening below freezing
temperatures, and clonal selection in replicated and nonreplicated trials under frost
and nonfrost conditions. A total of 102
crosses were made, between advanced
sources of frost tolerance and early maturing clones from the population being
developed for the lowland tropics, with a
yield of more than 200,000 seeds. Another 62 intercrosses, between frost resistant sources from the population under improvement for the Andean region,
yielded over 180,000 seeds.
At Lima, 9222 seedlings from the
frost-resistant population for the nonAndean region (FRNA) were screened at
- 3C in a growth chamber with a survival rate of 21.5/o. From the frost-

gion , more than 10,000 seedlings were


screened at - 4C with l 6.31o survival
(Table 1). All survivors were transplanted
to the field at CIP's station in Huancayo
(3200 m) for multiplication and single
plant hill selection at harvest.
Selections in nonreplicated trials included 485 single plant hills in Huancayo,
and 259 selections from ten-hill observation plots tested for frost tolerance in
two other locations, Usibamba (3800 m)
and Puno (3870 m, southern Peru). The
latter location has been established for
the first time in collaboration with the
national potato program of INIPA (Peru) ,
which is highly interested in developing
frost-tolerant cultivars based on the advanced sources developed at CIP. The
extensive area of potato production in
this location (about 30,000 ha) is under
frost stress and is providing us with the
most severe test to select for adequate
cultivars for the Andean region.
Replicated trials included two simple
10 x 10 lattices and two randomized complete block designs of advanced selec- .
tions in Huancayo and Usibamba. Yields
of advanced clones at both Huancayo
and Usibamba were almost 2 kg/ plant,
and the yield averages of all clones in
both locations were over 1.0 kg/ plant.
The average yields of 100 more recently
selected clones in both lattices were 0.97
kg/plant in Huancayo and 1.56 kg/plant

Table 1. Seedling screening.for frost resistance in a growth chamber.


Frost screeninga

-40C/-30C

Survival
rate (O/o)

10,663
9,222

1,742
1,984

16.3
21.5

19,885

3,726

No. families

No.
seedlings

Andean population, 65
Non-Andean population, 55
Total

a Andean population, 2 hat -4DC; non-Andean population, 2 hat_ 3oc .

96

Avg

18.7

A visiting scientist from France is evaluating plant growth of frost-resistant


varieties being grown at Usibamba, Peru (3800 m).

in Usibamba. The yield potential of these


newly selected clones shows a general
trend toward further improvement over
earlier selected clones. The high yields of
clones under selection for frost tolerance
were obt~ined during a year when frost
was not severe at Usibamba. Mild frosts
(- 2 C), recorded in January and March
1985, hardly damaged the clones under
evaluation at that site .
A joint project with the national potato program of ICA in Colombia to develop clones with frost resistance has
given excellent results. The source of resistance came from Solanum acaule, but
new crosses using clones from the Interregional Potato Project (IR-1) collection
in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin (U.S.), have
genes from 11 wild -species incorporated
into their genetic background. Advanced
clones had excellent cooking quality , no
taste of alkaloids, and gave good yields.
Advanced clones from the joint CIP-

ICA project were sent for regional germplasm trials specifically for Andean conditions in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and
Venezuela for selection of clones with
resistances to late blight and frost. Each
country has made initial selections of
potentially valuable clones for comparison with the best local cultivars. In
Ecuador the principal objective of the
trials was to screen clones resistant to
cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis).
Forty-six clones were selected in the first
test and 50/o of these yielded twice that
of the currently used European varieties.
The selected clones from Ecuador also
had a good level of resistance to late
blight. An additional 5000 genotypes
.J.rere introduced into Venezuela specifically for their late blight resistance.
These were derived from S. tuberosum,
S. andigena , and S. phureja parents. The
best ten selections in one trial outyielded
the local varieties Granola and Baraka.
97

Widening adaptability of the frostresistant population. To assess the adaptability of the frost-resistant population
under improvement for the non-Andean
region, we tested a sample of 14 families
and 5 early maturing tuberosum controls
(with no resistance to frost) for tuberization response at 18 hours of day length.
A single leaf-node cutting technique was
used under artificial daylength. There
was on the average a 19/o tuberization
response in the frost-resistant families and
581o in control families (Table 2). However, whole plant tuberization grown at
18-hour daylength from planting to har-

vest yielded a 37/o overall family average for the frost-resistant population and
801o for the control families. Several
specific frost-resistant crosses had a tuberization response as high as 42/o with the
single leaf-node test. These preliminary
results are quite encouraging in providing
frost-resistant genotypes capable of tuberization under extremely long daylengths.
The adaptability potential of this population to a wider range of environments is
evident.
In a collaborative project in Chile, the
national potato program of INIA evaluated the adaptability of the highland

Table 2. Tuberization response of a sample of the frost-resistant populations and early tuberosum
controls to an 18-hour daylength .

Family

Leaf-node
cutting

Whole plant
tuberization

(Cfo)

(O/o)

Frost-resistant population
F6 x ABPT bk
F6 x DT0-28
F7 x DT0-28
375057.9 x bk early
375057 .39 x

18.8
40.6
41.7
20.0

51
73
73
24

0.0

0
55
47

375528.2 x
375596.6 x

21 .9
37.5

377427.1

9.4
6.3
6.3
4.3
18.8

377924.1
379115.2
HFF 2.2
HFF 19.2

x
x
x
x
x

24
28
36
20
36

HFF 21.3 x
HFF 23 .7 x

3.1

25

34.4

29

Average

18.8

37

Serrana x 377904.1 O
377904.10 x Katahdin
(BR-63.74 x Katahdin)9 x 378015.16

37.5
43.8

95
71

87.5

87

377959.9 x 377888.8
378011.23 x (377887.17 x L T7) 21

83.3
37 .5

95
53

Average

57.9

80

Early tuberosum controls

98

Jn Chile, workers of !NIA are harvesting long-day adapted clones from the
highland tropic population.

tropic population to long days, which


resulted in the selection of 32 clones
for local use . Evaluation of the selected
clones in a replicated trial with a density

of 47,619 plants/ha indicated that 72/o


of them had marketable yields equal to or
greater than the local adapted cultivars
(Table 3).
99

Table 3 . Performance of the best ten clones as compared to local controls under long daylengths,
Osorno, Chile (lat. 4005).a

Skin
color

Total
yield
(t/ha)

CIP no.
381079.41

Red / flat

Purple

Cr

77 .6

78.8

381102.13
381127.43

Red / flat

Wh
Wh

71 .8

74.3

Oval

White
Wh ite

69.9

72 .3

381132.21

Oval /flat

Pink

Cr

69.7

71 .1

381114.202

Oval /f lat

Red

Cr

69.4

70.7

380554.130

Oval/flat

Wh / pink eyes

Wh

68.8

69.9

381116.7

Red

Wh / pink eyes

Cr

67 .9

69.1

381081 .21

Red

Cream

Wh

67.4

68.3

381135.3
380553.81

Oval /lo ng
Oval/flat

Russet

Cr
Wh

67 .3
66.3

70.3
67 .1

Wh / pink eyes

Flesh
color

Marketable
yield
(t/ha)

Tuber
shape

Controls

Mirka

Oval /l ong

46 .8

49.3

Oval /lo ng

Cream
Yellow

Cr

Yagana

Cr/Yel

42.7

44.4

Ultimus

Long

Red

Cr

41 .2

44.4

Desiree

Oval / long

Red

Cr

40.2

41 .2

CV (O/o)

15.2

a Data from INIA, Chile.

AGRONOMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL


STUDIES
Soil management. Contract research with
the Soils Department of the National
Agrarian University in Lima is directed
toward determining basic fertilizer requirements for potato in the diverse soils and
environments within Peru. In the Mantaro
Valley, a study was made to measure the
potato plant's efficiency of uptake of
various levels and sources of nitrogen (N).
No difference in tuber yield between
sources of N (urea, ammonium nitrate or
ammonium sulphate) was detected; however, tuber production increased asymptotically over the range 0-240 kg/ha N.
Analysis of the radioactive plant and soil
samples is underway.
A similar experiment was conducted
on the sources and levels of potassium
(K) fertilizer. Tuber yield increased from
35 .4 t/ha without applied K to 45 .7 t/ha

100

with 240 kg/ha K2 0 in the form of potassium chloride, which was a more efficient source of K than potassium sulphate , particularly at the lower levels
(80 and 160 kg/ha) of application.
Earlier work indicated that potassium
may play a role in reducing plant injury
due to frost since concentration of K +
ions was greater in resistant than susceptible clones. In a field study at Usibamba
with three levels of K2 0 (0, 100, 200
kg/ha), and fo ur clones ranging from
highly frost-resistant to susceptible and
maturing in 160 days, a frost at 128 days
damaged leaves of the susceptible clone.
Yield of the susceptible clone was not improved by the higher K rate, suggesting
that under mild conditions of frost, K
fertilizer does not differentially increase
the yield of susceptible clones; however,
its direct fertilizer effect on yield was
observed in all four clones studied.

Clones that gave good yields in low N did


not respond to the higher N rate (Fig. 1).
Some clones were an exception to the
general relationship ; those that yielded
well under low N and responded to the
higher N were of particular interest. The
light use efficiency (LUE) was greater in
the high N treatment (1 .81 g MJ- 1 0.04
vs. 1.34 0.03), as was total light energy
intercepted (1709 vs. 1533 MJ m- 2 ) . Further evaluation of representative clones
from within this group, together with a
new set of clones , is in progress.
A second experiment in Tarma that included 17 native cultivars and 8 selected
hybrids indicated that approximately
60/o of native clones and all hybrids responded positively to the application of
high levels of NPK fertilizer (Fig. 2).
Most hybrids, however, yielded higher tuber fresh weight than native clones under

Screening for efficient use of N fertilizer. Fertilizer application is frequently


beyond the financial means of farmers
in developing countries; conse quently, potato varieties efficient in their use of restricted quantities of fertilizer are of great
importance. Such varieties should also
be able to respond to applied fertilizer
if financial conditions permit. We have
concentrated initially on the search for
N-efficient clones in a field experiment in
Huancayo on soil that without fertilizer
applications wpplied approximately 60
kg N through mineralization during the
season. Treatments applied were low N
(100 kg/ ha) and high N (200 kg/ha) to 64
clones and cultivars. Differences in tuber
yield between N treatments were not significant ; however, the effect of the clones
and their interaction with the treatments
were both significant at the 1/o level.
Yield of high N treatment
as O/ o of low N
0

190

' '~o..,

= 189.06 -

', 0

r2

' 'o,

o'

150

0 .04x

= 0.16

0
0

' ' o, ....


0

0
0

.... ,
0 ..............

00

'-....,2i

- ....

-- -- ---

110

0
0

1000

1500

2000

2500

Tuber yield (g / plant) , low N treatment


Figure .1 . Relationship between response to high nitrogen (N) and tuber yield
(g/plant) at low N for 64 clones and cultivars : fitted regression and 950/0 .confidence limits.

101

g/plant
1200.--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1000
.

Low NPK

High NP K

800

600

400

200

SA- 1310
Adg

Senorita
Stn

SA-388-A
Adg

Tollocan
Hyb

Atzimba
Hy b

P-3
Hyb

Figure 2 . Tuber yields from a sample of three native cu l t ivars (Adg, Stn, Adg)
and three hy brids (Hyb) under low and high NPK in the soil , Tarma, Peru .

DW g/ plant
40

Total DW

Tuber OW

30

20

10

Pu ca quitish

Ccompis

P-3

Y un gay

Figure 3 . Dry w eight (OW) of potato plants grown in two nutrient medi a with
low (L) or high (H) NPK.

102

both low and high levels of NPK. A similar experiment in Huancayo, using nutrient solutions (NPK) applied to plants
growing in sterile media in pots, indicated
large differences between clones in production and partitioning of dry weight
into plant organs (Fig. 3). Further studies
on the relationship between both techniques are underway to provide a screening method to identify suitable genotypes
under variable nutrient conditions in the
soil.
Kenya . Agronomic experiments done
by the University of Nairobi at a midelevation site (Kabete, 1800 m) indicated
that yields were severely depressed when
potatoes were interplanted with cowpeas
or green grams. The cowpea variety (Vita
4) was extremely vigorous and competitive with the potato crop, but green
grams, while less competitive than cowpeas, still depressed potato yields. Mulch ,
however, proved to be an extremely effective treatment for improving potato
yield. When mulch was applied two
weeks after planting (the best treatment),
a maximum yield of 19 t/ha was obtained.
Burnndi. The national potato program
of ISABU has continued agronomic trials
to improve potato production : dates of
planting of the new late blight-resistant
varieties and the use of farmyard manure
practices were the principal treatments

used. It was again demonstrated, at different research stations, that early planting in both seasons (mid-September and
mid-February) gave the highest yields in
all areas, except in the south of Burundi
where the rains started later. There was a
linear relationship between yield and rates
of manure applied in the range of 0 to
30 t/ha. Thus, even such small applications as might be available to subsistence
farmers (e.g., 2 t/ha) improve production
when applied in the planting hole below
the seed tuber. Further trials are needed
to investigate methods of application in
the range of 8-15 t/ha of manure. In
1985 , nitrogen fertilizer trials confirmed
that there was no benefit to be gained
from split applications of nitrogen in the
seedbed and at hilling over a single initial
fertilizer application.
TRAINING
Ten months of training was given to a
scientist from Spain at CIP headquarters
on breeding and selection of potato varieties for cool climates. A Canadian student from the University of Toronto,
studying for her M.S . degree, was also
trained at CIP for six months on the use
of single leaf-node cuttings to screen seedlings for frost tolerance and long-day
adaptation.

103

THRUST VIII

Postharvest Technology

hree years of on-farm trials in Peru have shown that losses in storage of
small quantities of consumer potatoes can be reduced from an average of
3.8/o a month in traditional storage systems to 1.4/o a month by use of
simple storage boxes and a chemical sprout inhibitor. Research on the storage and management of small seed tubers in diffused-light stores, particularly
seedling tubers produced from true potato seed (TPS) in beds, has given
extremely positive results. The follow-up study on the transfer and impact of
diffused-light technology for storing seed tubers in Peru indicated that the
application of this technology has continued to spread. In Tunisia, an excellent , inexpensive alternative to cold storage of seed tubers has gained farmer
acceptance. The new system comprises a sequential combination of storage
in traditional stores and diffused light.
In Peru, the use of dried insect-repellent foliage of local plants continues
to show promise within an integrated pest-management scheme for control of
potato tuber moth in storage, which will significantly reduce tuber soft rot.
Application of calcium sulfate to field soils and to tubers after harvest tended
to reduce soft rot, but further research is required before recommendations
for its use can be made. Studies on the extent of virus spread in stores have
shown that severe buildup of both potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato
virus Y (PVY) can occur in stored tubers, but PLRV can be controlled by
regular insecticide spraying.
The dehydrated potato-based mixture M-6 continues to show broad acceptability in consumer tests in Peru. Several small processing plants have
been projected by cooperating national institutions in strategic communities
throughout Peru. Variations in mix formulations and alternative products
and processes are being evaluated for use in developing countries worldwide.
Emphasis is now on the transfer of knowledge gained from CIP's simple
potato-processing experiences.

Acceptance test of home-processed potato products in the


central Peruvian highlands.

105

STORAGE OF CONSUMER POTATOES

Peru. During 1985 the third and final series of on-farm trials to evaluate improved
technologies for storing small quantities
of consumer potatoes in cool environments was conducted. As in previous
years, the effectiveness of simple, 500 kg,
naturally ventilated storage boxes and a
sprout inhibitor in reducing storage losses
under farm conditions were evaluated and
compared with traditional farm storage
methods. The traditional storage practice
is to simply pile the potatoes in the corner of an existing room and sometimes
cover them with loose straw or Muna
(Minthostachy s spp.). Due to pricing policies and market uncertainties, the storage period in 1985 was shorter than in
previous years and ranged from 2.2 to 2.7
months with a mean storage period of 2. 5
months. Despite this short storage period,
the losses recorded with different storage
systems were similar to those reported
previously (1984 Annual Report).
As a result of parallel studies on storage practices in Peru, we reported in 1984
that an estimated 75/o of farm households in Peru that produce potatoes
stored at least 500 kg of potatoes for various home uses such as home consumption, sale in local markets, gifts, and barter. On a national basis this amounts to
about 650,000 tons of potatoes or about
40/o of the national production.
During 1985, two new experimental
stores, encompassing four possible storage
environments, were being constructed for
the storage of consumer potatoes at San
Ramon. Each storage environment contains ten small storage bins with a capacity of 250 to 300 kg of tubers. All the
stores have the possibility of trickling
water through the walls to permit passive
evaporative cooling. These stores will be
used to evaluate control methods for po106

tato tuber moth and soft-rotting during


the experimental storage of consumer potatoes in warm climates.
East Africa. On-farm experiments by
several national institutions have continued in several countries in East Africa to
test farmer acceptance of storage technology for consumer and seed potatoes.
In Kenya, there appears to be a general
reluctance on the part of farm ers to store
consumer potatoes for an extended period, indicating that the present marketing flows for consumer potatoes are
efficient, and large-scale storage for an
extended period is unlikely to be profitable. There may , however, still be the
need for small-scale storage by farmers
for family use or sale in local markets.
The Ministry of Agriculture is settin,g up
additional trials in areas not presently
included in the current program such as
in Taita Hills and Bungoma. This study
continues in collaboration with the Rural
Structures Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture and an agricultural economist
from CIMMYT in Mexico .
In Malawi, there is a storage project
financed by the government of the
Netherlands, with which the CIP storage
specialist, based in Nairobi, has been
serving as a consultant. The first phase
consisted of eight consumer potato stores
built for trial purposes, which proved invaluable in training extension officers.
By the end of 1985, 50 consumer and
50 seed stores were under construction
throughout the potato-producing areas.
In Tunisi a, storage of consumer potatoes for four months after harvest was
possible provided that sprout inhibitors
such as IPC or CIPC were applied. The
potatoes were first sprayed with Decis
(pyrethroid) to protect them from potato
tuber moth (PTM), then dusted with the
sprout inhibitor, and covered with newspaper (to reduce the fast evaporation of

the product) and a thick layer of straw.


Weight losses in these tubers were less
than 4/o compared with more than 11/o
for other treatments without inhibitors.
STORAGE OF SEED TUBERS

Latin America. Research in Peru during


1985 focussed on evaluating the storage
behavior of small seed tubers, particularly
of seedling tubers produced from true
potato seed (TPS). The postharvest dormant period was studied in six size grades
of second generation seedling tubers of
Table 1. Effect of tuber size on length of the
postharvest dormant period in diffused-light and
dark stores.

Tuber size (g)

Postharvest dormant period


(days) 0
Diffused I ightb

1-3
3-5
5-10
10-20
20-40
40-60

49 1.3c
44 1.1
44 0.9
40 0.8
42 0.8
40 0.6

441.1
42 0.9
42 0.9
411.0
410.6
39 0.5

Mean

43 0.9

42 0.8

a Means

of two TPS progenies of 100 tubers


each.
b At ambient temperature during summer in
Lima.
cstandard error of the mean.

DT0-33 OP and Atzimba x DT0-3 (Table


1). The length of the postharvest dormant period tended to increase with decreasing tuber size, resulting in a difference of about one week between 1-5 g
and 40-60 g tubers. The dormant periods
in diffused light and in dark stores were
similar.
The number of eyes per tuber was
about 50/o higher in 40-60 g tubers compared with the number in 1-3 g tubers
(Table 2). The maximum number of
sprouts per tuber that was obtained after
desprouting was 1.8 in 1-3 g tubers and
6.8 in 40-60 g tubers. On a per unit
weight basis, however, the 1-3 g tubers
produced over four times more sprouts
that 40-60 g tubers. The percentage of
sprouted eyes at 29 days after harvest was
similar in all size grades despite the large
differences in numbers of eyes per tuber.
This suggested that tubers of all size
grades experienced a similar degree of
apical dominance . In diffused light stores
(DLS), the number of sprouts per tuber
showed little increase with increasing
storage time. Although desprouting increased the number of sprouts, the effect
varied with tuber size and storage period.
In large tubers desprouting had a greater
effect on sprout number than in small
tubers.

Table 2. Effect of tuber size on the number of eyes and sprouts per tuber 0 in diffused-light stores.
Tuber size (g)
1-3
3-5
5-10
10-20
20-40
40-60

No. eyes/tuber

No. sprouts/tuberb

No . sprouts/kg tubers

4.4 0.9c
4.6 0.9
5.60.14
5.5 0.09
5.80.12
6.5 0.11

1.8 o.02c
2.4 0.08
2.9 0.06
3.7 0.14
5.0 0.31
6.8 0.46

667 7c
522 17
372 8
266 10
20112
147 10

a Means

of two TPS progenies of 100 tubers each.


bNumber of sprouts obtained after desprouting eight weeks after end of dormancy.
cstandard error of the mean.
107

Results from desprouting tubers after different periods of storage indicated


that tubers of all size grades showed
their maximum resprouting capacity after eight weeks from the beginning of
sprout growth. The subsequent decline
in sprouting capacity was greater in tubers of the smaller size grades, suggesting
that larger seed tubers maintained higher
levels of sprouting capacity for a longer
time when compared with small tubers.
Tuber weight loss after 5.5 months of
storage tended to decrease slightly with
increasing tuber size. Although weight
loss in tubers stored in DLS was two to
three times higher than those stored at
4 C, field emergence was not affected.
This finding demonstrated that relatively
high weight losses can be tolerated in
seed potatoes provided that sprouts are
maintained in adequate condition. The
overall variability in the storage characters recorded tended to be somewhat
higher in the smaller tubers as indicated
by higher standard errors.
During 1985 a follow-up survey on the
transfer and adoption of DLS for storing
seed tubers was conducted in the Mantaro
and Tulumayo Valleys of Peru. The objectives of the study were to 1) verify
if diffusion had taken place, 2) determine how and why farmers adopted and
adapted the technology, and 3) determine benefits of adoption and reasons
for non-adoption. A questionnaire was
given to 45 farmers and information on
an additional 106 farmers was collected.
Forty-three of the 45 farmers stored in
diffused light, 28 of these had constructed new stores, while 15 had adapted
existing farm buildings. Although the
total number of DLS adopters in Peru is
not known, an overall growing adoption
rate was illustrated by 37 of the 45
farmers surveyed, who reported the date
when they had adopted the technology.
108

As far as the actual adoption process is


concerned, two different patterns can be
appreciated from the survey: 1) farmers
working directly with national ex tensionists tended to progress from storing
in complete darkness directly to specially
built DLS (Fig. 1), and 2) farmers who
either attended a course or field day, or
saw the rustic seed stores at neighbors'
houses, tended to show more interest in
the principle of DLS and tended to adapt,
with available resources, the most suitable
places in their dwellings or in other farms
building (Fig. 2). Farmers, in general,
showed a very clear understanding and
knowledge of the benefits this new technology could offer them (Fig. 3); however, the reasons for nonadoption were
more varied but are not reported here.
In Chile, the national agricultural institute INIA has continued research on
the use of DLS for seed tubers. Tubers
of four cultivars (Yangema, Fueguina,
Spartan, and Ultimus) were stored for
150 days: the emergence of seed tubers
stored in DLS was faster than seed stored
in the dark and, as a result, plants from
DLS tubers matured two to three weeks
earlier. In seed crops this is an advantage
as the plants are exposed to aphids for
shorter periods and have lower virus infection rates. These plants also produced
a larger number of seed-sized tubers, although yield was similar to the crop of
normal duration. DLS technology is now
being adopted by farmers in southern
Chile, who are modifying traditional
wooden stores by replacing side walls
with double-layered plastic sheets.
A study in Uruguay, conducted by
the national agricultural institute CIAAB,
is assessing the use of DLS on its own and
in combination with refrigerated storage. Tuber weight losses were higher in
DLS storage, partly due to the removal
of apical sprouts; however, there were no

Figure 1. Large-sca le diffused-light store built within existing building, Ocopa, Peru.

Figure 2. Small-scale farmer 's diffused-light store adapted to local house design .

109

In storage

A=
B
C=
D=
E=

less water loss

= less weight

less sprouting
better control
lower attack by insects

n = 102 farmer responses

In the field*

A= higher yielding
B higher resistance
C = early emergence

n = 77 farmer responses

*Fewer answers were recorded for "in-the-field benefits" as 9 farmers were only planting
their first green seed and 8 farmers were just in their first year of DLS trial.

Figure 3. Benefits resulting from the use of diffused-light stores as reported by potato farmers in
Peru.

significant differences in yield whether


the seed was stored in DLS, refrigeration ,
or a combination of the two. This indicated that considerable energy savings
could be made by combining the two
storage methods under the climatic conditions of Uruguay.
110

North and West Africa. The first


phase of storage investigations in Tunisia
has been completed and is being written
up in collaboration with the staff at
Saida. It was concluded that seed harvested in the main season and stored in
a combination of traditional stores (T)

(dark storage under straw) with diffusedlight storage (DLS) in the ratio of 80 d
T + 70 d DLS was an excellent and low
cost alternative to cold storage. This
system provides seed for the early (midNovember) season and farmers have commented that it fits well with their own
management strategies. Seed stored under this system will probably outyield the
physiologically very young imported seed.
Methods of long-term storage, from
June until the following February (230
days), were examined. It was found that
there were large varietal differences in
storage performance. Spunta and Atica,
without mechanical cooling, gave virtually no yield, whereas Claustar and Desiree
yielded more than 20 t/ha. Cold storage
over the hottest three months (June, July ,
and August) gave much higher yields
regardless of subsequent storage treatments. Long periods of DLS storage
caused hardening of the sprouts and excessive branching. Desprouting of tubers ten days prior to planting improved
emergence and yield in most varieties. In
conclusion, future work on combined
methods of storage for long periods will
have to involve differential varietal responses.
Since 1984, CIP has been working
in the Cape Verde Islands to help establish a seed multiplication program. Imported seed was multiplied in 1984 during the spring (March-June) crop on a
small scale and stored in specially constructed DLS on government farms ; however, potato tuber moth (PTM) caused
considerable storage losses. The usable
seed was planted in October 1984 and
gave satisfactory yields (17 to 22 t/ha) .
In 1985, DLS were built at different
sites on government, cooperative, and private farms, and seed multiplication was
extended to cooperatives and farmers'
fields. Better control of PTM was applied

for the 1985 trials. As a result, ten tons


of locally multiplied seed were available
for the November planting. A FAO project will take over the work in 1986 and
expand the program.
A seed multiplication program similar
to that in Cape Verde has been established
in Senegal by the national agricultural
institute INRA. There is also ongoing
storage research, similar to the Tunisian
program, in which determination of varietal response to local storage conditions
will be an important factor. In Togo, the
storage program has reverted to the experimental stage after severe losses in
DLS due to soft rot. Methods of soft
rot control and varietal performance are
being assessed .
CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST
PESTS AND DISEASES

Potato tuber moth and tuber soft rot in


stores. Research continued on Erwinia
soft rot in tubers during a rainy season in
San Ramon, yielding results similar to
those reported previously in the field; the
cultivar Desiree had a significantly higher
(5.0/o Duncan) number of rotting tubers, higher number of plants with symptoms, and higher number of plants killed
prior to harvest than the cultivars Revoluci6n or Rosita. There were no significant
differences, however, between final yields
of the three cultivars. The application of
either 12 t/ha or 24 t/ha of calcium sulphate had no significant effect on either
reducing tuber rotting or increasing yields.
During storage there was a constant
and highly significant (1.0/o Duncan)
difference in the percentage of tubers
showing symptoms of PTM and/or soft
rotting between treatments protected
against PTM attack with Phenthoate and
Lantana foliage and nonprotected treatments as recorded in previous seasons
111

Table 3. Influence of biological and chemical


protection against potato tuber moth on tuber
damage and soft rot in stores, San Ramon,
Peru.
Tuber damagea (O/o)
Storage period

2 mo

4 mo

6 mo

Protected against PTMb


Non protected

2 b*
95 a

7b
99 a

13 b
100 a

aTubers damaged by PTM attack, soft rotting,


or both .
bTreated with Phenthoate and covered with
Lantana sp.
*Numbers in each column followed by different
letters are significantly different at the 1/o
level .

(Table 3). Postharvest application of calcium sulphate resulted in significantly less


(5 .0lo Duncan) tuber damage after two
and four months of storage but this effect
was not evident after six months. There
were no significant differences between
the three cultivars with respect to the percentage of tubers damaged throughout
the storage period.
It is evident that protection against
PTM during storage is reducing tuber
damage to a more acceptable level, i.e.,
13/o after six months of DLS storage under San Ramon conditions. The application of calcium sulphate both in the field
and to stored tubers appears to reduce
rotting slightly, although further research
is required before general recommendations on its use can be made .
Potato leafroll virus and potato virus
Y in stores. In trials on the occurrence of
PLRV and PVY in storage, there was considerable buildup of both viruses in the
susceptible cultivar 69-47-2 at two sites,
one on the Peruvian coast (lea) and the
other in the central highlands (Huancayo).
No buildup of either virus was recorded
in the cultivar Serrana at either storage
location. With the cultivar B71-240.2,
reported to be resistant to PLRV and
112

susceptible to PVY, some PVY buildup


was recorded at the highland location.
These results indicated that the reaction
of cultivars to these severe viruses is similar in storage to that reported under field
conditions.
In the susceptible cultivar 69-47-2, the
level of PLR V infection reached between
98/o and 100/o in both locations. This
virus buildup was well controlled by regular spraying with the insecticide Tamaron
every 7 or 14 days. The use of dried foliage of the plants Lantana sp. and Eucaly ptus sp. did not provide adequate control, although less buildup was observed
than in control treatments. Although the
buildup of PVY was not so great and was
more erratic, none of the treatments evaluated gave control in susceptible cultivars.
National potato programs are now being
encouraged to evaluate the importance of
virus spread and buildup during the storage phase of seed tuber production under
their specific conditions.
POTATO PROCESSING

Production implications and evaluations


of alternative techniques and costs, with
respect to the manufacture of the potatobased mixture M-6 at different scales, have
now been completed. Both the family
scale and small factory scale described in
the 1984 Annual Report show promise of
acceptance in Peru.
Additional hand-operated equipment
is being developed jointly with a local
engineering training institute (SENATI),
where prototypes are being manufactured
for evaluation in the various processing
alternatives in the CIP pilot plant in
Huancayo. The M-6 mixture has continued to show consumer acceptance in
daily use by a communal kitchen located
in one of Lima's pueblos j6venes, where
free lunches are provided for about 100

children each day. Consumer acceptance


was also confirmed in a large-scale school
feeding test with 2000 schoolchildren.
This test, involving six tons of M-6, was
conducted by the Ministry of Health in
several schools throughout the central
highlands of Peru.
Major emphasis is now on transferring
these simple processing and product technologies, in cooperation with several national institutions, to private enterprises
and farming communities. To assist in
these national transfer efforts, CIP held a
four-day workshop in 1985 at the Huancayo pilot plant, with 16 participants
from many collaborating institutions in
Peru. In a collaborative effort , CIP and
researchers from different countries, formerly trained at CIP in processing techniques, are using CIP's experiences and
pilot plant to formulate and produce
processed food mixes that recognize local market acceptance , food preferences,
costs, and availability of native food
crops. For example, a test product formulated with a trainee from Bangladesh
has shown initial promise in acceptability trials in Bangladesh. Additional test
products, involving other Andean root
and tuber crops, are being investigated
by Peruvian and Bolivian trainees. The
processing of alternative products such
as dehydrated french fries for different
consumer groups in Peru is also being
initiated by CIP.
CIP's emphasis will continue to be on
the transfer of these technologies to assist
national institutions in researching location-specific market needs and opportunities for the development of a viable potato processing industry. This will require
continued research support in product
development and testing, as well as additional research at the CIP pilot plant on
reducing costs for processing. In Peru,

one national institution (Centro IDEAS)


has been successful in obtaining external
funding to establish one small potatoprocessing plant, and possibly others.
These plants will be built directly with
the private sector in strategic locations
throughout the country. Also, INIPA,
the national institute for agricultural research and extension, is to develop its
own pilot plant for the processing of
Andean crops including the potato.
An organization based in the United
States, Compatible Technology, has been
cooperating with the NAVE Institute in
Bareilly to develop a small, village-scale
processing plant in India. Technical support for the project has been provided by
CIP, including a visit by the sponsors to
CIP's pilot processing plant in Peru. This
project will be used as a model to start
similar projects in South Asia after one
or two years of full-scale operation at
Bareilly.

TRAINING

Two group training activities on storage


were held in Tanzania and one in Malawi,
with a total attendance of 57 researchers
and extensionists. The majority of the
instruction for all three courses was provided by the national program staff. Also
in East Africa, 48 Ethiopian government
personnel, who are involved in potato
production and use , attended a three-day
workshop in Addis Ababa on low-cost
storage technology that CIP is using in
developing countries.
Three scientists from Bolivia studied
CIP's storage and processing methods at
CIP headquarters to assist them in developing a postharvest project. Colombia
also sent one of its scientists to study
the production of potato-based mixes at
CIP's pilot plant in Huancayo.

113

THRUST IX

Seed Technology

esearch has continued to focus on the production and utilization of true


potato seed (TPS). Studies on TPS production in Peru and Chile indicated that factors such as stem density, pruning of excessive flowers, and the
amount of nitrogen significantly affect TPS quantity and quality . In southern Chile, under optimal environmental conditions, the average production
was about eight grams of hybrid seed per square meter, indicating that, in an
area of 15 square meters, sufficient TPS can be produced to plant one hectare
with seedlings.
In Peru, TPS progeny testing with seedlings or seedling tubers has continued under different climatic conditions. Improved performance was observed in newly selected hybrid and open-pollinated progenies used as seedling tubers and transplants. Progress was also made in selecting for rapid
recovery from transplanting shock. Tuber bulking has been improved by development of new agronomic practices. The use of TPS for seedling tuber
production has improved rapidly and represents an excellent short-term solution for developing countries, while the primary, longer-term goal of developing seedling transplant technology is being achieved.
Intensive TPS progeny testing and related agronomic research was carried
out in Peru and other Latin American countries, Africa, and South and
Southeast Asia. Highly promising results are being obtained and TPS technology is rapidly gaining farmer acceptance, particularly in South and Southeast Asia.

Seedbeds for seedling tuber production in a farmer's field ,


Sri Lanka.

115

POTATO SEED
Since many practices required for proper
performance of the potato crop from true
potato seed (TPS) are well defined and
are under evaluation in the regions, research in two areas, seed physiology and
production, has grown in importance
during 1985. This increase responds to
the need for defining efficient methods of
quality TPS production. The availability
of high-quality TPS could expand considerably the potential area of adoption
as well as the range of users.
Massive hybrid seed production of improved combinations was attempted in
three locations during the year: Lima
(12.05S) , San Ramon (ll.08S), and
Osorno, Chile ( 40.5 S). The latter work
represents a cooperative project with
INIA , the national agricultural research
institute. Great differences in the efficiency of TPS production were obtained
among locations when comparing results
obtained with the same genotypes used as
parents of various hybrid combinations.
In Osorno, suitable daylength and other
optimal environmental conditions allowed
for the production of more than 5 kg of
hybrid seed for distribution to many national potato programs worldwide. The
average production in Osorno was about
8 g of hybrid seed per m 2 . Under short
daylengths and less favorable environmental conditions, such as those in Lima and
San Ramon, TPS production efficiency
was reduced to 10/o of that in Osorno.
Several projects were implemented
in Lima and San Ramon to improve the
efficiency of TPS production under suboptimal environmental conditions. Emphasis was on practices that could be
proposed to national programs located in
warm tropical areas. Additional N applications resulted in enhanced flowering ,
delayed plant maturity, and also length116

- - r ---- - - - - --

the vines. The increase in flower production was an indication that N rates greater
than those required to produce tubers
might be essential to efficiently produce
large quantities of TPS. Flower production was increased by 2.7 and 3.5 times,
when three additional applications of 80
kg and six of 40 kg of N/ha were added
to the normal N rate of 150 kg/ha recommended for high tuber yields (Fig. 1).
Berry weight and seeds per berry did not
vary significantly. The 100-seed-weight,
possibly the closest estimate of TPS quality, did not vary significantly across berry
sizes, except for seed produced in small
berries, where the higher number of partial N applications resulted in heavier
seed. Fully ripe berries were small because they contained a lower number of
seeds, and berry size was highly correlated to the number of seeds per berry.
Therefore, the size of fruits should not be
used as a selection criteria for large-scale
hybrid seed production, but rather for
Percent (0 /o)
of control
400

300

150 + 80 x3

150+40 x6

200

100

No . inflorescences
per plant

Berry
weight

No. seeds
per berry

Figure 1. Flowering, fruit, and seed setting as


affected by three and six additional weekly applications of 80 and 40 kg /ha of N, respectively,
in addition to the normal 150 kg/ha of N.

Percent (O/o)
of control
1000

1000 ppm GA

800

2000ppm GA

j 500 ppm GA+

500 ppm BA
2000 ppm GA+
500 ppm BA

600

400

200

o ~-----'--

Flower production

Pollen fertility

Figure 2 . Flower production and pollen ferti lity as affected by various rates and
combinations of gibberellic acid (GA) and benzyladenine (BA) (values relative to
the control). Treatments were applied on DT0-28.

conditions that promote a longer seedbulking period.


The effect of several growth regulators
on flowering and seed characteristics of a
sparse-flowering male parent (DT0-28)
was also evaluated in Lima. Among the
most effective treatments, gibberellic acid
(GA) at rates of 1000 and 2000 ppm, or
a combination of 500 ppm GA with 500
ppm of benzyladenine (BA), produced
not only an increase of about tenfold in
the number of flowers, but also a considerable improvement in pollen fertility
(Fig. 2).
Several field practices for TPS production were evaluated in Huancayo on three
potato varieties. Considerations included
the effect of 1) pruning axillary branches,

2) stem number per plant, 3) position of


first (FDI), second (SDI), and third (TDI)
developed inflorescences, and 4) number
of berries per inflorescence.
Axillary branches were removed weekly during a five-week period, starting two
to three weeks after emergence; after this
period, no new branches developed. Without pruning, the total number of flowers
per plant was higher, but the number of
flowers on main stems was lower. The
presence of axillary branches mainly decreased the number of SDI and TDI on
the main stem, and pruning increased the
length of the flowering period of the inflorescence on the main stem. There was
generally no significant effect of pruning
on berry size distribution.
117

With respect to the number of main the potato , are known to develop funcstems per plant, three-stem plants had the tional sexual organs.
Dormancy is a major factor affecting
same number of branches as one-stem
plants but had less flowers on the main the use of TPS. Preliminary evidence
stems. The total number of flowers per from work at CIP suggests that dormancy
plant was only slightly higher in three- is induced in the embryo during seed exstem plants than .in one-stem plants. In traction or immediately after. Prelimithree-stem plants, a lower proportion of nary experiments were conducted using
flowers originated from TDI compared to excised embryos from Atzimba and DT0that in one-stem plants. Three-stem plants 33 OP seed, imbibed and left in the light
started to flower one week earlier than or in the dark, with or without GA . In
one-stem plants and terminated flowering the light, in both progenies, GA inhibited
two weeks earlier; they also produced embryo growth as compared to no GA.
more large- and medium-sized berries on In the dark, GA promoted embryo growth
the main stems, although the proportion of Atzimba seed but not of DT0-33 seed.
of large berries and 100-seed-weight was Since a difference in the progeny response
lower.
to GA was observed in these experiments,
Pollination of flowers in other than the use of GA to break dormancy should
FDI reduced the average size of berries be investigated further.
produced in the first position in two out
In an experiment using Atzimba OP
of three varieties, suggesting competition seed that was imbibed for 48 hours in
between inflorescences of the different GA solution, either in the dark, or in a
positions. When berries from all positions combination of 24 hours light and 24
were left for the same period on the plant, hours dark, the speed of germination was
berries from SDI were larger than those favored by the use of GA. But seedling
from FDI . The 100-seed-weight obtained growth 30 days after germination was
from FDI and SDI tended to be higher reduced by 30/o in the 24 hours light +
than that from TDI. The variations in dark combination and by 20/o in the
physical characteristics of the seed ob- dark treatment. In seed of other progetained by applying these field practices nies, opposite results were observed. In
may produce favorable changes in the other experiments, we found that when
TPS was dried properly immediately afseed quality.
The greatest potential for the adoption ter extraction, GA use was not necessary
of TPS technology is in the warm areas and might even reduce the speed of
of the tropics, where also environmental germination.
stresses on the crop are far more demandIn 1984, we reported on the advaning. For TPS to be used extensively in tage of using fermentation as a method of
these areas, seedling vigor must be im- extracting freshly harvested TPS. An evalproved. In potatoes, the long history of uation of the seed obtained from fermencultivation involving selection for tubers tation was performed during 1985 after
probably had a strong influence on the 8 and 12 months of storage. The speed
sowing value of TPS. Tubers that are rap- of germination was reduced with fermenidly storing assimilates may cause an ar- tation periods of 72 and 96 hours. No
rested development of embryos and result apparent damage to germination was obin low-quality TPS. Very few plant spe- served when seed was fermented for pecies that are vegetatively propagated, e.g., riods of 24 and 48 hours.
118

Pollen selection, an area of research


recently initiated at CIP, appears to be a
promising alternative for manipulating
the proportion of genotypes responsible
for improved seedling vigor.
In the project with INIA in Chile, the
first stage of massive TPS production was
carried out at the Remehue Experimental Station in the southern part of Chile .
Detailed socioeconomic information was
carefully recorded on six progenies: Serrana x DT0-28, Serrana x DT0-33, CFK
69.l x DT0-33 , CEX 69.1 x DT0-28, Atzimba x DT0-28, and Atzimba x DT0-33 .
The average production cost per kilogram
(including data from all progenies) was
US$283 . However, costs varied drastically among progenies: from US$233 for
Serrana x DT0-33 up to US$350 for CEX
69.1 x DT0-28. Production costs were
lower when 1) a higher number of seeds
per berry were produced, 2) a higher
number of berries per plant were set,
and 3) a smaller number of female plants
were needed to produce 1 kg of TPS. Of
the total production cost, emasculation
was the most costly activity, representing
63/o , with pollination as the second at
12/o. The two most expensive inputs
were technical management (64/o) and
labor (22/o). The costs can be reduced
when more experience is gained on TPS
field production practices.
AGRONOMY OF TRUE POTATO SEED

Agronomic research has concentrated on


two alternative methods of TPS use: 1)
production of consumer potatoes by
transplanting seedlings to the field , and
2) production and use of seedling tubers
for further propagation.
Seedling production and transplanting.
The simplest and most direct method of
using TPS is to produce potatoes for consumption from transplanted seedlings.

With this method, the most extensive exploitation of TPS could be realized , particularly for subsistence potato growers in
warm areas.
Research is concentrating on the evaluation of improved progenies and on
agronomic practices for enhancing tuber
bulking. Different groups of hybrid and
open-pollinated (OP) progenies are being
systematically evaluated. A set of 47 improved progenies was evaluated in Lima,
Huancayo , and San Ramon, and the
yields of the best 12 progenies across
environments are shown in Table 1. This
set was also tested for resistance to late
blight and Rhizoctonia.
Another group of 12 selected progenies, propagated either by transplanting
seedlings to the field or by using seedling
tubers, were evaluated in Huancayo and
San Ramon. Various field practices were
investigated that might reduce the number of tubers produced or improve the
tu her-bulking capacity of plants from
transplanted TPS seedlings or a combination of both. Experiments included
transplanting methods, hilling, fertilizer
applications at different stages, and use of
growth regulators.
Selected progenies must be improved
with respect to average tuber size and
yield when transplanted seedlings are
used. Average tuber size is an important
trait for areas where TPS will be used
every season for growing potatoes for
consumption. In San Ramon, the three
highest-yielding progenies from transplanted seedlings were also the highest
when seedling tubers were used. One of
those three, Atzimba x 380700.79, had
an additional advantage in producing a
high proportion (85.5/o) of large size
tubers (> 3.5 cm diameter) when transplanted. In all progenies tested, the yield
was higher from seedling tubers than from
transplants.
119

Table 1. Total and percent marketable (Mktb) yield (t/ ha) of the best 12 hybrid progeniesa in evaluations conducted in three different agroecological locations during the 1984-85 seasons, Peru.
San Ramon

Huancayo

Mktb
Progeny

Total

Lima

Mktb

Average

Mktb

(O/o)

Total

(O/o)

Total

(O/o)

Total

Mktb
(O/o)

Atzimba x R 128.6

37 .8

84.3

43.2

76.6

48.1

87.9

43.0

82.9

Atzimba x 380701.12

33.0

76.1

49.7

83.0

43.2

75.6

41.9

78.2

R128 .6 x 7XY .1

37 .3

88.7

39.8

85.0

41.6

78.4

39.6

84.0

Atzimba x 380700. 79

24.5

87.0

38.5

79.0

52 .3

73.4

35.6

75.1

CFK 69.1x380701.12

33.9

83.0

40.2

85.5

26.8

66.0

33.6

78.2

CFK 69.1 x 380700.79

25.7

84.0

42.1

84.1

37 .6

82.3

32.6

80.5

377935.27 x 377964.5

39.3

78.9

22.2

73.5

39.7

82.8

33.7

78.4

CEX 69.1 x 380701 .12

27.5

82.5

42.5

77.0

27.8

73.2

32.6

77 .6

CGN 69.1 x 380701.12

26.8

78.0

46.8

80.0

23.6

67.8

30.2

72.9

Atzimba x DT0-28

30.1

69.0

32 .8

83.0

34.6

70.7

32.4

74.2

LT-1 x R128.6

20.8

83.0

34.6

73 .0

40.0

84.0

31 .8

80.0

377935.27 x L T-7

32.8

85.0

29.7

75.2

26.7

66.7

29.7

75.6

a Highest yielding among 47 hybrid progenies tested.

Recovery index
(Or / Wi )

fj
0 1-0'-----~----~-----'
2
4
6
8
Days after treatment
2
= -2.5 + 1.84x - 0.075x (r = .76)
YM = -0.46 + 0 .36x + 0.007x 2 (r = .80)

YF

Ys

0.17 + 0.23x-0 .012x

(r = .91)

Figure 3 . Recovery index, expressed as a ratio


of roots regenerated (Or) and degree of wilting
(Wi), at different dates after an induced transplanting shock in TPS progenies, representing
fast (YF), intermediate (YM), and slow (Y5)
recovery response groups.

120

Another characteristic of great importance when selecting TPS progenies


is their ability to recover rapidly from
transplanting shock. We studied the responses of three groups of progenies to
an induced shock at transplanting of -15
bar water potential, using a polyethylene
glycol (PEG) M.W. 6000 solution for 15
minutes at 20 C. A seedling recovery
index based on the amounts of roots
regenerated and the speed of recovery
from wilting for three response classes are
shown in Figure 3.
Preliminary experiments for defining
rates and time of application of two
growth regulators, chlormequat chloride (CCC) and GA, were conducted in
Lima. The experiments were designed to
provide information applicable to the
selection of materials and practices for
h
f b
improving t e average size o tu ers produced by plants grown from TPS. Fifty
percent higher yields and a 50/o greater
number of tubers larger than 3.5 cm
diameter were obtained when approximately 50 ppm of CCC was applied

around 75 days after transplanting. With


GA, a rate of I 0 ppm caused a 45/o increase in total yield and a 41 lo increase
in the number of large size tubers. The
best time of application for similar effects
on yield was approximately 60 days after
transplanting . More detailed studies are
in progress.

SEEDLING TUBER PRODUCTION


AND USE

This is the system of TPS utilization in


which the fastest progress has been
achieved. It is the most practical system
in the short term for many developing
countries. Complementary experiments
on nursery production of seedling tubers
indicated that high temperatures during
the summer are responsible for the production of lower numbers of tubers and
favor bulking to a larger average weight
(Table 2).
Studies using a broad range of seedling
densities ( 6-96 plants/ m 2 after thinning)
during both the winter and summer seasons in Lima confirmed that reducing
seedling density is not effective in in-

creasing the number of relatively large


tubers(> 10 g). At low densities the proportion of large tubers as a percentage of
total tuber number was higher, but the
total number of large tubers produced per
unit area was lower. Experiments also
confirmed that the highest number and
weight of usable tubers were obtained
at 96 plants/ m 2 . Densities above 100
plants/m 2 appeared to be impractical for
proper hilling.
Studies were conducted on the effect
of thinning (a practice normally done
with seedlings growing in nursery beds)
and on the effect of natural selection of
the most vigorous seedlings on the proportion of harvested hybrid genotypes.
Two mechanical mixes (A and B) of seed
containing hybrid and selfed seed in ratios
of 50:50 and 25:75 ofhybrid:selfed TPS
were sown in the normal sowing pattern
of 10 x 10 cm in nursery beds. The positions of the hybrid seeds were well identified at sowing time. After normal thinning, by which the weakest plants were
discarded leaving only one plant in each
position, and after the natural selection
that occurs by strong competition at such

Table 2.

Evaluation of TPS progenies for tuber production in nursery beds during win ter and
summer seasons in Lima.
No. tubers/m 2
Progeny

Winter

Atzimba x DT0-33
Atzimba x 7XY.1
Participaci6n OP

>1g

Mean tuber weight (g)

Summer

Winter

Summer

1070 b*

506 a

12.6

16.6

1365 a

492 a

9.6

17.9

1019 c

486 a

12.5

16.7

808 c

450 ab

9.7

14.1

1306 a

397 b

9.4

15.0

993 c

252 c

15.1

23.8

Anita OP

1355 a

216 c

11.5

17.9

4.1 DI OP

833 c

174 c

17.6

16.7

372

12.3

17.2

DT0-33 OP
Murca OP
Atzimba x R128.6

Mean

1094

*Means followed by the same letter within a column are not sig nificantly different at the 50/0 level.

. 121

At sowing
At harvest

At sowing

TPS _ _ _ __
mix 1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __._

At harvest

50

Hybrid

1000/o
-

Selfed

Figure 4. Proportion of hybrid and inbred genotypes before and after natural
selection in densely sown nursery beds (mean of four progenies).

a plant density, the proportion of remaining plants from hybrid or selfed seed was
recorded at harvest. A significant increase
in the proportion of hybrid genotypes
was found at harvest (Fig. 4), which could
favor the planting value of the tubers produced. This result would also indicate
that when seedling tubers are produced
in beds, some contamination during the
hybrid seed production process can be
acceptable, since weak genotypes from
selfing could be eliminated either naturally or by normal management practices.
Several experiments were conducted on
how to use small seedling tubers. In one
experiment, plant density was kept constant by manipulating the distances between and within rows. Results indicated
that closer spacing between the rows was
better for early ground cover than closer
spacing within the row when using smallsized tubers (1-5 g). Closer row spacing
approaches a square arrangement of plant
distribution, which compensates the slow
growth rate of plants from small seed tubers by an earlier ground cover and more
efficient light interception.
In cooperation with CIP virologists,
plants from first generation seedling tu122

bers produced in nursery beds at Lima


were serologically tested for potato viruses
Y, X, S, potato leafroll virus (PLRV),
Andean potato latent virus (APLV), and
Andean potato mottle virus (APMV).
Seedling tubers produced during the winter season generally showed lower virus
incidence than in the summer; for example, PLRV incidence during the winter
was 2/o, while in the summer it was
35/o. Considerable differences, however,
have been observed in virus contamination of TPS progenies, particularly in the
summer season when aphid-transmitted
viruses were more prevalent.
PATHOLOGICAL STUDIES

Two fungicides, Benlate 50 WP (Benomyl


at 4 g a.i./m 2 ) and Rizolex 50 WP (Tolclofos Methyl at 3.5 g a.i./m 2 ) , and a soil
fumigant Basamid 98/o (Dazomet at 35
g/m 2 ) were tested to control Rhizoctonia
damping-off in nurseries sown with Atzimba x DT0-33 TPS for the production
of seedling tubers at two TPS planting
densities. The three products significantly controlled the disease as measured in
per.c ent of seedling survival at 15 days af-

ter sowing ; however, there were no significant differences among products at the
two planting densities.
Based on results from previous experiments for controlling TPS seedling
damping-off in San Ramon, field seedbeds
were inoculated with the pathogens Rhizoctonia solani + Pythium sp. and received
applications of Rizolex and Rixolex +Ridomil. Trays with natural field soil were
also sown with TPS and kept in a screenhouse. Trays kept in the screenhouse had
the lowest incidence of damping-off (8/o),
as compared to results from field seedbeds, either inoculated or noninoculated,
which had a similar and rather high proportion (above 65/o) of seedlings affected
by damping-off. In inoculated seedbeds,
Rizolex gave the best control of dampingoff, whereas in seedbeds with natural soil,
Rizolex + Ridomil gave the best control.
This indicated that under these conditions, Pythium sp. might be more important than R. solani. However, studies on
isolates from infected plants have suggested the presence of a still unidentified
causal agent or a combination of agents.
In an attempt to evaluate TPS progenies for susceptibilities to diseases, we
inoculated 46 progenies from the TPS
breeding program at the seedling stage with
the same mixture of Phytophthora infestans races used normally in the international late blight trial (8000 zoospore/ml).
The response of the progenies to P. inf estans was evaluated using the CIP late
blight scale of 1- 9. Of the 46 progenies, 5 (Atzimba x 380700. 79; Atzimba x
380701.12; 796-8.7x380700.79; 796-8.7
x 380701.12; and CFK 69.1x380701.12)
had a late blight reading of less than 4;
the remainder were highly susceptible.
TPS from 34 of the 46 progenies were
also sown in soil artificially inoculated
with R. solani AG-4 (7 g infected wheat
grains/kg of soil) to test their susceptibil-

ity to damping-off. At 30 days after sowing none of the 34 progenies had more
than 15/o seedling survival. The noninoculated control had a score of 93-100/o
survival. Progenies with the highest percent seedling survival were 377891.19 x
378017.2 (15/o), 377887.59x377877 .9
(11 lo), Serrana x 380700.79 (11/o), and
Serrana x RI 28.6 (9/o). Due to the very
high inoculum pressure, these progenies
probably have some resistance to R. solani damping-off that should be considered in future evaluations.
Four chemicals were tested at different
concentrations for disinfecting TPS prior
to sowing: Dimanin (10, 20, and 30/o),
sodium hypochlorite (0.5 , 1.0, 1.5, and
5.0/o), Streptomycin (100, 200, and 200
ppm), and alcohol (50, 70, and 99/o).
Sodium hypochlorite at 0.5 , 1.0, and
l .51o gave the best control of biological
contaminants (close to 100/o as compared to a control) and did not affect
germination. Even though Dimanin gave
100/o control of contaminants at the
three concentrations, it severely affected
germination.
FARMYARD POTATO PRODUCTION
FROM TPS

The use of TPS for potato production in


tropical farmyards, where an assortment
of vegetables are usually grown, has been
under evaluation for the last two seasons
in San Ramon. Of the different planting
structures and propagation methods evaluated, the best results were obtained with
progressive sowing of TPS in beds, which
could expand to year-round availability
of freshly harvested potatoes for familylevel consumption. Beds were made of
materials available on the farm and the
substrate used was soil from the upper
horizon of the local tropical forest.
In a different experiment, conducted
123

Spac ings (cm)

> 3 .5 cm

20 x 20

a
18 x 18

16 x 16

a
14 x 14

-- -a

2.8 -3 .5cm

< 2.8cm

be

12 x 12
b

a
2

kg / m 2

Figure 5 . Tuber size distribution of potatoes produced in nursery beds from transplants at different seedl ing spacings (the same letters indicate no significant difference among tube r sizes by Duncan 's Test at P =0.05) .

under rainfed conditions, seedlings were


transplanted into beds to study the effect
of different spacings on tuber size distribution. The amount of consumer-sized
tubers (> 3.5 cm) produced was similar
for all spacings wider than 12 x 12 cm
(Fig. 5). The highest density treatment
produced the lowest amount of largesized tubers, while the lowest density produced the lowest amount of small tubers. The amount of small-sized tubers
produced decreased as plant density also
decreased.
In three farmyards in San Ramon, the
technology of producing potatoes for
consumption from TPS in beds was evaluated under farmer-managem ent conditions. Four 2-m 2 beds were sown sequentially, with one bed being sown every
month . In addition to the production of
consumer-sized tubers, as a by-product,
small-sized tubers ( > 2.8 cm) were used
for planting small plots on the farms,
124

which in turn produced potatoes for


selling in the local market .

ON-FARM EVALUATION OF
TPS TECHNOLOGY
On-farm experiments and observations
were conducted in three regions of Peru:
in the central highlands, representing a
typical seed tuber-producing area; in the
warm tropical region of San Ramon, where
potatoes are not cultivated ; and in two
coastal vegetable-growing areas.
The possibility of using TPS in traditional seed tuber-producing areas in the
highlands (Huancayo, 3280 m) was assessed in two farmers ' fields and at CIP's
experimen ta! station. Transplanted seedlings, seedling tubers, seed tubers from
the farms, and clean seed of the variety
Yungay were compared in their productivities. Also , the production of seedling
tubers in an area densely transplanted

with seedlings (seedling tuber plot) of 12


m 2 was included. At the experimental
station, highest yields were obtained by
the highest quality seed tubers ( 4 7 .5 t/ha)
and by seedling tubers ( 44.4 t/ ha) . Transplanted seedlings had highest yields ( 45.4
t/ha) in the on-farm experiments, but
with a considerably lower proportion of
marketable tubers (53.4/o), compared to
more than 70/o marketable tubers when
seed tubers were used. About 6800 usable
tubers were produced in the seedling tuber plots at the farmers' fields and 8500
usable tubers at the experimental station.
In San Ramon, eight farmers received
seedling tubers for planting a plot of
either 100 m 2 or 200 m 2 , depending on
whether or not farmyard production of
vegetables for family consumption was
practiced on the farm. The seedling tubers distributed had been produced at
two other farms in nursery beds. The feasibility of a system of TPS use in similar
climates is being studied in these on-farm
activities.
On the coast of Peru, potatoes are cultivated twice a year. In the first season,
imported seed tubers from the highlands
are used for planting, whereas in the second season locally produced tubers are
used as seed. No further multiplications
are possible due to high virus contamination. Due to limited availability of labor
in one location (Canete), farmers introduced the use of direct sowing of TPS in
furrows, at 45 x 5 cm spacings between
and within the furrows, respectively, for
producing seedlings tubers. This spacing,
although it may not be as efficient as
the high density stand in nursery beds,
permitted easier and less expensive management.
In a second location (Callao), an area
with abundant and skilled labor in vegetable growing practices, the most acceptable system for seedling tuber production

has been transplanting into a relatively


large area . Tubers produced in both locations, Canete and Callao, were partly
kept as seed for the following season and
partly sold for consumption. In Callao,
a 20-m 2 seedbed produced seedlings that
were transplanted to a 1500-m 2 field
(seedling tuber plot). The seedling tubers
produced in that area were used for planting about 1.5 ha the following season.

PROGRESS IN TPS RESEARCH


IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Latin America. In Chile, yield tests of


TPS progenies as seedling transplants were
made at INIA's Remehue Experimental
Station in Osorno. There were ten OP
progenies, five hybrids, and controls consisting of seed tubers from two commercial varieties, Yagana and Desiree. The
two CIP hybrids (Atzimba x Rl 28.6 and
DT0-33 x Rl 28.6) gave better yields than
either of the two varietal controls. Uniformity of foliage and tubers of these two
hybrids were not as good as the standard
varieties. The best progenies will be tested
in on-farm yield trials during the 1985-86
season.
Through a collaborative project between INIA, the Universidad Austral de
Chile (UACH) and CIP, the UACH is carrying out agronomic experiments in Valdivia on the influence of soil type and
sowing depth on seedling tuber yield. The
optimum substrate for the seedbeds was
examined and mixtures of sand, manure,
and soil in various combinations gave excellent results. In terms of weight and
number of tubers produced in the seedbeds from TPS transplants, spacing of
10 x 10 cm or 8 x 8 cm gave optimum
results averaging 7-8 kg/m 2 . There were
no significant differences between these
two spacings, although in terms of tuber
number, the 8 x 8 cm spacing gave 411
125

Table 3. Average yield performance of four


TPS families and two clones at ICA's experimental station at Tibaitata, Colombia .
Family /
clone

Genetic makeup

Yield
(kg / plot)

Pu race

tbr x tbr

33.0

F4

Purace x R128.6 (neo tbr)

27 .0

F15

Atzimba x R128.6 (neo tbr)

20.0

F12

Monserrate x 380073.2
(tbr x (tbr x adg))

15.0

Pastusa

adg x adg

14.0

F8

Tequendama x FDR-71
(phu)25 (tbr x adg) x adg

12.0

tubers/m 2 compared with 306/m 2 for the


10 x 10 cm spacing.
In Colombia, four TPS families selected from tests in previous seasons were
planted as seedling tubers by the national
program of ICA, at the Tibaitata experimental station. Small tubers with an average size of 10 g were used and compared
with the two cultivars Pastusa and Purace.
Two families gave yields better than Pastusa, but less than Purace (Table 3).
Egypt. In collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture at the Kafra ElZayat station, CIP studied methods for
raising high-quality seedlings in nurseries
for transplanting, and appropriate field
cultural methods for potato production
through direct seeding in the field. Yields
of transplants were compared with those
of small seedling tubers in two grades
(1-5 g and 6-20 g) and those of normalsized seed tubers of the cultivar Alpha.
In autumn, seedlings were transplanted
during the hot period in October, however they survived well and recovered in
seven days. After December, low temperatures and early blight inhibited further foliar development. Relative yields
from the autumn transplants were similar to those from small tu be rs (1-5 g) as
might be expected, as they are both es126

sentially single-stem plants. Transplant


yields were 30/o to 50/o lower than
those from larger tubers (6-20 g) and regular seed tubers of Alpha, both of which
form multiple-stem plants. An earlier
transplanting period (September) will be
tested to advance the date of complete
foliar cover.
In the spring season (Feb.-June), initial
low temperatures after planting caused
slow early growth and weakened the
plants that were later attacked by early
blight. Seedlings sown in December were
not transplanted for 60 days due to the
cold and then they tuberized prematurely.
There was a heavy loss(> 80/a) of seedlings as recovery after transplanting was
very slow. Ex tending the day length to 18
hours in the nurseries by artificial light reduced premature tuberization, shortened
the recovery period after transplanting,
and increased final tuber yield. The
spring season (cold/ short days going in to
warm/long days) is the most difficult at
present for TPS hybrids. They do not
seem to be well adapted to this growing
regime, and better adapted hybrids need
to be developed for this purpose.
Seedling tubers were produced in nurseries at four periods throughout the year
(Dec.-April, Jan.-May, Jan.-June, and
Feb.-June) to test the applicability of
using this system to produce planting materials. During the first period, plants
were affected severely by cool weather
and early blight, thus the yield was low.
The optimum period for seedling tuber
production in nurseries was the JanuaryMay period when 5.67 kg/m 2 was obtained. The yield decreased as date of
planting was delayed. This probably reflects the lack of adaptation of the genetic materials to the hot/long-day conditions at bulking. Tubers produced were
stored and tested for viability by planting
in October. Autumn-planted seedlings in

nursery beds gave tuber yields of 2.5 to 5


kg/m 2 . However, between harvest (Dec.
1984) and planting (Feb . 1985) there was
insufficient time to break dormancy. Use
of chemicals such as Rindite improved
sprout production, but full emergence was
not achieved until 40 days after planting.
Investigations will continue on how to
improve sprouting.
In Tunisia, a collaborative study between CIP and CPRA, the Ministry of
Agriculture's training center at Saida, was
made on the possible applications of TPS
for each of the three growing seasons,
planting in September, November, and
January-February. Direct production of
consumer potatoes from seedling transplants in all seasons had little potential.
Climatic conditions at planting and in the
early weeks were either too hot or too
cold, and seedling survival was poor. Also,
there was early tuberization of seedlings
before transplanting. The best possibility
studied was seedling tuber production in
the main season (Feb.) to produce planting material for the following September
and November plantings. This fits with
the general policy for local seed production, which is to concentrate on the late
season (Sept.) crop, for which the only
seed available is the farmers' own seed or
that currently being produced by the national program.
In Senegal, preliminary trials were carried out by the Centre pour le Developpement de !'Horticulture (Dakar), in which
four possible nursery substrates were
tested for seedling tuber production. The
best results were obtained from a mixture
of two parts sand and one part peanut
husks . At planting, a basal amount of fertilizer (equivalent to 120, 360, 150 kg
NPK/ha, respectively) was mixed with the
substrate. The yield was 4.76 kg/m 2 or
532 tubers/m 2 . The size of the tubers
can be varied by adjusting planting date

and the particular seed progeny; however,


a compromise will be necessary between
number of tubers and average size to produce a size acceptable to local farmers.
The tubers produced in 1985 were stored
in a combination of cold storage followed
by diffused-light storage for six months
and will be planted in 1986 for further
evaluation.
Rwanda. Ten on-farm trials were set
up to evaluate the potential use of TPS
technology by farmers. The objectives
were 1) to evaluate the applicability of
this technology in different ecological
zones and 2) to compare advantages of
seedling tubers of hybrid and OP seed
with farmers' own seed. Farmers showed
that handling heterogenous populations
posed no problem, and they selected the
types normally preferred with respect to
tuber size , quality , and vegetative cycle.
In fact , this process introduced them to
the idea of positive selection, which could
benefit their home-grown tuber seed. The
mean yield of all plots with farmer seed
was 16.3 t/ha compared with the yield
from seedling tubers of 22.3 t/ha.
India. TPS as a technology to form
part of the research program of the Indian
Council for Agricultural Research was officially approved in 1985. CIP's regional
scientist was designated as the coordinator for the project and will initiate trials
at various institutes throughout India and
supply the necessary TPS.
A comprehensive program for investigating optimum agronomical methods for
TPS production was conducted during
the year. A seedbed substrate composed
of subsoil and biogas sludge was the best
medium for promoting vigorous emergence of seedlings. For transplanting in
December, either in nursery beds or fields,
the main difficulty encountered was high
seedling loss due to low night temperatures (min 1C), and it was not until late
127

January that normal plant growth resumed. Average seedling establishment


was about 50/o. Transplanting could not
be delayed or the season would have extended into May when extremely high
temperatures prevail.
A collaborative research project with a
farmers' association at Mandra, Calcutta,
investigated the potential role of seedling
tubers as planting material . Seedling tubers harvested in 1985 and kept in a
cold store were graded as either medium
(> 20 g) or small ( < 20 g) . These were
planted in the field in November 1984
with normal fertilizer applications , but
the within-row planting distance was 20
cm for medium-sized tubers and only
10 cm for small sizes. The percentage
of emergence was 92/o for medium and
73/o for small sizes. At harvest, the following conclusions were drawn: the medium size seedling tubers gave a higher
number of large- and medium-sized tubers
than the small seedling tubers. There was
no significant difference between mean
yield per unit area and size of seedling tubers. In a study on transplanting methods, the use of banana leaf cups for raising TPS seedlings and then planting directly to the field improved both stand
and yield, compared with normal transplanting methods. The mixture in the
cups was the subsoil/ biogas sludge mentioned previously. Plants were extremely
vigorous with an average yield of 2.25
kg/m 2 , equivalent to about 22 t/ ha.
A trial for seedling tuber production was planted at the Jawaharlal Nehru
Agricultural Research Station, Chindwara,
using transplanted seedlings and three
planting densities ( 60 x 10, 60 x 20, and
60 x 30 cm). For both progenies tested,
the closest planting (60 x 10 cm) gave the
highest yield per m 2 .
Bangladesh. A number of TPS progenies were evaluated by the Bangladesh
128

Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) ,


at four substations representing different ecological environments. The hybrid
progeny Atzimba x RI 28.6 and the OP
progenies CIP 800226 and P-111 were
among the high yielders, equal or superior to the yields of the standard varieties
Patrones and Lalpakri, planted as seed
tubers. All TPS progenies displayed satisfactory standards for plant and tuber
characters as determined by market preferences. These selected progenies , and
suitable agronomic practices to produce
potatoes from TPS, which were developed during the last three years, will be
evaluated with farmers in 15 locations in
1986.
Southeast Asia. Throughout this area,
various national potato programs have
been studying the potential for TPS production. In the Philippine lowlands, near
Los Banos (Canlubang) , it was not possible to produce hybrid seed , whereas several clones had OP berries and the seed
was viable. Thus, it may be possible to
produce OP seed for farmers even under
these extremely difficult environmental
conditions.
TPS progenies, produced by CIP in
Lima and the Mountain State Agricultural College (Baguio) and Sta. Lucia in
the Philippines, were evaluated at the
PCARRD/ CIP germplasm center at Sta.
Lucia. Three trials were planted between
January 23 and February 22. Yields were
good in all trials, but one hybrid (LT-2 x I)
gave yields of more than 30 t /ha (on a per
plant basis). Large differences were observed between progenies in the trials
with respect to adaptability to temperature and changing daylength. Seedling tubers are being stored for further evaluation of the general performance of the
different crosses.
In Vietnam, at the Food Crops Research Institute at Dalat, at least 8 kg of

OP seed of two cultivars, CFK 69.l and


Atzimba, will be collected for distribution
to cooperatives in November and February, 1985-86.
TPS is best suited to the mid-elevation
areas of Southeast Asia, where bacterial
wilt is present, and also to the new wiltfree areas in the warmer lowlands. Farmers in the traditional potato-growing areas
at present show little interest in TPS technology since effective production systems
already exist in these areas.

RAPID MULTIPLICATION

The CIP regional germplasm center at Sta.


Lucia in the Philippines has maintained
80 clones and cultivars in vitro using very
simple techniques and without the benefit
of controlled temperatures as the station
has no connection to the public electricity supply. This operation is an example
of what other countries in Asia can do at
very low cost and with minimum facilities. Approximately 27 shoots with a total of 68 nodes were maintained per flask ,
using a manually operated shaker. The in
vitro cuttings were transferred to a soil
mixture in wooden boxes and became
mother plants. The installation maintains,
on the average , 100 mother plants per
clone at any one time, and cuttings are
harvested weekly. To improve rooting,
light intensity was lowered 50/o by the
use of a double layer of net screening,
and lighting was extended to 14 hours,
with artificial illumination provided by a
small portable generator. Density of cuttings was 30 to 40 plants/m 2 in the beds.
Harvest varied from 80 to 250 tubers/m 2
and yield from 2.0 to 4.5 kg/m 2 . Virus
testing of plants was carried out monthly
on mother plants.
Pathogen-tested tubers have been distributed to Mindanao (Philippines), Fiji,
Indonesia, and Western Samoa for evalua-

tion of bacterial wilt resistance .


In Mindanao, CIP and the Bureau of
Plant Industries (BPI) have started projects to evaluate the use of cuttings by
farmers. Although farmers are willing to
use cuttings as planting materials, they
show little interest in maintaining mother
plants. It appears that specialized farmers, such as those in Vietnam, will have to
maintain the mother plants and produce
the cuttings on a commercial basis. Alternatively, in Mindanao, TPS progenies can
be used to produce small seedling tubers
for planting. This has advantages over the
cutting technique as it reduces the risk of
latent wilt infection, particularly if the
tubers are produced in sterilized seedbeds.
However, identification of TPS progenies
with bacterial wilt resistance is essential
to the success of this approach.

SEED TUBER PRODUCTION


PROGRAMS

Latin America. In Peru, with financial


assistance from the Swiss Development
Project (COTESU), CIP has been assisting
the national potato program of INIPA
in establishing its basic seed multiplication program. In 1985, three new screenhouses with a total area of 285 m 2 were
brought into operation, giving a total area
of 3012 m 2 for the whole country. These
screenhouses are located at six strategically placed centers covering all the main
highland areas and Lima. Tissue culture
laboratories were put into operation in
Lima, Huancayo, and Cajamarca, and virology laboratories were placed at each
site plus one in Cusco. The total number
of stem cuttings produced was more than
1,180,000, which were planted in 31 sites
in the highland areas under the supervision of various official and local organizations. In total, 14.6 ha were planted with
basic seed in the 1984 season.
129

A study by INIPA was made at the


highland site of Pariahuanca (2800 m)
on yield response differences between
seed tubers and rooted stem cuttings. At
a density of 3 cuttings per hill , and 4
hills per m 2 , the yield obtained from cuttings was not significantly different from
normal-sized seed tubers planted at one
tuber per hill . With two cuttings per hill ,
the yield was reduced by 25/o.
Another study at Huancayo (3200 m)
compared the yield of bare-root cuttings
and cuttings rooted in plastic cones with
peat moss and sand (to overcome transplanting shock) with the yield of normal
seed tubers. Success with bare-root cuttings depended on the variety used, favorable weather at planting, and length of
season. With a long-maturing variety and
adequate planting conditions, the bareroot method gave almost equal results to
seed tubers. Cuttings in plastic cones,
however, accelerated crop development
and would thus be preferable when the
season is uncertain or transplants are subject to some form of stress.
A series of on-farm trials were carried
out by the CIP/ INIPA team in the Mantaro Valley (central sierra) to determine
the agronomic value of basic seed for local
farmers. All decisions relating to methods
of planting and spacing, fertilization, hilling, spraying, and harvest were left to the
individual farmer. Farmers' seed and basic
seed were treated alike. Only eight trails
could be planted although 20 had been
planned. Average yields of basic seed versus farmers' seed were 19.5 and 15.7 t/ha,
an increase of 24/o. A similar series of
on-farm trials in which varietal performance was tested demonstrated that basic
seed of the improved variety Mariva outyielded all other improved varieties under
farmer-management conditions. Part of
the objective of these trials was to encourage national scientists to adopt the
130

methodology of on-farm trials to improve


their testing procedures.
In Argentina, in collaboration with
the national potato program of INT A,
CIP has helped to analyze a situation in
the potential seed-producing area of the
Valle Bonarence del Rio Colorado. In
this zone , areas infected by root-knot
nematode need to be identified to avoid
spreading the pest. Soil samples were
taken throughout the area and 63/o were
found free of nematodes and 30/o had
very low levels of infection. Most infected
soils occurred where horticultural crops
had been previously cultivated ; but where
extensive farming for wheat or soybeans
was carried out, nearly all samples were
free of nematodes. INT A will use the results to define the infected areas and develop appropriate inspection standards.
In Chile , many farmers use regular
seed (uncertified seed lots) since it is
cheaper than certified seed. To examine
the quality of regular seed, 21 samples
were taken and compared with two samples of certified seed of Desiree. Although
the mean yield of regular seed samples
was about 13/o less than that of certified
seed , there were large discrepancies in
yield within the regular seed samples, and
uniformity (trueness to type) was generally poor. There was an average of 56/o
off-type tubers in the sample as a whole,
and only five samples had less than 10/o
mixture. In Chile , it is generally assumed
that regular seed, despite its lack of uniformity, gives good yields, as it is produced under excellent growing conditions
and is in good physiological condition.

TRAINING

Support to programs for seed tuber production was continued through collaboration in seven regional and in-country
training courses. A two-week course in

Argentina on pathological problems in


seed production , and an in-country fieldlevel virology course in Bhutan were activities designed to enable extensionists
and seed inspectors to upgrade the quality of certified seed.
Training in the use of different types
of planting materials was given in three
other group activities. One of the several
courses conducted by SAPPRAD, the
Southeast Asian country network, on production technology was held in the Phil-

ippines and attended by 20 farmers and


researchers. This was a short course on
rapid multiplication techniques to produce rooted cuttings for planting directly
to the field. A regional course on TPS for
South America and a TPS workshop for
countries of the Indian subcontinent were
held during the year. Individual training
was also given to six scientists on the
use of TPS for production of consumer
potatoes.

131

THRUST X

Potatoes in Developing Country


Food Systems

esearch in 1985 generated the most reliable maps to date showing areas of
potato production in developing countries. Agroclimatic and production
maps were refined . Data on potato production and consumption in 95 developing countries have been organized within country files. Analysis of
country-level statistics showed that in developing countries potato production
has tripled since 1960 and yields have doubled . These countries now produce
nearly one third of the world's output. Diminishing potato prices and rising
incomes have stimulated the rapid growth of potato consumption in many
developing areas.
Studies of adoption and use of potato varieties in Peru and Rwanda
showed that socioeconomic factors strongly influence farmers' decisions.
Surprisingly, some farmers keep improved varieties for home consumption
and sell native varieties because they have a higher market price . Research on
traditional seed systems in Peru uncovered complex informal seed flows and
helped the national seed program diversify its strategies, enabling them to
reach more producers. The findings of a study on Peruvian potato marketing
was published by a CIP marketing specialist as a book, entitled Markets,
Myths, and Middlemen. Research on potato marketing and demand was also
conducted in Madagascar and Bhutan.
Research on household gardens in Asia, Africa and South America revealed
that root crops often occupy from 30/o to 80/o of the land and, along with
maize, are the most common and nutritionally significant garden crops.

A Bhu tanese farmer transports his potato crop


to the market and storage.

133

INFORMATION BASE ON WORLD


PATTERNS AND TRENDS IN
POTATO PRODUCTION
World patterns and trends in potato production. Analysis of country-level statistics indicated that of the world's food
crops, the potato ranks among the top
five in tonnage and in monetary and
food value . Until recently, the importance of the potato has been much greater
in Europe than in the developing world
due to its adaptation and cultivation in
the temperate climates of these countries. The balance of world potato production is gradually shifting, however,
from developed to developing countries
and from temperate to tropical and
subtropical zones. Nearly one third of
the world's potatoes are now grown in developing countries, about 60/o are still
grown in Europe , and 10/o in other developed countries. Since potato prices
are highest in developing areas, roughly
40/o of the monetary value of world
potato production is now concentrated
there . In dollar value of production, the
potato now ranks fourth in the developing world, after rice , wheat and maize.
In developing regions, production increase has been greatest in Africa, Asia
and Central America. Since 1960, potato
production has tripled in Rwanda, Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, and more
than doubled in Madagascar, Cuba, Mexico, and several North African and Middle
Eastern countries. In terms of total volume, more potatoes are now grown in the
Far East than in Western Europe , North
America , and Oceania combined. China
alone now produces more potatoes than
all of Western Europe.
In Sou th America, where potatoes
have long been a staple food , potato production has grown less rapidly because
consumers are diversifying their diets and
moving away from traditional staples.
134

Agricultural and trade policies have also


discouraged potato production in some
countries. Peru is among these .
Since 1960, potato consumption in
most developing areas has grown somewhat more rapidly than production as
better technology has reduced postharvest losses and increasing yields have lowered the share of the crop that must be
reserved for seed. Although potato consumption is expanding in the developing
world, most people there still eat less
than 10 kg of potatoes a year. Potato
consumption levels are lowest in the
warm tropics, and highest in countries
that have extensive cool, temperate , or
highland production zones.
Potato yields are now, on the average,
80/o higher in the developing countries
than they were in the 1950s. With the
exception of the Far East, potato yields
have increased by at least as much as cereal yields, and much more than yields
of other root crops. Population growth ,
rising incomes, and changing food habits have stimulated potato production.
Improvements in technology have also
helped bring down the farm-gate price of
potatoes, improving their competitive position in many developing areas.
Potato prices have fallen most, relative
to the prices of other foods , in tropical
and subtropical lowland areas like the
plains of India and Bangladesh, where
effective seed production and distribution systems have been developed, new
varieties adapted to local food systems
have been introduced, and storage capacity for seed and consumer potatoes has
expanded.

ADOPTION OF POTATO
TECHNOLOGIES
Adoption and impact research concentrated on both storage technologies and

As in other developing countries, potatoes stored by


farmers in China are often sold in small amounts to
augment family incomes.

varieties. Adoption and impact of storage


technology is reported in Thrust VIII on
postharvest technology.
Adoption of varieties in Peru. Five
communities with different levels of
market integration were studied in the
highland Departments of Junin and Cuzco. They ranged from 96/o dependency
on improved varieties to 100/o dependency on native varieties. In each community, channels of diffusion and farmer
strategies for varietal use were studied.
Interviews with 159 farmers revealed that
most maintain their own germplasm bank,
consisting of six or seven main varieties,

planted in varying proportions depending


on the farmers' production goals. The
tendency is clear that farmers value improved varieties for yield, early maturity, disease resistance , and marketability,
while native varieties are valued for home
consumption, processing, barter quality,
and market price.
_
An in-depth study of farmer use of
potato varieties was also conducted in the
community of Marcapata, Department of
Cuzco, as part of a detailed study of potato agriculture. Use of different kinds of
cultivars is associated with agroecological
zone and ethnicity. Marcapata is divided
135

into a high zone occupied by Quechuaspeaking campesinos (peasants), an intermediate zone occupied by Spanishspeaking mestizos (mixed populations),
and a low zone occupied by recent settlers from outside the community. Of
the 100 potato varieties in the community, most are grown in the high zone
where production is primarily for home
consumption and seed tubers. In the
intermediate zone, both new and old
varieties are found. Native varieties are

used for home consumption while most


improved varieties are sold after harvest.
In the low zone, improved varieties are
grown and used for consumption and
sale. The study illustrated that in a single community different strategies are
pursued relating to use of varieties, depending on agroecological zone and social
characteristics of the population.
Adoption of varieties in Rwanda. Similar research on farmer use of potato cultivars was conducted by a CIP anthro-

Food systems thinking is incorporated into biological


science research through training. Above, Rwandese students are learning about the technical and socioeconomic
aspects of potato production and use.

136

Table 1. Farmers' preferences for duration of dormancy and vegetative cycle (O/o of 186 farmers),
Rwanda.
Vegetative cycle

Dormancy
Long

Short

Both

3/o

43/o

54/o

Long

pologist assigned to the national potato


program of Rwanda (PNAP). This study,
which covered 90 households in one survey area and 186 farmers in another,
addressed a broad range of questions
concerning production, storage, and use.
Rwandese farmers grow an average of
four or five different potato cultivars;
over 80/o mix cultivars with other crops
in the fields, although they sometimes
have additional plots, especially of new
cultivars, that do not contain mixtures.
Farmers find it advantageous to maintain
diversity in such traits as maturation and
dormancy, disease and drought resistances, cooking quality, marketability, and
storability.
More than 100 different crop rotations
involving potatoes were found in Rwanda.
The cropping systems are very complex
and both long- and short-cycle cultivars
play important roles. There is a strong
demand in Rwanda for short-cycle varieties (early maturing) to meet pressing
food and cash needs and to deal with extreme land scarcity. In marginal growing
areas below 1700 m, short-cycle varieties were preferred by 92/o of farmers
surveyed. Most farmers preferred either
short or a mixture of long and short in
both dormancy and the vegetative cycle,
but a few expressed a preference for long
dormancy and long or medium vegetative
cycles (Table 1). Maintaining diversity is
a risk-reducing strategy to deal with such
uncertainties as the timing of the rainy
season and planting dates. Farmers pre-

Medium

Short

All

52/o

44/o

ferred to maintain diversity, 44/o wanted


mixtures of early, medium, and long cycle varieties in their fields.
At the time of the surveys, the preferred varieties were Sangema and Montsama, introduced from Mexico in 1972,
and which form the basis of the PNAP
seed multiplication program. There is
a different conception of varieties suitable for home storage and consumption,
which ideally should have high dry matter
and starch content, and of those for sale
in town markets where these qualities are
not so important.
SURVEYS OF POTATO PRODUCTION
SYSTEMS AND SEED FLOWS

Surveys of seed flows, production, storage, and consumption help determine


research priorities, selection criteria for
new varieties, and also help to identify
channels through which improved seed
might be introduced.
Peru. Research conducted in the central highlands, in conjunction with the
national potato program of INIP A, identified three main types of seed flows : 1)
within specific areas between farmers,
kin, or neighboring valleys, 2) between
farmers and merchants within the highland region and between highland and
coast, and 3) between commercial seed
producers and small and medium-scale
farmers (Figs. 1 and 2). Different seed
distribution patterns were observed for
improved varieties, commercial native and
137

3900 m

3300 m

Co~

Seed grower

Community

Small farmer

Figure 1. Seed flows within the central Peruvian highlands.

Cheap or loaned
coastal seed

~elayed exchange

f/

Annual
supply
of seed

'"-_.,.......,__.,,

~ith

small
upland farmers

Highland valley
seed production

--- Coastal valley

Figure 2. Seed flows between the coast and central highlands of Peru.

native home-consumption cultivars. The


variety Yungay was the most common
improved variety, while Huayro was the
most common native variety. Commercial
seed growers accounted for only 8/o of
seed flows to small growers, primarily
those living in proximity to the commer138

cial seed production areas. Furthermore,


small producers acquired up to half of
their seed through exchange, barter, or
share-cropping arrangements. CIP and
INIP A researchers planted basic seed with
eight farmers and four communities in
the highlands. The farmers' reactions to

this seed and subsequent seed flows are


being monitored by the team to explore
the possibility of diffusing the basic seed
along existing seed flows.
Socioeconomic research has revealed
that native varieties are important to
small farmers for consumption, sale, and
processing. Eighty percent of the potato area in Puno is cultivated with native
varieties. Further north, but still in the
southern highlands, the area with native
varieties decreases to 35-40/o. In the
north and central regions of Peru, it is
25/o and on the coast less than 1/o. In
some areas, native varieties are disappearing and the area of land planted in native
varieties is diminishing. Several of the
most important native varieties are being
cleaned and multiplied in an attempt to
reverse this trend .
Burundi. A survey of production,
storage, and consumption patterns in
Burundi was made by the national potato program, assisted by two students
from the Institut Technique Agricole de
Burundi. Table 2 gives a brief summary
of the survey results.

MARKETING AND DEMAND


FOR POTATOES
Peru. A detailed study on potato marketing in Central Peru, entitled Markets,
Myths, and Middlemen, was published
during the year in English (by CIP) and
Spanish (by the Universidad de! Pacifico,
Lima). This study concluded that the
food system for potatoes - production,
marketing, and consumption - is more
complicated than that for most other
crops in Peru. Principal reasons include
the multitude of planting and harvesting
dates, diversity of varieties planted, and
number and dispersion of producers and
consumers. Contrary to popular opinion,
wholesalers' earnings represented a very
small share (roughly 2/o) of the retail
potato price paid by Lima consumers.
Although the current price rose from 2
to 64 soles per kilo during the last two
decades, the real price (i.e., the current
price deflated the consumer price index)
actually fell lower at the end of this period than at the beginning. Whereas it is
generally believed that potato consump-

Table 2. Summary of data relating to potato production collected from 60 farmers in Burundi
(112 fields).

Average field size

300 m 2

Method of planting

Flat, intercropped, several potato varieties

Associated crops

Maize, beans, Colocasia, tobacco, and bananas

Tuber skin color

No preference

Fertilization

75/o of fields received either compost or manure

Seed

Generally the small leftover tubers selected at harvest; in 50/o


of households women select seed

Harvest

Large tubers removed at weeding and hilling then continuous


harvesting of tubers as required

Dormancy

Short dormancy preferred

Storage

670/o inside the house (theft a major problem)

Consumption

Majority eaten by household

Cooking

Boiled with beans, peas, or cabbage

Varieties

Sangema, Kenya Baraka, Gashara, lranda, Hicintuka

139

Table 3.

Estimated potato consumption in


Lima: selected years. 0
Potatoes
Average annual
consumption
(kg/capita)

Share
of diet

1971-72

45

12.2

1976

46

13.1

57

18.9

1977

38
51

11.1
16.1

1978

45
53

12.4
17.9

Year

1979

1980

(O/o)

51

13.7

52

17.5

48

16.4

a Source: Extracted from Markets, Myths, and


Middlemen.

tion in Lima declined over time, in fact it


rose slightly during the 1970s (Table 3).
Myths about potato marketing in Peru
have distracted attention from the more
fundamental production problems of small
growers in the central highlands and preempted discussion of measures to improve
existing marketing arrangements, such as
more effective collection and dissemination of market information, and production and marketing credit programs that
are not mutually incompatible. Improved
collection and dissemination of information on the total area planted, potato shipments to the capital, wholesale prices, and
per capita consumption could help growers, traders, and policymakers better anticipate the evolution of supply and demand for potatoes in Lima.
Madagascar. Collaborative research
with the national potato program and the
Ministry of Scientific and Technological
Research has revealed that potato production in the country has increased by
140

150/o since 1972, with production expanding by 100,000 tons between 1980
and 1984. Production of potatoes now
surpasses that of all other crops - including rice- in the central highland (Vakinankaratra) region of the country. Interviews with over 900 growers revealed that
most potatoes are produced for household consumption and only about 30/o
are sold. These findings point to the potato's potential to help satisfy the growing rural demand for food in sub-Saharan
Africa, especially where growing conditions favor potato production.
Bhutan. A CIP follow-up to the 1982
baseline study of potato marketing in
Bhutan revealed that the marketing of
consumer potatoes through the Food
Corporation of Bhutan's auction yard in
Phuntsholing has been improved by 1) enforcing standardized trading procedures
and 2) more complete recording and dissemination of market information. Marketing of improved seed potatoes through
existing private trade channels has also
begun. The original study and follow-up
showed that national programs working
in collaboration with CIP can now identify and begin to solve both production
and marketing problems.

HOUSEHOLD FOOD PRODUCTION

CIP's strategy is to improve potato production for both farmers and small-scale
home gardeners. A CIP investigation of
gardens in Asia, Africa, and South America has shown that Peru, because of
its great ecological diversity , is an excellent laboratory for the systematic study
of home gardens. Field research on gardens in five agroecological zones revealed
that roots and tubers covered 30/o to
80/o of the garden area (Fig. 3). Important garden staples of this category were

Solanum tuberosum, Jpomoea batata,

1000 m

Coast

High
plateau

InterAndean
valley

High
jungl e

Low
jungle 1000m

0
Sweet potato,
maize,

Potato,
grains

Potato,
maize

Maize,
cassava,

musa spp.,

musa spp.,

co locasia

colocasia,
potato

0
Cassava,
maize,
musa spp.,
colocasia,
sweet potato

Figure 3. Ecology of garden stap l es in five agroecological zones of Peru.

Diascorea sp ., Manihot esculenta, and a


number of native roots and tubers.
Garden research was also conducted
to develop and adapt an intensive household or community-level food production method appropriate for Lima's lowincome groups. In Lima, the greatest
food expenditure by low-income families
was for potato, representing 12/o of
family expenditure for food and drink.
Of the 76 Lima gardeners surveyed , 4 7
had tried growing potatoes, but only 2
still grew them; the major reason for
dropping being low yield, diseases (particularly Phytophthora infestans), and inadequate water and space.
A control garden (6 m 2 ) was. established and maintained for two growing
seasons in Lima in an actual backyard
situation. Input levels were simulated
to represent the gardening practices of
low-income people with limited space
and capital. Promising techniques, refined in the control garden , involved intensive household or community-level potato production for confined backyard

areas. Several planting strategies were


tested involving potato tubers, true potato seed (TPS), sprouts, and sweet potato
branches as seed material for in-ground
and in-container plantings. Horizontal
row planting was tested against box
methods in vertical arrangements and
other container production techniques
(Table 4).
The least costly and most promising
technique was the potato box method
(Fig. 4). With low capital and a one-time
outlay (12/o of monthly household income) , a three-tier rack can be built

Table 4. Performance of home garden potato production (90-day growing season), Lima,
Peru.

Methods

kg/m 2

Yield
(g/plant)

R egular row

2.6

650

Tire

2.5

250

Potato box

5 .0

250

Potato rack

7.5

250

141

Figure 4.
crates .

Low-cost potato box rack constructed from rough lumber and fruit

covering 12 m 2 and accommodating up


to 20 boxes. In the control garden, 15
boxes were stacked in three tiers. Individual boxes were harvested every 90 days,
giving a yield of 0.5 kg/box or a total
"vertical" yield of 30 kg/m 2 per year.
POTATO PROCESSING
Household potato processing finds its
greatest intensity in the Andes where the
potato originated. In an effort to learn
more about indigenous methods of potato processing and their relevance for
other world regions, an in-depth anthro142

pological study was conducted in Peru


and Bolivia. The various stages of boiling,
freezing, soaking, and drying for different
potato processes have been described and
categorized (Fig. 5). To gain a historical
overview, more than 20 Spanish chronicles were reviewed to analyze traditional
Andean tuber processing technologies.
Most of the ancient practices are still followed by farmers in the Andes. Although
native varieties are the most common
processed type, some farmers prefer improved potatoes for making chufio (dehydrated potato) and tun ta (water-soaked
and dehydrated potato).

Nam e of product

Process

Geographical
distribution

papa seca

(papa sancochada)

mu raya

tun t a

(no hay)

Central /
Southern

chuiio

Cent ra l
Andes

kachu-chuiio

lojota

chuiio

North ern
Central
Andes
toqosh
Dryi ng (D)

(papa cruda)

Figure 5 .
in Peru .

Several types of processed potato products, illustrating their geographical di stribution

143

ncreasing food availability in the developing


world not only depends
on re search institutions
such as CIP to produce
technologies that improve
production, but also on the
abilities of national policymakers, researchers, ex tensionists, educators, and
agribusinessmen to receive ,
adapt , and transfer technologies from all sources
to their farmers.

144

NATIONAL
MANPOWER
DEVELOPMENT

145

Introduction
CIP's collaboration with national programs for manpower development, as
mentioned in previous annual reports and profiles, is based on the conviction
that national programs are, in general, better qualified than outside organizations providing technical assistance to examine their own potato-growing conditions, analyze government agricultural policies, assess research and training
needs, and undertake activities to transfer improved technologies to their
farmers.
In 1985, CIP trained 967 potato workers from 73 countries, mostly in
association with key national programs- bringing the total number trained
by CIP to over 5000. This report concentrates on the changes that are occurring in CIP's strategy on national manpower development as a result of
the experience gained in collaborating with national potato programs since
1971. Changes are also taking place, particularly over the past few years,
that are based on reviews and evaluations that have appraised CIP's worldwide
activities.

Staff from national potato programs understand their


farmers ' problems and constraints. A former partici
pant in a C/P training program is explaining the use of
diffused-light storage to farmers in Fiji.

146

CfP's training program emphasizes strengthening national capability to conduct research and to respond to farm-level problems. A national scientist in
Rwanda, trained previously by CJP and now involved in collaborative research,
is sharing his research experiences with others from East Africa.

The training undertaken to enable participants to conduct research and


to respond to farm-level problems is reported briefly in this section. More
detailed presentations appear in the respective research thrust reports.

Development and Coordination of Activities


National manpower development activities among CIP's research thrusts,
departments, and regions are developed and coordinated by the Training and
Communication Department. This Department, through its training program,
communications support unit, and information service unit, has the following
major responsibilities:
designs programs that enable technology transfer to take place
transforms technology into useful information for developing countries
gives communications support to CIP
provides information services to CIP and collaborating national scientists

Evaluations and Reviews


Since 1984, CIP's manpower development efforts have been continually modified to respond to the changing needs of national programs. This is achieved
147

through a f6llow-up system that includes a survey mailed to all former training
program participants, evaluations by activity coordinators of all training activities, and on-site follow-up visits by CIP staff as a part of research and transfer
activities in the regions.
The results obtained from the overall follow-up system have enabled CIP
to make continuous adjustments in CIP's strategy for manpower development. Some adjustments were reported in 1984, and others are reflected in
this Annual Report as well as in the activities included in the current training
plan for the next five years.
A questionnaire survey was conducted of national potato workers who had
been trained under a project sponsored by the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) . The responses were tabulated and submitted to a UNDPcontracted consultant for evaluating who will analyze the data and use it as a
basis for conducting a number of country case studies to determine the effect
that this project had at the national level.

1985 Activities and Trends


Training program. Within CIP's overall manpower development effort, the
training program exerts the most direct influence on the movement of technology to national programs. Through CIP training activities, potato workers

Capable national program


staff enable CIP to organize and conduct courses
worldwide. In Kenya,
a national researcher is
explaining virus indexing
to course participants.

148

Interaction with farmers


is an important part of
regional and in-country
training activities.
In Rwanda, a farmer is
explaining to course
participants the potato
varieties she prefers
to grow and why.

from the developing world are reached with technologies that can improve
potato production in their countries. Of the 967 persons trained under CIP's
auspices in 1985, 407 participated in 21 specialized group activities designed
to enable participants to conduct research. Also , as a part of specialized
training, 181 scientists received training as visiting scientists, scholars, student
assistants, or as part of their preprofessional practices. The remaining 379

Course participants in Colombia are gathering data resulting from practical


experiences in group training activities. This type of specialized training is on
the increase and is usually conducted away from CIP headquarters.

149

Table 1. CIP training activities for CIP headquarters and Regions I-VI, 1985.

Region

Activity

No . of
participants

No. of
countries

Headquarters-Peru
Visiting scientistsa

61

30

Scholarships

25

12

Student assistantships

28

Preprofessional practiceb

67

1
5

Region I
Colombia and Peru

True potato seed

Peru

Production with special emphasis


on seed productionc

16

Argentina

Pathology in seed productionc

14

Braz il

Productionc

18

Uruguay

Seed production

12

Burundi

Production

15

Burundi

Seed production

18

Ethiopia

Postharvest workshop

Region II

Region Ill

Kenya and Rwanda

Germplasm management

48
27

Malawi

Storage

35

Rwanda

Seed production

21

Rwanda

Seed production

22

12

Rwanda

Seed production

25

Tanzania

Storage

Tanzania

Storage

8
14

Zaire

North Kivu potato program


development workshop

14

Egypt

Reg ional confe rence on seed production

18

Turkey

Workshop on tissue culture

Region IV
7

Region V
Cape Verde

Seed production and storage

21

Nigeria

Tissue culture of root and tuber crops


(IJTA/CJP)c

11

Senegal

Production

13

Tunisia

Potato tuber moth

15

Tunisia

Production

18

9
6
6
2
5

Region VI
Bangladesh

Seed production

19

Bhutan

Field-level virology

India

Modern methods of potato production

26
17

Nepal

Workshop on true potato seed

21

a 35 trained at headquarters and 25 in the regions.


b58 from Peru ; 8 from developed countries .
c United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

150

4
6

Table 2 . CIP training activities for Region VI I and SAPPRAD,a 1985.

Region

Activity

No. of
participants

No . of
countries

Region VII
Laos

Production

21

Philippines

Bacterial wilt workshop

20

Germplasm management
Production

19
22

8
12

Rapid multipl ication techniquesb

15

Highland potato research

33

Lowland potato research

38

Production

32

SAPP RAD
Philippines

Rapid multiplication techniques

Rapid multiplication techniques

20

Lowland potato production

51

TPS production and progeny testing

a Southeast Asian Program for Potato Research and Development.


bUnited Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

participants underwent production training in 18 group activities designed to


help them respond to farm-level problems.
The activities conducted, the countries in which they were held, and the
number of participants are listed in Tables 1 and 2. It would not have been
possible to accomplish such a wide range of activities or train such a large
number of people without the collaboration of national program staff, many
previously trained by CIP. In 28 of the 39 group activities, 144 (66/o) of the
instructors were from national programs. For example, in a UNDP-sponsored
production course with emphasis on seed production, organized and conducted by Peru's National Agrarian University at La Molina, 12 of the 16
instructors were national researchers and university professors.
In CIP's Five-Year Training Plan, no group activities are planned at headquarters in Peru after 1986, all courses will take place regionally or in-country.
They will continue to receive particular attention and will be of longer duration to provide sufficient practical experience for participants and to increase
national program involvement in planning and conducting the training.
Specialized training will concentrate on topics concerned with improving
the availability of good seed to farmers and on priority research areas such as
true potato seed, production of potatoes in warm climates, and germplasm
management. Specialized training at CIP headquarters and in the regions,
similar to production training, will include more practical experience and be
directed at key national programs who can serve as network hubs for future
regional training.
151

Key national programs


such as th e one in
Kenya will serve as
focal points for future
training in the regions.

Degree-related training must continue to be made available to national


programs so that a constant supply of capable researchers is guaranteed. In
this process, particular attention should be given to thesis research that will
be conducted under growing conditions similar to the home country and on
topics of national priority. For example, the UNDP training project has permitted CIP to sponsor 16 advanced degree students from six countries at
universities in Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Rwanda. Increasing the availability of well-trained researchers in the developing world will permit CIP to
continue with its strategy of having contract research in developing countries.
Presently, 23 of the 36 research contracts are held by research institutions in
ten developing countries.
Communications support. Improved technology must be converted to
information before it can be used by national programs. CIP's Communications Support Unit plays an important role in this process, which is essential
if national programs are to adapt and transfer technology to their farmers . As
mentioned in previous reports, three important areas of CIP's efforts in national manpower development receive direct support from this unit - administration, research, and training.
In 1985, in addition to producing periodical publications such as the
CIP Circular, Annual Report, and visual aids, CIP published 20 different
documents in English and Spanish, relating to research and the transfer of
technology. The total included four Technical Information Bulletins (TIBs)
(2 English / 2 Spanish), five Specialized Technology Documents (STDs) , one
Technology Evaluation Series (TES), four social science publications, and two
planning conference reports. The STD and TES documents describe technologies that have been developed for use in research and are intended for national researchers. Eleven TES titles have been published since 1982, and over
100 STDs have been written and printed for CIP's trainees since 1980. The
152

STDs are used for handouts in courses and are eventually bound, according to
related titles, and produced as Specialize d Technology Manuals (STM).
CIP's training materials are designed to be adapted by national programs to
meet their specific needs. Most are prepared initially in English and translated
into Spanish. A special effort was made in 1985 to translate all of the TIBs
into French, which was accomplished by the end of the year. The translations
are being revised by French-speaking scientists. To date , TIBs have been published by national programs in Hindi, Bengali , Farsi, and Chinese. Also, CIP's
field guide entitled Major Potato Diseases, Insects, and Nematodes is being
translated into Arabic.
Copublication. Translation and publishing by national publishers or copublishing in the same or different languages by commercial publishers is a
method that makes infonnation more accessible to national scientists and
policymakers, university students and faculty, university libraries, and food
producers as well as farmers . A copublication agreement was reached in 1985
with a publisher in Urugu ay to print 17 of the Spanish TIBs for distribution
in South America, Mexico , and Spain. At the end of the year, a similar
arrangement was being sought for distribution in Central America and the
Caribbean.
A collaborative publishing agreement between CIP and Cambridge University Press has also been established, and three books by CIP authors will be
published in English during 1987-88; the first one, The Potato in the Human

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(./:.fu1~t..iJ/'/.11JAr

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..:i~~;l7'......,,
..!..~ >.:-4

'WA- 1~/Jc;.:if..-.Je11

Technology must be converted into information in an appropriate language


before it can be used by national programs. Several of CIP's Technical Information Bulletins have already been published in various languages.
153

National communicators can play an important role in bridging gaps between


national potato programs and farmers. During a production training course in
Peru, participants have an opportunity to practice preparing messages for
their farmers.

Diet, will be released in early 1987. The feasibility of copu blishing these
books in other languages is being explored.
During the year a special effort was made to update CIP's master mailing
list to ensure that regularly mailed publications and documents were reaching
potential users and to reduce unnecessary mailing costs. Based on responses
to a mailing list survey, the English-Spanish master list was trimmed from
7000 to approximately 5000.
Communications training. CIP took preliminary exploratory steps in 1985
to find methods to collaborate with national communication units to improve national potato worker's skills in communicating with farmers. The
envisioned approach coincides with CIP's current strategy for technology
development and transfer, but with increased involvement of national communicators.
In an initial experience in a group training activity in Bolivia, participants,
at the end of each day, transformed the information that they considered to
be the most important for farmers into messages by selecting the most appropriate medium for reaching farmers in their areas, e.g., posters and radio.
They also outlined campaigns with timely information at key stages of the
crop's production cycle. CIP and national communicators collaborated in
this effort. The ultimate goal is to bring about the development of support
linkages between national potato programs and communication units, thus
facilitating the process of reaching the farmer with improved technologies.
Information service. In late 1985, special project funds from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada were received to
154

develop an Information Service Unit that would respond to the long-range


information needs of potato researchers in the developing world. This threeyear project will incorporate the services offered by CIP's library to CIP and
national scientists into a much broader context toward the development of a
global communications network on potato .
In the follow-up survey of former CIP training participants, mentioned in
the section on Evaluations and Reviews, 44/o of 557 respondents indicated
that lack of information was a limitation to conducting research. This study
revealed that national programs are conducting research and attaining results
that could be of interest to other researchers working under similar potatogrowing conditions. As such, the Information Service Unit's objectives are as
follows:
develop an automated database of conventional and nonconventional
literature of particular relevance to national researchers
assist national researchers to gain access to other databases, such as
AGRIS and CAB
provide additional services to national researchers, e.g. , selected dissemination of information, specialized searches and bibliographies,
and acquisition lists
facilitate ex change of information among national researchers through
financial and technical support to national scientific journals
assess national program information needs continually

At CIP headquarters in Lima, the Information Service Unit is taking steps to


develop a worldwide communications network on the potato.
155

CIP's continuous
follow-up system is
intended to provide
support to national
programs, contribute
to research on food
systems, and determine impact at the
farm level. In Tahiti,
a farmer provides us
with an insight into
the impact of potato
research.

A Digital VAX 750 with six megabytes of memory was purchased to meet
the needs of this project as well as those of other CIP scientific needs. The
system includes 17 terminals and 13 printers. The work in this project will
be incorporated into CIP's ongoing programs at the end of three years. The
Information Service Unit will also coordinate CIP's continuous follow-up
system of training. This effort is designed to not only determine the impact
manpower development activities are having on national research and extension activities, but to also be a mechanism for providing necessary support to
national programs. All information gathered will become a part of Thrust X
research.

156

Publications

CIP PUBLICATIONS IN 1985


Annual Report CIP 1984. Lima, Peru.
167 p. 1985. In English and Spanish.
CIP Circular. Vol. 13 (Nos. 1-4). 1985. In
English and Spanish.
Evaluacion de Clones de! CIP Mejorados
por Resistencia al Nematoda de! Quiste
de la Papa (Globodera pallida) [Evaluation of Improved CIP Clones for Resistance to Potato Cyst Nematode], by
J. Franco and M. Scurrah. Technical
Evaluation Series 1985-1. Lima, Peru.
1985. 30 p.
Evaluation Manual for CIP Courses: Objectives and Implementation Procedures, by C. Siri. Lima, Peru. 1985.
60p.
Innovative Methods for Propagating Potatoes. Report of 28th CIP Planning Conference, December 10-14, 1984. Lima,
Peru. 1985. 342 p.
Investigaciones Nematol6gicas en Programas Latinoamericanos de Papa [Nematode Research in Latin American Potato Programs], Vol. I: Informes [Reports], Vol. II: Proyectos y Metodos
[Projects and Methods], edited by J.
Franco and H. Rincon. Lima, Peru.
1985. 178 p.
Markets, Myths, and Middleman: A Study
of Potato Marketing in Central Peru, by
G. J. Scott. CIP, Lima, Peru. 1985.
184 p. Spanish edit., Mercados, Mitos
e Intermediarios. Universidad del Pacifico, Lima. 304 p.

Physiological Development of Potato Seed


Tubers, by S. G. Wiersema. Technical
Information Bulletin 20. Lima, Peru.
1985. 16 p. In English and Spanish.
Potato Atlas, by D. E. Horton and H.
Fano. 2d ed. revised. Lima, Peru. 1985.
135 p.
Present and Future Strategies for Potato
Breeding Improvement. Report of 26th
CIP Planning Conference, December
12-14, 1983. Lima, Peru. 1985. 203 p.
Principales Enfermedades, Nematodos, Insectos y Acaros de la Papa [Major Potato Diseases, Nematodes, and Insects].
CIP Slide Training Series IV-1 (Spanish
ed.). 100 slides with 100-page booklet.
Lima, Peru. 1985.
Traditional Potato Production and Farmers' Selection of Varieties in Eastern
Nepal, by R. E. Rhoades. Potatoes in
Food Systems Research Series Report
No. 2. Lima, Peru. 1985 . 52 p.
Transmission of Potato Viruses by Aphids,
by K. V. Raman. 3d ed. revised. Technical Information Bulletin 2. Lima,
Peru. 1985. 22 p. In English and
Spanish.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
BY CIP STAFF
Alcazar, J., and S. A. Raymundo. 1985.
Danos en tuberculos de papa (Solanum
tuberosum L.) por Colaspis chlorites
Erichson. [Damage to potato tubers
157

(S. tuberosum L.) due to C. chlorites


Erichson.] F AO Plant Protection Bull.
33 : 165.
Canto-Saenz, M. 1985. Metodos de extracci6n e inoculacion de Pratylenchus
flakkensis. [Extraction and inoculation
methods of P. flakkensis. ] Nematropica 15: 116 . (Abstr.)
Canto-Saenz, M. 1985. The nature of
resistance to Meloidogyne incognita
(Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood
1949. p. 225-232. In J . N. Sasser and
C. C. Carter (eds.), An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne. Vol. I. Biology
and control. North Carolina: North
Carolina State Univ. Graphics. 422 p.
Chandra, R., M. D. Upadhya, and K. K.
Jha. 1985. Regeneration of plants
from rachis tissue of the potato in
vitro. J. Indian Potato Assoc. 12:8 891.
Dayal, T. R., S. N. Chaturvedi, and M. D.
Upadhya. 1985. Comparative group
study of combining ability for different traits in the potato. J. Indian Potato Assoc. 12:31-42.
Dodds, J. H. (ed.). 1985. Plant genetic
engineering. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. 3 20 p.
Dodds, J. H., and L. W. Roberts. 1985.
Experiments in plant tissue culture. 2d
ed. revised. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. 272 p.
Eguchi, Y. 1985. Preliminary report of
study on flower bud differentiation
and development in potato. p. 246-24 7.
In Reports of the Second Meeting of
the Japanese Society for Horticultural
Science, Tokyo, Japan, October 14-16,
1985. 619 p.
Espinoza, N. 0., and J. H. Dodds. 1985.
Adventitious shoot formation on cul158

tured potato roots. Plant Sci. Let. 41 :


121-125.
Fedalto, A. A., and 0. A. Hidalgo.
1985. Produ9ao de batata (Solanum
tuberosum) em canteiros via plantula
de semente botanica. [Production
of potato (S. tuberosum) in beds
using seedlings from true potato
seed.] Horticultura Brasileira 3:68.
(Abstr.)
Fedalto, A. A., and 0 . A. Hidalgo. 1985.
Efeito de niveis de fertilidade na obten9ao de plantulas de batata (Sola
num tuberosum L.). [Effect of fertility levels on potato seedling production.]
Horticultura Brasileira 3:69.
(Abstr.)
Franco, J., and E. Bendezu. 1985. Estudio del complejo Verticillium dahliae
Kleb y Globodera pallida Stone y su
efecto en el comportamiento de algunos cultivares peruanos de papa.
[Study of V. dahliae Kleb and G. pal
lida Stone complex and its effect on
some Peruvian potato cultivars.] Fitopatologia 20: 21-27.
French, E . R. 1985. Multiple disease resistance in potato cultivars with Sola
num phureja and S. demissum background .
Phytopathology 7 5: 1288.
(Abstr.)
Fribourg, C. E., and J. Nakashima. 1984.
An improved latex agglutination test
for routine detection of potato viruses.
Potato Res. 27: 237-249.
Fribourg, C. E., and J. Nakashima. 1984.
Characterization of a new potyvirus
from potato. Phytopathology 74:
1363-1369.
Graza, I., and P. Vander Zaag. 1985.
Rapid multiplication of potato (Solanum spp.) for tuberlet production.
Philippine Agric. 68: 287-296.

Haverkort, A. 1985. Principe de selection.


[Principles of selection.] p. 119-121.
La recherche sur les semences botaniques de la pomme de terre. [Research on true potato seed.] p. 123127. In Rakotondramanana (ed.), Le
ble et la pomme de terre a Madagascar:
productions et contraintes [Wheat and
potato in Madagascar: production and
constraints]. Proceedings of International Conference on Wheat and Potatoes, Antsirabe, Madagascar, September
24-28, 1984. Madagascar: FIF AMAN OR. 1985. 172 p.
Hidalgo, 0. A., and P. Accatino. 1985. 0
Centro Internacional de la Papa e sua
contribui9ao para os programas de batata dos paises nao andinos da America
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159

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162

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Research and Consultancy Contracts

Thrust I - Maintenance and Utilization of Unexploited Genetic Resources


1. Rothamsted Experimental Station, England - Stability/variability of
potato in culture and storage. M. G. K. Jones
Thrust II - Production and Distribution of Advanced Breeding Material
2. Cornell University, United States - The utilization of Solanum tuberosum
spp. andigena germplasm in potato improvement and adaptation.
R . L . Plaisted, H. D. Thurston, W. M. Tingey, R. E. Anderson,
B. B. Brodie, M. B. Harrison, and E. E. Ewing
3. North Carolina State University, United States - Breeding and adaptation
of cultivated diploid potato species. F. L. Haynes
4. I.V.P. Agricultural University, Netherlands - A breeding program to
utilize the wild Solanum species of Mexico. J. G. Th. Hermsen
5. University of Wisconsin, United States - Potato breeding methods with
species, haploids, and 2n gametes. S. J. Peloquin
6. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA), Argentina Program to utilize greater genetic variability in the potato breeding plan.
A. Mendiburu
7. Agriculture Canada - A proposal to evaluate modem potato breeding
materials and their nutritional values. T. R. Tarn
8. University of Tacna, Peru - Evaluation of sweet potato germplasm for
tolerance to certain abiotic stresses under arid conditions. R. Chavez
9. Instituto Nacional de Investigaci6n Agraria (INIPA), Peru - Evaluation
of advanced clones from CIP and the national potato program of Peru.
D. Untiveros
l 0. Potato Research Institute, Poland - Breeding potatoes resistant to
the potato leafroll virus (PLRV). E. Kapsa
11. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Hortalii;as (CNPH/EMBRAPA), Brazil Evaluation of potato germplasm (Solanum tuberosum L.) in relation to
resistance to Alternaria solani. F. J. B. Reifschneider
12. Aegean Regional Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI), Turkey Potato germplasm evaluation and multiplication. K. Temiz and
B. Comee
163

Thrust III - Bacterial and Fungal Diseases


13. Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Colombia - Evaluating the
resistance of potato genetic material to Pseudomonas solanacearum
and Phytophthora infes tans. F. Gomez and J. Llanos
14. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP), Ecuador Study and control of potato diseases black rot (Rosellinia sp.) and rust
(Puccinia pittieriana) in Ecuador. H. Orellana
15. University of Wisconsin, United States - Fundamental research to
develop control measures for bacterial pathogens of the potato.
A. Kelman and L. Sequeira
16. Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka - Development of resistance and
control of bacterial wilt for the mid and high elevations of Sri Lanka.
M. Velupillai
17. National University of Huanuco, Peru - Development of disease-resistant
potato varieties with adaptation to the ecological zones of the
Department of Huanuco. E. Torres
18. National Agricultural Laboratories, Kenya - The reaction of selected
potato clones to two races of Pseudomonas solanacearum in Kenya.
A.H. Ramos
Thrust IV - Potato Virus Research
19. Swiss Federal Agricultural Research Station, Switzerland - Development
of monoclonal antibodies for potato virus identification. P. Gugerli
20. National Agrarian University-La Molina, Peru - Consultancy on the
production of antisera to viruses. C. Fribourg
21. University of the Philippines, Los Bafios (UPLB), Philippines Integrated control of nematodes and weeds by the use of biological
control agents and solarization. R. Davide
Thrust V - Integrated Pest Management
22. Foundation for Agricultural Plant Breeding, Netherlands - Resistance
breeding against the potato eelworm Globodera rostochiensis.
C. A . Huijsman
23. North Carolina State University, United States - Evaluation of potato
lines for resistance to the major species and races of root-knot nematodes
(Meloidogyne spp.). J. N. Sasser
24. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP), Ecuador Evaluation of clones resistant to potato cyst nematode (Globodera spp.)
in Ecuador. R. Eguiguren and J. Revelo
25. National Agrarian University-La Molina, Peru - Consultancy on
Pratylenchus spp. as important nematode pests of potatoes. M. Canto
164

Thrust VI - Warm Climate Potato Production


26. National Agrarian University-La Molina, Peru - Management of soils,
fertilizers and mineral nutrition of the potato under adverse soil and
climatic environments. S. Villagarcia
27. National Agrarian University-La Molina, Peru - Training and consultancy
research on the effects of soil management and fertilization on flowering,
fruit setting, and seed quality of the potato. S. Villagarcia
28. National Agrarian University-La Molina, Peru - Consultancy on efficient
use of nutrients by the potato plant. U. Moreno
Thrust VII - Cool Climate Potato Production
29. Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Colombia - Consultancy
on potato breeding to obtain frost-tolerant clones adapted to Andean
countries. N. Estrada
Thrust IX - Seed Technology
30. Victoria Department of Agriculture, Australia - Production of pathogentested potato germplasm for Southeast Asian and Pacific countries.
P. T. Jenkins
31. Instituto Agropecuario (INIA) and University Austral of Chile, Chile Use of true potato seed in commercial potato production.
J. San tos Rojas and J. Banse
32. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Chile - Production of
true potato seed in Chile. A. Cubillos and J. Kalazich.
Thrust X - Potatoes in Developing Country Food Systems
33. International Potato Center (CIP), Peru - Consultancy on household
gardens in food systems of developing countries. V. Nifiez
Support Department
34. National Agrarian University-La Molina, Peru - Consultancy on design,
statistics, and computer processing of research experiments. A. Garcia
35. International Potato Center (CIP), Peru - Consultancy on management
of sweet potato germplasm. R. del Carpio
Regional Research and Training
36. International Agricultural Center, Netherlands - Consultancy for
regional research and training. H. P. Beukema

165

Financial Statement

COLERIDGE

A SO C I ADOS

R E PRESENT A NT E S O E

ARTHUR

ANDERSEN

&

Co.

To the Board of Trustees of


International Potato Center - CIP:

We have examined the balance sheets of INTERNATIONAL POTATO


CENTER - CIP, (a non-profit organization established in Peru) as of
Dec e mber 31, 1985 and 1984, and the related statements of sources,
application and changes in unexpended fund balances and changes in
financial po s ition for the years then ended.
Our examinations were
made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards and,
accordingly, included such tests of the accounting records and such
other
auditing
procedures as
we considered
necessary
in
the
circums tances.
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above
present fairly the financial position of International Potato Center
- CIP as of December 31, 1985 and 1984, and the sources, application
and changes in unexpendend fund balances and the changes in its
financial position for the years then ended, in conformity with
generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent
basis.

Lima, Peru,
February 18, 1986

167

INTERN A TI ON AL POTATO CENTER - CIP


BALANCE SHEETS
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1985 AND 1984
(Expressed in U.S . dollars)
1985

1984

ASSETS
CURRENT ASSETS:

1,224,653

336,971

1,429,498
36,493

1,209,080
14,579

104,333
202,137

112,846
143,618

1,772,461

1,480,123

Inventories of laboratory and


other supplies

469,613

560,410

Prepaid expenses

102,415

112,082

3,569,142

2,489,586

Cash on hand and in banks


Accounts receivable Donors
Executives and employees
Current portion of loans to
executives and employees
Other

Total current assets


RESTRICTED FUNDS (Note 3)
LONG-TERM LOANS TO EXECUTIVES
AND EMPLOYEES (Note 3)
FIXED ASSETS (Note 4)

400,000

500,000

411,792

571,715

9,271,377

8,484,481

13,652,311

12,045,782

The accompanying notes to the financial statements are an integral part of these balance sheets.

16'8

INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER - CIP

1985

1984

105,558
1,035,118
643,992
50,225

191,003
1,041,876

1,834,893

1,320,793

403,576

553,942

385,512

294,267

9,271,377

8,484,481

LIABILITIES AND FUND BALANCES


CURR ENT LIABILITIES:

Current portion of long-term debt


and bank overdrafts
Accounts payable and accruals
Grants received in advance
Other accruals and liabilities
Total current liabilities
LONG-TE RM DEBT (Note 3)

87,914

SEVE RANCE INDEMNITY LIABILITY ,

net of advances of 42,039 in 1985


and 39,101in1984
FUND BALANCES:

Funds invested in fixed assets (Note 5)


Unexpended funds Working funds
Special projects
Operations
Cooperative activities

880,000
807,666
(1,784)
71 ,071

829,000
465,538
54,465
43,296

1,756,953

1,392,299

11,028,330

9,876,780

13,652,311

12,045,782

Th e accompany ing notes to the finan cial statements are an integral part o f these balance sheets.

169

INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER - CIP


STATEMENT OF SOURCES, APPLICATION AND
CHANGES IN UNEXPENDED FUND BALANCES
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1985 AND 1984
(Expressed in U.S. dollars)

1985

1984

1,392,299

1,923,787

Operating grants Unrestricted


Restricted

6,100,959
3,018,047

6,032,830
3,094,823

Special project grants


Grants for fixed asset additions
Grants for cooperative activities
Working fund grants
Other income, net

9,119,006
1,340,569
627,981
274,460
51,000
303,970

9,127,653
1,132,272
500,000
264,467
43,000
417,200

11,716,986

11,484,592

UNEXPENDED FUND BALANCES,


BEGINNING OF YEAR
SOURCES OF FUNDS:

APPLICATION OF FUNDS:

Operating costs Potato research program


Research services
Regional research program and training
Library and information services
Administrative
Other operating costs
TAC external review
Special projects
Cooperative activities
Additions to fixed assets
Grants returned and other

UNEXPENDED FUND BALANCES,


END OF YEAR

2,560,824
1,263,528
2,842,433
408,997
1,054,012
1,344,496

2,699,505
1,444,271
2,803,375
416,902
1,020,658
1,377,824
(37,356)

9,474,290
998,609
246,685
627,981
4,767

9,725, 179
1,175,991
244,571
835,259
35,080

11,352,332

12,016,080

1,756,953

1,392,299

The accompanying notes to the financial statements are an integral part of this statement.

170

INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER - CIP


STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN FINANCIAL POSITION
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1985 AND 1984
(Expressed in U.S. dollars)
1985

1984

1, 756,953

1,392,299

FUNDS WE RE PROVID ED BY:

Operations Unexpended fund balances


Add (deduct) - Item not requiring
use of funds - Provision (credit)
for severance indemnities, net
of exchange gains of 210, 54 2 in
1985 and 230,666 in 1984
Total funds provided from operations
Decrease in restricted funds
Decrease in long-term loans to executives
and employees
Increase in long-term debt
Increase in funds invested in fixed assets

(47,257)

101,899
1,858,852

1,345,042

100,000
159,923
786,896

140,432
553,942
1,148,013

2,905 ,671

3,187,429

FUNDS WER E APPLIED TO :

Restricted funds
Fixed asset acquisitions Additions
Net cost of replacements
Decrease in long-term debt
Payments and advances of severance indemnities
Prior year unexpended fund balances

INCR EASE (D EC RE ASE) IN WORKING CAPITAL

500,000
731,994
54,902
150,366
10,654
1,392,299

1,035,259
112,754

2,340,215

3,609,518

565,456

37,718
1,923,787
(422,089)

CHANG ES IN TH E WORKING CAPITAL ACCOUNTS INC R EAS E (DEC REASE):

Cash on hands and in banks


Accounts receivable
Inventories of laboratory and other supplies
Prepaid expenses
Current portion of long-term debt
and bank overdrafts
Accounts payable and accruals
Grants received in advance
Other accruals and liabilities
INCRE ASE (DECRE ASE) IN WORKING CAPITAL

887,682
292,338
(90,797)
(9,667)

(1,147, 269)
(355,266)
(6,597)
65,697

85,445
6,758
(643,992)
37,689

653,415
(130,647)
451,773
46,805

565,456

(422,089)

Th e accompany ing notes to the financial statements are an integral part of this statement.

171

NOTES TO THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS


AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1985 AND 1984
(Expressed in U.S. dollars)

1.

Activities of the CIP


The International Potato Center - CIP is a non-profit autonomous scientific
organization established in Peru in 1972 through a scientific cooperation agreement signed in 1971 (which expires in the year 2000) with the Peruvian government. The CIP is a member of the group of International Agricultural Research
Centers and receives support from the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research.
The objective of the CIP is to contribute, through the execution of research programs and training, to the worldwide potato production and development. Besides
its headquarters in Lima, Peru, the CIP also has regional offices located in South
America, Near and Middle East, Asia, and Africa.
In accordance with present legal dispositions the CIP is exempt from income and
other taxes.

2.

Significant accounting principles and practices


a.

The CIP's accounting records are maintained in U.S. dollars. Monetary assets
and liabilities in other currencies are expressed in U.S. dollars at the year-end
exchange rate. Net exchange gains or losses originating during the year are
included in the results of each period in the statement of sources, application
and changes in unexpended fund balances.

b.

Grants are recorded as income on the basis of commitments made by the


donors.

c.

Inventories of laboratory and other supplies are stated at average cost.

d.

Fixed assets are stated at cost. No depreciation is applied to fixed assets.


Additions to fixed assets are reported in the statement of sources, application
and changes in unexpended fund balances as incurred, and replacement additions are reported as operating costs in such statement. Likewise, such additions and replacements are reported at cost in the funds invested in fixed
assets account, in the balance sheets.
Fixed assets sold or retired are eliminated from the asset account and from
the related fund balances account, and are recorded in contra accounts. Maintenance, repairs and minor replacements are charged to costs as incurred.

e.

The severance indemnity liability is recorded under the accrual method for
the estimated amount the employees would receive should they retire at the
balance sheet date.

Certain figures in the financial statements as of December 31, 1984, have been
reclassified to make them comparable with those of the current year.
172

3.

Long-term loans to executives and employees and long-term debt


The CIP grants loans to its executives for the acquisition of homes and vehicles,
financed by a line of credit of US$800,000 from Citibank N.A. -New York. The
bank balance outstanding at December 31, 1985 , is to be repaid in 54 monthly
installments beginning January 1, 1986, and bearing an annual interest based upon
New York PRIME rate plus 1-1 /2 /o on the unpaid principal balance. The balance of loans t o executives is repayable under the same conditions, and therefore
these loans are made at no direct cost to CIP. The bank loan is guaranteed by
a US $400,000 deposit, earning an annual interest rate of approximately 7/o.
The CIP also grants loans to its employees for the acquisition and improvement of
homes.
A breakdown of loans to executives and employees as of December 31 is as follows (in U.S. dollars):

Current portion
Long-term portion

1985

1984

104,333
411,792

112,846
571,715

516,125

684,561

A breakdown of the outstanding debt as of December 31, follows (in U.S. dollars) :

Current portion
Long-term portion

4.

1985

1984

86,591
403,576

96,779
553,942

490,167

650,721

Fixed assets
This account consists of the following (in U.S. dollars):
As of December 31

Buildings and construction in progress


Vehicles and aircraft
Installations
Research equipment
Furniture, fixtures and office equipment
Site development
Farm equipment
Communication and other equipment

5.

1985

1984

2,886,964
1,811,483
1,126,284
1,154,784
965,092
607,532
354,726
364,512

2,786,071
1,761,305
1,079,639
1,015,444
619,954
589,248
318,226
314,594

9,271,377

8,484,481

Fund balances
Funds invested in fixed assets relate to the cost of fixed assets acquired by the CIP
for carrying out itsoperations.
173

In the event of dissolution of the CIP, all its property, after the liquidation of
liabilities, shall be turned over to the Peruvian Ministry of Agriculture.
6.

Donation commitments
As of December 31, 1985, donations committed by third parties to the CIP, to be
applied to special projects from 1986 to 1988, are as follows (in U.S. dollars):
Donor

1986

1987

Swiss Development Cooperation


and Humanitarian Aid

521, 760

451,000

United Nations Development


Programme

230,000

155,500

Belgian Government

150,000

International Development
Research Centre - Canada

55,721

Federal German Government

231,110
42, 750

United States Agency for


International Development

70,355

16,651

1, 245,975

678,872

Such amounts are not reflected in the accompanying financial statements.

174

1988

45,322

45,322

The CGIAR:
A Global Agricultural
Research System

he Consultative Group on International


Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was established in 1971 to bring together countries,
public and private institutions, international
and regional organizations, and representatives
from developing countries in support of a
n etwork of international agricultural research
centers. The basic objective of this effort is to
increase the quantity and improve the quality
of food pro duction in developing countries.
The research supported by the CGIAR concentrates on the critical aspects of food production in developing countries that are not
covered adequately by other institutions, but
which are of global importance. Currently, the
CGIAR network is involved in research on all
of the major food crops and farming systems
in the major ecological zones of the developing world.
The CGIAR consists of approximately 46
donor organizations who meet twice a year to
consider program and budget proposals as well
as policy issues of the 13 international agricultural research institutes supported by the
group. The World Bank provides the CGIAR
with its chairman and secretariat, while the
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of
the United Nations provides a separate secretariat for the group's Technical Advisory
Committee (TAC). The TAC regularly reviews
the scientific and technical aspects of all center programs and advises the CGIAR on needs,
priorities, and opportunities for research.
Of the thirteen centers, ten have commodity-oriented programs covering a range
of crops and livestock and farming systems
that provide three-fourths of the developing
world's total food supply. The remaining three
centers are concerned with problems of food
policy, national agricultural research, and plant
genetic resources.

CIAT
Intern atio nal Center fo r Tro pical
Agriculture
Cali, Co lombia
CIMMYT
International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center
Mex ico City, Mex ico
CIP
In ternational Po ta to Center
Lima, Peru
!CARDA
Internati onal Center for Agricultural
Research in the Dry Areas
Aleppo, Syria
ICRIS AT
Intern ational Crops Research Institute
for the Semi-Arid Tropics
Hydera bad, India
IITA
International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture
Ibadan, Nigeria
ILCA
Internation al Livestock Center
for Afri ca
Addi s Ababa, Ethiopia
ILRAD
International Laborat ory for Research
on Anim al Diseases
Nairobi, Keny a
IRR!
International Rice Research Institute
Manila, Philippines
WARDA
West Africa Rice Development
Association
Monrovia, Liberia
IBPGR
International Board for Plant Genetic
Resources
Rome, Italy
IFPRI
Intern ational Food Policy Research
Institute
Washington , D.C., U.S.A.
ISNAR
International Service for National
Agricultural Research
The Hague, Netherlands

175

mm

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INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER I CIPl

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ISSN 0256-6311