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Institute of Radio Electronics, Brno University of Technology
Purkynova 118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Phone: +420 541149164, Fax: +420 541149244
The paper provides broadband analysis of printed dipole antenna properties. Simulations
were made by Zeland IE3D as an interpreter of Method of moments. Results are as a
demonstration used for design of GSM 900/1800 antenna with step-by-step description.
The technique of printed antennas, when the motive of wire antenna (in origin) is applied on
the single-side printed circuit board, is well known for some advantages in comparison with
classic wire realisation [1].
The dipole antenna is one of the basic antennas. This work deals with the possibility of use
the dipole antenna in a dual-band (multiband) application as a starting point on the way to
powerful complex arrays design. The first part of dual-band (multiband) antenna design is
frequency-planning process, which is described in the paper. The second goal is the design of
impedance transformation and symetrization circuits. This will be the aim of our next work and
will be discussed later.
In most applications dipole operates in the first resonance, when the arm length l1 / 4 .
The main reason is the resonant resistance, that is usually in 5075. Several applications make
use of second resonance ( l 2 / 2 ), where the resistance in resonance is much higher, frequently
over 1k. The resonant frequency ratio for common structure f 2 / f1 1.85 . In other resonance,
the radiation pattern is unsuitable, with many side-lobes and the desired lobe suppressed. From
these reasons, dipoles are not usually used for dual-band (multiband) operation.

The simplicity of dipole structure and the easy of its manufacture attract to study the
possibilities of a dual-band (multiband) operation. The first goal is to modify the structure to
obtain operative ratio of resonant frequencies. The starting point for simulations was dipole with
2l = 200 mm, fed symmetrically with the feeding points spaced 2 mm apart. CuClad 217 was
chosen for a substrate. At first, the use of capacity (inductive) element was studied, but no
fundamental effect was found. Then the modification of shape was studied. With increasing
transversal dimension, the suppression of desired lobe and the radiation of side-lobes in the third
resonance decline and enable its use. Then, with structures pictured in the figure 1 interval
f 2 / f1 = 1.3 3.7 is covered.

Fig. 1 Different shapes of dipole

On the figure 2 the ratio between resonant frequencies is printed. Here X m,n means the
ratio between n-th and m-th resonance frequency for the dipole shapes by the figure 1.

Fig. 2 Resonant frequency ratio

One can see, that the ratio in the interval of 1.3 to 3.7 is able to achieve by changing the
shape and thickness of dipole arm. On the following figure, the directivity in each resonance is
figured. From dashed lines (third resonance), the applicable ranges of thickness are evident.

Fig. 3 Directivity

The following figure shows the ratio between resistances in each resonance. With
increasing transversal dimension, the ratio decreases and makes the impedance matching easier.
The impedances in the first and third resonance are close to each other. Again X m,n means the
ratio between resistance in n-th and m-th resonance for the dipole shapes by figure 1.

Fig. 4 Resonant resistance ratio

The design for concrete application (on given frequency) must be finished by correction
of all dimensions according to resonant frequency in the presented results by
x, y, z = y , x, z , where parameters x, y , z , f are original (from figures above) and
x, y, z , f are resulting (ready for manufacture).

Fig. 5 Resonant frequencies

The first step of GSM 900/1800 dual band antenna design is the calculation of the required
frequency ratio. Corresponding value f 2 / f1 = 1.95 . The second step is to find the suitable shape
and thickness of dipole (from figure 2). There are three possibilities, shown in the table 1. The
following step is to decide which variant is better from the view of the directivity and resonant
resistances (figures 3 and 4). The second variant is unsuitable due to low directivity in the second
band. The realisation of the third variant has higher directivities and lower resistance ratio. The
final step is to find the resonant frequency in the first band (figure 5) and to calculate all the
dimensions. From this point of view, the realisation of the first variant has lower dimensions.

Table 1 Results summary

The following part of the design has to solve the impedance transformation and
symetrization. Because of f 2 / f1 2 , one can use transmission line, which is then quarter-wave
in the first band and half-wave in the second band. For the first variant, the impedance on
transmission line output could be roughly the same value and could be consequently transformed
and symetrized by wideband impedance transformers. In the third variant one can use
transmission line again to make impedances close to each other and straight to 50. Then there is
necessary to use symetrization method with impedance transformation 1:1.
For f 2 / f1 & 2 , different suitable methods must be chosen. This will be the aim of our
further work. The properties from the view of impedance matching and bandwidth will be
discussed later.

The paper presents in the first part results of multiband analysis of printed dipole antenna
from the view of frequency planning. The second part describes dual band GSM 900/1800
application antenna design process step by step. The work will continue in design of impedance
transformation and symetrization circuits followed by generalization of the design procedure
from the view of substrate parameters.

This work was financially supported by the grant of the Czech Grant Agency no.

[1] GARG, R., BHARTIA, P., BAHL, I., ITTIPIBOON, A. Microstrip Antenna Design
Handbook, Artech House, Boston 2002