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Ivo HERTL

Institute of Radio Electronics, Brno University of Technology

Purkynova 118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic

Phone: +420 541149164, Fax: +420 541149244

E-mail: xhertl00@stud.feec.vutbr.cz

Abstract

The paper provides broadband analysis of printed dipole antenna properties. Simulations

were made by Zeland IE3D as an interpreter of Method of moments. Results are as a

demonstration used for design of GSM 900/1800 antenna with step-by-step description.

INTRODUCTION

The technique of printed antennas, when the motive of wire antenna (in origin) is applied on

the single-side printed circuit board, is well known for some advantages in comparison with

classic wire realisation [1].

The dipole antenna is one of the basic antennas. This work deals with the possibility of use

the dipole antenna in a dual-band (multiband) application as a starting point on the way to

powerful complex arrays design. The first part of dual-band (multiband) antenna design is

frequency-planning process, which is described in the paper. The second goal is the design of

impedance transformation and symetrization circuits. This will be the aim of our next work and

will be discussed later.

MULTIBAND PROPERTIES OF PRINTED DIPOLE ANTENNA

In most applications dipole operates in the first resonance, when the arm length l1 / 4 .

The main reason is the resonant resistance, that is usually in 5075. Several applications make

use of second resonance ( l 2 / 2 ), where the resistance in resonance is much higher, frequently

over 1k. The resonant frequency ratio for common structure f 2 / f1 1.85 . In other resonance,

the radiation pattern is unsuitable, with many side-lobes and the desired lobe suppressed. From

these reasons, dipoles are not usually used for dual-band (multiband) operation.

The simplicity of dipole structure and the easy of its manufacture attract to study the

possibilities of a dual-band (multiband) operation. The first goal is to modify the structure to

obtain operative ratio of resonant frequencies. The starting point for simulations was dipole with

2l = 200 mm, fed symmetrically with the feeding points spaced 2 mm apart. CuClad 217 was

chosen for a substrate. At first, the use of capacity (inductive) element was studied, but no

fundamental effect was found. Then the modification of shape was studied. With increasing

transversal dimension, the suppression of desired lobe and the radiation of side-lobes in the third

resonance decline and enable its use. Then, with structures pictured in the figure 1 interval

f 2 / f1 = 1.3 3.7 is covered.

On the figure 2 the ratio between resonant frequencies is printed. Here X m,n means the

ratio between n-th and m-th resonance frequency for the dipole shapes by the figure 1.

One can see, that the ratio in the interval of 1.3 to 3.7 is able to achieve by changing the

shape and thickness of dipole arm. On the following figure, the directivity in each resonance is

figured. From dashed lines (third resonance), the applicable ranges of thickness are evident.

Fig. 3 Directivity

The following figure shows the ratio between resistances in each resonance. With

increasing transversal dimension, the ratio decreases and makes the impedance matching easier.

The impedances in the first and third resonance are close to each other. Again X m,n means the

ratio between resistance in n-th and m-th resonance for the dipole shapes by figure 1.

The design for concrete application (on given frequency) must be finished by correction

of all dimensions according to resonant frequency in the presented results by

f

x, y, z = y , x, z , where parameters x, y , z , f are original (from figures above) and

f

x, y, z , f are resulting (ready for manufacture).

OUTLINE OF GSM 900 / 1800 DUAL BAND PRINTED DIPOLE ANTENNA DESIGN

The first step of GSM 900/1800 dual band antenna design is the calculation of the required

frequency ratio. Corresponding value f 2 / f1 = 1.95 . The second step is to find the suitable shape

and thickness of dipole (from figure 2). There are three possibilities, shown in the table 1. The

following step is to decide which variant is better from the view of the directivity and resonant

resistances (figures 3 and 4). The second variant is unsuitable due to low directivity in the second

band. The realisation of the third variant has higher directivities and lower resistance ratio. The

final step is to find the resonant frequency in the first band (figure 5) and to calculate all the

dimensions. From this point of view, the realisation of the first variant has lower dimensions.

The following part of the design has to solve the impedance transformation and

symetrization. Because of f 2 / f1 2 , one can use transmission line, which is then quarter-wave

in the first band and half-wave in the second band. For the first variant, the impedance on

transmission line output could be roughly the same value and could be consequently transformed

and symetrized by wideband impedance transformers. In the third variant one can use

transmission line again to make impedances close to each other and straight to 50. Then there is

necessary to use symetrization method with impedance transformation 1:1.

For f 2 / f1 & 2 , different suitable methods must be chosen. This will be the aim of our

further work. The properties from the view of impedance matching and bandwidth will be

discussed later.

CONCLUSION

The paper presents in the first part results of multiband analysis of printed dipole antenna

from the view of frequency planning. The second part describes dual band GSM 900/1800

application antenna design process step by step. The work will continue in design of impedance

transformation and symetrization circuits followed by generalization of the design procedure

from the view of substrate parameters.

Acknowledgement

This work was financially supported by the grant of the Czech Grant Agency no.

102/03/H086.

REFERENCES

[1] GARG, R., BHARTIA, P., BAHL, I., ITTIPIBOON, A. Microstrip Antenna Design

Handbook, Artech House, Boston 2002

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