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Baseline Specifications for GSM BSS Network Performance KPIs

(Immediate Assignment Success Ratio)

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For internal use only

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Confidential

Baseline Specifications for GSM BSS


Network Performance KPIs
(Immediate Assignment Success Ratio)
For internal use only

Prepared by:

Liu Xiuyu, WCDMA & GSM

Date:

2007-03-10

Reviewed by:

Date:

yyyy-mm-dd

Reviewed by:

Date:

yyyy-mm-dd

Approved by:

Date:

yyyy-mm-dd

Performance Research Dept

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Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All rights reserved

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Table of Contents
1 About KPI Definition..................................................................................................................... 6
1.1 KPI Name............................................................................................................................. 6
1.2 KPI Meaning......................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 Recommended Formula....................................................................................................... 6
1.3.1 Formula of the BSC32...............................................................................................6
1.3.2 Formula of the BSC6000........................................................................................... 7
1.3.3 Measurement Time Points......................................................................................... 8
1.4 Other Definition Modes of the KPI........................................................................................9
1.4.1 KPI Definition of Siemens.......................................................................................... 9
1.4.2 KPI Definition of Ericsson..........................................................................................9
1.4.3 KPI Definition of MTN.............................................................................................. 10
1.4.4 KPI Definition of Turkey VDF...................................................................................11
2 KPI Test Method.......................................................................................................................... 12
3 Constraint Analysis.................................................................................................................... 12
3.1.1 Test Method Constraints.......................................................................................... 12
3.1.2 Test Environment Constraints..................................................................................12
3.1.3 KPI Definition Constraints........................................................................................ 13
3.1.4 Parameter Constraints............................................................................................. 13
3.1.5 Function Constraints................................................................................................ 14
3.1.6 Inter-KPI Constraints............................................................................................... 15
4 Baseline Commitments.............................................................................................................. 15
4.1 Baseline Commitments...................................................................................................... 16
4.1.1 Baseline Commitments in the Event of Network Relocation....................................16
4.1.2 Baseline Commitments in the Event of New Network Construction.........................16
4.1.3 Risk Analysis............................................................................................................ 16
5 KPI Optimization Means............................................................................................................. 17
5.1 Factors Relating to the Immediate Assignment Success Ratio..........................................17
5.2 Immediate Assignment Success Ratio Solution.................................................................18
5.2.1 Possible Causes of SDCCH Congestions and Recommended Solutions................18
5.2.2 Flow Control Analysis of Channel Requests............................................................19
5.2.3 Possible Causes of Air Interface Problems and Recommended Solutions..............19
5.2.4 Possible Causes of Equipment Failure and Recommended Solutions....................20
5.3 Analysis Method of the Immediate Assignment Success Ratio..........................................20
5.4 Optimization Cases of the Immediate Assignment Success Ratio.....................................22

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Case 1: Decreased immediate assignment success ratio due to SDCCH congestion


caused by incorrect LAC configuration.............................................................................22
Case 2: SDCCH congestions caused by plenty of abrupt location updating.....................23

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Revision History
Date

Revision

Change Description

Author

Version
2007-03-10

1.00

Completed the initial draft.

Liu Xiuyu

2007-03-16

1.10

Modified the document according to the review

Liu Xiuyu

comments.
2007-04-20

2015-01-22

1.20

Improved the section KPI Optimization Means.

Huawei Confidential

Wang Fei

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Baseline Specifications for GSM BSS Network


Performance KPIs
(Immediate Assignment Success Ratio)
Keywords
Immediate assignment success ratio, KPI

Abstract
This document describes the definition, test method and constraints of the immediate
assignment success ratio.

Acronyms and Abbreviations


Abbreviation

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1 About KPI Definition


The KPI is determined by the name, meaning, definition and test method. Because the BSC32 and
the BSC6000 have difference only in the index names used in the specific calculation formula and
do not have any difference in the measurement time points, section 1.3Recommended Formula
gives the calculation formulas of the BSC32 and the BSC6000. The other contents are the same
for both.
The current version described hereinafter refers to the following:
BSC32: G3BSC32V300R007C01B015
BSC6000: BSC6000V900R001

1.1 KPI Name


Immediate assignment success ratio

1.2 KPI Meaning


The immediate assignment success ratio describes the ratio of the times that the MS successfully
accesses the signaling channel. It indicates the procedure from the MSs origination of the
Channel Required message to the successful signaling channel establishment (establish
indication).
The immediate assignment success ratio is an important index reflecting the access performance.
It visually reflects the probability of the MS to successfully access the signaling channel. It will
directly influence the feeling of subscribers.

1.3 Recommended Formula


The immediate assignment success ratio is mainly obtained from the traffic measurement results.
The following formula is recommended for it:
(Successful Immediate Assignments / Immediate Assignment Requests) 100%
Below are details.

1.3.1 Formula of the BSC32


Immediate Assignment Success Ratio = (Successful Immediate Assignments [2186] / Immediate
Assignment Requests [2185]) 100%

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1.3.2 Formula of the BSC6000


Immediate Assignment Success Ratio = (Call Setup Indications (MOC Non SMS) (SDCCH) + Call
Setup Indications (MOC SMS) (SDCCH) + Call Setup Indications (MTC) (SDCCH) + Call Setup
Indications (Emergency Call) (SDCCH) + Call Setup Indications (Call Re-establishment) (SDCCH)
+ Call Setup Indications (Location Updating) (SDCCH) + Call Setup Indications (IMSI Detach)
(SDCCH) + Call Setup Indications (SS) (SDCCH) + Call Setup Indications (LCS) (SDCCH) + Call
Setup Indications (Others) (SDCCH) + Call Setup Indications (MOC Non SMS) (TCHF) + Call
Setup Indications (MOC SMS) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (MTC) (TCHF) + Call Setup
Indications (Emergency Call) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (Call Re-establishment) (TCHF) +
Call Setup Indications (IMSI Detach) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (SS) (TCHF) + Call Setup
Indications (LCS) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (Others) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (MOC
Non SMS) (TCHH) + Call Setup Indications (MTC) (TCHH) + Call Setup Indications (Call Reestablishment) (TCHH) + Call Setup Indications (SS) (TCHH) + Call Setup Indications (LCS)
(TCHH) + Call Setup Indications (Others) (TCHH)) / (Channel Requests (MOC) + Channel
Requests (MTC) + Channel Requests (Emergency Call) + Channel Requests (Call Reestablishment) + Channel Requests (Location Updating)) 100%

Formula of the BSC6000 with short index names:


Immediate Assignment Success Ratio = ( (A3030A + A3030B + A3030C + A3030D + A3030E +
A3030F + A3030G + A3030H + A3030I + A3030J + A3037A + A3037B + A3037C + A3037D +
A3037E + A3037G + A3037H + A3037I + A3037J + A3038A + A3038C + A3038E + A3038H +
A3038I + A3038J) / (A300A + A300C + A300D + A300E + A300F)) 100%

Summary formula of the BSC6000:


Immediate Assignment Success Ratio = (Call Setup Indications (Circuit Service) / Channel
Requests (Circuit Service)) 100%

Note: When comparing the formula of the BSC32 with that of the BSC6000 given above, we can
see that the channel requests of the BSC32 exclude the channel requests whose cause value is
AC_PACKET_CALL but the channel requests of the BSC6000 are only call-dependent.

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1.3.3 Measurement Time Points


BTS

MSC

BSC

Channel REQ
Channl RQD
A1
Channel ACT
Channel ACT ACK
IMM ASS CMD
B1

first SABM
UA
EST IND(CM Service REQ)

C1

CR(CMP L3 information)
CC
CM Service Accepted

Note:
A1: Immediate Assignment Requests (Channel Requests (Circuit Service))
B1: Immediate Assignment Commands
C1: Successful Immediate Assignments (Call Setup Indications (Circuit Service))

As can be seen from the above measurement time points, currently the immediate assignment
success ratio of the BSC32/BSC6000 covers Immediate Assignment Requests (Channel Requests
(Circuit Service)) and Successful Immediate Assignments (Call Setup Indications (Circuit
Service)). A1, Immediate Assignment Requests (Channel Requests (Circuit Service)), is counted
when the BSC receives the channel request message. It includes the repeated channel requests,
the channel requests discarded in the case of flow control and the channel requests in the case of

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channel congestion. The three groups of channel requests will have negative influence on the
immediate assignment success ratio.

1.4 Other Definition Modes of the KPI


1.4.1 KPI Definition of Siemens
1.4.1.1 Definition of the Formula
Immediate Assignment Success Ratio = Successful Immediate Assignments / (Immediate
Assignment

Requests

(Immediate

Assignment

Commands

Successful

Immediate

Assignments))

1.4.1.2 Analysis
Because Siemens counts the immediate assignment requests before channel assignment, the
above formula of Siemens excludes the failed immediate assignments due to flow control, the
repeated channel requests and the failed immediate assignments due to the air interface factor.
The formula of Siemens only considers the failed immediate assignments due to congestion. For
this reason, the KPI value may be very large.

1.4.1.3 Substitute Formula of Huawei


We can use the following formula when comparing the KPI with that of Siemens:
Immediate Assignment Success Ratio = (Successful Immediate Assignments / (Immediate
Assignment

Requests

(Immediate

Assignment

Commands

Successful

Immediate

Assignments))) 100%
Then only congestion and channel activation NACK will cause immediate assignment failure.
Immediate assignment will succeed in other cases. Therefore, the immediate assignment success
ratio will be very high.

1.4.2 KPI Definition of Ericsson


1.4.2.1 Definition of the Formula
Formula in the document R12 Radio Network Statistics of Ericsson:

Where:

S_EST: Immediate assignment success ratio

CCALLS: Channel allocation attempt counter (on SDCCH) in the immediate assignment
phase

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CMSESTAB: Successful MS channel establishments on SDCCH in the immediate


assignment phase

CCONG: SDCCH congestions of the underlay during SDCCH assignment

CCONGSSUB: SDCCH congestions of the overlay during SDCCH assignment

1.4.2.2 Analysis
We can learn from the above formula that Ericsson excludes flow control and congestion cases in
measuring the immediate assignment success ratio.
Note: We cannot know how Ericsson counts the SDCCH congestions of the underlay during
SDCCH assignment and the SDCCH congestions of the overlay during SDCCH assignment. If
both the overlay and the underlay are congested in the intelligent underlay-overlay (IUO) cell and
Ericsson counts the congestions of both the underlay and the overlay, the congestions will have
positive influence on the immediate assignment success ratio of Ericsson.

1.4.2.3 Substitute Formula of Huawei


We can use the following formula for the current version when comparing the KPI with that of
Siemens:
Immediate Assignment Success Ratio = (Successful Immediate Assignments / Immediate
Assignment Commands) 100%
Because the current version cannot identify the congestions during immediate assignment, it can
only replace the congestions with immediate assignment commands but then it will neglect the
channel activation NACK. Therefore, theoretically the KPI calculated with our substitute formula
could be a little higher than that of Ericsson (but in practice there is very little probability of channel
activation NACK).

1.4.3 KPI Definition of MTN


1.4.3.1 Definition of the Formula
CFAIL= CCALLS - (CMSESTB + CCONGS)
PCFIL = CFAIL / CCALLS
Where:

PCFIL: Immediate assignment failure ratio

CMSESTB: Successful immediate assignments

CCONGS: Failed immediate assignments due to congestion

CCALLS: SDCCH assignment requests

1.4.3.2 Analysis
We can see from the above formulas that MTN also excludes the failures caused by congestion
when measuring the immediate assignment failure ratio.

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Because the denominator CCALLS is the number of SDCCH assignment requests, the formula
also excludes the failed immediate assignments due to flow control.

1.4.3.3 Substitute Formula of Huawei


We can define the following formula according to the evaluation formula of MTN:
Immediate Assignment Failure Ratio = (1- (Successful Immediate Assignments / Immediate
Assignment Commands)) 100%
Because the current version cannot identify the congestions during immediate assignment, it can
only replace the congestions with immediate assignment commands but then it will neglect the
channel activation NACK. Therefore, theoretically the KPI calculated with our substitute formula
could be a little lower than that of MTN (but in practice there is very little probability of channel
activation NACK).

1.4.4 KPI Definition of Turkey VDF


1.4.4.1 Definition of the Formula

Numerator: The number of channel requests successfully assigned on SDCCH


Denominator: The number of successful RACHs, disregarding phantom RACHs and channel
requests blocked due to congestion

1.4.4.2 Analysis
We can see from the above formula that the immediate assignment success ratio of Turkey VDF
excludes not only the failures due to congestion but also the channel requests retransmitted.

1.4.4.3 Substitute Formula of Huawei


We can use the following substitute formula for the current version to compare our KPI with VDF:
Immediate Assignment Success Ratio = (Successful Immediate Assignments / Immediate
Assignment Commands) 100%
Note: Because the formula of Turkey VDF excludes the repeated channel requests from the KPI
but our current version cannot identify them in the strict sense in protocol implementation, the KPI
calculated with the above substitute formula will be lower than the KPI calculated with the formula
of VDF.

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2 KPI Test Method


The immediate assignment success ratio is an analytical index in traffic statistics. It can be
obtained by registering or reporting the relevant traffic measurement task. Generally, we do not
use the drive test method to obtain this KPI because the samples obtained in the drive test are
limited and the test route is not all-inclusive.
At present different equipment manufacturers and operators have different definitions for the
calculation formula of this KPI (see sections 1.3Recommended Formula and 1.4Other Definition
Modes of the KPI for details), and the value of the immediate assignment success ratio may vary
with the specific calculation formula. Therefore, register as detailed sub-indexes as possible during
the actual test and then combine the sub-indexes into the most favorable formula.

3 Constraint Analysis
3.1.1 Test Method Constraints
The data of the time span in which bursty bulky traffic events take place should be excluded.

3.1.2 Test Environment Constraints


Ensure the network optimization is completed before the test. The committed baseline values
cannot be guaranteed in the following cases:
Test

Problem Description

Environment
Coverage

There are problems such as blind spots, low coverage level or cross
coverage in the test environment, and such problems cannot be solved by
network optimization.

Interference

There is inevitable interference from other networks or repeater stations in


the test environment, or high frequency reuse due to frequency resource
shortage, which inevitably causes severe internal interference to the network.

Transmission

The quality of transmission lines such as Abis interface links are poor or the
transmission links are instable due to various reasons in the test
environment. This part should be excluded from the statistics.

Equipment

Terrestrial resources are unavailable or the equipment fails. This part should
be excluded from the statistics.

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Problem Description

Environment
Traffic

The actual network traffic is unevenly distributed and some cells have a too
high congestion ratio on SDCCH and are not to be expanded.

3.1.3 KPI Definition Constraints


Because competitors and operators may have different requirements for the calculation formula of
the immediate assignment success ratio, we should carefully analyze the formula differences
during the bid answering process and give an analysis of the possible impact of such differences
on the immediate assignment success ratio. See sections 1.3Recommended Formula and
1.4Other Definition Modes of the KPI for details.

3.1.4 Parameter Constraints


Whether the relevant parameter settings of the immediate assignment success ratio are
reasonable will directly influence the network indexes. Unless there are special reasons, the
committed baseline values cannot be guaranteed when any parameter setting that will directly
influence the KPI exceeds the recommended reasonable range. Refer to M900/M1800 Base
Station Controller -- Data Configuration Reference -- Network Planning Parameters for the specific
parameter setting ranges.
The following parameters will influence the immediate assignment success ratio:
Parameter

Configuration Requirements

MS max.

This parameter will influence the number of retransmitted channel

retransmission count

requests of terminals and have big impact on the immediate


assignment success ratio, so we should set it to a value as small as
possible so as to guarantee the immediate assignment success ratio.

MS minimum Rx level

The setting of this parameter will influence the coverage. A value too
large will result in smaller coverage of the network and a value too
small will increase the number of invalid access attempts or too low
access signal to cause call drops and thus lower the immediate
assignment success ratio.

RACH minimum

The setting of this parameter will influence the coverage. A value too

access level

large will result in smaller coverage of the network and a value too
small will increase the number of invalid access attempts or too low
access signal to cause call drops and thus lower the immediate

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Configuration Requirements
assignment success ratio.

RACH busy threshold

1)

BTS2X: The level threshold used by the system to determine MS


random access. When the level of a certain burst timeslot of the
RACH received is greater than this threshold, the BTS will think
that this timeslot is busy. This parameter will also influence RACH
BURST handover access during asynchronous handover.

2)

BTS3X: The RACH busy threshold will not influence the access of
the MS but will only influence the reporting of CCCH_LOAD_IND.

Random access error

The setting of this parameter will influence the coverage. A value too

threshold

large will result in smaller coverage of the network and a value too
small will increase the number of invalid access attempts or too low
access signal to cause call drops and thus lower the immediate
assignment success ratio.

Extended transmission

This parameter will influence the execution efficiency of the immediate

timeslot count

assignment procedure. We can appropriately increase its value when


the immediate assignment success ratio is low.

3.1.5 Function Constraints


The following functions will influence the immediate assignment success ratio:
Function

Requirements

Immediate assignment

When the BTS resends the immediate assignment command, there

command

will be fewer times for the MS to resend the channel request and thus

retransmission

the immediate assignment success ratio will rise. We recommend that


this function be enabled.

Dynamic adjustment of

We recommend that this function be enabled so as to improve the

SDCCH

immediate assignment success ratio. The above baseline data is


obtained on the basis of enabling this function.

Immediate assignment

We recommend that this function be enabled so as to improve the

of TCH

immediate assignment success ratio.

Immediate assignment

We recommend that this function be enabled so as to improve the

preferred

immediate assignment success ratio. The above baseline data is


obtained on the basis of enabling this function.

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3.1.6 Inter-KPI Constraints


The parameters that influence the immediate assignment success ratio will also influence the
paging success ratio, so there is certain constraint relationship between the immediate assignment
success ratio and the paging success ratio.
KPI
Paging success ratio

Constraint Factor
1)

If we increase the value of MS max. retransmission count to


improve the paging success ratio, then the immediate assignment
success ratio will decrease and so the baseline cannot be fulfilled
(because theoretically we cannot thoroughly get rid of the
influence of repeated channel requests on the immediate
assignment success ratio, we recommend that the repeated
channel requests be reduced as much as possible in terms of
parameter configuration, environment and functions). Refer to
sections 4.1.2, 4.1.4 and 4.1.6 for details.

2)

If we improve the paging success ratio through paging message


retransmission, then the immediate assignment success ratio will
decrease and we should enable the Immediate Assignment
Preferred

function

(otherwise

the

committed

immediate

assignment success ratio cannot be fulfilled).

4 Baseline Commitments
The KPI baseline is the statistical result of the KPI for various types of networks defined by Huawei
according to the above KPI definition when the network uses totally Huawei products.
The specific conditions that may influence the KPI commitments include but are not limited to the
following:

The definition method of the KPI is consistent with that of Huawei.

The test method of the KPI, including the test tools, test steps and calculation method, is
consistent with that of Huawei.

Almost all equipment in the network is products of Huawei.

The network environment conforms to the requirements of Huawei.

Refer to the description of baseline constraints if the above conditions cannot be satisfied.

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4.1 Baseline Commitments


There are two scenarios in the GSM network: Network relocation and new construction of a
network. As the requirements of operators for the KPI are not completely the same, this document
gives the commitments for the two scenarios separately.

4.1.1 Baseline Commitments in the Event of Network Relocation


In the event of network relocation, the following preparations should be made before the
relocation:
1)

Analyze the differences between the calculation formula provided by the operator and our
calculation formula. Select a calculation formula with the least difference to match the formula
provided by the operator. Then analyze and evaluate the differences between the evaluation
formula provided by the operator and our baseline formula. Give the influence of the
difference on the final KPI result.

2)

Analyze the calculation formulas given by other vendors for the immediate assignment
success ratio and the measurement time points of various sub-indexes. Compare them with
our calculation formula and measurement time points for the immediate assignment success
ratio, so as to find the differences. Evaluate the statistical result deviations caused by the
differences and compare the differences according to the actual conditions of the network to
be relocated.

3)

The immediate assignment success ratio is a KPI measured after the network is ultimately
delivered and normally put into operation. The worsening of this KPI caused by accidental
equipment failure, natural environment factors or man-made factors should be excluded.

4)

The decrease of the immediate assignment success ratio caused by the rise of the
congestion ratio on SDCCH as a result of bursty bulky traffic should be separately
considered.

Combine the corresponding influencing factors on the above basis to make the corresponding KPI
commitments.

4.1.2 Baseline Commitments in the Event of New Network Construction


In the event of new network construction, we should commit the KPI with reference to the KPI
baseline when the network type and scenario basically match the actual ones, provided that the
committed KPI baseline is not higher than the baseline for the specific type of the network.

4.1.3 Risk Analysis


Risk analysis needs to be performed for the bid in which the committed baseline exceeds our
baseline capability. We should add restrictive conditions and use the substitute formula whose
definition is the most equivalent.

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The factors influencing this KPI include SDCCH congestion, coverage, interference, balance
between the uplink and the downlink, and CCCH overload. Therefore, we should first consider
improving the coverage, reducing interference and optimizing the balance between the uplink and
the downlink so as to guarantee the capacity of SDCCH and CCCH when the index value required
by the operator is higher than the baseline value.

5 KPI Optimization Means


5.1 Factors Relating to the Immediate Assignment Success
Ratio
The factors that influence the immediate assignment success ratio directly relate to the definition
of the KPI.
We can see from the above KPI formula analysis that there are three formulas for defining the KPI.
The following table lists the corresponding influencing factors.
Table 1 Correspondence between formulas and influencing factors
Formula

Influencing Factor
SDCCH

Flow Control

SDCCH

Radio

Congestion

of Channel

Activation

Interface

Request

NACK

Factor

Messages
Immediate Assignment Success

Ratio = (Successful Immediate


Assignments / Immediate
Assignment Requests) 100%
Immediate Assignment Success
Ratio = (Successful Immediate
Assignments / (Immediate
Assignment Requests (Immediate
Assignment Commands
Successful Immediate
Assignments))) 100%

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Ratio = (Successful Immediate


Assignments / Immediate
Assignment Commands) 100%

As shown in the above table, four factors influence the immediate assignment success ratio:
SDCCH congestion, channel request message flow control, SDCCH activation NACK and radio
interface factor.

5.2 Immediate Assignment Success Ratio Solution


List the solutions for low immediate assignment success ratios due to various reasons according
to the above influencing factors.

5.2.1 Possible Causes of SDCCH Congestions and Recommended


Solutions
5.2.1.1 Congestions Caused by Large Traffic
Check the traffic statistics and see whether the traffic intensity of the SDCCH or TCH is higher
than the normal value. Capacity expansion is the most essential solution to the congestions
caused by large traffic. In addition, we can take traffic sharing measures to alleviate the congestion
to some extent. For example, we can modify the CRO or enable directed retry or load handover.

5.2.1.2 SDCCH Congestions Caused by Bursty Traffic


When the congestion ratio on SDCCH and the SDCCH traffic intensity are slightly higher but the
TCH traffic intensity is normal, possibly the SDCCH congestion is caused by bursty traffic. In
places along the railway especially at the sites near the tunnel exit, plenty of MSs in the train will
drop from the network when a train passes by or stops since the location is remote and the
coverage capacity is generally not large there. The MSs will perform location updating and as a
result SDCCH congestion will occur. In addition, SDCCH congestion can easily occur in the time
period with dense transmission of short messages. This can hardly be avoided but we can take
some measures to alleviate the congestion. For example, we can enable the dynamic conversion
between SDCCH and TCH or add SDCCH configurations.

5.2.1.3 Congestions Caused by Unreasonable Data Configuration


1)

Location area planning: Reasonable planning of location areas can help reduce SDCCH
congestions.

2)

Dynamic SDCCH assignment: This function can be enabled to reduce the congestion ratio on
SDCCH.

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Dual-band network: Reasonable setting of dual-band network parameters such as CRO,


CBA, CBQ and cell reselection hysteresis can help reduce SDCCH congestions.

4)

Check whether the related timers are reasonably set. For example, check the settings of
T3101, T3103, T3107, T3122, T3212, T3111 and other timers.

Below are the definitions of timers and some suggestions on how to configure them:

T3101: We can reasonably decrease the value of T3101 so as to effectively reduce the
congestions caused by double assignment of the SDCCH. If the set value of T3101 is too
great, signaling resources will be seized uselessly for a long time and thus system resources
will be wasted. To optimize the utilization of signaling resources especially when the queuing
function is activated, we should appropriately reduce the value of this timer.

T3103 and T3107: We can appropriately reduce the values of the two timers so as to reduce
the waste of TCH resources. In general, these two timers are set to 5 seconds or so.

T3122: Upon receipt of the IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message, the MS will start the
timer T3122. The MS will not initiate a new channel request message until this timer expires.
We can increase the value of T3122 so as to prevent the MS from frequently sending the
channel request message when there is no idle resource in the system and thus prevent the
increase of RACH and CCCH load in the network.
Note: At present, T3122 is automatically controlled by the system but can be configured in
BSC6000V900R001C03B104 and later versions.

T3212: It is the periodic location updating interval. We can appropriately increase its value so
as to reduce the load brought by periodic location updating to the SDCCH.

T3111: Connection release delay timer. It is used to delay the deactivation of the channel after
the primary signaling link is disconnected and purposed to reserve a period of time for the
possible repeated disconnections. T3111 is started not only in the TCH release procedure but
also in the SDCCH release procedure. Its value should be consistent with the value of T3110
on the MS side and is generally set to 2 seconds. If we set T3111 to a larger value, plenty of
SDCCH congestions could occur.

5.2.2 Flow Control Analysis of Channel Requests


This section applies to the BSC32 G3BSC32V300R007C01B018 and later versions.
If the onsite traffic is huge, possibly BSC flow control is triggered to discard some channel request
messages. In this case, we can check the debugging alarms. Check the alarm parameters and
see whether channel requests are discarded if there is a 34021 alarm. If channel requests are
discarded, we can further analyze whether the parameters such as average quota and maximum
quota

related

to

flow

control

are

reasonably

set.

Refer

to

Instructions

for

Using

G3BSC32V300R007C01B018 Third Generation Flow Control for the specific debugging alarm
analysis method and parameter configuration. If BSC flow control is started, we can check the
traffic statistics and see whether the index Immediate Assignment Commands is far smaller than

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the index Immediate Assignment Requests (the difference between the two is more than half).
This method is only a reference for determining whether flow control is started.

5.2.3 Possible Causes of Air Interface Problems and Recommended


Solutions
5.2.3.1 Congestions Caused by Interference
The interference on the radio interface will also cause congestions. In this case, the interference
should be solved.

5.2.3.2 Immediate Assignment Failure Caused by Coverage Inconsistency


There are three scenarios:
1)

Inconsistency of transmit power of the TRXs in the same cell


When the IUO cell technology is not adopted, the output signals of various TRXs in the same
cell are transmitted via the uplink channels. After certain loss, the power of the signals
reaching at the input port of the antenna will be different. As a result, coverage inconsistency
occurs and channel assignment is likely to fail. We can check and confirm this problem by
checking the connections of the CDU and the SCU.

2)

Multiple transmit antennas in a cell


When multiple transmit antennas are used in a cell, coverage inconsistency is likely to occur
and thus assignment failure will be caused. We can ensure the consistency of coverage as
much as possible through engineering adjustment.

3)

The transmit antenna and the receive antenna of the cell are not on the same plane or their
down tilts are inconsistent. We can solve this problem by antenna tuning.

5.2.4 Possible Causes of Equipment Failure and Recommended Solutions


Low immediate assignment success ratio due to TRX failure
Channel congestion will occur when one TRX amongst the multiple TRXs of the cell is out of
service. Replace the faulty TRX for which there is a clear alarm. If we are not sure whether a TRX
is faulty or not, we should first check the feeder segment by segment and determine whether the
connections are correct and the VSWR is normal. Replace the TRX and verify whether the
problem is solved if everything is normal.

5.3 Analysis Method of the Immediate Assignment Success


Ratio
We can generally take the following steps to analyze the causes of the low SDCCH immediate
assignment success ratio:

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First determine the formula used at the site for calculating the immediate assignment success
ratio and find the relevant factors.

2)

Determine the problem scope, that is, whether the problem is universal or only occurs to an
individual cell. If the problem is universal, analyze whether the problem is caused by BSC flow
control and whether the SDCCH capacity planning satisfies the system requirements. If the
problem only occurs to an individual cell, make the analysis from the aspects of equipment
failure, air interface and congestion.

3)

Analysis method for related factors:

BSC flow control: Check whether the BSC has started the flow control function if the
busy-hour traffic is huge at the site. Check the related debugging alarms to find whether
the BSC has discarded channel requests. Check whether the software parameter
settings of flow control are reasonable and reach the equipment specifications if flow
control is enabled. If the equipment specifications are limited, we recommend that the
hardware capacity be expanded. Refer to the section 5.2.2Flow Control Analysis of
Channel Requests for the specific solution.

Equipment failure: First check TRX availability in BSC overall performance measurement
and SDCCH availability in SDCCH performance measurement. Second, observe the
number of TCH activation NACK/TIMEOUT times in TCH performance measurement. In
this way, we can determine whether the problem is caused by board failure. Refer to the
section 5.2.4Possible Causes of Equipment Failure and Recommended Solutions for
the specific solution.

Air interface problem: Interference will cause SDCCH congestions and thus result in a
low immediate assignment success ratio. In particular, the system may receive quite
many interfering random access signals and the network will assign an SDCCH for every
random access request when the site spacing is small and the planned BCCH
frequencies are dense. As a result, congestion will occur. When the immediate
assignment success ratio and the paging success ratio decrease in the traffic statistics,
the RACH is possibly overloaded in random access performance measurement. We can
analyze the idle interference band and the TRX receive quality in the conversation to
determine the problem cause. Refer to the section 5.2.3Possible Causes of Air Interface
Problems and Recommended Solutions for the specific solution.

System capacity (congestion) analysis. First analyze whether the ratio of SDCCH
seizures in location updating is normal according to experience. If the ratio is very high,
further observe the location area plan and perform the drive test to analyze whether the
borders of the location areas are set at places where there are plenty of subscribers.
Observe whether the ratio of SDCCH seizure requests related to location updating at
these borders is too high. That is, query the ratio of successful SDCCH seizures (location
updating) to the total successful SDCCH seizures in SDCCH performance measurement.
If the ratio is more than 50%, then it is too high. Re-plan the location areas if finding that
frequent location updating is caused by unreasonable setting of the location areas.

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If the ratio of successful SDCCH seizures (location updating) is not high, analyze whether the
traffic per SDCCH exceeds the planned limitation. In this case, first optimize the traffic and check
parameters such as location updating and SDCCH dynamic configuration. If the related
parameters are reasonably set, then it is necessary to expand the capacity of hardware. Refer to
the section 5.2.1Possible Causes of SDCCH Congestions and Recommended Solutions for the
specific solution.
Below is the specific troubleshooting flow chart:
Start

Analyze the low


immediate assignment
success ratio

Normal cells
End of
troubleshooting

Filter out the cells with a low


immediate assignment success
ratio

Faulty cells

System capacity
(congestion) analysis

Equipment
fault

Air interface
problem

BSC flow
control

Check the TRX


availability and
see whether there
is any TRX alarm

Analyze the idle


interference band

Analyze BSC
debugging alarms

The ratio is normal


Analyze the ratio of
successful SDCCH seizures
(location updating)

Analyze whether the


SDCCH traffic per line
exceeds the planned
capacity

The ratio is abnormal


Analyze the SDCCH
traffic and TCH traffic

Check the configurations


of the timers related to
periodic location
updating

Check the SDCCH


availability

Analyze the TRX


receive level and
quality

Check the software


parameters of flow
control

Analyze the incoming


and outgoing
handovers of related
cells

Check the dynamic


configuration of
SDCCHs

Analyze the SDCCH


channel activation
failures/timeouts

Analyze the
RACH
overloads

Analyze the
equipment
specification limitation

Re-plan the
location areas

Expand the capacity


of hardware

Faults of equipment
such as TRXs or
transmission problem

Solve the
interference

Expand the capacity


of hardware

Start

Start

Start

Start

Start

Figure 1 Troubleshooting flow of the low immediate assignment success ratio

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5.4 Optimization Cases of the Immediate Assignment


Success Ratio
Case 1: Decreased immediate assignment success ratio due to SDCCH
congestion caused by incorrect LAC configuration
[Symptom]
A BTS adopts the S1/1/1 configuration. The congestion ratio on SDCCH of Cell 2 is more than 8%
and the immediate assignment success ratio is 90%.
[Analysis and solution]
1)

Check the TCH and SDCCH performance measurement indexes. The TCH traffic is not large
and the busy-hour traffic per cell is no more than 2.2 Erl. However, the number of SDCCH
seizure requests is huge and reaches 3023 in the busy hour, the busy-hour SDCCH traffic
reaches 1.86 Erl and the congestion ratio on SDCCH is up to 8%.

2)

Major causes of SDCCH seizures: Signaling before call establishment, signaling in the
handover, location updating signaling in the idle mode, and short messages.

3)

Because the TCH traffic is normal, the number of TCH seizure requests (including handover)
is normal (318 requests) and the number of handover requests (146) is also normal, we can
conclude that possibly the excessive SDCCH seizures are caused by excessive location
updating or short messages.

4)

Check the LAC of the BTS. The LAC is 0500. The LAC of all other cells around the BTS is
0520. Change the LAC of the BTS to 0520. After the change, the number of busy-hour
SDCCH seizure requests becomes 298, the SDCCH traffic becomes 0.27 Erl, the congestion
ratio decreases to almost 0 and the immediate assignment success ratio rises to 95%.

Case 2: SDCCH congestions caused by plenty of abrupt location updating


[Symptom]
The immediate assignment success ratio of a local network is slightly low. An analysis of the traffic
statistics reveals that the low immediate assignment success ratio is caused by SDCCH
congestions at several BTS sites.
[Analysis and solution]
1)

According to traffic statistics, there are 300 to 400 SDCCH seizures in the busy hour for the
congested cells. All the BTS sites adopt the S1/1/1 configuration and every cell has eight
SDCCH/8 channels. This can generally satisfy the needs of 300 to 400 SDCCH seizures, but
dozens of SDCCH congestions occurred to every cell in the busy hour.

2)

We registered related traffic measurement tasks and found that most of the SDCCH seizures
were caused by location updating. We then checked the locations of the BTS sites and found
that most of the congested BTSs were located at the borders between two location areas

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along the railway. Therefore, the SDCCH congestions could have been caused by abrupt
location updating.
3)

We registered 5-minute traffic measurement tasks so as to verify the above assumption and
found that most of the location updating events occurred in a certain 5-minute time span. We
inquired the time schedule of trains and found that four to five passenger trains passed by in
this time span. When the trains passed by, plenty of abrupt location updating events took
place in a very short time and thus caused the congestions.

4)

For the BTSs located at the borders between location areas along the railway, we recommend
that the dynamic SDDCH assignment function be enabled for the BTSs and certain
redundancy be reserved in SDCCH capacity configuration.

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