100%(2)100% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (2 Abstimmungen)

799 Ansichten160 Seitena good a level course book for physics

Jan 22, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

a good a level course book for physics

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

100%(2)100% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (2 Abstimmungen)

799 Ansichten160 Seitena good a level course book for physics

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 160

Contents

1

AS

Optics

2.1

2.1.1

Curvature of Wavefronts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.2

Power of lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.3

2.1.4

Types of Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.5

Magnication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.6

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.1

Reection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.2

Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.3

2.2.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2

Communications

3.1

3.1.1

Digital Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1.2

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.1

Mean Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.2

Median Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.3

Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.1

3.3.2

Sampling Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.3

Number of Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

Multiple Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i

ii

CONTENTS

3.5

3.4.2

Frequency Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.3

Fundamental Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.5.1

4

10

Electricity

11

4.1

11

4.1.1

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

11

4.2.1

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

12

4.3.1

12

4.3.2

Potential Dierence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

4.3.3

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

12

4.4.1

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

13

4.5.1

Ohms Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

4.5.2

In Series Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

4.5.3

In Parallel Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

4.5.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

14

4.6.1

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

15

4.7.1

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

16

4.8.1

Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

4.8.2

Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

4.8.3

Signal Amplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

4.8.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

17

4.9.1

17

4.9.2

Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

4.9.3

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

18

4.10.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

18

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Material Structure

19

5.1

19

5.1.1

19

Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS

5.2

5.3

5.1.2

Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.1.3

Youngs Modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.1.4

Stress-Strain Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.1.5

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

20

5.2.1

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

21

5.3.1

Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

5.3.2

Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

5.3.3

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

5.3.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

Waves

23

6.1

23

6.1.1

Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

6.1.2

Types of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

6.1.3

Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

6.1.4

Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

6.1.5

24

6.1.6

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

25

6.2.1

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

25

6.3.1

Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.3.2

Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.3.3

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

27

6.4.1

27

6.4.2

28

6.4.3

Diraction Grating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

6.4.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

29

6.5.1

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

29

6.6.1

30

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

iii

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Quantum Physics

31

7.1

31

7.1.1

31

7.1.2

32

7.1.3

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

32

7.2

iv

CONTENTS

7.3

Many Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

7.2.2

Calculating Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

7.2.3

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

34

7.3.1

35

7.3.2

De Broglie Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

7.3.3

35

7.3.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

Mechanics

36

8.1

36

8.1.1

What is a vector? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

8.1.2

Vector Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

8.1.3

Vector Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

8.1.4

Vector Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

8.1.5

Predicting Parabolas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

8.1.6

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

38

8.2.1

Distance-time Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

8.2.2

38

8.2.3

Velocity-time Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

8.2.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

39

8.3.1

Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

8.3.2

Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

8.3.3

Derivations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

8.3.4

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

40

8.4.1

Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

8.4.2

Work Done . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

8.4.3

Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

8.4.4

Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

8.4.5

Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

8.2

8.3

8.4

7.2.1

A2

42

10 Decay

43

43

43

43

44

10.1.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

CONTENTS

44

45

10.2.2 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

10.2.3 Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

10.2.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

46

46

10.3.2 Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

10.3.3 Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

10.3.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

47

47

47

47

10.4.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

11 Gravity

48

48

48

11.1.2 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

49

11.2.1 Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

49

11.2.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

50

11.3.1 Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

11.3.2 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

51

11.4.1 Equipotentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

51

11.4.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

12 Mechanics

52

52

52

53

53

12.1.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

53

12.2.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

54

54

vi

CONTENTS

12.3.2 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

55

12.4.1 Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

55

12.5.1 Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

12.5.2 Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

12.5.3 Explosions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

12.5.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

56

12.6.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

57

12.7.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

57

58

12.8.2 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

13 Astrophysics

59

59

13.1.1 Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

13.1.2 Triangulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

13.1.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

60

60

60

13.2.3 Parsecs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

13.2.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

61

61

13.3.2 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

61

13.4.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

62

62

62

62

63

13.5.5 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

13.5.6 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

14 Thermodynamics

64

64

64

CONTENTS

vii

64

14.1.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

65

14.2.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

65

65

66

66

66

14.3.5 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

66

14.4.1 Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

14.4.2 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

67

14.5.1 Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

68

14.5.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

15 Magnetic Fields

69

69

15.1.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

69

69

70

70

15.2.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

70

15.3.1 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

15.3.2 Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

15.3.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

71

72

72

15.4.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

72

72

73

15.5.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

74

74

74

15.6.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

viii

CONTENTS

16 Electric Fields

76

76

16.1.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

76

76

77

16.2.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

78

78

78

16.3.3 Equipotentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

16.3.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

78

79

79

16.4.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

17 Particle Physics

80

80

17.1.1 Bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.1.2 Fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.1.3 Generations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.1.4 Antiparticles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.1.5 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

81

17.2.1 Generations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.2.2 Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.2.3 Hadrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.2.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

82

82

17.3.2 Photons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

82

17.3.4 Gluons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

17.3.5 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

83

17.4.1 Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

17.4.2 Neutrinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

83

17.4.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

84

17.5.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

CONTENTS

ix

84

84

17.6.2 Annihilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

17.6.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

85

85

17.7.2 Cyclotrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

17.7.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

85

85

86

17.8.3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

18 Nuclear Physics

88

88

88

88

88

18.2.1 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

18.2.2 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

18.2.3 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

18.2.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

89

18.3.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

90

90

90

90

18.4.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

91

18.5.1 Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

18.5.2 Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

91

18.5.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

92

92

18.6.2 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

92

18.6.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

93

18.7.1 Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

93

CONTENTS

18.7.3 Dose Equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

18.7.4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

19 Appendices

94

94

94

94

95

95

20 Worked Solutions

96

96

96

97

97

97

98

98

99

99

99

20.12A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Resistance and Conductance/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . 100

20.13A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Internal Resistance/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

20.14A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Potential Dividers/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

20.15A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Sensors/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

20.16A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Resistivity and Conductivity/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . 102

20.17A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Semiconductors/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

20.18A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Stress, Strain & the Young Modulus/Worked Solutions . . . . 103

20.19A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Metals/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

20.20A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Polymers/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

20.21A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/What is a wave?/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

20.22A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Phasors/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

20.23A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Standing Waves/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

20.24A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Youngs Slits/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

20.25A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Diraction/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

20.26A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Light as a Quantum Phenomenon/Worked Solutions . . . . . . 106

20.27A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Electron Behaviour as a Quantum Phenomenon/Worked Solutions106

20.28A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Vectors/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

20.29A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Graphs/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

20.30A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Kinematics/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

20.31A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Forces and Power/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

CONTENTS

xi

20.33A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Capacitors/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

20.34A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Radioactive Decay/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

20.35A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Half-lives/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

20.36A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Gravitational Forces/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

20.37A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Gravitational Fields/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

20.38A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Gravitational Potential Energy/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . 113

20.39A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Gravitational Potential/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

20.40A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Simple Harmonic Motion/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . 114

20.41A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion/Worked Solutions . . . . 115

20.42A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Damping/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

20.43A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Conservation of Momentum/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . 116

20.44A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Forces and Impulse in Collisions/Worked Solutions . . . . . . 117

20.45A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Rockets, Hoses and Machine Guns/Worked Solutions . . . . . 118

20.46A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Circular Motion/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

20.47A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Radar and Triangulation/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . 119

20.48A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Large Units/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

20.49A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Orbits/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

20.50A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Doppler Eect/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

20.51A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Big Bang Theory/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

20.52A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Heat and Energy/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

20.53A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Specic Heat Capacity/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . 121

20.54A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Ideal Gases/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

20.55A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Kinetic Theory/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

20.56A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Boltzmann Factor/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

20.57A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Flux/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

20.58A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Induction/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

20.59A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Force/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

20.60A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Transformers/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

20.61A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Motors/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

20.62A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Generators/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

20.63A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Electric Force/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

20.64A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Electric Field/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

20.65A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Electric Potential/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

20.66A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Electric Potential Energy/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . 126

20.67A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/The Standard Model/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

20.68A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Quarks/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

20.69A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Bosons/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

20.70A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Leptons/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

20.71A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Millikans Experiment/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

20.72A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Pair Production and Annihilation/Worked Solutions . . . . . . 129

xii

CONTENTS

20.73A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Particle Accelerators/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

20.74A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Cloud Chambers and Mass Spectrometers/Worked Solutions . 129

20.75A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Radioactive Emissions/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

20.76A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Energy Levels/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

20.77A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Fission/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

20.78A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Fusion/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

20.79A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Binding Energy/Worked Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

20.80A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Risks, Doses and Dose Equivalents/Worked Solutions . . . . . 132

134

21.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

21.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Chapter 1

AS

Chapter 2

Optics

2.1 A-level Physics

Physics)/Lenses

2.1.1

Curvature of Wavefronts

However, from most light sources, the light radiates outwards as a series of wavefronts. Light from a light source

is bent - wavefronts of light have a property known as

curvature.

The function of a lens is to increase or decrease the curvature of a wavefront. Lenses have a 'power'. This is the

curvature which the lens adds to the wavefront. Power is

measured in dioptres, D, and is given by the formula:

P =

1

f

distance between the lens and the point where an image

will be in focus, if the wavefronts entering the other side

As light travels further away from its source, its curvature of the lens are parallel.

decreases. Consider a sphere expanding gradually from

a point, which represents a given wavefront of light. As

the sphere expands, the curvature of its surface decreases

when we look at any part of the surface with a constant 2.1.3 The Lens Equation

area. It should be noted at this point that light from a

source innitely far away has 0 curvature - it is straight. Overall, then, the formula relating the curvature of the

This is useful, as ambient light (light from a source that is

wavefronts leaving a lens to the curvature of the wavefar away) can be assumed to have a curvature of 0, as the fronts entering it is:

dierence between this and its actual curvature is negli1

1

1

gible.

v = u + f

Decreasing curvatures of wavefronts

the in-focus image formed, u is the distance between the

C = v1 ,

lens (its centre) and the object which the in-focus image

where v is the distance from the wavefront to the in-focus is of, and f is the focal length of the lens. The power of

image depicted by the light. Curvature is measured in the lens can be substituted in for the reciprocal of f, as

dioptres (D).

they are the same thing.

The curvature of a wavefront is given as:

2.1.5 Magnication

Magnication is a measure of how much an image has

been enlarged by a lens. It is given by the formula:

M=

h2

h1

before and after being magnied, respectively. If an image is shrunk by a lens, the magnication is between 0

and 1.

Magnication can also be given as:

M=

The lens equation, applied to a single pixel.

v

u

M=

h2

h1

v

u

is the formula:

If we were to place a diagram of the lens on a grid, labelled with cartesian co-ordinates, we would discover that I = AM

measuring the distance of the object distance is negative, where I is image size, A is actual size of the object M is

in comparison to the image distance. As a result, the the magnication factor.

value for u must always be negative. This is known as

the Cartesian convention.

This means that, if light enters the lens with a positive 2.1.6 Questions

curvature, it will leave with a negative curvature unless

the lens is powerful enough to make the light leave with a 1. A lens has a focal length of 10cm. What is its power,

in dioptres?

positive curvature.

2.1.4

Types of Lens

an image. How many metres is it from the other side of

the lens?

3. A lens in an RGB projector causes an image to focus

on a large screen. What sort of lens is it? Is its power

positive or negative?

4. What is the focal length of a 100D lens?

5. The lm in a camera is 5mm from a lens when automatically focussed on someones face, 10m from the

camera. What is the power of the lens?

6. The light from a candle is enlarged by a factor of 0.5

by a lens, and produces an image of a candle, 0.05m high,

on a wall. What is the height of the candle?

Worked Solutions

Types of lens

Physics)/Refraction

causing them to converge more. These have a positive

power, and have a curved surface which is wider in the Reection is when light 'bounces o a material which is

middle than at the rim.

dierent to the one in which it is travelling. You may

Diverging lenses remove curvature from the wavefronts, remember from GCSE (or equivalent) level that we can

causing them to diverge more. These have a negative calculate the direction the light will take if we consider a

power, and have a curved surface with a dip in the middle. line known as the 'normal'. The normal is perpendicular

CHAPTER 2. OPTICS

material. This is useful in optic bres, which allow a signal to be transmitted long distances at the speed of light

because the light is totally internally reected.

Critical Angle

The critical angle is the minimum angle of incidence, for

a given material, at which rays of light are totally internally reected. At the critical angle (C), the angle of refraction is 90, as any smaller angle of incidence will result in refraction. Therefore:

n=

Since sin 90 = 1:

n=

which the light is reected. The angle between the normal

and the ray of light is known as the angle of reection (r).

The ray of light will be reected back at the same angle as

it arrived at the normal, on the other side of the normal.

2.2.2

Refraction

across the boundary between two materials. This causes

it to change direction. The angle between the normal and

the refracted ray of light is known as the angle of refraction (r).

The Refractive Index

The refractive index is a measure of how much light will

be refracted on the boundary between a material and a

'reference material'. This reference material is usually

either air or a vacuum. It is given by the following formula:

n=

c0

c1

and c1 is the speed of light in the material.

sin 90

sin r

sin r

1

sin r

= n1

= sin C

will be totally internally reected at angles greater than

the inverse sine of the reciprocal of the refractive index.

2.2.4 Questions

1. A ray of light is reected from a mirror. Its angle to

the normal when it reaches the mirror is 70. What is its

angle of reection?

2. The speed of light in diamond is 1.24 x 108 m/s. What

is its refractive index?

3. The refractive index of ice is 1.31. What is the speed

of light in ice?

4. A ray of light passes the boundary between air and a

transparent material. The angle of refraction is 20, and

the angle of incidence is 10. What is the speed of light

in this material? Why is it impossible for this material to

exist?

5. What is the critical angle of a beam of light leaving a

transparent material with a refractive index of 2?

Worked Solutions

Snells Law

Optics/Refraction

We can relate the refractive index to the angles of incidence (i) and refraction (r) using the following formula,

known as Snells Law:

n=

sin i

sin r

2.2.3

c0

c1

Normally, when light passes through a non-opaque material, it is both reected and refracted. However, sometimes, rays of light are totally internally reected; in other

words, they are not refracted, so no light goes outside the

Chapter 3

Communications

3.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Digital Storage

3.1.1

Bits

Each pixels value is digital: it takes on a denite value.

In a higher quality image, each pixel can take on a greater

variety of values. Each pixels value is encoded as a number of bits. A bit is a datum with a value of either 0 or 1.

The more values a pixel can take on, the more bits must

be used to represent its value. The number of values (N)

that a pixel represented by I bits can take on is given by

the formula:

Digital Data

There are two dierent types of data: analogue and digital. Analogue data can, potentially, take on any value. Examples include a page of handwritten text, a cassette, or a

painting. Digital data can only take on a set range of values. This enables it to be processed by a computer. Ex- N = 2I

amples include all les stored on computers, CDs, DVDs,

Hence:

etc.

N

log N

I = log

log 2 0.301029996 Log base 10 used here. For

ratios, the base of the log does not matter, now we have

evaluated log 2 using base 10 log N must be base 10 as

Pixels

well.

A pixel may be represented by values for red, green and

blue, in which case each colour channel will have to be

encoded separately. When dealing with text, the number

of values is equal to the number of possible characters.

Overall, for an image:

Amount of information in an image (bits) = number of

pixels x bits per pixel.

Bytes

bytes and SI units is that when prexes (such as kilo-,

mega-, etc.) are attached, we do not multiply by 103 as

the prex increases. Instead, we multiply by 1024. So,

1 kilobyte = 1024 bytes, 1 megabyte = 10242 bytes, 1

gigabyte = 10243 bytes, and 1 terabyte = 10244 bytes.

the value of an individual square of the image, and it has

a value assigned to it. The total number of pixels in an

image is just like the formula for the area of a rectangle:

number of pixels across multiplied by number of pixels

down. When representing text, each pixel is a component

of one character (for example, a letter, a number, a space,

or a new line), it is not the entirety of a character. For

instance if the letter 'E' was to be taken as an example and

a section was to be taken through the three protrusions;

a minimum of seven (7) pixels would be used, one white

pixel at the top, then one black (for the rst protrusion),

then one white for the gap, then a black one for the centre

- and so on. A type face - such as Helvetica, or Times

New Roman, maybe made up of a more complex pattern

of pixels to allow for serif details.

3.1.2 Questions

1. An image transmitted down a SVGA video cable is

800 pixels wide, and 600 pixels high. How many pixels

are there in the image?

2. A grayscale image is encoded using 3 bits. How many

possible values can each pixel have?

3. The characters in a text document are numbered from

5

CHAPTER 3. COMMUNICATIONS

0 - 255. How many bits should each character be encoded the image, we multiply its value by 4, and then subtract the

with?

values of the pixels above and below it, and on either side

4. A page contains 30 lines of text, with an average of of it. If the result is negative, we treat it as 0. So, taking

15 characters on each line. Each character is represented the median-smoothed image above, edge detection gives

by 4 bits. How many megabytes of uncompressed stor- the following result:

age will a book consisting of 650 pages like this ll on a

computers hard disk?

5. A 10cm wide square image is scanned into a computer.

Each pixel is encoded using 3 channels (red, green and

blue), and each channel can take on 256 possible values.

One pixel is 0.01 mm wide. How much information does

the scanned image contain? Express your answer using

an appropriate unit.

3.2.4 Questions

1. How could the above methods be applied to a digital

sound sample?

2. Which of the above methods would be suitable for

smoothing sharp edges? Why?

Worked Solutions

3. Use median smoothing to remove noise from the following image of a white cat in a snowstorm (the black

pixels have a value of 255):

Physics)/Digital Processing

smoothing the image given in question 3?

5. Use mean smoothing to remove noise from the following image of a black cat in a coal cellar:

As we have already seen, a digital image consists of pixels, with each pixel having a value which represents its Worked Solutions

colour. For the purposes of understanding how digital

images are manipulated, we are going to consider an 8bit grayscale image, with pixel values ranging from 0 to

3.3 A-level Physics (Advancing

255, giving us 256 (28 ) levels of grey. 0 represents white,

and 255 represents black. This is the image we are going

Physics)/Digitisation

to consider:

The image consists of an edge, and some random noise. Digitisation of a signal is the process by which an anaThere are two methods of smoothing this image (i.e. re- logue signal is converted to a digital signal.

moving noise) that you need to know about:

3.2.1

Mean Smoothing

average of all the pixels surrounding each pixel (and the

pixel itself) as the value of the pixel in the smoothed image, as follows:

Let us consider the voltage output from a microphone.

The signal which enters the microphone (sound) is an analogue signal - it can be any of a potentially innite range

of values, and may look something like this waveform

(from an articial (MIDI) piano):

3.2.2

Median Smoothing

When the microphone converts this signal to an electriA far better method is, instead of taking the mean, to take cal signal, it samples the signal a number of times, and

the median, as follows:

transmits the level of the signal at that point. The followFor this image, this gives a perfect result. In more com- ing diagram shows sample times (vertical black lines) and

plicated images, however, data will still be lost, although, the transmitted signal (the red line):

in general, less data will be lost by taking the median than

by taking the mean.

3.2.3

Edge Detection

has to be reconstructed. The gaps between the samples

We can detect the positioning of edges in an image using are lled in, but, as you can see, the reconstructed signal

the 'Laplace rule', or 'Laplace kernel'. For each pixel in is not the same as the original sound:

What is the maximum frequency that can be perfectly reconstructed using this sampling rate?

3.3.2

Sampling Rate

dened as the number of samples per. second, and is

measured in Hertz (Hz), as it is a frequency. You can

calculate the sampling rate using the formula:

No. of samples

Sampling Rate (Hz) = No. of seconds

The higher the sampling rate, the closer the reconstructed

signal is to the original signal, but, unfortunately, we are

limited by the bandwidth available. Theoretically, a sam- Worked Solutions

pling rate of twice the highest frequency of the original

signal will result in a perfect reconstructed signal. In the

example given above, the sampling rate is far too low,

hence the loss of information.

3.3.3

Number of Levels

Another factor which may limit the quality of the reconstructed signal is the number of bits with which the signal

is encoded. For example, if we use 3 bits per. sample,

we only have 8 (23 ) levels, so, when sampling, we must

take the nearest value represented by one of these levels.

This leads to quantization errors - when a sample does

not equal the value of the original signal at a given sample point.

Physics)/Signal Frequencies

3.3.4

past a certain point in one second. Frequency is measured

in Hertz (usually abbreviated Hz), and can be calculated

using the formula:

Questions

V = f

then produce a reconstructed signal. How does it dier

where V is the velocity of the wave (in ms1 ), f is the

from the original?

frequency of the wave (in Hz), and (the Greek letter

lambda) is the wavelength of the wave (distance from one

peak / trough to the next, in m).

20 kHz. How many samples were taken?

3.4.1

Multiple Frequencies

and '' have a maximum frequency of 4 kHz. What is a

suitable sampling rate for a low-quality telephone?

Let us consider the following signal (time is in ms, and

4. Using a sampling rate of 20 kHz and 3 bits, sample the the y-axis represents volts):

CHAPTER 3. COMMUNICATIONS

+5

+5

+1

+1

+1

+5

+1+10

-1

-1

-5

-5

+5

waves, with dierent frequencies, added together. These

sine waves are as follows:

can see this, as they have dierent distances between

their peaks and troughs. These frequencies can be plotted against the amplitude of the wave, as in the table, and

chart drawn from it, below:

+10

This chart is known as the frequency spectrum of a signal.

0.5sin(3x+120) are added together to form a signal.

What are the frequencies of each of the waves? What

is the signals fundamental frequency? Assume that the

waves are travelling at the speed of light, and that 60 =

1mm.

Worked Solutions

3.4.3

Fundamental Frequency

Physics)/Bandwidth

makes up a signal. In the above example, the fundamental frequency is 80 Hz. It is always the frequency farthest Bandwidth is the frequency of a signal. Although original

to the left of a frequency spectrum, ignoring noise. Other signals have varying frequencies, when these are transfrequencies are known as overtones, or harmonics.

mitted, for example, as FM radio waves, they are modulated so that they only use frequencies within a certain

range. FM radio modulates the frequency of a wave, so

it needs some variation in the frequencies to allow for

transmission of multiple frequencies. Since bandwidth

is a frequency, it is the number of bits per. second. The

bandwidth required to transmit a signal accurately can be

calculated by using 1 as the number of bits, giving the

formula:

3.4.4

Questions

B=

1

t

1. What is the frequency of an X-ray (wavelength transmit 1 bit of data (in s).

0.5nm)?

The bandwidth of a signal regulates the bit rate of the

2. A sound wave, with a frequency of 44 kHz, has a wave- signal, as, with a higher frequency, more information can

length of 7.7mm. What is the speed of sound?

be transmitted. This give us the formula (similar to the

3. What is the fundamental frequency of the following formula for lossless digital sampling):

signal?

b = 2B

10

CHAPTER 3. COMMUNICATIONS

where b is the bit rate (in bits per. second), and B is the

bandwidth (in Hz).

3.5.1

Questions

8Mbit s1 when downloading information. What is the

minimum bandwidth required to carry this bit rate?

2. The same connection has a bandwidth of 100 kHz reserved for uploading information. What is the maximum

bit rate that can be attained when uploading information

using this connection?

3. A lighthouse uses a ashing light and Morse Code to

communicate with a nearby shore. A 'dash' consists of the

light being on for 2s. The light is left o for 1s between

dots and dashes. What is the bandwidth of the connection?

4. The broadband connection in question two is used to

upload a 1Mbyte image to a website. How long does it

take to do this?

Worked Solutions

Chapter 4

Electricity

4.1 A-level Physics

Physics)/Charge

(Advancing

I = Q

t ([The triangle (Greek letter delta) means change

in the quantity])

some particles have a positive charge, electrons have a

negative charge. The charge on an electron is equal

to approximately 1.6 x 1019 coulombs. Coulombs

(commonly abbreviated C) are the unit of charge. One

coulomb is dened as the electric charge carried by 1 ampere (amp) of current in 1 second. It is normal to ignore

the negative nature of this charge when considering electricity.

If we have n particles with the same charge Q , then

the total charge Q is given by:

Q = n Q

By a simple rearrangement:

n=

Qtotal

Qparticle

4.1.1

Questions

i1 + i4 = i2 + i3

2. How many electrons does it take to carry 5 C of where I is current (in A), Q is charge (in C) and t is the

charge?

time it took for the charge to ow (in seconds).

3. The total charge on 1 mole of electrons (6 x 1023 parti- In a series circuit, the current is the same everywhere in

cles) is equal to 1 faraday of charge. How many coulombs the circuit, as the rate of ow of charged particles is conof charge are equal to 1 faraday?

stant throughout the circuit. In a parallel circuit, however,

4. The mass of a ball is 50mg. It is supplied 5C of charge. the current is split between the branches of the circuit, as

Will there be any change in the mass of the ball? If so, the number of charged particles owing cannot change.

This is Kirchos First Law, stating that:

calculate the change of the mass.

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Current

(Advancing

In mathematical form:

Iin =

Iout (The character that resembles a sideways M is the Greek letter sigma, meaning 'sum of'.)

4.2.1 Questions

Current is the amount of charge (on particles such as electrons) owing through part of an electric circuit per sec- 1. 10 coulombs ow past a point in a wire in 1 minute.

ond. Current is measured in amperes (usually abbreviated How much current is owing through the point?

A), where 1 ampere is 1 coulomb of charge per second. 2. How long does it take for a 2A current to carry 5C?

11

12

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICITY

current is drawn from the cell. EMF is named so by the

scientists who performed faulty experiments and named

it so, hence, just a tribute to their contribution to physics

it is still called EMF but the denition has changed with

time.

R1

R2

charge has less potential energy, so the voltage (relative

to the power source) decreases. The dierence between

the voltage at two points in a circuit is known as potential

dierence, and can be measured with a voltmeter.

Series Circuits

I1

I2

across the components, as each component causes the

voltage to decrease, so each one has a potential dierence. The sum of the potential dierences across all the

components is equal to the potential dierence (but batteries have their own 'internal resistances, which compli3. In the diagram on the left, I = 9A, and I1 = 4.5A. What cates things slightly, as we will see).

is the current at I2 ?

4. What would I equal if I1 = 10A and I2 = 15A?

Parallel Circuits

particles ow past I1 , and 6.7C ow past I2 . How long In a parallel circuit, the potential dierence across each

branch of the circuit is equal to the EMF, as the same

does it take for 10C to ow past I?

'force' is pushing along each path of the circuit. The

Worked Solutions

number of charge carriers (current) diers, but the 'force'

pushing them (voltage) does not.

Physics)/Voltage

Charge moves through a circuit, losing potential energy as dierence across all the components in the circuit?

it goes. This means that the charge travels as an electric 2. The voltages (relative to the voltage of the battery) on

current. Voltage is dened as the dierence in potential either side of a resistor are 6V and 5V. What is the

energy per. unit charge, i.e.

potential dierence across the resistor?

E

Q

where V is voltage (in V), E is the dierence in potential of potential energy. What is the voltage at this point?

energy (in joules) and Q is charge (in coulombs).

4. Why do the electrons move to a point 1cm further

There are two electrical properties which are both mea- along the wire?

V =

sured in volts (commonly abbreviated V), and so both are Worked Solutions

known under the somewhat vague title of 'voltage'. Both

are so called because they change the potential energy of

the charge.

4.4 A-level

Physics

Physics)/Power

4.3.1

(Advancing

Power is a measure of how much potential energy is disKeep in mind, that EMF as the name suggests is not sipated (i.e. converted into heat, light and other forms of

an electrical force, it is basically the potential dierence energy) by a component or circuit in one second. This is

due to a drop in the potential energy, and so the voltage,

of charge. Power is measured in Watts (commonly abbreviated W), where 1 W is 1 Js1 . It can be calculated

by nding the product of the current owing through a

component / circuit and the potential dierence across

the component / circuit. This gives us the equation:

P =

E

t

= IV

13

well an artefact resists an electric current.

Resistance is measured in Ohms (usually abbreviated using the Greek letter Omega, ) and, in formulae, is represented by the letter R. Conductance is measured in

Siemens (usually abbreviated S) and, in formulae, is represented by the letter G.

where P is the power dissipated (in W), E is the drop in Resistance and conductance are each others reciprocals,

potential energy (in Joules, J), t is the time taken (in s), I so:

is the current (in A) and V is either potential dierence or R = 1 and G = 1

G

R

electromotive force (in V), depending on the component

being measured.

Since power is the amount of energy changing form per. 4.5.1 Ohms Law

second, the amount of energy being given out each second

will equal the power of the component giving out energy. Ohms Law states that the potential dierence across an

artefact constructed from Ohmic conductors (i.e. conYou should be able to substitute in values for I and V from

ductors that obey Ohms Law) is equal to the product of

other formulae (V=IR, Q=It) in order to relate power to

the current running through the component and the resisresistance, conductance, charge and time, giving formutance of the component. As a formula:

lae like these:

V = IR

P = I 2R

2

where V is potential dierence (in V), I is current (in A)

P = VR

and R is resistance (in ).

P = QV

t

In terms of Resistance

4.4.1

Questions

1. The potential dierence across a 9W light bulb is can be used to calculate the resistance of an artefact:

240V. How much current is owing through the light R = V

I

bulb?

2. How much energy is dissipated by a 10W component

In terms of Conductance

in 1 hour?

3. The potential dierence across a top-notch kettle, Since conductance is the reciprocal of resistance, we can

which can hold up to 1 litre of water, is 240V, and the deduce a formula for conductance (G):

current is 12.5 A. 4.2 kJ of energy is required to raise the 1

V

temperature of 1kg of water by 1C. Assuming 100% ef- G = I

ciency and that the temperature has to be raised 80C G = I

V

(20C to 100C), how long does it take to boil 1 litre of

water?

The Relationship between Potential Dierence and

4. How much energy is dissipated by a 100 resistor in

Current

10 seconds if 2A of current are owing?

5. The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 1019 C. How long From Ohms Law, we can see that potential dierence

does it take for a mole (6 x 1023 particles) of electrons to is directly proportional to current, provided resistance is

ow through a 40W light bulb on a 240V ring main?

constant. This is because two variables (let us call them x

and y) are considered directly proportional to one another

Worked Solutions

if:

y = kx

Physics)/Resistance and Conductance

that resistance is constant, R can equal k, so V=RI states

that potential dierence is directly proportional to current. As a result, if potential dierence is plotted against

current on a graph, it will give a straight line with a posiConductance is a measure of how well an artefact (such tive gradient which passes through the origin. The gradias an electrical component, not a material, such as iron) ent will equal the resistance.

14

4.5.2

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICITY

In Series Circuits

In a series circuit (for example, a row of resistors connected to each other), the resistances of the resistors add

up to give the total resistance. Since conductance is the

reciprocal of resistance, the reciprocals of the conductances add up to give the reciprocal of the total conductance. So:

R = R1 + R2 + ... + Rn

1

G

=

4.5.3

1

G1

1

G2

+ ... +

1

Gn

In Parallel Circuits

Physics)/Internal Resistance

Batteries, just like other components in an electric circuit,

have a resistance. This resistance is known as internal resistance. This means that applying Ohms law (V = IR) to

circuits is more complex than simply feeding the correct

values for V, I or R into the formula.

The existence of internal resistance is indicated by measuring the potential dierence across a battery. This is

always less than the EMF of the battery. This is because

of the internal resistance of the battery. This idea gives

us the following formula:

on each branch add up to give the total conductance. Similar to series circuits, the reciprocals of the total resistances of each branch add up to give the reciprocal of the

total resistance of the circuit. So:

G = G1 + G2 + ... + Gn

R1 =

1

R1

1

R2

+ ... +

1

Rn

When considering circuits which are a combination of series and parallel circuits, consider each branch as a separate component, and work out its total resistance or conductance before nishing the process as normal.

4.5.4

Questions

Let us replace these values with letters to give the simpler

current is 10A. What is the resistance of the resistor?

formula:

2. What is the conductance of this resistor?

V = E - V

3. A conductor has a conductance of 2S, and the potential

dierence across it is 0.5V. How much current is owing Since V = IR:

through it?

V = E - IR

4. A graph is drawn of potential dierence across an You may also need to use the following formula to work

Ohmic conductor, and current. For every 3cm across, out the external potential dierence, if you are not given

the graph rises by 2cm. What is the conductance of the it:

conductor?

V = IR

5. On another graph of potential dierence and current,

You should also remember the eects of using resistors

the graph curves so that the gradient increases as current

in both series and parallel circuits.

increases. What can you say about the resistor?

6. 3 resistors, wired in series, have resistances of 1k,

5k and 500 each. What is the total resistance across

all three resistors?

7. 2 conductors, wired in parallel, have conductances of 4.6.1 Questions

10S and 5S. What is the total resistance of both branches

of the parallel circuit?

1. A 9V battery is short-circuited. The potential dier8. The circuit above is attached in series to 1 10 resistor. ence across the battery is found to be 8V, and the current

is 5A. What is the internal resistance of the battery?

What is the total conductance of the circuit now?

Worked Solutions

15

is connected.

To understand how a potential divider works, let us consider resistors in series. The resistances add up, so, in a

circuit with two resistors:

R = R1 + R2

If we apply Ohms law, remembering that the current is

constant throughout a series circuit:

V1

I

V2

I

V = V1 + V2

3. What is the internal resistance of the battery in the So, just as the resistances in series add up to the total

resistance, the potential dierences add up to the total

following circuit?

potential dierence. The ratios between the resistances

are equal to the ratios between the potential dierences.

In other words, we can calculate the potential dierence

across a resistor using the formula:

Vresistor =

V RRresistor

external

In many cases, you will be told to assume that the internal

resistance of the power source is negligible, meaning that

you can take the total potential dierence as the EMF of

the power source.

Worked Solutions

resistor such as an LDR or thermistor with a constant

resistor, as in the diagram below. As the resistance of

the variable resistor changes, the ratio between the resistances changes, so the potential dierence across any

given resistor changes.

Physics)/Potential Dividers

resistors. A 'wiper' may move across them, varying the

number of resistors on either side of the wiper as it moves,

as in the following diagram:

A potential divider, or potentiometer, consists of a number of resistors, and a voltmeter. The voltage read by the

voltmeter is determined by the ratio of the resistances on

either side of the point at which one end of the voltmeter

16

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICITY

4.7.1

Questions

a 9V battery. A voltmeter is connected across the 12k

resistor. What is the reading on the voltmeter? (Assume

negligible internal resistance.)

thermistor decreases, so the potential dierence across it

decreases. This means that potential dierence across the

resistor increases as temperature increases. This is why

the voltmeter is across the resistor, not the thermistor.

wiper which moves on one resistor for every 3.6 a handle

connected to it turns. The wiper is connected to a voltmeter, and the circuit is powered by a 120V power source 4.8.2 Properties

with negligible internal resistance. What is the reading on

There are three main properties of sensing systems you

the voltmeter when the handle turns 120?

need to know about:

3. A 9V battery with internal resistance 0.8 is connected to 3 resistors with conductances of 3, 2 and 1

Siemens. A voltmeter is connected across the 3 and 2

Sensitivity

Siemens resistors. An ammeter is placed in the circuit,

between the battery and the rst terminal of the voltThis is the amount of change in voltage output per unit

meter, and reads 2A. What is the reading on the voltchange in input (the physical property). For example, in

meter?

the above sensing system, if the voltage on the voltmeter

Worked Solutions

increased by 10V as the temperature increased by 6.3C:

S=

Physics)/Sensors

1.59 V/C

(Advancing

into an electrical property (such as resistance). A sensing

system is a system (usually a circuit) which allows this

electrical property, and so the physical property, to be

measured.

4.8.1

10

6.3

Temperature Sensor

A common example of a sensing system is a temperature sensor in a thermostat, which uses a thermistor. In

the most common type of thermistor (an NTC), the resistance decreases as the temperature increases. This eect

is achieved by making the thermistor out of a semiconductor. The thermistor is then used in a potential divider,

as in the diagram on the right. In this diagram, the potential dierence is divided between the resistor and the

Resolution

This is the smallest change in the physical property detectable by the sensing system. Sometimes, the limiting

factor is the number of decimal places the voltmeter can

display. So if, for example, the voltmeter can display the

voltage to 2 decimal places, the smallest visible change in

voltage is 0.01V. We can then use the sensitivity of the

sensor to calculate the resolution.

S = 1.59 =

R=

0.01

1.59

0.01

R

0.006 C

Response Time

This is the time the sensing system takes to display a

change in the physical property it is measuring. It is often

dicult to measure.

4.8.3

Signal Amplication

17

multimeter?

3. When a light source moves 0.5m away from the sensor,

voltage, but the sensitivity is far too low to be of any use.

the voltage on the multimeter increases by 2V. What is

There are two solutions to this problem, which can be

the sensitivity of the sensing system when using this light

used together:

source, in V m1 ?

Amplication

An amplier can be placed in the system, increasing the

signal. The main problem with this is that the signal cannot exceed the maximum voltage of the system, so values

will be chopped o of the top and bottom of the signal

because it is so high.

Wheatstone Bridge

4. When the same light source is placed 0m from the sensor, the potential dierence is 0V. When the light source

is 1m away, what voltage is displayed on the multimeter?

5. What is the resolution of the sensing system?

6. Draw a circuit diagram showing a similar sensing system to this, using a Wheatstone bridge and amplier to

improve the sensitivity of the system.

7. What is the maximum potential dierence that can

reach the amplier using this new system (ignore the amplication)?

8. If this signal were to be amplied 3 times, would it

exceed the maximum voltage of the system? What would

the limits on the signal be?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Resistivity and Conductivity

Resistivity and conductivity are material properties: they

apply to all examples of a certain material anywhere.

A wheatstone bridge, using a thermistor

They are not the same as resistance and conductance,

which are properties of individual artefacts. This means

This solution is far better, especially when used prior to that resistivity and conductivity only apply to a given obamplication. Instead of using just one pair of resistors, a ject. They describe how well a material resists or consecond pair is used, and the potential dierence between ducts an electric current.

the two pairs (which are connected in parallel) is measured. This means that, if, at the sensing resistor (e.g.

thermistor / LDR) the resistance is at its maximum, a sig- 4.9.1 Symbols and Units

nal of 0V is produced. This means that the extremes of

the signal are not chopped o, making for a much better Resistivity is usually represented by the Greek letter rho

sensor.

(), and is measured in m. Conductivity is usually rep-

4.8.4

Questions

An LDRs resistance decreases from a maximum resistance of 2k to a minimum resistance of 0 as light intensity increases. It is used in a distance sensing system

which consists of a 9V power supply, a 1.6 k resistor,

the LDR and a multimeter which displays voltage to 2

decimal places measuring the potential dierence across

one of the two resistors.

in S m1 .

4.9.2 Formulae

The formula relating resistivity () to resistance (R),

cross-sectional area (A) and length (L) is:

=

RA

L

Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity, just as con1. Across which resistor should the multimeter be con- ductance (G) is the reciprocal of resistance. Hence:

1

nected in order to ensure that, as the distance from the 1

A

1

A

= GL = G

A

L = GL

light source to the sensor increases, the potential dier = GL

ence recorded increases?

A

18

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICITY

able to work out resistance, conductance, cross-sectional

area and length. For example, it all makes a lot more

sense if we write the rst formula in terms of , A and L:

atoms are ionised, and so very few electrons can move,

creating an electric current. However, as the semiconductor heats up, the covalent bonds (atoms sharing electrons, causing the electrons to be relatively immobile)

L

R= A

break down, freeing the electrons. As a result, a semiconFrom this, we can see that the resistance of a lump of ductors conductivity rises at an increasing rate as tempermaterial is higher if it has a higher resistivity, or if it is ature rises.

longer. Also, if it has a larger cross-sectional area, its

Examples of semiconductors include silicon and germaresistance is smaller.

nium. A full list of semiconductor materials is available

at Wikipedia. At room temperature, silicon has a conductivity of about 435 S m1 .

4.9.3 Questions

Semiconductors are usually 'doped'. This means that ions

1. The substation of the bar bus is made up of 2-inches are added in small quantities, giving the semiconductor

round copper bars 20ft long.what is the resistance of each a greater or lesser number of free electrons as required.

bar if resistivity is1.72410?

This is controlled by the charge on the ions.

2. A pure copper wire has a radius of 0.5mm, a resistance

of 1 M, and is 4680 km long. What is the resistivity of

4.10.1

copper?

Questions

3. Gold has a conductivity of 45 MS m1 . What is the 1. What is the resistivity of silicon, at room temperature?

resistance of a 0.01m across gold connector, 0.05m long?

2. What sort of variable resistor would a semiconductor

4. A strand of metal is stretched to twice its original be useful in?

length. What is its new resistance? State your assump3. If positive ions are added to silicon (doping it), how

tions.

does its conductivity change?

5. Which has the greater resistivity: a plank or a piece of

Worked Solutions

sawdust, made from the same wood?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Semiconductors

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

e-

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

conductor and an insulator. They are less conductive than

metals, but dier from metals in that, as a semiconductor

heats up, its conductivity rises. In metals, the opposite

eect occurs.

Chapter 5

Material Structure

5.1 A-level Physics (Advancing of the bar, the dierence between these two lengths.

Physics)/Stress, Strain & the

5.1.3 Youngs Modulus

Young Modulus

Youngs Modulus is a measure of the stiness of a material. It states how much a material will stretch (i.e., how

much strain it will undergo) as a result of a given amount

Stress is a measure of the internal force an object is expe- of stress. The formula for calculating it is:

riencing per unit cross sectional area. Hence, the formula

lating pressure: but

The values for stress and strain must be taken at as low

a stress level as possible, provided a dierence in the

=F

A

length of the sample can be measured. Strain is unitless so

where is stress (in Newtons per square metre or, equiva- Youngs Modulus has the same units as stress, i.e. N/m

lently, Pascals). F is force (in Newtons, commonly abbre- or Pa.

viated N), and A is the cross sectional area of the sample.

5.1.1

Stress

Tensile Strength

The (ultimate) tensile strength is the level of stress at

which a material will fracture. Tensile strength is also

known as fracture stress. If a material fractures by 'crack

propagation' (i.e., it shatters), the material is brittle.

Yield Stress

On a stress strain graph beyond the yield point (or elastic limit) the material will no longer return to its original

length. This means it has become permanently deformed.

Therefore the yield stress is the level of stress at which a

material will deform permanently. This is also known as

yield strength.

5.1.2

Strain

object causes it to stretch. Strain is a measure of how Stressstrain curve for low-carbon steel.

much an object is being stretched. The formula for strain

Stress () can be graphed against strain (). The toughis:

ness of a material (i.e., how much it resists stress, in J

ll0

l

= l

l0 = l0 = l0 1 ,

m3 ) is equal to the area under the curve, between the

where l0 is the original length of a bar being stretched, and y-axis and the fracture point. Graphs such as the one on

l is its length after it has been stretched. l is the extension the right show how stress aects a material. This image

19

20

shows the stress-strain graph for low-carbon steel. It has 5.1.5 Questions

three main features:

1. 100N of force are exerted on a wire with crosssectional area 0.50mm2 . How much stress is being

Elastic Region

exerted on the wire?

In this region (between the origin and point 2), the ratio

of stress to strain (Youngs modulus) is constant, meaning

that the material is obeying Hookes law, which states that

a material is elastic (it will return to its original shape) if

force is directly proportional to extension of the material

Hookes Law

Hookes law of elasticity is an approximation that states

that the Force (load) is in direct proportion with the extension of a material as long as this load does not exceed

the elastic limit. Materials for which Hookes law is a

useful approximation are known as linear-elastic

F = kx

breaks under 100N of force. What is the crosssectional area of the wire just before breaking?

3. What is the strain on a Twix bar (original length

10cm) if it is now 12cm long?

4. What is this strain, expressed as a percentage?

5. 50N are applied to a wire with a radius of 1mm. The

wire was 0.7m long, but is now 0.75m long. What

is the Youngs Modulus for the material the wire is

made of?

6. Glass, a brittle material, fractures at a strain of 0.004

and a stress of 240 MPa. Sketch the stress-strain

graph for glass.

exam) What is the toughness of glass?

F x

under 25N of force. what is the cross-sectional area

of the wire before and after breaking?

The work done to stretch a wire or the Elastic Potential Energy is equal to the area of the triangle on a Ten- Worked Solutions

sion/Extension graph, but can also be expressed as

2

1

2 kx

Physics)/Metals

(Advancing

Plastic Region

In this region (between points 2 and 3), the rate at which

extension is increasing is going up, and the material has

passed the elastic limit. It will no longer return to its original shape. After point 1, the amount of stress decreases

due to necking at one point in the specimen. If the stress

was recorded where the necking occurs we would observe

an upward curve and an increase in stress due to this reduction in area(stress = Force / area, thus stress increases

during necking). The material will now 'give' and extend

more under less force.

Fracture Point

At point 3, the material has been fractured.

Other Typical Graphs

Metals are constructed from positive ions in a sea of electrons.

In a brittle material, such as glass or ceramics, the stress- This explains many of their properties.

strain graph will have an extremely short elastic region,

and then will fracture. There is no plastic region on the There are several physical properties of metals you need

stress-strain graph of a brittle material.

to know about:

Electrical Conductivity

21

structure

Diusionless transformation: occurs where the bonds befree (delocalized) electrons. This means that the electrons

tween the atoms stretch, allowing the material to deare free to move through the metal, conducting an electric

form elastically. An example would be rubber or a shape

current.

memory metal/alloy (often referred to as SMA) such as

a nickel-titanium alloy. In the shape memory alloy the

transformation occurs via the change of phase of the inStiness

ternal structure from martensitic to deformed martensitic,

The electrostatic forces of attraction between the nega- which allows the SMA to have a high percentage strain

tively charged electrons and the positively charged ions (up to 8% for some SMAs in comparison to approxiholds the ions together, making metals sti. Stiness is mately 0.5% for steel). If the material is then heated

indicated by the Young modulus of the material, so a sti above a certain temperature the deformed martensite will

form austenite, which returns to twinned martensite after

material deforms little for a given tensile stress.

cooling.

Ductility

5.2.1 Questions

they can move about and slide past each other. This 1. Would you expect a metal to have more or less conmakes metals ductile.

ductivity than a semiconductor? Why?

Toughness

2. How can the stress-strain graph for a metal be explained in terms of ions in a sea of electrons?

Metals are tough for the same reason as they are ducWhy?

tile: the positive ions can slide past each other while still

remaining together. So, instead of breaking apart, they Worked Solutions

change shape, resulting in increased toughness. This effect is called plasticity. When a tough material breaks the

ratio of 'energy used / new surface area created' is very

5.3 A-level Physics (Advancing

large.

Physics)/Polymers

Elasticity

When a metal is stretched, it can return to its original (components of molecules) joined by covalent bonds. A

shape because the sea of electrons which bonds the ions polymer usually consists of many of these bonds, tangled

up. This is known as a bulk polymer.

together can be stretched as well.

Brittle

5.3.1 Types

The opposite of tough: a material is likely to crack or A bulk polymer may contain two types of regions. In

shatter upon impact or force. It will snap cleanly due to crystalline regions, the chains run parallel to each other,

defects and cracks.

whereas in amorphous regions, they do not. Intermolecular bonds are stronger in crystalline regions. A polycrystalline polymer consists of multiple regions, in which the

Malleability

chains point in a dierent direction in each region.

Metals are malleable because their atoms are arranged in

at planes that can slide past each other. Their bonds are

5.3.2

non-directional.

Properties

Transparency

Transformation

Polymers which are crystalline are usually opaque or

Diusive transformation: occur when the planes of atoms translucent. As a polymer becomes less polycrystalline, it

in the material move past each other due to the stresses on becomes more transparent, whilst an amorphous polymer

the object. This transformation is permanent and cannot is usually transparent. [1]

22

brittle.

Plasticity

When a polymer is stretched, the chains become parallel, and amorphous areas may become crystalline. This

causes an apparent change in colour, and a process known

as 'necking'. This is when the chains recede out of an area

of the substance, making it thinner, with fatter areas on

either side.

Conductivity

Polymers consist of covalent bonds, so the electrons are

not free to move according to potential dierence. This

means that polymers are poor conductors.

Boiling Point

Polycrystalline glass

Polymers do not have boiling points. This is because, before they reach a theoretical boiling point, polymers decompose. Some polymers do not have melting points for

the same reason.

5.3.3 Questions

1. Dierent crystalline structures have dierent refractive indexes. Why does this mean that a polycrystalline

polymer is translucent?

2. What sort of polymer is a pane of perspex?

3. What sort of polymer does the pane of perspex become

when shattered (but still in one piece)?

4. What sort of polymer is a rubber on the end of a pencil?

Amorphous rubber

polymer when it is put under stress?

Worked Solutions

Elasticity

In some polymers, such as polyethene, the chains are 5.3.4 References

folded up. When they are stretched, the chains unravel,

[1] C. A. Heaton, The Chemical industry, page 113.

stretching without breaking. When the stress ceases, they

will return to their original shape. If, however, the bonds

between the molecules are broken, the material reaches

its elastic limit and will not return to its original shape.

Stiness

Polymer chains may be linked together, causing the polymer to become stier. An example is rubber, which,

when heated with sulfur, undergoes a process known as

vulcanization. The chains in the rubber become joined

by sulfur atoms, making the rubber suitable for use in car

tyres. A stier polymer, however, will usually be more

Chapter 6

Waves

6.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/What is a wave?

is a stream of particles. This idea would explain away the

need for an 'ether' for light to travel through. This, too,

has its problems, as it does not explain why light behaves

At this point in the course, it is easy to get bogged down in as a wave.

the complex theories and equations surrounding 'waves.

So, we are left with a paradox. Light behaves as both a

However, a better understanding of waves can be gained

wave and a particle, but it can be shown not to be either.

by going back to basics, and explaining what a wave is in

Quantum physics attempts to explain this paradox. Howthe rst place.

ever, since light behaves as both a wave and a particle, we

can look at it as both, even if, when doing this, we know

that we don't fully understand it yet.

6.1.1

Denitions

energy is transferred because this disturbance is a store,

of sorts, of potential energy. This begs the question How

is this disturbance transferred across space?" In some

cases, this is easy to answer, because some waves travel

through a medium. The easiest example to think about is

a water wave. One area moves up, pulling the next one up

with it, and pressure and gravity pull it back to its original

position.

Wave

displacement

the eect of the disturbance relative to the direction of

travel. A wave which causes disturbance in the direction

of its travel is known as a longitudinal wave, whereas a

wave which causes disturbance perpendicular to the direction of its travel is known as a transverse wave.

= wavelength

y = amplitude

the distance through the medium on the x-axis, and the

amount of disturbance on the y-axis. The amount of disturbance is known as the amplitude. Wave amplitudes

tend to oscillate between two limits, as shown. The distance in the medium between two 'peaks or 'troughs

(maxima and minima on the waveform) is known as the

wavelength of the wave.

distance

Features of a wave

6.1.3 Superposition

appear to travel through a medium. Physicists have puzzled over how light, which behaves like a wave in many

situations, travels for a long time. One theory was that

there was a mysterious 'ether' which pervaded all of

space, and so light was just like water waves, except that

the water was invisible. This theory is widely regarded

to be incorrect, but, since light is assumed to be a wave,

what is it a disturbance in?

say, when they are travelling in the same place in the

medium at the same time, they both aect the medium

independently. So, if two waves say go up to the same

bit of medium at the same time, the medium will rise

twice as much. In general, superposition means that the

amplitudes of two waves at the same point at the same

time at the same polarisation add up.

23

24

6.1.4

CHAPTER 6. WAVES

Interference

each other. The resultant waveform will be like the two

other waveforms, except its amplitude at every point will

be twice as much. This is known as constructive interference. Alternatively, if one waveform moves on by half

a wavelength, but the other does not, the resultant waveform will have no amplitude, as the two waveforms will

cancel each other out. This is known as destructive interference. Both these eects are shown in the diagram

below:

through a medium, but electromagnetic radiation also behaves like this, even though it does not travel through a

medium.

6.1.6 Questions

6.1.5

You should remember the equation v = f from earlier in

this course, or from GCSE. v is the velocity at which the

wave travels through the medium, in ms1 , f (or nu, ) is

the frequency of the wave, in Hz (no. of wavelengths per.

second), and is the wavelength, in m.

This equation applies to electromagnetic waves, but you

should remember that there are dierent wavelengths of

electromagnetic radiation, and that dierent colours of

visible light have dierent wavelengths. You also need to

know the wavelengths of the dierent types of electromagnetic radiation:

like a wave?

3. What aspects of the behaviour of light make it look

like a particle?

4. Consider the diagram on the right. White light is partially reected by the transparent material. Some of the

light, however, is refracted into the transparent material

and reected back by the opaque material. The result is

two waves travelling in the same place at the same time

at the same polarisation(the light is not a single beam).

25

Why does, say, the red light disappear? (Variations on the point in the repeating waveform which is being reprethis question are popular with examiners.)

sented. They consist of a circle. An arrow moves round

the circle anticlockwise as the wave pattern passes. For

5. What is the wavelength of green light?

every wavelength that goes past, the arrow moves 360, or

6. The lowest frequency sound wave humans can hear has 2c , starting from the right, as in trigonometry. The angle

a frequency of approximately 20Hz. Given that the speed of the arrow from the right is known as the phase angle,

of sound in air is 343ms1 , what is the wavelength of the and is usually denoted , and the radius of the circle is

lowest frequency human-audible sound?

usually denoted a. The height of the point at the end of

the arrow represents the displacement caused by the wave

Worked Solutions

to the medium, and so the amplitude of the wave at that

point in time. The time taken to rotate 360 is known as

the periodic time, and is usually denoted T.

Physics)/Phasors

(Advancing

Consider the image on the right. It shows a wave travelling through a medium. The moving blue dot represents the displacement caused to the medium by the wave.

It can be seen that, if we consider any one point in the

medium, it goes through a repeating pattern, moving up

and down, moving faster the nearer it is to the centre of

the waveform. Its height is determined by the amplitude

of the wave at that point in time. This is determined by a

sine wave.

of two phasors, which represent two waves. It is never

more than 180, as, since the phasor is moving in a circle,

the angle between two lines touching the circumference

will always be less than or equal to 180. It can also be

expressed in terms of , where is the total wavelength

(eectively, 360). You can use trigonometry to calculate

the displacement from the angle, and vice-versa, provided

you know the radius of the circle. The radius is equal to

the maximum amplitude of the wave.

Phasors can be added up, just like vectors: tip-to-tail.

So, for example, when two waves are superposed on each

other, the phasors at each point in the reference material

can be added up to give a new displacement. This explains both constructive and destructive interference as

well. In destructive interference, the phasors for each

wave are pointing in exactly opposite directions, and so

add up to nothing at all. In constructive interference, the

phasors are pointing in the same direction, so the total

displacement is twice as much.

6.2.1 Questions

1. A sine wave with wavelength 0.1m travels through a

given point on the surface of the sea. A phasor arrow

representing the eect of this wave on this point rotates

1000. How many wavelengths have gone past in the time

taken for the phasor to rotate this much?

2. A sine wave has a maximum amplitude of 500nm.

What is its amplitude when the phasor has rotated 60

from its start position?

3. Two waves have a phase dierence of 45. When the

rst wave is at its minimum amplitude of 0.3m, what is

the total amplitude of the superposed waveforms?

Worked Solutions

A phasor

Physics)/Standing Waves

Phasors are a method of describing waves which show When two coherent waves - waves of equal frequency

two things: the displacement caused to the medium, and and amplitude - travel in opposite directions through the

26

CHAPTER 6. WAVES

is shown in the following animation:

Frequencies

move freely in between. If you pluck it, you create a wave

which travels along the string in both directions, and is

reected at either end of the string. This process keeps

on happening, and so a standing wave pattern is created.

The string goes up, and then down, as shown in the rst

row of the diagram on the right. If you imagine the top

arc as the rst half of a waveform, you can see that when

the string is vibrating at the fundamental frequency, the

string is half as long as the wavelength: it is long.

If you were to pinch the string in the middle, and then

pluck it on one side, a dierent standing wave pattern

would be generated. By plucking, you have created an

antinode, and by pinching, you have created a node. If

Some areas of the resultant waveform consistently have you then let go of the string, the standing wave pattern

an amplitude of 0. These are known as nodes. At other spreads, and the string length now equals the wavelength.

points (half-way between the nodes), the resultant wave- This is known as the rst harmonic.

form varies from twice the amplitude of its constituent As you pinch the string in descending fractions (, ,

waveforms in both directions. These points are known as , etc.), you generate successive harmonics, and the total

antinodes. Everywhere in between the nodes and antin- length of the string is equal to additional wavelengths.

odes varies to a lesser degree, depending on its position.

Standing wave with nodes labelled in red

same amplitude and frequency. If the two waves have 6.3.2 Pipes

dierent amplitudes, the resultant waveform is similar to

a standing wave, except that it has no nodes, and 'moves. Consider a pipe which is open at one end, and closed at

Because of these conditions, standing waves usually only the other. In pipes, waves are reected at the end of the

occur when a waveform is reected back on itself. For pipe, regardless of whether it is open or not. If you blow

example, in a microwave oven, the microwaves are re- across the end of the tube, you create a longitudinal wave,

ected by the metal on the other side of the oven from with the air as the medium. This wave travels down the

the transmitter. This creates nodes and antinodes. Since tube, is reected, travels back, is reected again, and so

nothing cooks at the nodes, a turntable is necessary to en- on, creating a standing wave pattern.

sure that all of the food passes through the antinodes and The closed end of the pipe must be a node; it is the equivalent of pinching a string. Similarly, the open end must be

gets cooked.

27

an antinode; blowing across it is the equivalent of pluck- Now, apply superposition of waves to this situation. At

ing the string.

certain points, the peaks (or troughs) of the waves will

Harmonics can be present in pipes, as well. This is how coincide, creating constructive interference. If this ocmusical instruments work: an open hole in a wind instru- curs on a screen, then a bright 'fringe' will be visible. On

ment creates an antinode, changing the frequency of the the other hand, if destructive interference occurs (a peak

coincides with a trough), then no light will be visible at

sound, and so the pitch.

that point on the screen.

Tom Duncan states that the fundamental frequency IS the

same as the rst harmonic (Adavanced Physics 5th edition page 317)

6.3.3

Questions

1. The air in a 3m organ pipe is resonating at the fundamental frequency. Organ pipes are eectively open at

both ends. What is the wavelength of the sound?

2. A string is vibrating at the second harmonic frequency.

How many wavelengths long is the standing wave created?

3. Express, in terms of , the length of a pipe which is

closed at one end, where is the length of one wave at

the fundamental frequency.

Worked Solutions

fringes occur

Physics)/Youngs Slits

You should be familiar with the idea that, when light

passes through a slit, it is diracted (caused to spread out

in arcs from the slit). The amount of diraction increases

the closer the slit width is to the wavelength of the light.

Consider the animation on the right. Light from a light

source is caused to pass through two slits. It is diracted

at both these slits, and so it spreads out in two sets of arcs.

we know that, at this point, the waves must be in phase.

Alternatively, at a dark fringe, the waves must be in antiphase. If we let the wavelength equal , the angle of the

beams from the normal equal , and the distance between

the slits equal d, we can form two triangles, one for bright

fringes, and another for dark fringes (the crosses labelled

1 and 2 are the slits):

28

CHAPTER 6. WAVES

formula:

0.5n = d sin

n = 2d sin

At this point, we have to engage in some slightly dodgy

maths. In the following diagram, p is path dierence, L

is the distance from the slits to the screen and x is the

perpendicular distance from a fringe to the normal:

dierence. For bright fringes, from the geometry above,

we know that:

sin =

Therefore:

= d sin

However, bright fringes do not only occur when the side

labelled is equal to 1 wavelength: it can equal multiple

wavelengths, so long as it is a whole wavelength. Therefore

n = d sin ,

where n is any integer.

Now consider the right-hand triangle, which applies to

Here, it is necessary to approximate the distance from the

dark fringes. We know that, in this case:

slits to the fringe as the perpendicular distance from the

sin = 0.5

d

slits to the screen. This is acceptable, provided that is

small, which it will be, since bright fringes get dimmer as

0.5 = d sin

they get further away from the point on the screen oppoWe can generalise this, too, for any dark fringe. However,

site the slits. Hence:

if 0.5 is multiplied by an even integer, then we will get

x

a whole wavelength, which would result in a bright, not a sin = L

dark, fringe. So, n must be an odd integer in the following If we substitute this into the equation for the path dier-

29

ence p:

p = d sin =

dx

L

n =

dx

L

, where n is an integer.

n =

6.4.3

2dx

L

Diraction Grating

values of d. As with 2 slits, when n = d sin , peaks

or troughs from all the slits coincide and you get a bright

fringe. Things get a bit more complicated, as all the slits

have dierent positions at which they add up, but you only

need to know that diraction gratings form light and dark At other fringes, we can use the same formul as for

fringes, and that the equations are the same as for 2 slits diraction gratings, as we are eectively treating the sinfor these fringes.

gle slit as a row of beams of light, coming from a row of

slits.

6.4.4

Questions

W

L

,

1. A 2-slit experiment is set up in which the slits are 0.03 where = beam angle (radians), W = beam width and L

m apart. A bright fringe is observed at an angle 10 from = distance from slit to screen. Since is small, we can

the normal. What sort of electromagnetic radiation was approximate sin as , so:

being used?

W

L

2. Light, with a wavelength of 500 nm, is shone through

2 slits, which are 0.05 m apart. What are the angles to the and since = d sin :

normal of the rst three dark fringes?

sin =

a diraction grating in which the slits are 50 m apart. A

screen is placed 1.5m from the grating. How far are the 6.5.1 Questions

rst three light fringes from the point at which the normal

1. What is the width of the central bright fringe on a

intercepts the screen?

screen placed 5m from a single slit, where the slit is 0.01m

Worked Solutions

wide and the wavelength is 500nm?

And thats all there is to it ... maybe.

Physics)/Diraction

Worked Solutions

passes through multiple slits. However, this does not explain why, when light is only passing through 1 slit, a pattern such as the one on the right is visible on the screen.

Physics)/Finding the Distance

of a Remote Object

the phasor arrows add up to give a resultant phasor. By

considering the phasor arrows from many paths which

light takes through a slit, we can explain why light and

dark fringes occur.

able to write about how waves are used to nd the distance

of a remote object. I would recommend that you pick a

method, and then answer the following questions about it:

all the phasor arrows are pointing in the same direction,

and so add up to create the greatest amplitude: a bright

fringe.

approximate wavelength of this wave?

2. What sort of distance is it usually used to measure?

What sort of length would you expect the distance to be?

30

CHAPTER 6. WAVES

4. Draw a labelled diagram of your system.

5. Explain how the system works, and what data is collected.

6. Explain how the distance to the object is calculated

using the data collected.

7. What limitations does your system have? (e.g. accuracy, consistency)

8. What percentage error would you expect these limitations to cause?

9. How might these problems be solved?

6.6.1

Examples

following pages:

Radar

Sonar

Chapter 7

Quantum Physics

7.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Light as a Quantum

Phenomenon

Dim Photos

and a particle, yet can be proven not to be either. This

idea is not limited to light, but we will start our brief look

at quantum physics with light, since it is easiest to understand.

Quantum physics is the study of quanta. A quantum is,

to quote Wiktionary, The smallest possible, and therefore indivisible, unit of a given quantity or quantiable

phenomenon. The quantum of light is the photon. We

are not describing it as a particle or a wave, as such, but

as a lump of energy which behaves like a particle and a

wave in some cases. We are saying that the photon is the

smallest part of light which could be measured, given perfect equipment. A photon is, technically, an elementary

particle. It is also the carrier of all electromagnetic radiation. However, its behaviour - quantum behaviour - is

completely weird, so we call it a quantum.

7.1.1

When you take a photo with very little light, it appears

'grainy', such as the image on the right. This means that

the light is arriving at the camera in lumps. If light were

a wave, we would expect the photograph to appear dimmer, but uniformly so. In reality, we get clumps of light

distributed randomly across the image, although the density of the random lumps is higher on the more reective

materials (the nuts). This idea of randomness, according

to rules, is essential to quantum physics.

The photoelectric eect

Photoelectric Eect

The second piece of evidence is more complex, but more

useful since a rule can be derived from it. It can be shown

experimentally that, when light of an adequate frequency

falls on a metallic surface, then the surface absorbs the

light and emits electrons. Hence, a current and voltage

(between the surface and a positively charged terminal

nearby) are produced, which can be measured.

one have been taken, clearly showing that light arrives in lumps.

a certain point. This point changes depending on the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation. Furthermore, if

the frequency of the radiation is not high enough, then

there is no current at all! If light were a wave, we would

expect energy to build up gradually until an electron was

31

32

released, but instead, if the photons do not have enough bulb give out each second?

energy, then nothing happens. This is evidence for the 4. In one minute, a bulb gives out a million photons of

existence of photons.

frequency 600 THz. What is the power of the bulb?

5. The photons in a beam of electromagnetic radiation

7.1.2

The Relationship between Energy carry 2.5J of energy each. How long should the phasors

representing this radiation take to rotate?

and Frequency

linking the frequency of electromagnetic radiation to the

energy of each quantum (in this case, photons). This can

be achieved experimentally, by exposing the metallic surface to light of dierent colours, and hence dierent frequencies. We already know the frequencies of the dierent colours of light, and we can calculate the energy each

photon carries into the surface, as this is the same as the

energy required to supply enough potential dierence to

cause the electron to move. The equation for the energy

of the electron is derived as follows:

First, equate two formulae for energy:

P =

E

t

= IV

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Quantum Behaviour

So far, we have identied the fact that light travels in

quanta, called photons, and that these photons carry an

amount of energy which is proportional to their frequency. We also know that photons aren't waves or particles in the traditional sense of either word. Instead, they

are lumps of energy. They don't behave the way we would

expect them to.

Rearrange to get:

E = ItV

We also know that:

every path possible. If a photon has to travel from point A

So, by substituting the previous equation into the equation to point B it will travel in a straight line and loop the loop

and go via Alpha Centauri and take every other possible

for energy:

path. This is the photons so-called 'quantum state'. It is

E = QV = eV ,

spread out across all space.

where P = power, E = energy, t = time, I = current, V = However, just because a photon could end up anywhere

potential dierence, Q = charge, e = charge of 1 electron in space does not mean that it has an equal probability of

= 1.602 x 1019 C, V = potential dierence produced ending up in any given place. It is far more likely that a

between anode and cathode at a given frequency of radia- photon from a torch I am carrying will end up hitting the

tion. This means that, given this potential dierence, we ground in front of me than it is that the same photon will

can calculate the energy released, and hence the energy hit me on the back of the head. But both are possible.

of the quanta which caused this energy to be released.

Light can go round corners; just very rarely!

Q = It

y-axis) gives us an approximate straight line, with a gradient of 6.626 x 1034 . This number is known as Plancks 7.2.2 Calculating Probabilities

constant, is measured in Js, and is usually denoted h.

The probability of a photon ending up at any given point

Therefore:

in space relative to another point in space can be calE = hf

culated by considering a selection of the paths the phoIn other words, the energy carried by each quantum is ton takes to each point. The more paths considered, the

proportional to the frequency of the quantum. The con- greater the accuracy of the calculation. Use the following

stant of proportionality is Plancks constant.

steps when doing this:

1. Dene the light source.

7.1.3

Questions

1. How much energy does a photon with a frequency of 3. Dene any objects which the light cannot pass through.

50kHz carry?

4. Dene the rst point you wish to consider.

2. A photon carries 1030 J of energy. What is its fre- 5. Dene a set of paths from the source to the point being

quency?

considered, the more, the better.

3. How many photons of frequency 545 THz does a 20W 6. Work out the time taken to traverse one of the paths.

33

7. Work out how many phasor rotations this corresponds resultant phasor arrow which gives us some amplitude at

to.

point B. Since there are no obstructions, at any point this

far away from the source, we will get the same resultant

8. Draw an arrow representing the nal phasor arrow.

amplitude.

9. Repeat steps 6-8 for each of the paths.

It is important to note that dierent paths contribute to

10. Add all the phasor arrows together, tip-to-tail.

the resultant amplitude by dierent amounts. The paths

11. Square the amplitude of this resultant phasor arrow closer to the straight line between the two points are more

to gain the intensity of the light at this point. It may help parallel to the resultant angle, whereas the paths further

to imagine a square rotating around, instead of an arrow. away vary in direction more, and so tend to cancel each

other out. The conclusion: light travelling in straight lines

12. Repeat steps 4-11 for every point you wish to con- contributes most to the resultant amplitude.

sider. The more points you consider, the more accurate

your probability distribution will be.

13. Compare all the resultant intensities to gain a

probability distribution which describes the probabilities

of a photon arriving at one point to another. For example, if the intensity of light at one point is two times the

intensity of light at another, then it is twice as likely that

a photon will arrive at the rst point than the second.

Youngs Slits

each slit. We can then calculate two phasor arrows, add

them together to gain a resultant phasor arrow, and square

14. If all the points being considered were on a screen, its amplitude to gain the intensity of the light at the point

the intensities show you the relative brightnesses of light the two paths went to. When calculated, these intensities

give a pattern of light and dark fringes, just as predicted

at each of the points.

by the wave theory.

7.2.3

Examples

If we now take this method and apply it to several situations, we nd that, in many cases, the results are similar

to those obtained when treating light as a wave, with the

exception that we can now reconcile this idea with the

observable 'lumpiness of light, and can acknowledge the

fact that there is a certain probability that some light will

not behave according to some wave laws.

Travelling from A to B

mirror.

Reection

This situation is very to similar to what happens when

light travels in a 'straight line'. The only dierence is that

we consider the paths which involve rebounding o an

obstacle. The results are more or less the same, but the

Adding phasor arrows to gain resultant amplitude by considering paths from which they were obtained are dierent. This

multiple paths, showing variation in paths contribution to resul- means that we can assume the same conclusions about

these dierent paths: that most of the resultant amplitude

tant amplitude.

comes from the part of the mirror where the angle of inThis is the simplest example to consider. If we consider a cidence equals the angle of reection. In other words, the

range of paths going from point A to point B, and calcu- likelihood is that a photon will behave as if mirrors work

late the phasor directions at the end of the paths, we get a according to wave theory.

34

is caused by the paths with the shortest trip time.

Refraction

Dierent paths have dierent lengths, and so photons

take dierent amounts of time to traverse them (these are

known as trip times). In the diagram on the right, the photons again traverse all possible paths. However, the paths

with the smallest dierence between trip times have phasor arrows with the smallest dierence in direction, so the

paths with the smallest trip times contribute most to the

resultant amplitude. This shortest path is given by Snells

law. Yet again, quantum physics provides a more accurate

picture of something which has already been explained to

some degree.

Diraction

Diraction occurs when the photons are blocked from

taking every other path. This occurs when light passes

through a gap less than 1 wavelength wide. The result is

that, where the amplitudes would have roughly cancelled

each other out, they do not, and so light spreads out in

directions it would not normally spread out in. This explains diraction, instead of just being able to observe

and calculate what happens.

Physics)/Electron Behaviour as

a Quantum Phenomenon

So far, we have considered how quantum physics applies

to photons, the quanta of light. In reality, every other

particle is also a quantum, but you only need to know Youngs slits, using electrons.

about photons and electrons.

The image on the right shows what happens when you re

electrons through a pair of slits: it arrives in lumps, but are behaving as quanta. The equations describing quanyou get fringes due to superposition as well. The electrons tum behaviour in electrons are similar to those describing

are behaving as both waves and particles. Actually, they it in photons.

7.3.1

f=

E

h

they must have a frequency at which the phasors representing them rotate. We also know that h is a constant;

it does not change. So, when adapting the above equation to apply to electrons, all we need to adapt is E. In

electrons, this energy is their kinetic energy. If the electron has some form of potential energy, this must rst be

subtracted from the kinetic energy, as this portion of the

energy does not aect frequency. So:

f=

Ekinetic Epotential

h

7.3.2

De Broglie Wavelength

also have a 'wavelength', known as the de Broglie wavelength, after its discoverer. This is necessary in order to

work out a probability distribution for the position of an

electron, as this is the distance the electron travels for

each phasor arrow rotation. The de Broglie wavelength

is given by the equation:

=

h

p

h

mv

atom. Brightness corresponds to the probability density function

for the position of the electron.

4. Given that it is travelling out of an electron gun, what

was the potential dierence between the anode and the

cathode?

where h = Plancks constant, p = momentum, m = mass

150V. What is its frequency?

of electron = 9.1 x 1031 kg and v = velocity of electron.

Worked Solutions

7.3.3

already know how power is related to charge, voltage and

time:

P =

QV

t

W = QV

We know that the charge on an electron equals 1.6 x

1019 , and that work done is energy, so:

Ekinetic = 1.6 1019 V

Energy, in the SI system of units, is measured in Joules,

but, sometimes it is measured in electronvolts, or eV. 1

eV is the kinetic energy of 1 electron accelerated by 1V

of potential dierence. So, 1 eV = 1.6 x 1019 J.

7.3.4

Questions

Broglie wavelength?

2. What is its frequency?

Chapter 8

Mechanics

8.1 A-level Physics

Physics)/Vectors

8.1.1

(Advancing

What is a vector?

Scalar quantities are simple: they are things like speed,

distance, or time. They have a magnitude, but no direction. A vector quantity consists of two parts: both a scalar

and a direction. For example, the velocity of an object is

made up of both the speed of an object and the direction

in which it is moving. Speed is a scalar; add a direction

and it becomes velocity, a vector. Similarly, take a dis- Calculating the components of a vector.

tance and give it a direction and it becomes a displacement, such as '2 miles south-east'. Distance is a scalar,

whereas displacement is a vector.

is a very simple example.

Vectors and scalars are both useful. For example, if I run Consider the diagram on the right. The vector a consists

around the room several times and end up back where I of a vertical component j and a horizontal component i.

started, I may have covered a distance of 50m. My dis- a has a modulus |a|. |i| and |j| can be calculated using |a|,

placement is 0 - the null vector. The null vector is the the angle between i and a and some basic trigonometry.

only vector which has no direction. If I want to calculate We know that:

how much work I have done, I should use the distance. If

|i|

|j|

I want to know where I am, I should use the displacement. cos = |a| and sin = |a|

As we shall see, the directional component of a vector can Hence:

be expressed in several dierent ways. '2 miles south-east' |i| = |a| cos and |j| = |a| sin .

is the same as saying '2 miles on a bearing of 135', or '1.4

This will be given to you in the formula booklet in the

miles east, 1.4 miles north'. The scalar component of a

exam.

vector is known as the modulus of a vector.

8.1.2

Vector Notation

representations of vectors:

8.1.3

Vector Components

other vectors. These two vectors are usually pointing up

and right, and work similarly to the Cartesian co-ordinate

system. So, for example, 'an acceleration of 3.4 ms2

west' becomes 'a vertical acceleration of 0 ms2 and an

horizontal acceleration of 3.4 ms2 east. However, this Adding vectors tip-to-tail.

36

37

enables us to answer questions such as, If I travel 5 miles

north-west and then 6 miles east, where am I?", or If I

accelerate at 3 ms2 in a northerly direction, and accelerate south-east at 1 ms2 , what is my total acceleration?".

Vectors can be added 'tip-to-tail'; that is to say, the resultant vector is equal to 'travelling' the rst vector, and then

travelling the second vector.

This is shown in the diagram on the left. When vectors

a and b are added together, the resultant vector a + b is

produced, joining the tail of the rst vector to the tip of

the last, with the vectors joined together. In practise, the

easiest way to add two vectors together is to calculate (if

you do not already know this) the vertical and horizontal

components, and add them all together to get two total

vertical and horizontal components. You can then use

Pythagoras theorem to calculate the modulus of the resultant vector, and some more basic trigonometry to calculate its direction.

graphically, taking into account the vectors of its starting velocity,

and the change in velocity due to gravity.

displacement of the ball, i.e.

v =

In algebra:

|a|n =

( |i|n )2 + ( |j|n )2 and

n

arctan |j|

|i|n ,

... i are their horizontal components, j1 ... j are their

vertical components, and is the angle between the =0

line and the resultant vector a , as shown in the diagram

on the right.

8.1.5

Predicting Parabolas

lengths of the arrows proportional to the modulus of the

vectors they represent, and the directions equal), you can

predict graphically the trajectory an object (such as a ball)

will take. Use the following steps:

s

t

s

1

= s

Copy this vector, and connect its tail to the tip of the

rst vector. This new vector represents the velocity

and displacement that the ball would have had over

the next second, if gravity did not exist.

Draw another vector to represent the change in velocity due to gravity (9.81 ms2 ) on Earth. This

should be pointing downwards, and be to the same

scale as the other vectors. This represents the fact

that the velocity of the ball changes due to gravity

(velocity is a vector, so both the speed and angle of

the balls travel change).

Add these vectors together, as shown above, to give a

new vector. This new vector represents the velocity

and displacement of the ball over the second second.

Repeat this process until the ball hits something

(draw the ground, if in doubt).

Draw a vector to represent the velocity of the ball (in 8.1.6 Questions

ms1 ). Since this is the number of metres travelled

in 1 second, and each step of the process is 1 second 1. Which of the following are vectors?

38

CHAPTER 8. MECHANICS

20 cm

9.81 ms2 towards the centre of the earth

5 km south-east

graphs, position-time graphs, and velocity-time graphs.

2. A displacement vector a is the resultant vector of two Distance-Time Graphs give you speed, but speed is never

other vectors, 5 m north and 10 m south-east. What does negative so you can only have a positive slope in a

distance-time graph. Position-Time graphs show disa equal, as a displacement and a bearing?

placement, have direction, and from which you can cal3. If I travel at a velocity of 10 ms1 on a bearing of culate velocity. If we were to imagine the line on the

030, at what velocity am I travelling north and east?

position-time graph to the right as a function f(t), giving

4. An alternative method of writing vectors is in a col- an equation for s = f(t), we could dierentiate this to gain:

ds

umn, as follows:

dt = f (t) ,

( x)

a= y ,

where s is displacement, and t is time. By nding f'(t) at

where x and y are the vertical and horizontal components any given time t, we can nd the rate at which distance

of the vector(respectively.

Express |a| and the angle be- is increasing (or decreasing) with respect to t. This is the

)

gradient of the line. A positive gradient means that distween a and 10 in terms of x and y.

tance is increasing, and a negative gradient means that

5. A more accurate method of modelling the trajectory

distance is decreasing. A gradient of 0 means that the

of a ball is to include air resistance as a constant force F.

object is stationary. The velocity of the object is the rate

How would this be achieved?

of change of its displacement, which is the same as the

Worked Solutions

gradient of the line on a distance-time graph. This is not

necessarily the same as the average velocity of the object

v:

Physics)/Graphs

(Advancing

v=

s

t

time over a certain period - they do not tell you exactly

There are two types of graphs of motion you need to what was happening at any given point in time.

be able to use and understand: distance-time graphs and

velocity-time graphs.

8.2.1

Distance-time Graphs

An object travels at a constant rate for 6 seconds, stops for 5 seconds, returns to its original position in the next 7 seconds, travelling more slowly in the middle section of its return journey.

for 5 seconds and then decelerates to a stop in the remaining 6.5

seconds of its journey.

A velocity-time graph plots the velocity of an object, relative to a certain point, with time on the x-axis and veA distance-time graph plots the distance of an object away locity on the y-axis. We already know that velocity is the

from a certain point, with time on the x-axis and distance gradient (derivative) of the distance function. Since inon the y-axis.There are several types of graphs of motion tegration is the inverse process to dierentiation, if we

39

travelled between two points in time, we can nd the area

under the graph between those two points in time. In general:

If v = f (t)

t

s = t12 f (t) dt

where v is velocity (in ms1 ), t is time (in s), and s is the

distance travelled (in m) between two points in time t1

and t2 .

Also, by dierentiation, we know that the gradient (or

derivative of v = f(t)) is equal to the acceleration of the

object at any given point in time (in ms2 ) since:

a=

dv

dt

8.2.4

Questions

1. In the following distance-time graph, what is the veloc- 4. What is the objects acceleration at 8 seconds?

ity 4 seconds after the beginning of the objects journey? 5. A car travels at 10ms1 for 5 minutes in a straight

line, and then returns to its original location over the

next 4 minutes, travelling at a constant velocity. Draw

a distance-time graph showing the distance the car has

travelled from its original location.

6. Draw the velocity-time graph for the above situation.

The following question is more dicult than anything you

will be given, but have a go anyway:

7. The velocity of a ball is related to the time since it was

thrown by the equation v = 30 9.8t . How far has the

ball travelled after 2 seconds?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Kinematics

Kinematics is the study of how objects move. One needs

to understand a situation in which an object changes

speed, accelerating or decelerating, and travelling a certain distance. There are four equations you need to be

able to use which relate these quantities.

8.3.1 Variables

3. In the following velocity-time graph, how far Before we can understand the kinematic equations, we

does the object travel between 7 and 9 seconds? need to understand the variables involved. They are as

40

CHAPTER 8. MECHANICS

8.3.4 Questions

follows:

t is the length of the interval of time being consid- 1. 1

ms in 25 seconds. How far has he travelled in this time?

ered, in seconds.

2. A car accelerates at a rate of 18 kmh2 to a speed of

v is the speed of the object at the end of the time 60 kmh1 , travelling 1 km in the process. How fast was

interval, in ms1 .

the car travelling before it travelled this distance?

u is the speed of the object at the beginning of the 3. A goose in ight is travelling at 4 ms1 . It accelerates

at a rate of 1.5 ms2 for 7 seconds. What is its new speed?

time interval, in ms1 .

4. How far does an aeroplane travel if it accelerates from

a is the acceleration of the object during the time

400 kmh1 at a rate of 40 kmh2 for 1 hour?

2

interval, in ms . Has to be a constant.

Worked Solutions

s is the displacement (distance traveled) of the object

during the time interval, in meters.

8.3.2

Physics)/Forces and Power

Equations

8.4.1 Forces

1. v = u + at

2. s =

forces, it is best to think of them as lots of people pulling

ropes attached to an object. The forces are all pulling in

dierent directions, with dierent magnitudes, but the

eect is in only one direction, with only one magnitude.

So, you have to add the forces up as vectors.

u+v

2 t

3. s = ut +

at2

2

4. v 2 = u2 + 2as

8.3.3

Derivations

accelerate in the same direction as the force. In other

It is also useful to know where the above equations come words, forces cause objects to move in a direction closer

from. We know that acceleration is equal to change in to the direction they are pulling in. If the object is already

speed per. unit time, so:

moving, then they will not cause it to move in the direction

vu

of the force, as forces do not create velocities: they create

a = t (*)

accelerations.

at = v u

If a force is acting on an object, it seems logical that the

v = u + at (1)

object will not accelerate as much as a result of the force

We also know that the average speed over the time inter- if it has a lower mass. This gives rise to the equation:

val is equal to displacement per. unit time, so:

F = ma ,

u+v

2

s=

s

t

u+v

2 t

mass (in kg) and a = acceleration (in ms2 ). If we rearrange the equation, it makes more sense:

(2)

tion 2, we get:

F

m

the result of a force is equal to the force applied per. unit

If we take the equation for acceleration (*), we can rear- mass in that direction.

range it to get:

s=

u+(u+at)

t

2

2u+at

2 t

= t(u +

at

2 )

at = v u

t=

= ut +

at2

2

(3)

vu

a

If we substitute this equation for t into equation 2, we You should already know how to calculate some types of

energy, for example:

obtain:

s=

(v+u)(vu)

u+v vu

2

a =

2a

2

2

2as = v u

2

v = u + 2as (4)

v 2 u2

2a

Kinetic Energy =

mv 2

2

The amount of energy converted by a force is equal to the

work done, which is equal (as you already know) to the Worked Solutions

force multiplied by the distance the object it is acting on

moves:

Work Done = E = F s

When answering questions about work done, you may be

given a force acting in a direction other than that of the

displacement. In this case, you will have to nd the displacement in the direction of the force, as shown in the

section on Vectors.

8.4.3

Power

energy converted per. unit time, and is measured in Js1 :

P =

E

t

= work done, power is the rate at which work is done.

Since:

E = F s

E

t

= F s

t

P = Fv ,

where P = power (in Watts, denoted W), F = force and v

= velocity.

8.4.4

Gravity

due to gravity is denoted g, and is equal to 9.81359ms2 .

It is uniform over small distances from the Earth. The

force due to gravity is equal to mg, since F = ma. Therefore:

a=

F

m

mg

m

=g

same acceleration, regardless of mass. Also, the acceleration due to gravity (in ms2 ) is equal to the gravitational

eld strength (in Nkg1 ).

8.4.5

Questions

with a force of 20N. If friction opposes me with a force of

14.2N, what is the resultant acceleration of the ball away

from the cue?

2. A 10g ball rolls down a 1.2m high slope, and leaves

it with a velocity of 4ms1 . How much work is done by

friction?

3. An electric train is powered on a 30kV power supply,

where the current is 100A. The train is travelling at 90

kmh1 . What is the net force exerted on it in a forwards

direction?

41

Chapter 9

A2

42

Chapter 10

Decay

10.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Exponential

Relationships

When b is positive, an exponential function increases

rapidly. This represents the growth of certain variables

very well. When b is negative, an exponential function

decreases, attening out as it approaches the t axis. This

represents the decay of certain variables.

Real World

Graph of x = aebt , where b is positive.

change of a variable depends on the value of the variable itself. You should memorise this denition, as well

as understand it. Let us consider some examples:

The exponential relationships which we shall be dealing Population Growth

with are of the following form:

Consider a Petri dish full of agar jelly (food for bactex = aebt ,

ria) with a few bacteria on it. These bacteria will reprowhere t is time, x is a variable, and a and b are constants. duce, and so, as time goes by, the number of bacteria

e is just a number, albeit a very special number. It is an ir- on the jelly will increase. However, each bacterium does

rational constant, like . e is 2.71828182845904523536 not care about whether there are other bacteria around

to 20 decimal places. However, it is far easier just to nd or not. It will continue making more bacteria at the same

the e (or exp) button on your calculator.

rate. Therefore, as the total number of bacteria increases,

The inverse function of et is the natural logarithm, de- their rate of reproduction increases. This is an exponennoted ln t:

tial relationship with a positive value of b.

ln t = loge t

44

the value of the variable itself. If we translate this into

algebra, we get the following:

dx

dt

= ax , where a is a constant.

dx = axdt

1

x dx = adt

1

x dx =

adt

x = eat+c = eat ec

A petri dish with bacteria growing on it.

x = beat

teria will eventually have eaten all the agar jelly, and so

the relationship will stop being exponential.

10.1.4 Questions

I place a warm object in a large tank of water which is on

If you ll a large tank with water, and make a hole in the the point of freezing. Measure temperature in C.

bottom, at rst, the water will ow out very fast. How- 2. What will the temperature of an object at 40 C be

ever, as the tank empties, the pressure of the water will after 30 seconds? (Take r=103 s1 .)

decrease, and so the rate of ow will decrease. The rate

3. A body is found in a library (as per Agatha Christie) at

of change of the amount of water in the tank depends on

8am. The temperature of the library is kept at a constant

the amount of water in the tank. This is an exponential retemperature of 20 C for 10 minutes. During these 10

lationship with a negative value of b - it is an exponential

minutes, the body cools from 25 C to 24 C. The body

decay.

temperature of a healthy human being is 36.8 C. At what

time was the person murdered?

Emptying Tank

Cooling

A hot object cools down faster than a warm object. So,

as an object cools, the rate at which temperature 'ows

out of it into its surroundings will decrease. Newton

expressed this as an exponential relationship (known as

Newtons Law of Cooling):

Wikibooks p can be modelled as an exponential relationship. Let the number of pages required on average to attract an editor be a, and the average number of new pages

created by an editor each year be z. Derive an equation

expressing p in terms of the time in years since Wikibooks was created t.

should there have been 6 years later? (Take a = 20, z =

where T is the temperature at a time t, T0 is the temper- 10 yr1 .)

ature at t = 0, T is the temperature of the environment

around the cooling object, and r is a positive constant. 6. The actual number of pages in Wikibooks in mid-2009

Note that a here is equal to (T0 - T ) - but a is still a was 35,148. What are the problems with this model?

constant since T0 and T are both constants. The '-' sign What problems may develop, say, by 2103?

in front of the r shows us that this is an exponential decay - Worked Solutions

the temperature of the object is tending towards the temperature of the environment. The reason we add T is

merely a result of the fact that we do not want the temperature to decay to 0 (in whatever unit of temperature we 10.2 A-level Physics (Advancing

happen to be using). Instead, we want it to decay towards

Physics)/Capacitors

the temperature of the environment.

If you place two conducting plates near each other, with

an insulator (known as a dielectric) in between, and you

10.1.3 Mathematical Derivation

charge one plate positively and the other negatively, there

We have already said that an exponential relationship oc- will be a uniform electric eld between them. Since:

curs when the rate of change of a variable depends on E = Vd ,

45

capacitor does not become 0 instantly. Instead, we can

use the charge to power a component, such as a camera

ash.

Current is the rate of ow of charge. However, current is

given by the formula:

I=

V

R

charge left in the capacitor, and so the current is a function

of the charge left on the capacitor. The rate of change of

charge depends on the value of the charge itself. And so,

we should expect to nd an exponential relationship:

Q = Q0 e RC ,

t

capacitor, Q is the charge on the capacitor at a time t and

Q0 was the charge on the capacitor at t = 0. Since Q =

It:

A 10 F capacitor

It = I0 te RC

t

I = I0 e RC ,

t

as the distance between the two plates decreases, the en- where I is the current owing at a time t and I0 was the

ergy stored increases. This system is known as a capacitor initial current owing at t = 0. Since V = IR:

- it has a capacitance for storing charge. The capacitance

t

V = V0 e RC

C of a capacitor is:

The power being dissipated across the resitors in the cirC = VQ ,

cuit is IV, so:

where Q is the charge stored by the capacitor, and V is

t

t

2t

RC

e RC = P0 e RC

the potential dierence between the plates. C is therefore P = I0 V0 e

the amount of charge stored on the capacitor per unit potential dierence. Capacitance is measured in farads (F).

Just as 1 coulomb is a massive amount of charge, a 1F 10.2.2 Energy

capacitor stores a lot of charge per. volt.

The energy stored by a capacitor E is dened as:

Any capacitor, unless it is physically altered, has a conV

stant capacitance. If it is left uncharged, Q = 0, and so the E = 0 Q dV

potential dierence across it is 0. If a DC power source is In other words, it is the area under a graph of charge

connected to the capacitor, we create a voltage across the against potential dierence. Charge is proportional to pocapacitor, causing electrons to move around the circuit. tential dierence (Q = CV), so the area under the graph

This creates a charge on the capacitor equal to CV. If is that of a triangle with base V and height Q. You can

we then disconnect the power source, the charge remains show this mathematically:

there since it has nowhere to go. The potential dierence

[ ]V

= 12 CV 2

2

0

0

the dielectric, creating a spark. However, until the voltage

between the plates reaches a certain level (the breakdown Since Q = CV:

voltage of the capacitor), it cannot do this. So, the charge E = 1 QV

2

is stored.

If charge is stored, it can also be released by reconnecting

the circuit. If we were to connect a wire of negligible

resistance to both ends of the capacitor, all the charge

would ow back to where it came from, and so the charge

on the capacitor would again, almost instantaneously, be

0. If, however, we put a resistor (or another component

with a resistance) in series with the capacitor, the ow

10.2.3 Circuits

The circuit symbol for a capacitor is

. A simple circuit

with a capacitor in series with a resistor, an ideal ammeter (no resistance), and in parallel with an ideal voltmeter

(innite resistance) looks like the following:

46

Worked Solutions

In the position shown, the capacitor is charging. If the

Physics)/Radioactive Decay

switch were put in the other position, the capacitor would

be discharging exponentially through the resistor. In this

circuit, the capacitor charges instantly since there is no 10.3.1 Decay Constant

resistance to slow it down. In reality there will be internal resistance in the battery, meaning that the capacitor We can model radioactive decay by assuming that the

probability that any one nucleus out of N nuclei decays

charges exponentially.

in any one second is a constant . is known as the decay

If capacitors are placed in parallel, they act as one caconstant, and is measured in s1 (technically the same as

pacitor with a capacitance equal to the total of all the caHz, but it is a probability, not a frequency, so we use s1 ).

pacitances of all the individual capacitors. If capacitors

are placed in series, the distances between the plates in

each of them result in the capacitance of the imaginary

10.3.2 Activity

resultant capacitor C being given by:

1

C

1

C1

1

C2

+ ... +

1

Cn

The activity of the N nuclei we have left is, on average,

the probability that any one nucleus will decay per. unit

time multiplied by the number of nuclei. If we have 200

nuclei, and the decay constant is 0.5, we would expect,

on average, 100 nuclei to decay in one second. This rate

would decreases as time goes by. This gives us the following formula for the activity A of a radioactive sample:

A = dN

dt = N

10.2.4

Questions

(Bq). It is easy to see that the rate of change of the number of nuclei is -A = -N.

supply. How much charge can be stored by the capacitor? 10.3.3 Decay

2. What is the highest possible energy stored by this caThe solution of the dierential equation for activity given

pacitor?

above is an exponential relationship:

3. The capacitor is placed in series with a 5 resistor

and charged to capacity. How long would it take for the N = N0 et ,

charge in the capacitor to be reduced to 1 mC?

where N is the number of nuclei present at a time t, and

4. After this time has elapsed, how much energy is stored N0 is the number of nuclei present at time t=0. You can

in the capacitor?

dene t=0 to be any point in time you like, provided you

5. What is the capacitance of the equivalent capacitor to are consistent. Since A = N and therefore A0 = N0 :

the following network of capacitors?

A = A0 et ,

where A is the activity of the sample at a time t, and A0

is the activity at time t=0.

10.3.4

Questions

47

means that you can start at any point in the decay, with

any value of any decaying variable, and the time taken for

the value of that variable to halve from that time will be

the half-life.

1u = 1.66 x 1027 kg

You can also use this formula for other forms of decay

1. Americium-241 has a decay constant of 5.07 x simply by replacing the decay constant with the constant

1011 s1 . What is the activity of 1 mole of americium- that was in front of the t in the exponential relationship.

241?

So, for the charge on a capacitor, given by the relation1

2. How many g of lead-212 ( = 18.2s ) are required ship:

t

to create an activity of 0.8 x 1018 Bq?

Qt = Q0 e RC

3. How long does it take for 2kg of lead-212 to decay to So, substitute:

1.5kg of lead-212?

1

= RC

4. Where does the missing 0.5kg go?

Therefore, the half-life of a capacitor is given by:

5. Some americium-241 has an activity of 3kBq. What

t 12 = RC ln 2

is its activity after 10 years?

6. This model of radioactive decay is similar to taking

some dice, rolling them once per. second, and removing 10.4.3 Time Constant of a Capacitor

the dice which roll a one or a two. What is the decay

constant of the dice?

However, when dealing with capacitors, it is more com7. If you started out with 10 dice, how many dice would mon to use the time constant, commonly denoted ,

you have left after 10s? What is the problem with this where:

model of radioactive decay?

= RC =

Worked Solutions

At t = :

Qt = Q0 e

Physics)/Half-lives

RC

RC

Q0

e

the time taken for the charge, current or voltage from the

capacitor to decay to the reciprocal of e (36.8%) of the

original charge, current or voltage.

is the time taken for the value of a decaying variable to

10.4.4

halve.

10.4.1

t1

ln 2

Questions

its half-life?

The most common use of half-lives is in radioactive delong will it take for a 5 gram sample of U-238 to decay

cay. The activity is given by the equation:

to contain 1.25 grams of U-238?

At = A0 et

3. How long will it be until it contains 0.5 grams of UAt t=t, A = A0 , so:

238?

A0

2

t 1

= A0 e

2=e

=

e

t 1

2

ln 2 = t 12

Therefore:

t 12 =

ln 2

A0

t 1

2

Helium-3. After 1 year, 94.5% is left. What is the halflife of tritium (H-3)?

5. A large capacitor has capacitance 0.5F. It is placed in

series with a 5 resistor and contains 5C of charge. What

is its time constant?

5

It is important to note that the half-life is completely unre- reach 0.677C? ( 0.677 = e2 )

lated to the variable which is decaying. At the end of the Worked Solutions

half-life, all decaying variables will have halved. This also

Chapter 11

Gravity

11.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Gravitational Forces

Gravity is a force. Any object with mass exerts a gravitational force on any other object with mass. The attractive

force of one object on another is proportional to the product of their masses. However, this force is also inversely

proportional to the distance between the objects squared.

This means that, if two objects are twice as far away, the

forces they exert on each other are four times smaller.

Thus gravitational force exerted by a sphere of mass M

on another sphere of mass m is given by the following

formula:

Fgrav =

GM m

r2

Gravitational constant. Experiments have shown that G =

6.67 x 1011 Nm2 kg2 .

11.1.1

A lift acting under gravity in a lift shaft going through the centre

of the Earth.

can be proved geometrically that the eects of the gravitational force resulting from all the mass outside a radius

at which an object is located can be ignored, since it all

cancels itself out. So, the only mass we need to consider

is the mass inside the radius at which the object is located.

The density of an object is given by the following equation:

=

M

V

M = V

If we substitute the volume of a sphere for V:

M = 43 r3

And if we substitute this mass into the formula for grav- an object from the centre of the sphere. Incidentally, this

itational force given above:

results in a simple harmonic oscillator such as the one on

the right. This means that a graph of gravitational force

Gm 43 r 3

= 43 Gmr

Fgrav =

r2

against distance from the centre of a sphere with uniform

In other words, inside a sphere of uniform mass, the grav- density looks like this:

48

49

consider a planet, Body A, the gravitational eld strength

experienced by another object, Body B, is given by:

g=

GM m

r2

GM

r2

mass of Body B. Inside the planet, force is proportional

to the distance from the centre, so the eld is also proportional to distance.

11.2.1 Acceleration

Force is given by:

F = ma

This means that:

g=

11.1.2

Questions

ma

m

=a

acceleration due to gravity on any object. This acceleration is the same for any object, regardless of mass. When

considering small heights above the Earths surface, such

as those in our day-to-day experiences, g remains roughly

constant.

1011 m. The mass of Jupiter is 1.9 x 1027 kg, and the mass

of the Sun is 2.0 x 1030 kg. What is the gravitational force 11.2.2

acting on Jupiter? What is the gravitational force acting

on the Sun?

Field Lines

distance is 106 N. The object travels half the distance to

the Sun. What is the force exerted by the Sun on the

object now?

3. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force that

two 1kg weights exert on each other when they are 5cm

apart?

4. The radius of the Earth is 6360km, and its mass is

5.97 x 1024 kg. What is the dierence between the gravitational force on 1kg at the top of your body, and on 1kg

at your head, and 1kg at your feet? (Assume that you are

2m tall.)

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Gravitational Fields

The gravitational eld, or gravitational eld strength is the The gravitational eld can be represented using eld lines.

force exerted by gravity on an object per. unit mass of the These run in the direction that a mass would be accelerated in initially. The object will not necessarily fall along

object:

the eld lines, but the acceleration will always be in the

Fgrav

g= m

direction of the eld lines. The closer the eld lines are

As gravitational eld strength is a measure of the force together, the denser the gravitational eld.

50

11.2.3

Questions

Egrav =

GM mr

r2

GM m

r

1. A 15kg object has a weight of 8000N. What is the over large distances, use this formula. If you're dealgravitational eld strength at this point?

ing with gravitational potential energy over short dis2. Draw a graph of gravitational eld strength against dis- tances, such as with ramps on the Earths surface, where

g=9.81ms2 , use E = mgh.

tance.

3. What is the gravitational eld strength of the Sun (mass

2 x 1030 kg) on the Earth (mass 6 x 1024 kg, mean orbital 11.3.1

radius 15 x 1010 m)?

Graphs

over a vertical distance d?

5. How far would one have to travel upwards from the

Earths surface to notice a 1Nkg1 dierence in gravitational eld? (The Earth has a radius of 6400 km.)

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Gravitational Potential Energy

If you throw a ball into the air, you give it kinetic energy. The ball then slows down because of the eect of

the Earths gravitational eld on it. However, we know

that energy cannot be created or destroyed. The kinetic

energy you gave the ball is transformed into gravitational

potential energy. The further away from the Earth you

manage to throw the ball, the greater the potential there

is for kinetic energy to be created on the way back down.

However, for kinetic energy to be created, there must be

an acceleration. If there is an acceleration, there must be

a force.

the gravitational potential energy.

work done to move something a distance x:

Egrav = F x

Work done is given by the force applied multiplied by the

distance moved in the direction of the force. To move

an object against gravity, the force applied upwards must

equal the downwards force gravity exerts on the object,

mg. So, if I move an object against gravity a distance x,

the work done is given by:

distance is the magnitude of the force.

didn't notice. Lets see what happens when we integrate

the gravitational force F with respect to r between r and

:

Egrav = mgx

[

]

GM m

GM m

m

dr = GMr m r = GM

It is usual to call this x the height, so you will often see r

r2

r

E =mgh. The deltas are important. They mean that it Since dividing anything by innity gets you practically 0:

doesn't matter which distance x I move the object across

GM m

- I can decide the point at which gravitational potential r F dr = r = Egrav

And therefore:

energy is 0 in a way which makes the maths easy.

dE

grav

=F

The diculty with this simple formula is that g does not

dr

remain the same over large distances:

So, if you have a graph of gravitational potential energy

against radius, the gradient of the graph is the gravitag = GM

2

r

tional force. If you have a graph of gravitational force

against radius, the area under the graph between any point

and the F-axis is the gravitational potential energy at this

point. The area under the graph between any two points

is the dierence in gravitational potential energy between

them.

51

You should now know (if you did the gravity section in the

right order) about four attributes of gravitational elds:

force, eld strength, potential energy and potential. These

can be summarised by the following table:

11.4.3 Questions

11.3.2

Questions

2

1. A ball rolls down a 3m-high smooth ramp. What speed g = 9.81 ms

does it have at the bottom?

1. What is the gravitational potential at the Earths sur24

2. In an otherwise empty universe, two planets of mass face? (mass of Earth = 5.97 x 10 kg,radius of Earth =

1025 kg are 1012 m apart. What are their speeds when 6371 km)

they collide?

gravitational

potential 2m above the ground?

3. What is the least work a 2000kg car must do to drive

up a 100m hill?

3. A 0.2kg rework reaches a gravitational potential rel1

4. How does the speed of a planet in an elliptical orbit ative to the ground of 500Jkg . If the rework is 30%

ecient, how much energy was expended to get there?

change as it nears its star?

4. Express gravitational potential in terms of gravitational

force.

Worked Solutions

Earth.

Physics)/Gravitational Potential

Gravitational potential is the gravitational potential energy given to objects per unit mass:

Vgrav =

Egrav

m

m

GM

r

m

GM

r

potential energy is given by:

Egrav mgh ,

where

g=

GM

r2

is equal to gh. Gravitational potential is measured in

Jkg1 .

11.4.1

Equipotentials

On a eld diagram, lines can be drawn which, like contours on a map, show all the points which have the same

gravitational potential. These lines are known as equipotentials. Equipotentials are always perpendicular to eld

lines, and get closer together as the eld strength increases, and the density of eld lines increases. Over

short distances, equipotentials are evenly spaced.

Worked Solutions

Chapter 12

Mechanics

12.1 A-level Physics (Advancing 12.1.1 Angular Velocity

Physics)/Simple

Harmonic

Motion

Simple harmonic motion occurs when the force on an object is proportional and in the opposite direction to the

displacement of the object. Examples include masses on

springs and pendula, which 'bounce' back and forth repeatedly. Mathematically, this can be written:

of angle. It is measured in radians per. second. Since

2 radians is equivalent to one complete rotation in time

period T:

F = kx ,

x = A cos 2f t

The reason the equation includes angular velocity is that

simple harmonic motion is very similar to circular motion. If you look at an object going round in a circle

side-on, it looks exactly like simple harmonic motion. We

have already noted that a mass on a spring undergoes simple harmonic motion. The following diagram shows the

similarity between circular motion and simple harmonic

motion:

A

t

constant. This is exactly the same as Hookes Law, which

states that the force F on an object at the end of a spring

equals -kx, where k is the spring constant. Since F = ma,

and acceleration is the second derivative of displacement

with respect to time t:

2

m ddt2x = kx

=

= 2f

simple harmonic motion:

x(t)

d2 x

dt2

2

T

kx

m

x = A cos t ,

where A is the maximum displacement, and is the 'angular velocity' of the object. The derivation is given here,

since it will seem very scary to those who haven't met

complex numbers before. It should be noted that this solution, if given dierent starting conditions, becomes:

x = A sin t ,

52

12.1.2

53

Time Period

The time period of an oscillation is the time taken to repeat the pattern of motion once. In general:

T =

of changes. For a mass on a spring:

k

= m

For a pendulum:

= gl ,

where g is the gravitational eld strength, and l is the

length of the string. By substitution, we may gain the

following table:

12.1.3

6. A pendulum can only be modelled as a simple harmonic oscillator if the angle over which it oscillates is

small. Why is this?

x = A cos t

Worked Solutions

v=

dx

dt

= A sin t

a=

dv

dt

d2 x

dt2

= A 2 cost = 2 x

Physics)/Energy in Simple

Harmonic Motion

A mass oscillating on a spring in a gravity-free vacuum

has two sorts of energy: kinetic energy and elastic (potential) energy. Kinetic energy is given by:

Ek = 12 mv 2

12.1.4

Questions

Ee = 21 kx2

1. A 10N weight extends a spring by 5cm. Another So, the total energy stored by the oscillator is:

10N weight is added, and the spring extends another 5cm. E = 1 (mv 2 + kx2 )

2

What is the spring constant of the spring?

This total energy is constant. However, the proportions of

2. The spring is taken into outer space, and is stretched this energy which are kinetic and elastic change over time,

10cm with the two weights attached. What is the time since v and x change with time. If we give a spring a disperiod of its oscillation?

placement, it has no kinetic energy, and a certain amount

3. What force is acting on the spring after 1 second? In of elastic energy. If we let it go, that elastic energy is

all converted into kinetic energy, and so, when the mass

what direction?

reaches its initial position, it has no elastic energy, and all

4. A pendulum oscillates with a frequency of 0.5 Hz. the elastic energy it did have has been converted into kiWhat is the length of the pendulum?

netic energy. As the mass continues to travel, it is slowed

5. The following graph shows the displacement of a sim- by the spring, and so the kinetic energy is converted back

ple harmonic oscillator. Draw graphs of its velocity, mo- into elastic energy - the same amount of elastic energy as

it started out. The nature of the energy oscillates back

mentum, acceleration and the force acting on it.

54

If the mass is oscillating vertically in a gravitational eld,

the situation gets more complicated since the spring now

has gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy

and kinetic energy. However, it turns out (if you do the

maths) that the total energy is still constant, although the

equilibrium position will be lower.

12.2.1

Questions

energy is stored by the spring?

2. A 500g mass on a spring (k=100) is extended by 0.2m,

and begins to oscillate in an otherwise empty universe.

What is the maximum velocity which it reaches?

3. Another 500g mass on another spring in another otherwise empty universe is extended by 0.5m, and begins

to oscillate. If it reaches a maximum velocity of 15ms1 ,

what is the spring constant of the spring?

mass on a spring (ignoring gravity).

Critical damping occurs when a system is designed to

5. Use the trigonometric formulae for x and v to derive an return an oscillator to its equilibrium position in the

equation for the total energy stored by an oscillating mass least time possible. A critically damped oscillator, when

on a spring, ignoring gravity and air resistance, which is damped, ceases to oscillate, and returns to its equilibrium

position, where it stops moving. An example is the door

constant with respect to time.

closer. Normally, the door would swing back and forth,

Worked Solutions

being damped by friction in the hinges, and air resistance.

The door closer forces the door to stop swinging, and shut

immediately. When closed, the door is in its equilibrium

position.

Physics)/Damping

12.3.2 Questions

1. Draw a graph of displacement for a critically damped

oscillation.

2. How would you critically damp an oscillating penduPreviously, our mathematical models of simple harmonic lum?

motion have assumed that the energy stored by a simple 3. How would you damp an oscillating pendulum using

harmonic oscillator is constant. In reality, of course, re- only a weighted polystyrene block?

sistive forces slow an oscillator down, transferring its energy to its surroundings. A pendulum will lose energy by 4. What would the displacement graph look like for this

moving the air. In addition to this, the motion of a mass oscillation, before and after damping began?

on a spring will cause the spring to heat up, 'losing' the 5. The graph above is an exponentially damped oscillaenergy. This process is known as damping.

tion. If the displacement of the undamped oscillation is

The principal eect of damping is to reduce the ampli- given by sin t, what is an approximate equation for the

tude of an oscillation, not to change its frequency. So, damped oscillation, in terms of a constant k which dethe graph of the amplitude of a normal damped oscilla- scribes the degree to which the oscillation is damped?

tion might look like the following:

Worked Solutions

55

Physics)/Resonance

Instead of doing questions this time, read the following

articles on Wikipedia about these dierent types:

Resonance occurs when an oscillating system is driven

(made to oscillate from an outside source) at a frequency

which is the same as its own natural frequency. All oscillating systems require some form of an elastic force and

a mass e.g. a mass at the end of a spring. All oscillators

have a natural frequency. If you have a mass on a spring,

and give it an amplitude, it will resonate at a frequency:

1

k

f = 2

m

This frequency is independent of the amplitude you give

the oscillator to start with. It is the natural frequency of

the oscillator. If you keep giving the oscillator amplitude

at this frequency, it will not change the frequency of the

oscillation. But, you are still doing work. This energy

must go somewhere. The only place it can go is into additional kinetic and gravitational potential energy in the

oscillation. If you force an oscillation at its resonant frequency, you add signicantly to its amplitude.

Resonance in Water Molecules (Microwave Ovens)

No Highway - a novel with a plot that uses things suspiciously similar to resonance.

Millenium Bridge

Physics)/Conservation of Momentum

Momentum is the product of the mass of an object and

its velocity. It is usually denoted p:

p = mv ,

Put simply, resonance occurs when the driving frequency in a closed system is always conserved. This fact is useof an oscillation matches the natural frequency, giving ful, since it allows us to calculate velocities and masses in

collisions.

rise to large amplitudes.

If you were to force an oscillation at a range of frequencies, and measure the amplitude at each, the graph would 12.5.1

look something like the following:

Collisions

with velocity u with a stationary ball of mass m. The stationary ball has no momentum before the collision, and

the moving ball has momentum Mu. This must equal the

momentum of both balls after the collision. If we let their

velocities be v1 and v2 :

M u = M v1 + mv2

At this point, we would need to know one of the velocities

afterwards in order to calculate the other.

Alternatively, we could have one ball of mass M colliding

with another ball of mass m, with both balls moving in

opposite directions with velocities u1 and u2 respectively.

If we dene the direction of motion of the ball with mass

M as the positive direction:

M u1 mu2 = M v1 + mv2

We do not need to worry about the signs on the righthand side: they will take care of themselves. If one of

our velocities turns out to be negative, we know that it is

in the opposite direction to u1 .

12.5.2 Elasticity

There are many types of oscillators, and so practically

everything has a resonant frequency. This can be used, Although momentum within a closed system is always

or can result in damage if the resonant frequency is not conserved, kinetic energy does not have to be. If kinetic

known.

energy is conserved in a collision, then it is known as

56

Physics)/Forces and Impulse

in Collisions

You should already know that the force exerted on an object is proportional to its acceleration. The constant of

proportionality is known as the mass of the object:

F = ma

In the case of a collision, for one of the particles in the collision, the acceleration is simply the dierence between

its velocity before the collision (u) and its velocity after

a perfectly (or totally) elastic collision. If it is not con- the collision (v) per unit. time:

served, then the collision is inelastic. If the colliding parF = m(vu)

= mvmu

t

t

ticles stick together, then a totally inelastic collision has

occurred. This does not necessarily mean that the parti- So, force is the rate of change of momentum. The quancles have stopped. In a totally inelastic collision, the two tity on top is known as the impulse of the collision, measured in Ns; t is the length of time it took for the colliparticles become one, giving the equation:

sion to take place. So, the impulse I is given by:

M u1 + mu2 = (M + m)v

I = p = mv mu = F t

2

v = M uM1 +mu

+m

In a collision where a certain change in momentum (impulse) occurs, a force is exerted. If the collision time is

small, a larger force is exerted. If the collision time is

12.5.3 Explosions

long, a smaller force is exerted. If you have a graph of

force against time, impulse is the area under the graph,

In an explosion, two particles which are stuck together are since:

no longer stuck together, and so gain separate velocities:

I = F dt

(M + m)u = M v1 + mv2

The impulse on one particle in a simple collision is the

negative impulse on the other particle.

The collisions in a Newtons cradle are almost perfectly elastic.

12.5.4

Questions

0.6kg at a velocity of 3ms1 . If the stationary ball moves

o at a speed of 2ms1 , what is the new velocity of the 12.6.1

rst ball?

2. Two balls are moving in opposite directions with velocities 5ms1 and 10ms1 . They collide, and move o

in opposite directions with new velocities of 7.5ms1

each. If the mass of the rst ball was 1.25kg, what is

the mass of the second ball?

Questions

much impulse must be exerted on a 47000kg payload to

get it to travel away from the Earth?

at 5ms1 , and the other at 2ms1 . After the collision,

3. A totally elastic collision occurs between two balls of the rst billiard ball is moving backwards at 4ms1 . The

equal mass. One of the balls is stationary. What happens? collision takes 1 ms. What force was exerted on this ball?

4. A particle explodes to become two particles with 3. What impulse and force were exerted on the second

masses 1kg and 2kg. The 1kg particle moves with veloc- ball?

ity 45ms1 . With what velocity does the other particle 4. A 60kg spacewalker uses a jet of gas to exert an immove?

pulse of 10Ns. How many times would he have to do this

5. A 3kg ball moving at 3ms1 collides with a 5kg ball to reach a speed of 1 ms1 from stationary?

moving at 5ms1 . The collision is perfectly elastic. 5. A 5kg bowling ball collides with a stationary tennis ball

What are the new velocities of the balls?

of mass 0.1kg at 3ms1 , slowing to 2.5ms1 . It exerts a

6. A ball collides with a wall, and rebounds at the same force of 100N on the ball. How long did the collision

velocity. Why doesn't the wall move?

take?

Worked Solutions

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Rockets, Hoses and 1. A machine gun res 300 5g bullets per.

800ms1 . What force is exerted on the gun?

Machine Guns

57

minute at

through a hose. If a 2N force is exerted on the tank, at

what speed does the water leave the hose?

3. If the hose were connected to the mains, what problems would there be with the above formula?

4. The thrust of the rst stage of a Saturn V rocket is

34 MN, using 131000kg of solid fuel in 168 seconds. At

what velocity does the fuel leave the tank?

5. Escape velocity from the Earth is 11km1 . What is

the velocity of the rocket after the rst stage is used up,

if the total mass of the rocket is 3 x 106 kg? How does

this compare to escape velocity?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Circular Motion

momentum of its fuel.

momentum. This applies to continuous ows of momentum as well as to collisions:

F =

dp

dt

= v dm

dt

mass m momentum, causing them to move at a velocity

v. This occurs several times each second - the momentum

of the bullets is changing, and so there is a roughly continuous force acting on them. Momentum, of course, must

be conserved. This results in a change in the momentum

of the gun each time it res a bullet. Overall, this results

in a roughly continuous force on the gun which is equal

and opposite to the force acting on the bullets.

If I have a tank of water and a hose, with a pump, and I

pump the water out of the tank, a similar thing occurs a force pushes me away from the direction of ow of the

water. This force is equal to the ow rate (in kgs1 ) of

the water multiplied by its velocity. Bear in mind that 1

litre of water has a mass of about 1kg.

Rockets work on this principle - they pump out fuel, causing it to gain momentum. This results in a thrust on the

rocket. When designing propulsion systems for rockets,

the aim is to give the fuel as high a velocity per. unit mass

as possible in order to make the system fuel-ecient, and

to get a high enough change in momentum.

roughly circular orbits. A conker on a string might move

around my head in a circle. A car turning a corner might,

briey, move along the arc of a circle. The key thing to

note about circular motion is that there is no force pulling

outwards from the circle, and there is no force pulling the

moving object tangential to the circle. Centrifugal force

does not exist. There is only one force acting in circular

motion, which is known as centripetal force. It always

acts towards the centre of the circle. The object does not

58

Instead, the centripetal force accelerates the object with

a constant magnitude in an ever-changing direction. The

object has a velocity, and will continue moving with this

velocity unless acted on by the centripetal force, which

is perpetually adding velocity towards the centre of the

circle.

string?

2. A planet orbits a star in a circle. Its year is 100 Earth

years, and the distance from the star to the planet is 70

Gm from the star. What is the mass of the star?

circle, at 20kmh1 . The centripetal force due to friction

If you were to subject a stationary object to the centripetal is 1.5 times the weight of the car. What is the radius of

force, it would simply fall. If you gave it a little bit of ve- the corner?

locity, it would still fall, but it would not land directly beneath its starting position. If you kept increasing the ve- 4. Using the formulae for centripetal acceleration and

locity and dropping it, there would come a point when it gravitational eld strength, and the denition of angular

would land innitely far away - it would go into orbit. The velocity, derive an equation linking the orbital period of

relationship between this 'magic' velocity and the magni- a planet to the radius of its orbit.

tude of the centripetal force is as follows:

Worked Solutions

F =

mv 2

r

the magnitude of its velocity, and r is the distance from

the centre of the circle to the object. Since F=ma, the

centripetal acceleration is:

a=

v2

r

the tension in a string, friction, gravity or even an electric

or magnetic eld. In all these cases we can equate the

equation for centripetal force with the equation for the

force it really is.

12.8.1

Angular Velocity

velocity is the rate of change of angle, commonly denoted

and measured in radians per. second:

=

In circular motion:

=

2

T

= 2f ,

where T is the time for one revolution and f is the frequency of rotation. However:

v=

v

r

2r

T

2

T

velocity is:

=

v

r

a=

(r)2

r

12.8.2

2 r2

r

= 2 r

Questions

0.75m string and is swung in a circle around someones

Chapter 13

Astrophysics

13.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Radar and Triangulation

d1 =

ct1

2

d2 =

ct2

2

Radar and triangulation are two relatively easy meth- the two pulses. This is the dierence between the two

ods of measuring the distance to some celestial objects. distances previously calculated:

Radar can also be used to measure the velocity of a ced = d2 d1

lestial object relative to us.

3. Calculate the time between the transmission (or reception, but not both) of the two pulses:

13.1.1

Radar

t = t2 t1

measure the distance to an object. The pulse is transmitted, reected by the object, and then received at the site

of the transmitter. The time taken for all this to happen

is measured. This can be used to determine the distance

to a planet or even the velocity of a spaceship.

4. Divide the distance calculated in step 2 by the time calculated in step 3 to nd the average velocity of the object

between the transmission of the two pulses:

v=

d

t

13.1.2 Triangulation

Distance

The speed of electromagnetic waves (c) is constant in a

vacuum: 3 x 108 ms1 . If we re a pulse of radio waves

to a planet within the Solar System, we know that:

d = ct

where d is the distance to the object, and t is the time

taken for the pulse to travel there and back from the object. However, the pulse has to get both there and back,

so:

2d = ct

d=

ct

2

where d is the distance to the object, and t is the time The distance from the solar system to a relatively nearby celestial

object can be found using triangulation.

taken for the pulse to return.

We know that the Earth is, on average, about 150 Gm

away from the Sun. If we measure the angle between the

Velocity

vertical and the light from a nearby star 6 months apart

The velocity of an object can be found by ring two radar (i.e. on opposite sides of the Sun), we can approximate

pulses at an object at dierent times. Two distances are the distance from the Solar System to the star.

measured. When asked to calculate the relative velocity Let r be the radius of the Earths orbit (assumed to be

of an object in this way, use the following method:

constant for simplicitys sake), a and b be the angles to

59

60

side of the Sun, and let d be the perpendicular distance

from the plane of the Earths orbit to the star, as shown

in the diagram on the right. By simple trigonometry:

2r =

d

tan a

d

tan b

Light seconds, light minutes, light hours and light days are

less commonly used, but may be calculated in a similar

fashion.

d(tan a+tan b)

tan a tan b

Therefore:

d=

2r tan a tan b

tan a+tan b

13.1.3

Questions

distance from the Earth to the Sun. This is approximately

1. A radar pulse takes 8 minutes to travel to Venus and 150 x 109 m.

back. How far away is Venus at this time?

2. Why can't a radar pulse be used to measure the distance to the Sun?

Regardless of () wavelength, power density, or wavefront properties, the pulse would be absorbed with no reection possible. Distances to pure energy sources are

generally measured in terms of received light intensity,

shifts of the light spectrum, and radio interferometry.

The RF spectrum; and Laser (light) spectrum can be used

to listen to radiation, but not bounce a pulse from an energy source having no true angle of incidence. Just as an

observation, I will note that the sun can be seen on most

radars either sunrise or sunset, usually when the sun is

just above the horizon. But these receptions are unusable

strobes (interference) and not a result of receiving a radar

pulse from the sun. Radar technicians also use the sun as

a known exact position to align the system to true north

(and magnetic variations); this is called solar-boresighting

and, again, only receives the radiation.

13.2.3 Parsecs

Degrees can be divided into minutes and seconds. There

are 60 minutes in a degree, and 60 seconds in a minute.

This means that 1 second is 1 /3600 of a degree. A degree

is denoted , a minute ' and a second ". The denition

of a parsec uses a simplied form of triangulation. It assumes that the perpendicular to the plane of the Earths

orbit passes through the Sun and a celestial object. A

parsec is the distance from the Sun to this celestial object

if the angle between the perpendicular and the line connecting the Earth to the celestial object is one arcsecond

(1/3600 of a degree). This gives us the following rightangled triangle (the distance from the Earth to the Sun is

1 AU):

travelling between the Earth and the Moon. Use the following data to measure this velocity:

4. The angles between the horizontal and a star are measured at midnight on January 1 as 89.99980 and at midnight on July 1 as 89.99982. How far away is the star?

(

)

5. Why can't triangulation be used to measure the dis- tan 1 = tan 1 = 4.85 106 = 1

3600

parsec

tance to another galaxy?

Therefore, a parsec is 206,265 AU.

Worked Solutions

13.2.4 Questions

Physics)/Large Units

1. What is one parsec in m?

The distances in space are so large that we need some very

2. Convert 3 light days into km.

large units to describe them with.

3. Convert 5.5 parsecs into light years.

4. The dierence in angle of a star on the perpendicular

to the plane of the Earths orbit which passes through the

A light year is the distance that light travels in one year. Sun when viewed from either side of the Earths orbit is

The velocity of light is constant (3 x 108 ms1 ), so 1 light 0.1. How far away is the star in parsecs?

Worked Solutions

year is:

13.2.1

Light Years

Physics)/Orbits

61

data in the table above, that the inner planets of the Solar

System obey Keplers Third Law?

2. Perform this test. Does Keplers Third Law hold?

When a planets orbit a star, theoretically, their orbit may 3. If T2 R3 , express a constant C in terms of T and R.

be circular. This case is dealt with under circular motion. 4. Io, one of Jupiters moons, has a mean orbital radius

of 421600km, and a year of 1.77 Earth days. What is the

value of C for Jupiters moons?

5. Ganymede, another of Jupiters moons, has a mean

orbital radius of 1070400km. How long is its year?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Doppler Eect

The Doppler eect is a change in the frequency of a wave

which occurs if one is in a dierent frame of reference

from the emitter of the wave. Relative to us, we observe

such a change if an emitter of a wave is moving relative

to us.

The total of the distances from any point on an ellipse to its foci

is constant.

relative to this medium v. They also have a velocity relative to their source v and a velocity relative to the place

where they are received v. The frequency at which they

are received f is related to the frequency of transmission

f0 by the formula:

(

)

r

f = v+v

v+vs f0

which has two foci (singular 'focus). The total of the distances from any point on an ellipse to its foci is constant.

All orbits take an elliptical shape, with the sun as one of

the foci. As the planet approaches its star, its speed inThe Doppler eect can be used to measure the velocity

creases. This is because gravitational potential energy is

at which a star is moving away from or towards us by

being converted into kinetic energy.

comparing the wavelength receive with the wavelength

A circle is an ellipse, in the special case when both foci we would expect a star of that type to emit 0 . Since

are at the same point.

the speed of light c is constant regardless of reference

medium:

13.3.1

c = f = f0 0

Therefore:

f=

and f0 =

c

0

)

(

R:

v+vr

c

c

= v+vs

0

2

3

T R

)

(

1

r

This result was derived for the special case of a circular 1 = v+v

v+vs

0

orbit as the fourth circular motion problem. The semi0 (v+vs )

major axis is the distance from the centre of the ellipse = v+vr

(the midpoint of the foci) to either of the points on the In this case, v is the speed of light, so v = c. Relative to

edge of the ellipse closest to one of the foci.

us, we are stationary, so v = 0. So:

=

13.3.2

Questions

0 (c+vs )

c

(c+vs )

c

=1+

vs

c

1. The semi-major axis of an elliptical orbit can be ap- If we call the change in wavelength due to Doppler shift

proximated reasonably accurately by the mean distance , we know that = 0 + . Therefore:

vs

of the planet for the Sun. How would you test, using the 0 +

= 1 +

0

0 = 1 + c

62

red-shifted 0.2nm, what is the velocity of recession of the

quasar?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Big Bang Theory

Big Bang theory states that space-time began as a single

point, and that, as time passed, space itself expanded.

Hubbles Law describes the expansion of the universe

mathematically:

v = H0 d ,

where v is the velocity of recession of a celestial object,

and d is the distance to the object. H0 is the Hubble constant, where H0 = 70km s1 Mpc1 . The '0' signies

that this is the Hubble constant now, not in the past or the

future. This allows for the fact that the Hubble constant

might be changing, but very slowly.

of distant galaxies (right), as compared to that of the Sun (left).

vs

c

=z

z. If z is positive, the star is moving away from us - the

wavelength is shifted up towards the 'red' end of the electromagnetic spectrum. If z is negative, the star is moving

towards us. This is known as blue shift. Note that we have

assumed that v is much smaller than c. Otherwise, special

relativity makes a signicant dierence to the formula.

Imagine a galaxy which ies out from the big bang at the

speed of light (c). The distance it has travelled d is given

by:

d = vt ,

where t is the age of the universe, since the galaxy has

been travelling since the beginning. If we substitute in

Hubbles Law for v, we get:

d = H0 dt

1 = H0 t

t=

1

H0

universe - but be careful with the units.

13.4.1

Questions

1. M31 (the Andromeda galaxy) is approaching us at z = = vs ,

s

c

about 120kms1 . What is its red-shift?

where is the amount by which radiation is red-shifted

2. Some light from M31 reaches us with a wavelength of from a celestial object, s is the wavelength of the radi590nm. What is its wavelength, relative to M31?

ation relative to the celestial object, vs is the velocity of

3. Some light has a wavelength, relative to M31, of recession of the object, c is the speed of light, and v is

480nm. What is its wavelength, relative to us?

much less than c. If is the wavelength of the radiation

4. A quasar emits electromagnetic radiation at a wave- relative to us:

length of 121.6nm. If, relative to us, this wavelength is z =

s

s

z+1=

then this is actually the ratio of the distances between us

and the celestial object at two times: the time at which the

radiation was emitted, and the time at which the radiation

was received. We can apply this to any distance between

any two stars:

Rnow

Rthen

=z+1

13.5.4

Red Shift

If we measure the red shift of celestial objects, we see

that most of them are moving away from us - the light

from them is red-shifted. This is not true of all celestial

objects - the Andromeda galaxy, for example, is blueshifted; it is moving towards us due to the gravitational

attraction of the Milky Way. Some galaxies are partly

red-shifted, and partly blue-shifted. This is due to their

rotation - some parts of the galaxy are rotating towards

us, while others are rotating away from us. However, the

majority of celestial objects are moving away from us. If

we extrapolate backwards, we nd that the universe must

have started at a single point. However, we are assuming

that the universe has always expanded and that movement

alone can cause redshift [1] . Red shift provides evidence

for a Big Bang, but does not prove it.

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Models of the Big Bang show that, at the beginning of the

universe, radiation of a relatively short wavelength would

have been produced. Now, this radiation, due to the expansion of space, has been stretched - it has become microwave radiation. Cosmic microwave background radiation ts in extremely well with Big Bang theory, and so

is strong evidence for it.

13.5.5

Questions

2. How old is the universe?

3. What eect might gravity have had on this gure?

4. Polaris is 132pc away. What is its velocity of recession,

according to Hubbles Law?

Worked Solutions

13.5.6

Footnotes

(ISBN 0-521-36314-4)

63

Chapter 14

Thermodynamics

14.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Heat and Energy

Plasma

a

bin

om

c

n

Re

tio

iza

Ion

moving. When we feel some matter, we feel something

that we call 'heat'. This is just our impression of how fast

the particles are moving. The higher the average speed of

the particles, the hotter something is.

Gas

Co

Their motion is essentially random - they are all moving

at dierent speeds, and so they all have dierent kinetic

energies. The temperature is related to the average energy

per. particle E by the following approximate relationship:

E kT ,

Deposition

Sublimation

nd

and 'temperature'. Heat is energy in transit, also known as

work. Temperature is the internal energy of a substance.

We feel heat, not temperature, for if the energy did not

move from an object, we would not be able to measure it.

If we had some matter which was made of stationary particles, then we would not be able to make the particles

more stationary. The concept is meaningless. When matter is in this state, it is at the coldest temperature possible. We call this temperature 0K. This corresponds to

273.15C. If the temperature rises by 1K, the temperature rises by 1C. The only dierence between the two

scales is what temperature is dened as 0 - in Kelvin, 0 is

absolute zero. In Celsius, 0 is the freezing point of water.

In both scales, 1 is one hundredth of the dierence in

temperature between the freezing and boiling points of

water.

Va

p

ori

za

tio

en

sa

tio

Liquid

g

zin

e

Fre

ltin

Me

Enthalpy of system

n

tio

Solid

out). When liquid water reaches its boiling point, it will

stay at its boiling point until it has all changed into water vapour since the energy being taken in is being used

to change state, instead of to increase the temperature

of the water. The average energy per. particle required

to change state can be approximated using the formula

above, where T is the temperature at which the substance

changes state.

k = 1.38 x 1023 JK1 . T must always be measured in Many things have an activation energy. In order for a

Kelvin.

chemical reaction to start, for example, the average energy per. particle must reach a certain level. However,

most of the time, chemical reactions start at a lower aver14.1.1 Changes of State

age energy per. particle than the activation energy. This

is because there is always a chance that some particles

Dierent substances change state at dierent tempera- have the required activation energy, since the particles

tures. In other words, when the average energy per. are moving at random. If the reaction is exothermic (this

particle reaches a certain level, the substance changes means that it gives out heat, raising the average energy

state. The situation complicates itself since, in order to per. particle), then, once one reaction has happened,

64

65

more of the particles have the activation energy, and so what is the new temperature of the room?

the reaction accelerates until all the reagants are used up. Worked Solutions

The activation energy can be related to the temperature

of the substance using the formula E=kT.

14.1.3

Questions

Physics)/Ideal Gases

1. Carbon dioxide sublimes at 195K. Roughly what energy per. particle does this correspond to?

2. A certain chemical reaction requires particles with

mass of the order 1026 kg to move, on average, at

10ms1 . Roughly what temperature does this correspond

to?

3. The boiling point of water is 100C. Roughly what

energy per. particle does this correspond to?

4. Thermionic emission from copper requires around

5eV of energy per. particle. How hot will the wire be

at this energy level?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Specic Heat Capacity

An animation showing the relationship between pressure and volume when mass and temperature are held constant.

heat a more massive thing up, it takes more work, because

we have to give more particles, on average, an energy kT.

Some substances require more work to heat up than others. This property is known as specic heat capacity. This

gives us the formula:

E = mc ,

where E is the work put in to heating something up (in

J), m is the mass of the thing we are heating up (in kg),

c is the specic heat capacity (in Jkg1 K1 ), and is

the dierence in temperature due to the work done on the An animation demonstrating the relationship between volume

substance (in degrees Celsius or Kelvin).

and temperature.

It should be noted that the specic heat capacity changes

slightly with temperature, and more than slightly when Real-world gases can be modelled as ideal gases. An ideal

the material changes state. A table of the specic heat gas consists of lots of point particles moving at random,

colliding with each other elastically. There are four simcapacities of various substances is given below:

ple laws which apply to an ideal gas which you need to

know about:

14.2.1

Questions

14.3.1 Boyles Law

water from 20C to 36.8C?

Boyles Law states that the pressure of an ideal gas is in2. How much work would it take to heat a well-insulated versely proportional to its volume, assuming that the mass

room from 15C to 21C, if the room is a cube with side and temperature of the gas remain constant. If I comlength 10m, and the density of the air is 1.2kgm3 ?

press an ideal gas into half the space, the pressure on the

3. A 10kg block of iron at 80C is placed in the room outsides of the container will double. So:

above once it has reached 21C. If the iron cools by 40C, p

1

V

66

14.3.2

Charles Law

Charles Law states that the volume of an ideal gas is proportional to its temperature:

Physics)/Kinetic Theory

an ideal gas is the following:

T must be measured in kelvin, where a rise of 1K is equal pV = 13 N mc2 ,

to a rise 1C, and 0C = 273K. If we double the temperwhere p is the pressure of the gas, V is its volume, N is

ature of a gas, the particles move around twice as much,

the number of molecules, m is the mass of each molecule,

and so the volume also doubles.

and c2 is the mean square speed of the molecules. If you

knew the speeds of all the molecules, you could calculate

the mean square speed by squaring each speed, and then

taking the mean average of all the squared speeds.

V T

14.3.3

Amount Law

This law states that the pressure of an ideal gas is propor- 14.4.1

tional to the amount of gas. If we have twice the number

of gas particles N, then twice the pressure is exerted on

the container they are in:

Derivation

pN

A mole is a number of particles. 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023

particles. So, the pressure of a gas is also proportional to

the number of moles of gas present n:

pn

14.3.4

Pressure Law

proportional to its temperature. A gas at twice the temperature (in K) exerts twice the pressure on the sides of

Some happy ideal gas particles

a container which it is in:

pT

This formula can be derived from rst principles by modThese laws can be put together into larger formulae link- elling the gas as a lot of particles colliding. The particles

have a momentum p = mc. If we put them in a box of

ing p, V, T and N.

volume V and length l, the change in momentum when

they hit the side of the box is:

14.3.5

Questions

Every time the particle travels the length of the box (l)

and back (another l), it hits the wall, so:

2l

of the gas at 250K is 0.1 MPa, what is its pressure after c = t ,

heating?

where t is the time between collisions. Therefore:

c

10cm. What volume does it occupy?

Each collision exerts a force on the wall. Force is the rate

3. The argon is then squeezed with a piston so that in of change of momentum, so:

only occupies 0.4m of the tanks length. What is its new

2

2mc

mc2

F = p

= 2mc

t = 2l

2l = l

pressure?

c

4. What is its new temperature?

total force on the wall is given by:

now?

F =

Worked Solutions

N mc2

l

67

taken an average - the mean square speed. This force is 14.5.1 Derivation

the force in all three dimensions. The force in only one

dimension is therefore:

In the atmosphere, particles are pulled downwards by

c2

F = Nm

3l

gravity. They gain and lose gravitational potential energy

Pressure, by denition, is:

(mgh) due to collisions with each other. First, lets consider a small chunk of the atmosphere. It has horizonF

N mc2

p = A = 3Al

tal cross-sectional area A, height dh, molecular density

But area multiplied by length is volume, so:

(the number of molecules per. unit volume) n and all the

molecules have mass m. Let the number of particles in

N mc2

p = 3V

the chunk be N.

Therefore:

N

n= N

V = A dh

pV = 13 N mc2

Therefore:

V = A dh (which makes sense, if you think about it)

14.4.2

Questions

By denition:

N = nV = nA dh

1. Five molecules are moving at speeds of 1,5,6,8, and

The total mass m is the mass of one molecule (m) mul36ms1 . What is their mean square speed?

tiplied by the number of molecules (N):

2. What is the mass of one molecule of N2 (atomic mass

m = mN = mnA dh

14, 1u = 1.66 x 1027 kg)?

Then work out the weight of the chunk:

3. Atmospheric pressure is 101,325 Pa. If one mole of

3

Nitrogen takes up 2.3 m at about 10C, what is the mean W = gm = nmgA dh

square speed of the molecules in the air outside, assuming The downwards pressure P is force per. unit area, so:

that the atmosphere is 100% nitrogen (in reality, it is only

nmgA dh

P =W

= nmg dh

A =

A

78%)?

4. What is the average speed of a nitrogen molecule under We know that, as we go up in the atmosphere, the pressure

decreases. So, across our little chunk there is a dierence

the above conditions?

in pressure dP given by:

5. The particles in question 1 are duplicated 3000 times.

If they have a completely unrealistic mass of 1g, what is dP = nmg dh (1) In other words, the pressure is detheir pressure when they are crammed into a cube with creasing (-) and it is the result of the weight of this little

chunk of atmosphere.

side length 0.5m?

We also know that:

Worked Solutions

P V = N kT

So:

Physics)/Boltzmann Factor

P =

But:

n=

collisions with each other. On average, over a large number of particles, the proportion of particles which have

at least a certain amount of energy is constant. This is

known as the Boltzmann factor. It is a value between 0

and 1. The Boltzmann factor is given by the formula:

n

n0

= e kT ,

N kT

V

N

V

So, by substitution:

P = nkT

So, for our little chunk:

dP = kT dn (2)

If we equate (1) and (2):

dP = nmg dh = kT dn

where n is the number of particles with kinetic energy

above an energy level , n0 is the total number of particles Rearrange to get:

nmg

in the gas, T is the temperature of the gas (in kelvin) and dn

dh = kT

23

1

k is the Boltzmann constant (1.38 x 10

JK ).

kT

dh

dn = nmg

This energy could be any sort of energy that a particle can

the limits n0 and n:

have - it could be gravitational potential energy, or kinetic Integrate between

n 1

n

kT

kT

h =

dn =

energy, for example.

mg n0 n

mg [ln n]n0

68

kT

mg

(ln n ln n0 ) =

ln nn0 =

n

n0

=e

kT

mg

ln nn0

mgh

kT

mgh

kT

= mgh, so:

n

n0

= e kT

14.5.2

used for various things in that question are

k = 1.4 1023 JK 1 , g = 9.8, m = 4.9

1026 Kg, T = 290K

14.5.3

Questions

1u = 1.66 x 1027 kg

g = 9.81 ms2

1. A nitrogen molecule has a molecular mass of 28u.

If the Earths atmosphere is 100% nitrous, with a temperature of 18C, what proportion of nitrogen molecules

reach a height of 2km?

2. What proportion of the molecules in a box of hydrogen

(molecular mass 2u) at 0C have a velocity greater than

5ms1 ?

3. What is the temperature of the hydrogen if half of the

hydrogen is moving at at least 10ms1 ?

4. Some ionised hydrogen (charge 1.6 x 1019 C)is

placed in a uniform electric eld. The potential dierence

between the two plates is 20V, and they are 1m apart.

What proportion of the molecules are at least 0.5m from

the positive plate (ignoring gravity) at 350K?

Worked Solutions

Chapter 15

Magnetic Fields

15.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Flux

we use lines of ux. These obey the following rules:

A coil of wire creates magnetic ux. The amount of magnet to the south pole.

magnetic ux created is dependant on three things: the 2. Lines of ux go clockwise about wires carrying current

number of coils in the wire, the amount of current ow- away from you.

ing through the wire, and the permeance of the object

3. Lines of ux never touch, intersect, or cross.

through which the ux is owing. So:

The direction of the ux is shown with an arrow. Flux is a

= N I ,

bit like electricity in that it must have a complete circuit.

where is ux (in webers, denoted Wb), is permeance The lines of ux always take the route of most permeance.

(in WbA1 ) and I is current (in A). This is the total ux Iron has around 800 times as much permeability as air.

induced. NI is the number of current-turns. Perme- So, ux goes through the iron, and not the air.

ance is related to permeability (a material property) by

the following equation:

=

A

L

15.1.1 Questions

is length. A permanent magnet is just like a coil, except

that a current does not need to be generated to maintain

the ux. Over smaller areas, we need to know the ux

density B. This is the amount of ux per. unit area:

B=

Therefore:

= AB

cm2 , and a length of 0.5m. If the permeability of steel is

875 NA2 , what is the permeance of that core?

2. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped 60 times around

the top of the core, and a 9A direct current is put through

the coil. How much ux is induced?

3. Assuming that all the ux goes through the core, what

is the ux density at any point in the core?

4. Draw a diagram showing the lines of ux within the

core.

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Induction

A magnetic eld creates a current in a wire moving

through it. This process is known as induction.

A magnetic eld going through a coil of wire has a property known as ux linkage. This is the product of the ux

The ux around a coil of wire varies - NI only gives the and the number of coils in the wire N.

Lines of ux around a permanent magnet.

69

70

15.2.2

Faradays Law

magnetic eld is moving relative to the coil. Faradays

Law gives the electromotive force (emf) produced in a

coil by a magnetic eld:

= N d

dt

In other words, the emf (electric potential) induced in the

coil is proportional to the rate of change of ux linkage.

In practice, this means that if the coil is stationary relative to the magnetic eld, no emf is induced. In order

to induce emf, either the coil or the magnetic eld must

move. Alternatively, we may change the number of coils,

for example, by crushing the coil, or pressing a switch

which added more coils into the circuit, or moving more

of the coils into the magnetic eld.

Faradays Law also works the other way. If we were to

integrate both sides and rearrange the formula in terms

of , we would nd that the ux depends on the integral

of the voltage - not on its rate of change. If we put an

emf across a coil, it induces a magnetic eld. The ux

does not depend on the rate of change of emf, but the emf

does depend on the rate of change of the ux linkage.

15.2.3

Lenzs Law

induced by a change in magnetic ux. It states that current

induced opposes the magnetic eld. It does this by creating its own magnetic eld. This explains the minus sign

in Faradays Law. This also means that the ux induced

by a current (not a change in current) is proportional to

the current, since the ux is produced in response to the

current.

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Force

Magnetic elds exert a force on a charge when the charge

is moving. If the charge is stationary, no force is exerted.

This force is given by:

F = q(

v B) ,

where q is the charge on the point charge, v is its velocity

and B is the magnetic eld strength. This involves a vector

cross product, which you don't need to know about for Alevel. However, you do need to know a simplied version

of this. The magnitude of this force F is given by:

F = Bqv sin ,

where is the angle between the direction of motion of

the point charge and the direction of the magnetic eld.

If the velocity and the magnetic eld are in the same direction, the = 0, so sin = 0 and F = 0. If the velocity

and the magnetic eld are perpendicular to each other,

= , so sin = 1. This means that, in the special case

where velocity is perpendicular to the magnetic eld:

F = Bqv

If q is negative (for example, for an electron), the force is

in the opposite direction.

15.3.1 Current

A current is just a ow of moving electrons, and so a magnetic eld will exert a force on a wire with a current owing through it. The case you need to know about is when

So, a change in ux induces a current and a voltage which the magnetic eld is perpendicular to the wire. In this

is proportional to the rate of change of ux. This ts with case, the magnitude of the force on the wire is given by:

Ohms Law (V = IR). A current and a voltage in a coil F = BIl ,

induce a ux which is proportional to the current and the

where I is current, and l is the length of the wire.

voltage.

15.2.4

Questions

15.3.2 Direction

1. What is the ux linkage of a 30cm coil of 0.5mm thick wire can be worked out using Flemings left-hand rule, as

wire with a ux perpendicular to it of 10Wb?

shown in the diagram on the right. The direction of the

2. If the above coil is crushed steadily over a period of thumb is that of the force (or thrust), the direction of the

first nger is that of the magnetic field, and the direction

2s, what emf is maintained?

of the second nger is that of the current (or the motion

3. The ux in a ux circuit varies according to the equa- of the point charge).

tion = sin t. What is the equation for the emf inOn a 2D diagram, the direction of a magnetic eld is repduced?

resented by one of two symbols, which resemble the point

4. Using a constant k, what is the equation for a current and etchings of an arrow pointing in the direction of the

magnetic eld. The symbol

means that the eld is

5. Draw a graph of the ux, ux linkage, emf and current pointing towards you (just as the arrow

would be, if you

as deduced in the previous two questions.

were looking at the point). The symbol

means that the

71

F

B

I

Flemings left-hand rule

eld. Draw an arrow representing the direction of the

force on the wire.

be, if you were looking at the etching).

Worked Solutions

15.3.3

Questions

Physics)/Transformers

We have already seen that a change in ux induces an emf

in a coil, given by Faradays Law:

dt

electron (of charge 1.6 x 1019 C) moving at 5% of the

8

1

We

have

also

seen that a voltage in a coil induces a magspeed of light (3 x 10 ms )?

netic ux inside the coil. If we were to connect two coils

2. What force is exerted by a 5mT magnetic eld on a with the same core, the ux, and the rate of change of

20cm wire with resistance 1 attached to a 9V battery? ux, would be exactly the same inside both coils. We

3. The following diagram shows a positive charge moving would have created a kind of ux circuit known as a transthrough a magnetic eld. Draw an arrow representing the former. The ratio between the voltage at the primary coil

V and the voltage at the secondary coil V would have to

direction of the force on the charge.

72

Primary

winding

Secondary

winding

NP turns

Primary

current

NS turns

Magnetic

Flux,

IP

Secondary

IS current

Primary

voltage

VP

Secondary

voltage

VS

Transform

er

Core

core.

Vp

Vs

Np

Ns

of it is converted into heat by eddy currents. In a transformer, the magnetic ux created by the primary coil induces a current in the core. This occurs in order to oppose

the change that produced the magnetic ux (Lenzs Law).

The currents owing in the core are called eddy currents.

These currents produce heat, using up energy and so causing ineciency. One way of minimising the eects of

eddy currents is to make the core out of iron laminate.

This is layers of iron separated by thin layers of an insulator such as varnish. The amplitude of the eddy currents

produced is reduced as currents cannot ow through the

layers of insulator. (Note: OCR B question papers tend

to have a question on eddy currents.)

15.4.3 Questions

be (since is constant):

Np d

dt

Ns d

dt

where N and N are the numbers of coils in the primary 50 coils on the other. If 30 kV AC is put in, what voltage

comes out?

and secondary coils respectively.

In other words, we can change the voltage of some electricity by varying the number of coils in each coil. In

order for this to work, the current used must be an alternating current (AC). This means that the current and

voltage are constantly changing sinusoidally, and so there

is a sinusoidal change in ux. This means that an emf is

induced in the secondary coil. If the ux did not change

(i.e. we were using direct current), then no emf would be

induced, and the transformer would be useless except as

a magnet (since it would still have a ux circuit in it).

980 coils on the other. If 25 kV AC comes out, what

voltage was put in?

3. An ideal transformer transforms a 50A current into

a 1A current. It has 40 coils on the primary coil. How

many coils are in the secondary coil?

4. Transformers tend to vibrate. Why is this? What eect

does this have on the eciency of the transformer?

5. Air does have some permeability. What eect does

this have on the eciency of the transformer? Why?

Worked Solutions

15.4.1

Ideal Transformers

Physics)/Motors

An ideal transformer is one in which all the electrical energy put into one coil comes out of the other coil. An

ideal transformer does not exist, but, since it makes the Just as a moving magnetic eld induces current in conducmaths easy, we like to pretend that it does. In this case, tors, a changing current in a magnetic eld induces mothe power in must equal the power out:

tion. When this motion is used to ensure that the current

keeps changing relative to the magnetic eld, the motion

P = Pp = Ps = Ip Vp = Is Vs ,

will continue, and so we have an electric motor. There

where I and I are the currents in the primary and secare several types of electric motor.

ondary coils, respectively. So:

Vp =

P

Ip

and Vs =

P

Is

P

Ip

P

Is

1

Ip

1

Is

and a direct current is run through the coil, the coil tries

So, in an ideal transformer, the ratio between the voltages to align itself with the eld since it becomes an electrois equal to the ratio between the numbers of coils, but the magnet. This would be useless as a motor, since it would

ratio between the currents is equal to the reciprocal of the always move to the same position when you turned it on,

ratio between the numbers of coils.

and then stop. If, however, we use a split-ring commutaNp

Ns

Vp

Vs

Is

Ip

73

the coils. The converse would be true for its south pole.

This means that the rotating magnetic eld drags the magnet around with it, causing the magnet to rotate with the

same frequency as the magnetic eld. The disadvantage

of this type of motor is that it goes at one frequency only

- the frequency of the current.

The permanent magnet can be replaced with a coil with

direct current in it. This creates a magnetic eld, the advantage being that there is no need for a permanent magnet which is expensive and heavy. The main disadvantages are that electricity must be used to power the electromagnet, and that a slip-ring commutator must be used

to prevent the coil getting tangled up and stopping the

motor from running.

the poles.

tor which changes the direction of the current every halfrotation, then the coil would try to align itself in the opposite direction every half-rotation. This means that, once

the rotor starts to move, it continues to move. This is a

DC electric motor. The permanent magnets can be replaced with electromagnets as well. The main advantage

of this type of motor is that the commutator works, regardless of the frequency of rotation.

rotor.

15.5.2

Three-phase Motor

The three-phase power produced by a three-phase generator may be used to power a motor. Each phase of power

is connected to one of three coils. This creates a magnetic

eld which rotates once for each cycle of the power. If a

permanent magnet is placed in the middle, at any given

time, its north pole will be attracted to a south pole in one

of the coils, and will be repelled by a north pole in one of

that the rotor is no longer a permanent magnet. Instead,

a series of metal rods run through the rotor, connected to

each other at either ends. The rods run perpendicular to

the rotating magnetic eld. Once the rotor starts to rotate,

an electric current is created in the rods - eddy currents.

This creates a magnetic eld which is perpendicular to the

rotating magnetic at all times. As the rotating magnetic

eld created by the stator rotates, it pulls the induced magnetic eld around after it, causing the rotor to continue to

rotate.

A squirrel cage motor relies on the fact that the two magnetic elds are rotating at dierent rates. If they were not,

then there would be no change in ux in the rotor, and so

no eddy currents would be induced.

15.5.3 Questions

1. How could you adapt the simple DC motor to use AC?

2. Why does a three-phase motor have a constant angular

velocity?

74

4. How could the angular velocity of a three-phase motor

be increased?

5. A squirrel-cage motor relies on eddy currents running

along the rotor to function. However, if eddy currents run

across the rotor, then the force on the rotor is reduced.

How may these eddy currents be reduced without reducing the desired eddy currents?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Generators

AC generator.

would be ne for the rst few rotations, but after this, the

wires would get tangled up and the generator would be

useless. To avoid this, we use a commutator. In an AC

generator, this is a pair of rotating conducting 'slip rings

attached to either end of the coil. Carbon brushes bring

these into contact with the outside world.

DC Generator

current in a coil of wire. One way of changing the ux

is to move the magnet. Alternatively, we can move the

coil relative to the magnet. Generators work on this principle - a non-electrical source of energy is used to rotate

something (known as the rotor), which induces an electric current in either the rotor or the stator (the stationary

part of any electromagnetic machine). For a generator,

the relationships between the directions of current, eld

and motion are given by Flemings right-hand rule (right).

15.6.1

Moving Coil

If we replace the slip-ring commutator in an AC generator with a pair of brushes which the ends of the coil rotate

inside, the generator creates direct current (DC) instead.

Halfway through the rotation, the brushes come into contact with the other end of the coil, and so the AC changes

direction every half a rotation. This approximates to a direct current. This direct current is not perfect since it consists of a series of positive-voltage pulses. These pulses

can be smoothed out using a capacitor or a complex system of commutators.

AC Generator

If a coil of wire is placed in a magnetic eld and rotated,

an alternating (sinusoidal) current is induced. As it rotates, sometimes it is 'cutting' through lots of ux, and so

lots of current is induced. At other times, it is moving

parallel to the ux, and so no ux is cut, and no current

is induced. In between, some current is induced. This

creates an alternating current.

Simple AC Generator

An alternative method of generating an alternating current is to rotate a permanent magnet in a gap between

two coils. This has the advantage of not requiring a commutator (the coil is the stator), but often a coil is lighter

Either end of the coil can be connected to wires outside of than a magnet, and so it is more ecient to use a rotating

the generator in order to use the current elsewhere. This coil.

Three-Phase Generator

If we place three pairs of coils, evenly spaced, around

the rotating magnet, then three dierent alternating currents, with three dierent phases, will be generated. This

is a more ecient method of generating electricity, since

current is always being generated. The sum of all three

currents is zero, so three dierent cables must be used to

transport the currents. Three-phase power is often used

in motors with three coils in the stator.

15.6.3

Questions

current' produced by a DC generator, and this current

once it has been smoothed with a capacitor.

2. What is the phase dierence (in radians) between the

voltages produced by a three-phase generator?

3. According to Faradays law, what three things will increase the amplitude of the emf created by a generator?

4. If an albatross touched two power cables carrying AC

in phase, what would happen?

5. What would happen if the two cables carried threephase power?

Worked Solutions

75

Chapter 16

Electric Fields

16.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Electric Force

the plates is 20V, and the plates are 10cm apart. What

force is acting on the electron? In what direction?

is constant, irrespective of the mass of the objects it is

Electric elds are caused by charge. This charge can be

acting on. The acceleration due to electricity around a

either positive or negative. Like charges repel each other,

point charge is not. Use Newtons Second Law (F=ma)

and opposite charges attract each other. If we have two

to explain this.

point charges of charge Q and q respectively, and they are

4. An insulator contains charged particles, even though

a distance r apart, the force on each of them is:

the overall charge on the insulator is 0. Why is the insuQq

kQq

Felectric = r2 = 40 r2 ,

lator attracted by a nearby charge?

where k and 0 are constants (k = 8.99 x 109 Nm2 C2 ,0 5. Where in the charged conducting plates which create a

= 8.85 x 1012 C2 N1 m2 ). This means that, twice as far uniform electric eld would you expect to nd the charge

away from the point charge, the force on another charge located? Why?

decreases by a factor of 4. Electric force around a point

charge is very similar to gravitational force around a point Worked Solutions

mass.

A uniform electric eld consists of two conducting plates.

These plates are oppositely charged, and innitely wide. 16.2 A-level Physics (Advancing

Obviously, innitely wide conducting plates do not exist,

Physics)/Electric Field

so uniform electric elds do not exist. However, elds

which approximate uniform electric elds do exist, provided we look towards the middle of the plates, and the Electric eld E is the force per. unit charge caused by an

plates are not too far apart - at the ends, the formulae for electric eld:

uniform elds no longer apply.

Eelectric = Felectric

q

The force on a charge in a uniform electric eld is given

The unit of electric eld is NC1 or Vm1 .In general,

by:

the electric eld is the rate of change of electric potential

Felectric = qV

(voltage) with respect to distance:

d ,

where V is the potential dierence between the two Eelectric = dVelectric

dx

plates, q is the charge of the point charge upon which

the force is acting, and d is the distance between the two

plates. This force remains constant as the charge travels 16.2.1 Special Cases

within the electric eld.

16.1.1

Questions

e = 1.6 x 1019 C

know about. Uniform elds occur between two plates

with opposite charges. Here, the electric eld is simply:

Eelectric =

Velectric

d

A charged sphere also has an electric eld. To gain a for1. A positron (charge +e) is 1 m from a lithium nucleus

mula for this, we divide the formula for force around a

(charge +3e). What is the magnitude of the force acting

charged sphere by q, so:

on each of the particles? In what direction is it acting?

Eelectric = 4Q0 r2 ,

2. An electron is 1mm from the positively charged plate in

a uniform electric eld. The potential dierence between where 0 = 8.85 x 1012 C2 N1 m2 .

76

77

eld. The eld strength is highest at the centre and decreases as the distance from the centre increases. This is

reected in the above formula, which shows that E

is proportional to r12 .

16.2.2

Field Lines

from positive charge to negative charge. They are more

closely packed together when the electric eld is stronger.

In a uniform eld, they look like the following:

16.2.3 Questions

1. Two metal plates are connected to a 9V battery with

negligible internal resistance. If the plates are 10cm

apart, what is the electric eld at either of the plates?

2. What is the electric eld at the midpoint between the

plates?

3. The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 1019 C. What is

the electric eld 1m from a hydrogen nucleus?

4. What is the direction of this eld?

5. A 2C charge is placed 1m from a 1C charge. At what

Around two oppositely charged spheres (known as a point will the electric eld be 0?

dipole), they look like the following:

Worked Solutions

78

Physics)/Electric Potential

Equipotentials are a bit like contours on a map. Contours

are lines which join up all the points which have the same

height. Equipotentials join up all the points which have

Relationship to Electric Potential the same electric potential. They always run perpendicEnergy

ular to electric eld lines. As the eld lines get closer

together, the equipotentials get closer together.

16.3.1

that the energy U which ows along a wire is given by:

U =Vq,

16.3.4 Questions

where V is the potential dierence between either end of 0 = 8.85 x 1012 Fm1

the wire, and q is the amount of charge which ows. A

1. Draw a diagram of a uniform electric eld between

simple rearrangement shows that:

two plates, showing the eld lines and the equipotentials.

V = Uq

2. Do the same for the electric eld around a point charge.

This potential dierence is the same thing as electric

3. The potential dierence between two plates is 100V.

potential. In a wire, the electric eld is very simple.

What is the potential dierence between a point halfway

There are other electric elds, and in these elds as well,

between the plates and one of the plates?

the electric potential is the electric potential energy per.

unit charge. Electric potential energy between two point 4. What is the electric potential at a point 0.2m from an

alpha particle (charge on an electron = 1.6 x 1019 C)?

charges Q and q is given by:

5. What is the electric potential energy of an electron at

the negative electrode of an electron gun if the potential

So, the electric potential at a distance r from any point

dierence between the electrodes is 10V?

charge Q (ignoring other charges) is:

Worked Solutions

Q

V = 4

0r

U=

Qq

40 r

Physics)/Electric

Potential

Energy

16.3.2 Relationship to Electric Field

Strength

Just as an object at a distance r from a sphere has gravitational potential energy, a charge at a distance r from

Electric potential is also the integral of electric eld another charge has electrical potential energy . This

strength. This is why it is often called potential dier- is given by the formula:

ence - it is an integral between two limits (two points in

space) with respect to distance. So, the potential dier- elec = Velec q ,

ence between two points a and b is:

where V is the potential dierence between the two

[

]b

charges Q and q. In a uniform eld, voltage is given by:

b

b Q

Q

Vab = a E dx = a 40 x2 dx = 4

x

0

a

Velec = Eelec d ,

But, if we dene b as innity and a as r:

where d is distance, and E is electric eld strength.

[

]

)

(

Combining these two formulae, we get:

V = Q

= Q Q

= Q

40 x

40

40 r

40 r

So, the area under a graph of electric eld strength against elec = qEelec d

distance, between two points, is the potential dierence For the eld around a point charge, the situation is dierent. By the same method, we get:

between those two points.

For a uniform electric eld, E is constant, so:

V = r E dx = Er

elec =

kQq

r

In other words, V is proportional to r. If we double the some other sort of energy. You should also note that force

distance between us and a point, the potential dierence is the rate of change of energy with respect to distance,

between us and that point will also double in a uniform and that,therefore:

elec = F dr

electric eld.

16.4.1

The Electronvolt

charge of a proton or a positron. Its denition is the kinetic energy gained by an electron which has been accelerated through a potential dierence of 1V:

1 eV = 1.6 x 1019 J

For example: If a proton has an energy of 5MeV then in

Joules it will be = 5 x 106 x 1.6 x 1019 = 8 x 1013 J.

Using eV is an advantage when high energy particles are

involved as in case of particle accelerators.

16.4.2

You should now know (if you did the electric elds section

in the right order) about four attributes of electric elds:

force, eld strength, potential energy and potential. These

can be summarised by the following table:

This table is very similar to that for gravitational elds.

The only dierence is that eld strength and potential

are per. unit charge, instead of per. unit mass. This

means that eld strength is not the same as acceleration.

Remember that integrate means 'nd the area under the

graph' and dierentiate (the reverse process) means 'nd

the gradient of the graph'.

16.4.3

Questions

1. Convert 5 x 1013 J to MeV.

2. Convert 0.9 GeV to J.

3. What is the potential energy of an electron at the negatively charged plate of a uniform electric eld when the

potential dierence between the two plates is 100V?

4. What is the potential energy of a 2C charge 2cm from

a 0.5C charge?

5. What is represented by the gradient of a graph of electric potential energy against distance from some charge?

Worked Solutions

79

Chapter 17

Particle Physics

17.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/The Standard Model

The standard model of particle physics attempts to explain everything in the universe in terms of fundamental

particles. A fundamental particle is one which cannot be

broken down into anything else. These fundamental particles are the building blocks of matter, and the things

which hold matter together.

groups: fermions and bosons. Fermions are the building blocks of matter. They all obey the Pauli exclusion

principle. Bosons are force-carriers. They carry the elecThe standard model is usually represented by the follow- tromagnetic, strong, and weak forces between fermions.

ing diagram:

80

17.1.1

Bosons

81

What is the charge and rest mass of a positron?

There are four bosons in the right-hand column of the Worked Solutions

standard model. The photon carries the electromagnetic

force - photons are responsible for electromagnetic radiation, electric elds and magnetic elds. The gluon carries

the strong nuclear force - they 'glue' quarks together to 17.2 A-level Physics (Advancing

make up larger non-fundamental particles. The W+ , WPhysics)/Quarks

and Z0 bosons carry the weak nuclear force. When one

quark changes into another quark, it gives o one of these

Quarks (pronounced like 'orcs with a 'qu' on the front)

bosons, which in turn decays into fermions.

are a subset of the fermions - they make up part of matter, most notably the nuclei of atoms. Quarks interact

with all four of the fundamental forces: gravity, electro17.1.2 Fermions

magnetism, and the weak and strong nuclear forces.

Fermions, in turn, can be put into two categories: quarks

and leptons. Quarks make up, amongst other things, the

protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Leptons include

electrons and neutrinos. The dierence between quarks

and leptons is that quarks interact with the strong nuclear

force, whereas leptons do not.

17.2.1 Generations

of fermions. The rst contains the up quark ( u ), down

quark ( d ), antiup quark ( u

) and antidown quark ( d

). The second generation contains the charm quark ( c ),

strange quark ( s ), anticharm quark ( c ) and antistrange

17.1.3 Generations

quark ( s ). The third generation contains the top quark (

t ), bottom quark ( b ), antitop quark ( t ) and antibottom

Fermions are also divided into three generations. The rst quark ( b ).

generation contains the fermions which we are made of

- electrons, the up and down quarks, and the neutrino.

The rst generation particles have less mass than the sec- 17.2.2 Charge

ond, and the second generation particles have less mass

than their respective third generation particles. The sec- The up, charm and top quarks have a charge of +e, and

ond generation (the generation) contains two leptons: so their respective antiparticles have a charge of -e. The

the muon and the muon-neutrino. It also contains the down, strange and bottom quarks have a charge of -e,

charm and strange quarks. The third generation (the and so their respective antiparticles have a charge of +e.

generation) contains another two leptons: the tau and the

tau-neutrino. Its quarks are the top and bottom quarks.

17.2.3 Hadrons

17.1.4

Antiparticles

which are not fundamental. These larger particles are

Every fermion has its antiparticle. An antiparticle has the known as hadrons and are held together by the strong nusame mass as a particle, but the opposite charge. So, the clear force. There are two types of hadrons: baryons and

standard model contains 12 quarks, 12 leptons, and the mesons.

bosons (which are even more complex).

Baryons

17.1.5

Questions

The two most common baryons are the proton and the

1. The third generation top quark was the last quark in the

neutron. Protons are made up of two up quarks and one

Standard Model to have its existence proven experimendown quark, giving them a total charge of +1e. Neutrons

tally (in 1995). It is also the most massive of the quarks.

are made up of one up quark and two down quarks, giving

Why was it so dicult to observe a top quark?

them net charge of 0.

2. What observable phenomena does the Standard Model

not explain?

Mesons

3. How much more massive is an up quark than an electron?

Mesons are hadrons which are made up of a quark and

4. How many fermions are there in the Standard Model? an antiquark. For example, pions are made up of two

82

up quark and an antiup quark, or a down quark and an

antidown quark. The + is made up of an up quark and an

antidown quark (total charge +1e), and The - is made up

of a down quark and an antiup quark (total charge 1e).

17.2.4

light, it makes a 45 angle. Bosons are virtual particles,

so they are given wavy lines. So, a photon travelling at

the speed of light from A to B looks like the following:

Questions

total charge?

2. The - baryon has a total charge of 1e. Given that

it is made up of only one type of rst generation quark,

what is this quark?

3. What is an antiproton made of? What is its charge?

4. A K+ meson is made of an up quark and an antistrange

quark. What is its total charge?

5. Lambda () baryons are made up of an up quark, a

down quark, and another quark (not an antiquark). The

0 is neutral, and contains a second generation quark.

What is this quark?

Worked Solutions

other. These interactions must take place at a denite

point in space-time. They can be represented by a certain point on a Feynman diagram, with lines coming in

and out of the point representing the velocities of particles which take part in the interaction.

17.3.2 Photons

Physics)/Bosons

Bosons are particles with an integer spin, such as 1, 2

etc and mediate a specic force. All interactions can be

described by one of the four forces, gravity, electromagnetic, weak and strong which are caused by the release of

a corresponding boson.

17.3.1

Feynman Diagrams

and carry the electromagnetic force. They are 'given o'

by one particle, causing it to change its velocity. They

are then 'received' by another particle, causing it too to

change its velocity. This can be represented on a Feynman diagram in the following way:

e-

e-

e-

e-

One way of representing these interactions is the Feynman diagram. This is a graph with time on the vertical

axis, and space on the horizontal axis showing the paths

of particles through space and time as lines. So, a stationary electron looks like this:

W and Z bosons carry the weak nuclear force between

particles. This occurs, for example, in decay, which actually takes place in two stages. First, a proton turns into

a neutron (or vice versa), emitting a W boson. Then, the

W boson 'turns into' an electron / positron and an (anti-)

neutrino. This is shown in the following Feynman diaIt is often useful to dene our units of space and time in gram:

83

17.4.2 Neutrinos

Neutrinos are chargeless, and almost massless. Loads of

them travel around the universe and through you at speeds

close to the speed of light. The symbol for a neutrino is

the Greek letter nu (), with its generation (e, or ) in

subscript. If it is an antineutrino, the symbol has a bar

above it. So, the symbol for a muon-antineutrino is .

17.3.4

Gluons

them together. Quarks have a property known as 'colour',

as do gluons. The gluons carry colour between the quarks,

mediating the colour force. The strong force is the residual colour force that holds hadrons together. You probably won't be asked about gluons in the exam.

17.3.5

Questions

have a lepton number of 1. In a nuclear reaction, the

lepton number before the reaction must equal the lepton

number after the reaction. This necessitates the existence

of neutrinos. When a nucleus gives o a beta particle

(electron), the lepton number before the emission is 0.

Without neutrinos, the lepton number after the emission

would be 1, not 0. In reality, an electron-antineutrino is

also emitted, with a lepton number of 1, and so the total

lepton number both sides of the reaction is 0.

1. A stationary light source emits single photons at regular The situation is actually slightly more complicated, as the

lepton number from each generation of particles must also

intervals. Draw a Feynman diagram to represent this.

be conserved. The lepton number from the beta particle

2. Write two equations (including a W+ boson) which cannot be balanced out by a tauon-antineutrino, since this

describe positron emission.

is from a dierent generation.

3. What is the charge on a W- boson?

4. Read Richard Feynmans excellent book, QED - the

Strange Theory of Light and Matter, ISBN 978-0-14012505-4.

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Leptons

17.4.4 Questions

1. An electron is produced by a nuclear reaction, but an

electron-antineutrino is not produced. What other particle is produced?

2. Why do electrons not make up part of the nucleus?

Leptons are particles which interact with all the funda- 3. Why did it take until the 1950s to detect the rst anmental forces except for the strong nuclear force. There tineutrino?

are two types of leptons: electrons and neutrinos.

4. Complete the following equation for the emission of a

beta particle from a nucleus:

17.4.1

Electrons

They are responsible, amongst other things, for the whole

of chemistry since, as they occupy the quantum states

around the nucleus. There are three types of electrons:

the electron (e- ), the muon (- ), and the tauon(- ), one

for each generation. These electrons have antiparticles,

each with a charge of +1.6 x 1019 C: the positron (e+ ),

the antimuon (+ ), and the antitauon (+ ), respectively.

1

0n

11 p + ? + ?

an antielectron from a nucleus:

1

1p

10 n + ? + ?

electron by a nucleus:

1

1 p+

? 10 n + ?

Worked Solutions

84

Physics)/Millikans Experiment

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Pair Production and

Annihilation

1.6 x 1019 C. This was rst proven by Robert Millikan

in 1909. Millikan sprayed drops of oil which were then

charged (ionised) either by friction as they were sprayed,

or with x-rays. They were then allowed to fall into a uniform electric eld.

17.6.1

Pair Production

Sometimes, a photon turns into a particle and its antiparticle, for example, an electron and a positron. It could not

turn into just an electron, since this would leave the lepton

number unbalanced. The photon must have enough energy to create the masses of the two particles. The energy

required to create one of the particles is given by:

E = mc2 ,

Once in the uniform electric eld, the strength of the eld

was adjusted in order to keep an oil drop stationary. This

was done by hand, looking through a microscope. In a

stationary position, the gravitational force and the electric

force were balanced - there was no net force on the oil

drop. So, at this point:

qV

d

light (3 x 108 ms1 ). However, two particles must be created. Since the two particles are each others antiparticle,

they have identical masses. So, the total energy required

is:

E = 2mc2

= mg

voltage between the two plates. The voltage at which

the drops were stationary was measured. The charge on

each drop was then calculated. Millikan found that these

charges were all multiples of 1.6 x 1019 C, thus showing that the charge of each drop was made up of smaller

charges with a charge of 1.6 x 1019 C.

17.5.1

Questions

17.6.2 Annihilation

When a particle meets its antiparticle, the two annihilate each other to form 2 photons (due to conservation

of momentum) with sum total energy equivalent to the

total mass-energy of both particles.

Sometimes, a pair of particles annihilates, but then the

photon produces another pair of particles. Also, a photon

could produce a pair of particles which then annihilate

each other.

h = 6.63 x 1034 Js

c = 3 x 108 ms1

2

g = 9.81 ms

17.6.3 Questions

h = 6.63 x 1034 Js

2. The mass of an oil drop cannot be measured easily. the minimum amount of energy a photon must have to

Express the mass of an oil drop in terms of its radius r create an electron?

and its density , and, by substitution, nd a more useful

2. A 1.1 MeV electron annihilates with a 1.1 MeV

formula for q.

positron. What is the total energy of the photon pro3. An oil droplet of density 885kgm3 and radius 1m duced?

is held stationary in between two plates which are 10cm

apart. At what potential dierences between the plates is 3. What is its frequency?

this possible?

4. What is its wavelength?

4. If the X-rays used to ionise the oil are of wavelength 5. A newly produced electron-positron pair are likely

1nm, how much energy do they give to the electrons? to annihilate almost immediately. Under what circumWhy does this mean that the oil drops are ionised?

stances can this be avoided?

5. In reality, the oil drops are moving when they enter the Worked Solutions

Physics)/Particle Accelerators

85

the electric eld, the radii of their orbits increase, and

their velocities increase, until the radius is as large as the

cyclotron.

to be accelerated to very high energies. This is accomplished by passing them through an electric eld multi- 17.7.3 Questions

ple times, in a similar fashion to an electron gun. Types

of particle accelerator include linear accelerators and cy- 1. Use the formula for centripetal force to show that the

radius of motion depends on the speed of the moving obclotrons.

ject.

2. A cyclotron with a diameter of 1.5m is used to accelerate electrons (mass 9.11 x 1031 kg). The maximum

force exerted on an electron is 2.4 x 1018 N. What is the

In a linear accelerator, particles pass through a series of

maximum velocity of the electrons?

tubes. At either end of each tube are electrodes. An alternating current is used. This means that, when particles 3. What are the problems involved in constructing a large

pass an electrode to which they are being attracted, the cyclotron?

electrode switches charge, and starts to repel the parti- 4. Why don't particles stick to the electrodes when passcle. The distances between electrodes increase as you go ing through them?

along the accelerator, since, as the particles accelerate,

Worked Solutions

they travel further per. oscillation of the current.

17.7.1

Linear Accelerators

Physics)/Cloud

Chambers

and Mass Spectrometers

Aerial photo of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, with detector complex at the right (east) side

A cloud chamber without a magnetic eld, so the particles move

in straight lines.

17.7.2

Cyclotrons

A cyclotron is like a linear accelerator, except that, instead of using lots of dierent electrodes, it uses the same

two over and over again. The particles move around in a

circle due to a magnetic eld. The radius of this circle

depends on the velocity of the particles. The orbits of the

particles are enclosed by two semi-cylindrical electrodes.

An alternating current is used to accelerate the particles.

When the particles enter one half of the cyclotron, they

are pulled back to the other half. When they reach the

other half, the current switches over, and they are pulled

back to the rst half. All the time, the magnetic eld

The magnitude of the magnetic force on a moving

charged particle is given by:

F = qvB ,

where B is the magnetic eld strength, v is the speed of the

particle and q is the charge on the particle. This force is

exerted in a direction perpendicular to both the magnetic

eld and the direction of motion. If a charged particle

enters a uniform magnetic eld which is perpendicular to

86

be a force of constant magnitude acting on it in a direction perpendicular to its motion. Using the equation for

centripetal force, we can derive a formula for the radius

of this circle:

mv 2

r = qvB

mv

r = qB

p

r = mv

qB = qB

mass of the particle. This equation makes sense. If the

particle has a higher momentum, then its circle of motion will have a larger radius. A stronger magnetic eld

strength, or a larger charge, will make the radius smaller.

Velocity Selector

In the velocity selector, both a uniform electric eld and

a uniform magnetic eld act on the particle. The only

way a particle can travel through the velocity selector in

a straight line is if the electric force on it is equal and

opposite to the magnetic force on it. If this is not the case,

the particles path is bent, and so it does not get out of the

velocity selector into the rest of the mass spectrometer.

If we equate these two forces, we get:

qE = qvB ,

the uniform electric eld, v is the velocity of the particle,

and B is the strength of the uniform magnetic eld. The

In a cloud chamber, particles enter a magnetic eld, and charge may be eliminated from both sides:

also a liquid which they ionise. This ionisation causes E = vB

the paths of the particles to become visible. When the

particle loses its charge, its track ceases. When the parti- Therefore:

E

cle loses momentum, the radius of the circle decreases, v = B

and so, particles spiral inwards. The direction of this

This means that, by adjusting the strengths of the electric

spiralling depends on the direction of the magnetic eld.

and magnetic elds, we can choose the velocity at which

If the direction of the magnetic eld causes a positively

particles emerge from the velocity selector.

charged particle to spiral clockwise, then it will cause a

negatively charged particle to spiral anticlockwise. Cloud

chambers can, therefore, be used to identify particles by

their charge and mass.

17.8.2

Mass Spectrometers

Mass spectrometers work on a similar principle. Particles to be identied (such as nuclei) are accelerated using

an electric eld. Then, a velocity selector is used to ensure all the nuclei are at a known velocity - all the rest are

discarded. These nuclei enter a uniform magnetic eld

where they move in a circle. However, they are only allowed to move half a circle, since they are collected at this

point, and the number of particles arriving at each point Diagram of the mass spectrometer which went to the moon on

Apollo 16.

is measured.

Finding Mass

The particles them move at a speed v into another uniform

magnetic eld. Here, as in the cloud chamber, the radius

of the circle in which the particle moves is given by:

r=

mv

qB

mEselector

qBBselector

know what element it is), we can measure the radius of the

circle, and nd the mass of the particle (i.e. what isotope

it is, since neutrons have no charge) using the formula:

m=

A velocity selector

qBr

v

qrBBselector

Eselector

to charge ratio:

m

q

rBBselector

Eselector

17.8.3

Questions

Mass of electron = 9.11 x 1031 kg

u = 1.66 x 1027 kg

1. An electron enters a cloud chamber, passing into a

0.1T magnetic eld. The initial curvature (the reciprocal

of its radius) of its path is 100m1 . At what speed was it

moving when it entered the magnetic eld?

2. The electron spirals inwards in a clockwise direction,

as show in the diagram on the right. What would the path

of a positron, moving with an identical speed, look like?

3. Using a 2T magnetic eld, what electric eld strength

must be used to get a velocity selector to select only particles which are moving at 100ms1 ?

4. Some uranium (atomic number 92) ions (charge +3e)

of various isotopes are put through the velocity selector

described in question 3. They then enter an 0.00002T

uniform magnetic eld. What radius of circular motion

would uranium-235 have?

Worked Solutions

87

Chapter 18

Nuclear Physics

18.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Quantum Principles

particles are greater than the repulsive forces. However,

the moment they try and do this, then they must be moving at dierent velocities, and so no longer be collapsing

There are two principles which you do not need to know in on each other.

for the exam, but may be helpful in understanding some

of the concepts in the course.

18.1.1

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that the momentum and position of an object are limited. Within a

certain uncertainty, when we measure a quantums position, it does not have a denite momentum. When we

measure its momentum, it ceases to have a denite position. If we try and measure both, the uncertainty in both

will be limited. If we let the uncertainty in our knowledge

of momentum be p, and the uncertainty in our knowledge of position be x:

xp =

h

4

Physics)/Radioactive Emissions

Heisenberg uncertainty principle explains what happens

when electrons occupy energy levels - within these levels, they are limited to a certain range of momentums

and positions, but it is meaningless to say which exact

momentum and position they occupy. If we measure the

momentum with no uncertainty, then the uncertainty in

position becomes innite, and vice versa.

18.1.2

(a set of particles including the electron) may occupy the

same quantum state as each other. In laymans inaccurate

terms, this means that, although two such particles can be

in the same place as each other, if they are, they will be

moving at dierent velocities and so will shortly no longer Table of the number of neutrons and protons in the nuclei of

be in the same place as each other.

isotopes, showing their most common mode of decay.

This is why, for example, electrons appear to have 'shells

- there is only a limited number of quantum states that the 'Radioactivity' is a catch-all term for several dierent

electrons can occupy, so some have to occupy a dierent emissions from the nuclei of 'radioactive' atoms. There

'shell'. Also, without the Pauli exclusion principle, matter are three main types of radiation: alpha (), beta () and

88

89

gamma (). When radiation occurs, four things must be - it takes the form of a photon. The structure of the nuconserved:

cleus is not changed by radiation. radiation is ionising,

but only at the right frequency - the resonant frequency of

the things it ionises. radiation travels very far, and only

Mass

a good thick layer of lead can stop it.

Charge

Lepton Number

18.2.4 Questions

You will need a periodic table.

Baryon Number

what isotope, is produced by this decay?

In formulae, mass and charge are shown next to the symbol of the particle. For example, a neutron with mass 1u

and no charge is 10 n . The charge on a nucleus is equal to

the number of protons in the nucleus (electrons can be ignored). The lepton and baryon numbers may be obtained

by counting the number of leptons and baryons on either

side of the equation, remembering that antiparticles have

negative lepton and baryon numbers.

isotope, is produced by this decay?

18.2.1

emission. What was emitted?

Radiation

doesn't the food become radioactive?

4. Plutonium-244 decays by emitting an particle. It

does this twice, emits a - particle, and then emits a further two particles. The nucleus becomes a dierent element each time. What element is produced at the end?

Unstable nuclei with a mass greater than 82u emit ra- 6. Uranium-236 decays, following the equation:

diation. This consists of an Helium nucleus ( 42 He ). The 236

U 232

90 T h + X

alpha particle simply splits o from the nucleus. Since 92

the particle has no electrons, it has a charge of +2e. This, Identify the particle X in this equation.

combined with its relatively large mass, means that it re- Worked Solutions

acts easily with other particles, ionising them, meaning

that it cannot penetrate more than a few centimetres of

air.

18.2.2

Radiation

There are two types of radiation. - radiation consists

of an electron ( 01 e ). This is produced by nuclei with

many more neutrons than protons. A neutron changes

into a proton, emitting an electron and an antineutrino

in order to balance the lepton number. + radiation consists of an positron ( 01 e ). This is produced by nuclei

with roughly the same number of neutrons as protons. A

proton changes into a neutron, emitting a positron and a

neutrino.

Physics)/Energy Levels

As an electron approaches a nucleus from innity, it becomes 'bound' - it is attached to the nucleus, if you like.

In this bound state, the electron occupies what is called

an energy level. A nucleus has a discrete number of energy levels, and so electrons bound to a certain nucleus

can only take on certain potential energies. These energies are negative by convention.

the next lowest n=2, and so on. The values of these can

be found using formulae which you don't need to know

particles also ionise particles, but since they have less about. Alternatively, they may be determined experimencharge and mass, they do this less easily, and so they travel tally.

further (on average). Both and radiation result in the At random, electrons jump between energy levels. If they

nucleus which emitted them being changed into another jump to a lower energy level (more negative), they release

element (Transmutation).

energy in the form of a photon. If they jump to a higher

energy level, they must absorb a photon of the appropriate

energy. The energies of these photons can be calculated

18.2.3 Radiation

using the following formulae, which you should already

know from AS:

The binding energies of nuclei are quantized - they can

only take on certain values. When an electron jumps E = hf

down an energy level, this energy has to go somewhere c = f ,

90

n=3?

4. If an electron were to jump from n=7 to n=5, what

would the wavelength of the photon given o be?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Fission

Nuclear ssion is the splitting of the nucleus of a massive

atom into smaller nuclei. This is used to produce energy

in power stations and nuclear bombs.

n=3 level to the n=2 level gives rise to visible light of wavelength

656 nm (red).

to split apart. This is achieved by getting the nucleus to

absorb a slow-moving neutron. When the nucleus splits,

where E is energy, h is Plancks constant (6.63 x 1034 J it releases energy, two components, and possibly some

s), f is frequency, c is the speed of light, and is wave- more neutrons. If at least one neutron is released, then

a chain reaction occurs. This neutron goes on to make

length.

another nucleus unstable, which splits, and produces more

The energy levels of dierent nuclei are dierent. Evneutrons, and so on.

idence for these energy levels comes from the emission

and absorption spectra of atoms. An emission spectrum If this chain reaction is uncontrolled, a massive amount of

can be obtained by heating a sample of an element. This energy is released very fast. This is an atomic explosion,

gives the electrons energy, so they jump up the energy which is used in nuclear bombs. In order to use nuclear

levels. At random, they then jump down again, giving ssion in a power station, the number of neutrons released

o photons with measurable frequencies. The formu- must be controlled by inserting a substance such as boron

lae above can be used to calculate the dierence in en- into the reactor, which absorbs the neutrons, preventing

ergy between the levels between which the electrons have them from going on to make more nuclei split.

jumped.

An absorption spectrum can be found by passing light

through (for example) a gas, and observing the frequencies of light which are absorbed. These frequencies correspond to jumps between energy levels which electrons

have undergone when they absorb the photons, gaining

energy.

binding energy of the original nucleus is greater than the

binding energy of the products of the ssion reaction.

This dierence in binding energy is the amount of enIt should be noted that electrons do not always jump to ergy released as photons (some of which are infra-red).

the next-door energy level - they can, in principle, jump This energy is used to heat up steam, pressurizing it, and

to any energy level. They cannot jump to an energy which enabling it to turn a turbine, producing electricity.

is not that of an energy level.

18.3.1

Questions

nucleus to become unstable and split. If they are moving

The following table gives the wavelengths of light given

too fast, then they simply bounce o. A neutron moderao when electrons change between the energy levels in

tor (such as graphite or heavy water) is used to slow them

hydrogen as described in the rst row:

down.

1. Calculate the potential energy of an electron at level

n=2.

18.4.4 Questions

levels n=2 and n=3.

1. A neutron is red at some Uranium-235. Barium-141

3. What is the potential energy of an electron at level and Krypton-92 are produced:

1

0n

141

92

1

+235

92 U 56 Ba +36 Kr + N0 n

91

18.5.2 Uses

of N)?

Nuclear fusion was used by humans for the rst time in

2. What proportion of the neutrons produced must be the hydrogen bomb, whereby a nuclear ssion reaction

would occur, releasing enough thermal energy so that nuabsorbed in order to make the reaction stable?

clear fusion could occur, which would release free neu3. What would happen if too many neutrons were ab- trons allowing the nuclear ssion reaction to be more

sorbed?

ecient, with more of the unstable isotope undergoing

4. Alternatively, Uranium-235 can split into Xenon-140, ssion as well as a modest amount of energy being retwo neutrons and another element. What is this element? leased during the fusion process. At the time of writing (2009), commercially viable fusion power has not yet

(You will need to use a periodic table.)

been achieved. However, research is under way, specifWorked Solutions

ically at the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, to bring

a fusion reaction under control so that it can be used to

generate electricity. This would have the advantage of

minimal nuclear waste, since the main product would be

18.5 A-level Physics (Advancing non-radioactive helium, with some tritium, which has a

relatively short 12-year half-life.

Physics)/Fusion

The fusion of nuclei smaller than Iron-56 releases energy.

This is because, if we were to take all the baryons of both

the nuclei apart, and then stick them all back together as

one, we would do less work than would be required to

stick them together as the two separate nuclei. The difference in binding energy is the energy which is released

by a fusion reaction. This energy might be given to the

'real' particles which are given o, or to a 'virtual' particle

such as a photon.

Nuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium.

form a larger nucleus, and possibly some other products,

including energy. It occurs naturally in stars, where hy- 18.5.4 Questions

drogen is fused together into larger isotopes of hydrogen

and then into helium, releasing energy along the way.

c = 3 x 108 ms1

18.5.1

Forces

since they have the same charge. However at a range of

between 1 and 3 femtometers the strong force causes nucleons to be attracted to one another, with the magnitude

of this force being far greater than that of electromagnetic

repulsion. Therefore in order for two nuclei to fuse, they

must be suciently close enough together that the attractive force between the baryons due to the strong nuclear

force is greater than the repulsive force due to the electromagnetic force. If this is the case, then the two nuclei

will become a new, larger, nucleus.

1. In the Sun, two tritium nuclei ( 31 H ) are fused to produce helium-4 ( 42 He ). What else is produced, apart from

energy?

2. In larger stars, carbon-12 ( 12

6 C ) is fused with protium

( 11 H ). What single nucleus does this produce?

3. In this reaction, 1.95MeV of energy is released. What

dierence in binding energy does this correspond to?

4. If all this energy was emitted as a photon, what would

its frequency be?

5. In order to contain a fusion reaction, electromagnetism

may be used. What other force could be used? Why is

this not being used for fusion reactors on Earth?

Worked Solutions

92

Physics)/Binding Energy

where does this energy go? The answer lies in the fact

that if you add up the masses of all the protons and neutrons in a nucleus individually, it is a little bit more than

the actual mass of the nucleus. The binding energy put in

to break the nucleus apart has 'become' mass in the individual baryons. So, the binding energy of a nucleus can

be calculated using the following formula:

Eb = (nN mN + nZ mZ M )c2 ,

where nN and nZ are the numbers of neutrons and protons

in the nucleus, mN and mZ are the masses of neutrons and

protons, M is the mass of the nucleus and c is the speed

of light (3 x 108 ms1 ).

18.6.1

to the mass of one proton or neutron. 1 u = 1.660538782

x 1027 kg. They are useful since 1 mole of atoms with

a mass of 1 u each will weigh exactly 1 gram. However,

when dealing with binding energy, you must never use

atomic mass units in this way. The mass defect is so

small that using atomic mass units will result in a completely wrong answer. If you want to use them with lots

of decimal places, then you will save writing in standard

form.

(energy) which must be done in order to pull all of the

neutrons and protons in a nucleus innitely far apart from

each other is known as the binding energy of the nucleus.

Practically, pulling them all apart far enough to stop them

interacting will do.

O 16

8 C 12

7

6

5

Fe 56

He 4

Li 7

Li 6

4

3

H3

He 3

2

2

1 H

1

0 H

0

30

60

90

120

150

Number of nucleons i

two nuclei completely apart, you do work. If you then put

all the baryons back together again as one nucleus, you

will get energy back out. Sometimes, the energy you get

back out will be more than the work you had to do to take

the nuclei apart. Overall, you release energy by fusing the

nuclei together. This happens to nuclei which are smaller

than Iron-56. Nuclei which are larger than Iron-56 will

give out less energy when fused than you had to put in to

take them apart into their constituent baryons in the rst

place. To the right of Iron-56, nuclear fusion, overall,

requires energy.

you stick its protons and neutrons back together, but this

time in two lumps, you will get energy out. Again, sometimes this energy will be greater than the work you had

18.6.2 Data

to do to take them apart in the rst place. Nuclear ssion

will be releasing energy. This occurs when the nucleus is

The following table gives the masses in kg and u of the larger than Iron-56. If the energy released is less than the

proton and the neutron:

initial work you put in, then nuclear ssion, overall, requires energy. This happens when the nucleus is smaller

than Iron-56.

This can be summarized in the following table:

18.6.3

are determined by the combination of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. These are shown in the following 1. Deuterium (an isotope of Hydrogen with an extra neugraph:

tron) has a nuclear mass of 2.01355321270 u. What is its

binding energy?

93

contains 92 protons. What is its binding energy?

3. How would you expect H-2 and U-235 to be used in

nuclear reactors? Why?

Worked Solutions

Physics)/Risks, Doses and

Dose Equivalents

18.7.1

Risk

Radioactivity results in risk - this could be a risk of death, Hourly dose equivalent due to cosmic rays per. hour in Sv, across

the globe.

or a risk of developing cancer. In physics, risk is what you

expect, on average, to happen:

Absorbed dose does not give a full picture of the potential

risk = probability consequence

harm radioactivity can do to you. Dierent types of raSo, if there is a 1 in 500 chance that someone gets run diation do dierent amounts of damage. Absorbed dose

over by a car when crossing the road, the risk involved in equivalent, measured in sieverts (denoted Sv) attempts to

compensate. To calculate the dose equivalent, multiply

allowing 500 people to cross the road is one accident.

the dose in grays by the quality factor of the particles absorbed. These quality factors are given in the table below.

18.7.2

Absorbed Dose

Gy. One gray is dened as one joule absorbed per kilo1. A mobile phone emits electromagnetic radiation. 1.2

gram. You may be expected to use the equation

watts of power are absorbed per. kilogram. Assuming that the radiation is absorbed uniformly across a 5kg

head, what dose of radiation would be delivered to the

hc

E = hf =

head when making a 10-minute telephone call?

where

h is the Planck constant

f is the frequency of the photon

c is the speed of light

is the wavelength of the photon

or

3. How many nuclei are there in 1 mg of Americium241?

4. A ham sandwich becomes contaminated with 1 g of

Americium-241, and is eaten by an 80kg person. The

half-life of Americium-241 is 432 years. Given that

Americium-241 gives o 5.638 MeV alpha particles,

how long would it be before a dose equivalent of 6 Sv

is absorbed, making death certain?

5. What assumptions have you made?

E = ne

where

n is the number of particles

e is the magnitude of the charge of one electron

to calculate absorbed dose in terms of numbers of particles with a given frequency, wavelength or energy (in

eV). If someone is exposed to a certain activity (particles per second) over a period of time, the absorbed dose

accumulates.

Worked Solutions

Chapter 19

Appendices

19.1 A-level Physics (Advancing These ratios can be calculated using the appropriate buton a scientic calculator. In addition, if you already

Physics)/Vectors/Trigonometry tons

know the ratio between two sides, and wish to calculate

the angle from it, you can use the sin1 , cos1 and tan1

buttons to use the inverse function. These functions are

Trigonometry is the study of the ratios between sides on technically known as arcsin, arccosin and arctan.

a right-angled triangle. Consider the following diagram:

c

p

Hy

Adjacent

us

en

t

o

Opposite

loga c = b

tion, "a to the power of what is c?" a is known as the base

of the logarithm. log a is shorthand for log10 a, and can be

calculated using the 'log' button on a scientic calculator.

At present, we are only concerned with this one:

loga (cn ) = n loga c

of possible values a pixel can take on (v = 2b ), we can

Depending on the value of the angle BAC, the ratios be- rearrange it to get a formula for b by taking the logarithm

tween the three sides of the triangle will vary. These three to the base 10 of both sides:

sides are generally given the names 'hypotenuse' (H), 'op- log v = log(2b )

posite' (O) and 'adjacent' (A). The opposite side is opposite the angle being considered. The hypotenuse is the log v = b log 2

side opposite the right angle, and the adjacent side is the b = log v

log 2

remaining side, which is also next to the angle being conWe can then use a scientic calculator to calculate log 2,

sidered.

giving us the formula:

The three basic trigonometric ratios, in relation to an

v

b log

0.3

acute angle , are the sine, cosine and tangent ratios, as

follows:

sin =

O

H

cos =

A

H

tan =

O

A

Physics)/Current/delta

It is often helpful to remember them by using the The Greek letter delta means 'dierence in'. So, in the

mnemonic 'SOH-CAH-TOA'.

case of current, it represents the dierence in charge di94

vided by the dierence in time. If we write it as we would Therefore:

k

k

in calculus:

x = P eit m + Qeit m ,

I = dQ

dt

where P and Q are constants of integration. At this point,

Without using calculus, we can only take an approxima- it is useful to clean things up a bit by letting:

tion of I from values as close together as possible on either 2 = k

m

side of the point at which we wish to calculate the current.

it

it

By using calculus, we can calculate the exact value of the x = P e + Qe

current at a given point. For example, if Q = 2t (i.e. 1 It has been proven elsewhere (de Moivres Theorem) that,

coulomb every 2 seconds):

when n is a constant:

dQ

dt

I=

= 1 2t11 = 2t0 = 2 A

Therefore:

Physics)/Current/sigma

x = (P + Q) cos t + (P Q)i sin t

Let: R = P + Q

chos First Law is stating that the sum of all the currents So, the general solution of the dierential equation is:

going into a point equals the sum of all the currents leavx = R cos t + Si sin t

ing the point. So:

I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + ... + I - + I - + I = I 1 + I 2 + This describes what the simple harmonic oscillator will

do given any possible situation. However, we don't want

I 3 + ... + I - + I - + I

an equation which will cover anything and everything.

We want to give our oscillator a starting position - lets

say, at a position where x = A at t = 0:

Physics)/Simple

Harmonic

Motion/Mathematical Derivation

d2 x

dt2

kx

m

d2 x

dt2

kx

m

=0

variables, so let:

x = ezt

Therefore:

dx

dt

d2 x

dt2

= zezt

= z 2 ezt

By substitution:

zt

z 2 ezt + kem = 0

(

)

k

ezt z 2 + m

ezt is asymptotic at 0, so ezt cannot equal 0, and we can

therefore get away with dividing by ezt :

z2 +

2

z =

k

m

=0

k

m

z=

k

m

k

= i m

A = R cos ( 0) + Si sin ( 0)

A = R cos 0 + Si sin 0

Therefore, R = A and S = 0.

So, the specic solution is:

x = A cos t

Chapter 20

Worked Solutions

20.1 A-level Physics (Advancing

Physics)/Lenses/Worked Solutions

of 0.5 by a lens, and produces an image of a candle,

0.05m high, on a wall. What is the height of the candle?

0.5 =

0.05

h1

h1

1. A lens has a focal length of 10cm. What is its 2 = 0.05

power, in dioptres?

h1 = 100 mm

Always use SI units, so 10cm = 0.1m.

P =

1

f

1

0.1

= 10 D

forms an image. How many metres is it from the

other side of the lens?

Physics)/Refraction/Worked

Solutions

= 1.5.

1. A ray of light is reected from a mirror. Its angle

to the normal when it reaches the mirror is 70. What

1

1

58

v = 1.5 + 20 = 3 D

is its angle of reection?

3

= 0.0517 m = 51.7 mm

v = 58

The angles of reection on both sides of the normal are

3. A lens in an RGB projector causes an image to always equal, so the angle of reection is 70.

focus on a large screen. What sort of lens is it? Is its

2. The speed of light in diamond is 1.24 x 108 m/s.

power positive or negative?

What is its refractive index?

The wavefronts are being caused to spread out (diverge)

v1

n = 1.2410

8

more by the lens. Hence, it is a diverging lens. The

wavefronts are losing curvature, so the lens has a nega- Assuming the speed of light in the reference medium is 3

x 108 :

tive power.

4. What is the focal length of a 100D lens?

100 =

f=

1

f

1

100

= 0.01 m = 10 mm

n=

3108

1.24108

3

1.24

2.42

speed of light in ice?

1.31 =

3108

v2

8

8

1

automatically focussed on someones face, 10m from v2 = 310

1.31 2.29 10 ms

the camera. What is the power of the lens?

4. A ray of light passes the boundary between air and

5mm = 0.005m

a transparent material. The angle of refraction is 20,

1

1

and the angle of incidence is 10. What is the speed

0.005 = 10 + P

of light in this material? Why is it impossible for this

200 = P 0.1

material to exist?

3108

P = 200.1 D

= sin 10 0.508

v2

sin 20

8

ers, this was probably a 200D lens. However, this is in v2 0.508 5.91 10

real life, and this an hypothetical question with numbers This is greater than the speed of light in a vacuum (3 x

picked out of thin air by me.

108 ), and so is impossible.

96

5. What is the critical angle of a beam of light leaving

a transparent material with a refractive index of 2?

sin C =

1

2

97

Physics)/Digital

Processing/Worked Solutions

- this means 'inverse sine', often denoted arcsine or asin

1. How could the above methods be applied to a digfor short.)

ital sound sample?

By taking the median or mean of the sample and the values on either side of it. This would be unreliable, as sound

is a wave, so the samples need to vary quite widely. However, something similar could be used when comparing

repeating patterns in a waveform.

2. Which of the above methods would be suitable for

smoothing sharp edges? Why?

is 800 pixels wide, and 600 pixels high. How many Mean smoothing - median smoothing would not blur the

edges.

pixels are there in the image?

800 600 = 480000 pixels

following image of a white cat in a snowstorm (the

2. A grayscale image is encoded using 3 bits. How

black pixels have a value of 255):

many possible values can each pixel have?

4. Why would mean sampling not be appropriate for

23 = 8

smoothing the image given in question 3?

3. The characters in a text document are numbered

It would produce a really blurred mess, instead of an imfrom 0 - 255. How many bits should each character

age, as the noise is too dense.

be encoded with?

5. Use mean smoothing to remove noise from the folThere are 256 possible values.

lowing image of a black cat in a coal cellar:

b = loglog256

2 =8

4. A page contains 30 lines of text, with an average

of 15 characters on each line. Each character is represented by 4 bits. How many megabytes of uncompressed storage will a book consisting of 650 pages

like this ll on a computers hard disk?

Total number of characters = 650 x 30 x 15 = 292 500

Physics)/Digitisation/Worked

Solutions

Total amount of information = 292500 x 4 = 1 170 000 1. Take samples for the signal below every 0.1ms, and

bits

then produce a reconstructed signal. How does it differ from the original?

1170000 bits = 1170000

bytes

=

146250

bytes

=

8

146250

Mbytes

0.14

Mbytes

10242

5. A 10cm wide square image is scanned into a computer. Each pixel is encoded using 3 channels (red,

green and blue), and each channel can take on 256

possible values. One pixel is 0.01 mm wide. How

much information does the scanned image contain?

Express your answer using an appropriate unit.

10cm =

0.1

0.01103

b = loglog256

= 8 bits per. channel per. pixel = 8

2

3 bits per. pixel = 24 bits per. pixel

The high frequency elements of the signal have been lost.

Total information = 24 x 100 000 000 = 2 400 000 000 2. A signal is sampled for 5 seconds at a sampling

bits = 300 000 000 bytes

rate of 20 kHz. How many samples were taken?

286 Mbytes (This is why we usually comNo. of samples

3

5

press images before storage, or at least use fewer bits per. 20 10 =

pixel.)

No. of samples = 20 103 5 = 100000

300000000

10242

98

'ss and '' have a maximum frequency of 4 kHz.

What is a suitable sampling rate for a low-quality

telephone?

4 2 = 8 kHz

4. Using a sampling rate of 20 kHz and 3 bits, sample the following signal, and then produce a reconstructed signal. What is the maximum frequency that

can be perfectly reconstructed using this sampling

rate?

First, calculate the length of each sample, by letting the Frequency spectrum from qs. 3 & 4

number of samples equal 1:

20 103 = Length of 1one sample

Length of one sample =

0.05 ms

1

20103

= 0.00005 s = 4. Approximately how many harmonics does it contain?

Then, we can sample the waveform and create a recon- There are 14 other big spikes, plus a few other spikes

structed signal:

which may be large enough to be harmonics.

5. The three sine waves sin x, 4sin(2x-50) and

0.5sin(3x+120) are added together to form a signal.

What are the frequencies of each of the waves? What

is the signals fundamental frequency? Assume that

the waves are travelling at the speed of light, and that

60 = 1mm

sin x has a wavelength of 360. Using this, we can calculate the wavelengths of the other two waves, since f(ax)

stretches f(x) by the reciprocal of a on the x axis. The

frequency of each wave is given by the formula:

f=

3108

103

sin x has the lowest frequency, so 50 GHz is the fundareconstructed using this sampling rate (20 kHz):

mental frequency of the signal.

20

2 = 10 kHz

Physics)/Signal

Frequencies/Worked Solutions

Physics)/Bandwidth/Worked

Solutions

1

1. What is the frequency of an X-ray (wavelength 8Mbit s when downloading information. What is

the minimum bandwidth required to carry this bit

0.5nm)?

rate?

X-rays are electromagnetic waves, so they travel at the

8 x 106 = 2B

speed of light (3 x 108 ms1 ).

6

= 4 106 Hz = 4 MHz

B = 810

3 x 108 = f x 0.5 x 109

2

3108

0.5109

kHz reserved for uploading information. What is the

2. A sound wave, with a frequency of 44 kHz, has a maximum bit rate that can be attained when uploadwavelength of 7.7mm. What is the speed of sound?

ing information using this connection?

V = 44 x 103 x 7.7 x 103 = 338.8ms1

b = 2 x 100 x 103 = 200 x 103 bits / second = 24.4 kbytes

f=

ing signal?

3. A lighthouse uses a ashing light and Morse Code

The big spike on the left is at approximately 750 Hz, so to communicate with a nearby shore. A 'dash' con-

99

for 1s between dots and dashes. What is the bandwidth of the connection?

One bit takes 3 seconds to transmit.

B=

1

3

Hz 333 mHz

to upload a 1Mbyte image to a website. How long

does it take to do this?

The bit rate is 200 x 103 bits / second.

R1

bits

b = no.no.ofof

seconds

200 103 = no. 8388608

of seconds

no. of seconds =

8388608

200103

42 s

I1

Physics)/Charge/Worked Solutions

1. How much charge do 1234 electrons carry?

19

1234 x 1.6 x 10

(attocoulombs)

R2

16

= 1.9744 x 10

C = 197.44 aC

I2

I2 = 4.5 A

4. What would I equal if I1 = 10A and I2 = 15A?

I = 10 + 15 = 25A

2. How many electrons does is take to carry 5 C of

5. In the diagram on the right, in 5 seconds, 5C of

charge?

charged particles ow past I1 , and 6.7C ow past I2 .

5 = 1.6 x 1019 x n

How long does it take for 10C to ow past I?

5

18

10

n = 1.61019 = 31.25 10 electrons

= 5 + 6.7 = 2.34

t

particles) is equal to 1 faraday of charge. How many

coulombs of charge are equal to 1 faraday?

1 faraday = 6 x 1023 x 1.6 x 1019 coulombs = 96000

coulombs =96kC

Physics)/Current/Worked

Solutions

5

10

2.34

4.27 s

Physics)/Voltage/Worked

Solutions

1. A battery has an EMF of 5V. What is the total

potential dierence across all the components in the

circuit?

1. 10 coulombs ow past a point in a wire in 1 minute. They are the same! The voltage decreases across the circuit from the voltage at one end of the battery to the other.

How much current is owing through the point?

2. The voltages (relative to the voltage of the battery)

I = 10

60 0.17 A

on either side of a resistor are 6V and 5V. What

2. How long does it take for a 2A current to carry 5C? is the potential dierence across the resistor?

2 = 5t

5 - 6 = 5 + 6 = 1V

t=

5

2

= 2.5 s

What is the current at I2 ?

10 kJ of potential energy. What is the voltage at this

point?

9 = 4.5 + I2

V =

10103

5

= 2 kV

100

along the wire?

The point further down the wire has a lower voltage (i.e.

less energy per. coulomb) - the electrons will be at a lower

potential energy at this point, and fall to it, just as objects

fall to lower potential energies due to gravity.

Physics)/Power/Worked Solutions

Conductance/Worked Solutions

and the current is 10A. What is the resistance of the

resistor?

I

10

240V. How much current is owing through the light

2. What is the conductance of this resistor?

bulb?

1

G = R1 = 0.4

= 2.5 S

9 = 240I

3. A conductor has a conductance of 2S, and the potential dierence across it is 0.5V. How much current

2. How much energy is dissipated by a 10W compo- is owing through it?

nent in 1 hour?

I = GV = 2 0.5 = 1A

E

10 = 60

2

I = 1A

E = 602 x 10 = 36000 J = 36 kJ

4. A graph is drawn of potential dierence across an

3. The potential dierence across a top-notch kettle, Ohmic conductor, and current. For every 3cm across,

which can hold up to 1 litre of water, is 240V, and the the graph rises by 2cm. What is the conductance of

current is 12.5 A. 4.2 kJ of energy is required to raise the conductor?

the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 C. Assuming

2

100% eciency and the temperature has to be raised Gradient = 3 = Resistance

80K (20C to 100C), how long does it take to boil 1 litre G = 12 = 32 = 1.5 S

3

of water?

5.

On

another graph of potential dierence and cur3

12.5 240 = 3000 = 4.210t 80

rent, the graph curves so that the gradient increases

3

as current increases. What can you say about the re80

t = 4.210

= 112 s

3000

sistor?

In practice it may take longer than this as energy will

be lost heating the surrounding air, heating the materi- The resistor is not an Ohmic conductor.

als used in the kettle and the water may be colder than 6. 3 resistors, wired in series, have resistances of

20C.

1k, 5k and 500 each. What is the total resis4. How much energy is dissipated by a 100 resistor tance across all three resistors?

I=

9

240

= 0.0375 A

E

10

= 22 100 = 400

7. 2 conductors, wired in parallel, have conductances

of 10S and 5S. What is the total resistance of both

branches of the parallel circuit?

E = 4000 J = 4 kJ

1

long does it take for a mole (6 x 1023 particles) of elec- G = 10 + 5 = 15 S = R

1

0.0667

trons to ow through a 40W light bulb on a 240V ring R = 15

main?

8. The circuit above is attached in series to 1 10

resistor. What is the total conductance of the circuit

Total charge = 1.6 x 1019 x 6 x 1023 = 96000 C

now?

96000240

23040000

40 =

=

t

1

151

t = 23040000

= 576000 s = 9600 min = 160 h = R = 10 + 15 = 15

40

15

G = 151

0.0993 S

6 days 16 hours

101

Physics)/Internal

Resistance/Worked Solutions

20.14 A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Potential Di1. A 9V battery is short-circuited. The potential difviders/Worked Solutions

ference across the battery is found to be 8V, and the

current is 5A. What is the internal resistance of the

battery?

1. A 12 k resistor and a 20 k resistor are connected to a 9V battery. A voltmeter is connected

8 = 9 - 5R

across the 12 k resistor. What is the reading on the

5R = 1

voltmeter? (Assume negligible internal resistance.)

R = 0.2

V

= 9 12 = 3.375V

12k

12+20

with a wiper which moves on one resistor for every

3.6 a handle connected to it turns. The wiper is connected to a voltmeter, and the circuit is powered by

a 120V power source with negligible internal resistance. What is the reading on the voltmeter when the

handle turns 120?

First, work out the number (n) of resistors between the

terminals of the voltmeter:

n = 120 = 33.3

3.6

The handle, then, has not turned enough to reach the 34th

resistor, so the voltmeter is connected just after the 33rd

resistor.

335

V = 120 1005

= 39.6 V

circuit?

(

)

1

(

)

1

3. A 9V battery with internal resistance 0.8 is con1

Rexternal = 8+4

+ 14

= 13

=3

nected to 3 resistors with conductances of 3, 2 and 1

V = 5 x 3 = 15 V

Siemens. A voltmeter is connected across the 3 and 2

Siemens resistors. An ammeter is placed in the cir15 = E - (5 x 10)

cuit, between the battery and the rst terminal of the

E = 50 + 15 = 65 V

voltmeter, and reads 2A. What is the reading on the

voltmeter?

First, work out the resistances of the resistors:

R=

1

G

= 13 , 21 , 1

Then, work out the external potential dierence (i.e. excluding the potential dierence lost due to the batterys

internal resistance):

V = E - IR = 9 - (2 x 0.8) = 7.4V

V3,2 = 7.4

following circuit?

)1 ( )

(

1

4 1

1

+ 3+6+1

Rexternal = 2+4

= 15

= 3.75

1

1

3+2

1

1

+

+1

3

2

6.17 V

Physics)/Sensors/Worked

Solutions

Note to the reader: I am not entirely happy with the answers given on this page. --Sjlegg (talk) 15:01, 19 DeWhich actually makes this question impossible because cember 2007 (UTC)

the current is too high for the resistance supplied to the An LDRs resistance decreases from a maximum reV = 7.5 x 3.75 = 28.125

102

light intensity increases. It is used in a distance sensing system which consists of a 9V power supply, a 1.6

k resistor, the LDR and a multimeter which displays voltage to 2 decimal places measuring the potential dierence across one of the two resistors.

1. Across which resistor should the multimeter be

connected in order to ensure that, as the distance

from the light source to the sensor increases, the potential dierence recorded increases?

As light intensity increases, distance decreases. So, as

distance increases, light intensity decreases. As light intensity decreases, the LDRs resistance increases, as does

the potential dierence across it. So, as distance increases, the potential dierence increases. Since we want

the potential dierence to change in the same direction

as the distance, the multimeter must go across the LDR,

not the resistor.

2. In complete darkness, what voltage is recorded on

the multimeter?

The voltage is split between the 1.6k resistor and the

LDR, which currently has a resistance of 2k. Therefore,

the potential dierence across the LDR is:

7. What is the maximum potential dierence that can

2

reach the amplier using this new system (ignore the

V = 2+1.6 9 = 5V

amplication)?

3. When a light source moves 0.5m away from the

sensor, the voltage on the multimeter increases by 2V. The maximum potential dierence will occur when the

What is the sensitivity of the sensing system when us- LDR has no resistance. This will result in 9V on the lefthand side of the voltmeter, and 5V on the right-hand side.

ing this light source, in V m1 ?

The dierence is 4V.

1

2

S = 0.5 = 4 Vm

8. If this signal were to be amplied 3 times, would

4. When the same light source is placed 0m from the

it exceed the maximum voltage of the system? What

sensor, the potential dierence is 0V. When the light

would the limits on the signal be?

source is 1m away, what voltage is displayed on the

4 3 = 12V > 9V

multimeter?

Assuming a linear relationship between distance and po- The signal would be limited to the range 9V < V < 9V.

tential dierence, we know that:

0.25 =

m

V

Hence:

V =

m

0.25

1

0.25

= 4V

The multimeter measures to 2 decimal places, so the

smallest measurable voltage is 0.01V.

0.25 =

m

V

Hence:

m = 0.25 V = 0.25 0.01 = 0.0025 m = 2.5 mm

Conductivity/Worked Solutions

1. A material has a conductivity of 106 S m1 . What

is its resistivity?

=

1

106

= 106 m = 1 m

2. A pure copper wire has a radius of 0.5mm, a re6. Draw a circuit diagram showing a similar sensing sistance of 1 M, and is 4680 km long. What is the

system to this, using a Wheatstone bridge and ampli- resistivity of copper?

6

3 2

er to improve the sensitivity of the system.

)

= 10 (0.510

168 109 m =

4680103

168 n m

3. Gold has a conductivity of 45 MS m1 . What is the

resistance of a 0.01m across gold connector, 0.05m

20.18. A-LEVEL PHYSICS (ADVANCING PHYSICS)/STRESS, STRAIN & THE YOUNG MODULUS/WORKED SOLUTIONS103

long?

First, work out resistivity:

1

9

= 4510

m

6 = 22.2 10

Then, substitute everything possible into the resistivity

formula:

2

22.2 109 = ((0.50.01) )R 1.57 103 R

Physics)/Stress, Strain & the

Young Modulus/Worked Solutions

0.05

1. 10N of force are exerted on a wire with crosssectional area 0.5mm2 . How much stress is being ex4. A strand of metal is stretched to twice its origi- erted on the wire?

nal length. What is its new resistance? State your 0.5mm2 = 0.5 x (103 )2 m2 = 0.5 x 106 m2

assumptions.

10N

= 0.510

6 m2 = 20 000 000 Pa = 20 MPa

The material does not change, so resistivity is constant.

2. Another wire has a tensile strength of 70MPa,

Length doubles, and we know that volume must be conand breaks under 100N of force. What is the crossstant.

sectional area of the wire just before breaking?

V = AL

70 106 = 100

A

A = V/L

100

A

=

6

7010

R( V

RV

RA

L)

= L = L = L2

3. What is the strain on a Twix bar (original length

L2

L2

10cm) if it is now 12cm long?

Rold = 1 V = V

2

E = 1210

= 10

= 0.2

When we double L, we get:

10

22.

2109

1.57103

Rnew =

(2L)2

V

4L2

V

= 4 Rold

0.2 x 100 = 20%

5. Which has the greater resistivity: a plank or a

The wire was 0.7m long, but is now 0.75m long. What

piece of sawdust, made from the same wood?

is the Youngs Modulus for the material the wire is

Sawdust and a plank are artefacts, not materials. Hence, made of?

50

they do not have a resistivity. Even if they did, they are

(

)

(110 3)2

224000000 Pa =

16000000

made of the same thing, so they would have equal resis- Y = ( 0.750.7

0.0714

)

0.7

tivity.

224 MPa

6. Glass, a brittle material, fractures at a strain of

0.004 and a stress of 240 MPa. Sketch the stressstrain graph for glass.

Physics)/Semiconductors/Worked

Solutions

1. What is the resistivity of silicon, at room temperature?

=

1

435106

2300m = 2.3km

A thermistor, as the resistance of a semiconductor decreases as heat increases (but, assuming use of a poten- 7. (Extra nasty question which you won't ever get in

tial divider, the voltmeter would have to be on the other an exam) What is the toughness of glass?

resistor).

Toughness equals the area under the above graph. Since

3. If positive ions are added to silicon (doping it), how glass is brittle, we can assume that the gradient of the

graph is constant, and, since the graph passes through the

does its conductivity change?

origin, it is a triangle. So:

Positive ions mean more free electrons, and so greater

base height

= Toughness =

conductivity.

Atriangle =

2

104

strain stress =

2

480 kJm3

0.004240106

2

= 480000 Jm3 = 5. What happens to the translucency of an amorphous polymer when it is put under stress?

The polymer becomes more translucent, as it becomes

more polycrystalline as the chains are stretched and

straightened.

Physics)/Metals/Worked Solutions

20.21 A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/What is a

1. Would you expect a metal to have more or less conwave?/Worked Solutions

ductivity than a semiconductor? Why?

A metal has more conductivity than a semiconductor because a metal has more ions than a semiconductor, and

hence more free (delocalized) electrons.

2. How can the stress-strain graph for a metal be explained in terms of ions in a sea of electrons?

In the elastic region, the ions are held together by the

charge between them and the electrons, and they can

move apart when under stress. Then, once the ions are too

far apart, the bonds aren't strong enough to pull them back

together, so the metal entends under the stress. Eventually, the bonds cannot maintain the structural integrity of

the metal any more, so the metal 'necks in one place, and

then the metal fractures.

3. As a metal heats up, what happens to its conductivity? Why?

As a metal heats up, both ions and electrons vibrate more.

This means that the collision rate between ions and electrons goes up, so it is harder for electrons to travel through

the metal. So, as a metal heats up, its conductivity goes

down.

Physics)/Polymers/Worked

Solutions

Usually the air, but most material objects will carry

sound.

2. What aspects of the behaviour of light make it look

like a wave?

Superposition and diraction (and others).

3. What aspects of the behaviour of light make it look

like a particle?

Photoelectric eect

1. Dierent crystalline structures have dierent re- partially reected by the transparent material. Some

fractive indexes. Why does this mean that a polycrys- of the light, however, is refracted into the transparent

talline polymer is translucent?

material and reected back by the opaque material.

The refractive index of each area is dierent, so the angle The result is two waves travelling in the same place

of refraction is dierent for each area. As a result, the at the same time at the same polarisation(the light

is not a single beam). Why does, say, the red light

image is blurred.

disappear?

2. What sort of polymer is a pane of perspex?

If the refractive index and width of the transparent maCrystalline

terial are correct, then the two waveforms leaving it will

3. What sort of polymer does the pane of perspex be half a wavelength apart, as one will have travelled furbecome when shattered (but still in one piece)?

ther. Destructive interference will cause the red light to

become 'invisible'.

Polycrystalline

4. What sort of polymer is a rubber on the end of a 5. What is the wavelength of green light?

pencil?

500nm

Amorphous

has a frequency of approximately 20Hz. Given that

the speed of sound in air is 343ms1 , what is the

wavelength of the lowest frequency human-audible

sound?

=

v

f

343

20

Physics)/Youngs

Slits/Worked Solutions

= 17.15m

Physics)/Phasors/Worked

Solutions

1. A sine wave with wavelength 0.1m travels through

a given point on the surface of the sea. A phasor arrow representing the eect of this wave on this point

rotates 1000. How many wavelengths have gone past

in the time taken for the phasor to rotate this much?

0.1m is irrelevant information.

1000

360

105

0.03 m apart. A bright fringe is observed at an angle

10 from the normal. What sort of electromagnetic

radiation was being used?

= d sin = 0.03 sin 10 5.21 103 m

So, microwaves were being used.

2. Light, with a wavelength of 500 nm, is shone

through 2 slits, which are 0.05 m apart. What are the

angles to the normal of the rst three dark fringes?

n500109 = 0.05sin , where n is an odd integer.

9

= arcsin n50010

0.05

= 2.78

2. A sine wave has a maximum amplitude of 500nm. values of :

What is its amplitude when the phasor has rotated 3. Some X-rays, with wavelength 1 nm, are shone

60 from its start position?

through a diraction grating in which the slits are 50

m apart. A screen is placed 1.5 m from the grating.

a sin = 500 109 sin 60 433nm

How far are the rst three light fringes from the point

3. Two waves have a phase dierence of 45. When

at which the normal intercepts the screen?

the rst wave is at its minimum amplitude of 0.3m,

6

x

what is the total amplitude of the superposed wave- n 109 = 5010

33.3 106 x , where n

1.5

forms?

is an integer.

The rst wave has an amplitude of 0.300m. The second x = n1096 = 30 106 n

33.310

is at an angle of 270 - 45 = 225.

Then, substitute in n = 1,2 and 3 to gain corresponding

a sin = 0.3 sin 225 0.212m

values of x:

0.300 + 0.212 = 0.512m

Physics)/Standing

Waves/Worked Solutions

1. The air in a 3m organ pipe is resonating at the fundamental frequency. Organ pipes are eectively open

at both ends. What is the wavelength of the sound?

3=

Physics)/Diraction/Worked

Solutions

so = 2 x 3 = 6m.

2. A string is vibrating at the second harmonic frequency. How many wavelengths long is the standing 1. What is the width of the central bright fringe on a

screen placed 5m from a single slit, where the slit is

wave created?

0.01m wide and the wavelength is 500nm?

(2 + 1) 2 = 3

2

W

d

3. Express, in terms of , the length of a pipe which L

500109

is closed at one end, where is the length of one wave W

5

0.01

at the fundamental frequency.

W = 250m, but since this is only half the beam, the beam

(this is the distance between a node and an antinode)

is 500m wide.

106

ing Physics)/Electron BePhenomenon/Worked Soluhaviour as a Quantum Phetions

nomenon/Worked Solutions

1. An electron moves at 30,000 ms1 . What is its de

Broglie wavelength?

=

h

mv

6.6261034

9.11031 30,000

= 2.43 108 m

1. How much energy does a photon with a frequency 2. What is its frequency?

of 50kHz carry?

1

31

30,0002

Ekinetic

2 9.110

=

= 6.18 1011 Hz

f

=

h

6.6261034

E = hf = 6.62650103 1034 = 3.3131029 J

3. What is its kinetic energy, in eV?

2. A photon carries 1030 J of energy. What is its

From the top half of the fraction in the previous question:

frequency?

E

h

f=

1030

6.6261034

1

31

30,0002

2 9.1 10

4.101022

1.61019 eV = 2.56 meV

1509Hz

Ekinetic =

= 4.10 1022 J =

20W bulb give out each second?

4. Given that it is travelling out of an electron gun,

First calculate the amount of energy given out per. sec- what was the potential dierence between the anode

and the cathode?

ond:

P =

E

t

of 150 V. What is its frequency?

E = P t = 20 1 = 20J

Ekinetic = 1.6 1019 150 = 2.4 1017 J

photon:

Ekinetic

2.41017

16

E = hf = 6.626545101 21034 3.611019 J f = h = 6.6261034 Hz = 3.62 10 Hz

Then divide the former by the latter to give the number

of photons n:

20

3.611019

n=

of frequency 600 THz. What is the power of the bulb?

First calculate the energy carried by one photon:

E = hf = 6.6261034 6001012 3.981019 J

Then work out the energy carried by 1,000,000 photons:

E = 106 3.98 1019 = 3.98 1013 J

Then work out the power of the bulb:

P =

E

t

3.981013

60

15

= 6.63 10

Physics)/Vectors/Worked

Solutions

1. Which of the following are vectors?

20 cm is scalar, not a vector - it does not have a

directional component.

9.81 ms2 towards the centre of the earth is a

vector.

5 km south-east is a vector.

5. The photons in a beam of electromagnetic radiation carry 2.5J of energy each. How long should the

phasors representing this radiation take to rotate?

two other vectors, 5 m north and 10 m south-east.

3.77 1027 Hz (Thats one What does a equal, as a displacement and a bearing?

6

2.510

f = E

h = 6.6261034

nasty gamma ray.)

Then calculate the time taken for one 'wavelength' to go

Horizontal displacement = 0 +

by:

f=

t=

1

t

1

f

Vertical displacement = 5

=

1

3.771027

2.65 1028 s

10

10

7.07 m

2.07 m

107

= arctan 2.07

7.07 16.3 , so the bearing equals 90 +

16.3 = 106.3.

Resultant displacement =

7.072 + (2.07)2

7.4 m

3. If I travel at a velocity of 10 ms1 on a bearing of

030, at what velocity am I travelling north and east?

8.66 ms1

Horizontal velocity (East) = 10 sin 30 = 5 ms1

4. An alternative method of writing vectors is in a

column, as follows:

( )

a = xy ,

where x and y are the vertical and horizontal components of the vector respectively.

Express |a| and the

()

angle between a and 10 in terms of x and y.

By Pythagoras theorem:

(|a|)2 = x2 + y 2

|a| = x2 + y 2

Let be the angle between a and

tan =

(1)

0

y

x

= arctan xy

This angle is known as the argument of a.

ds

100

5

1

5. A more accurate method of modelling the trajec- v = dt = 60 = 3 1.67ms

tory of a ball is to include air resistance as a constant 2. What is the velocity at 12 seconds?

force F. How would this be achieved?

Approximately, there is a rough straight line at this point.

Once the arrow representing the acceleration due to grav- The object is travelling towards home 2 ms1 each secity has been added on, add an horizontal arrow pushing ond (look at the previous second, for example). So, its

against the motion of the ball. Since F = ma, the magni- velocity is 2 ms1 .

tude of this acceleration is F divided by m.

3.

In the following velocity-time graph, how

Note that this model is still not perfect. In fact, F is not far does the object travel between 7 and 9 seconds?

constant - it depends on the horizontal component of the

balls velocity.

Physics)/Graphs/Worked

Solutions

1.

In the following distance-time graph,

what

is

the

velocity

4

seconds

after

the beginning of the objects journey?

108

Distance travelled is equal to the area under the graph. 6. Draw the velocity-time graph for the above situaBetween 7 and 9 seconds, this is the shaded area of the tion.

graph. So, calculate the area of the triangle:

The velocity from 0-5s is 10ms1 . The velocity from 5-9s

23

A = bh

is:

=

=

3m

2

2

4. What is the objects acceleration at 8 seconds?

There is a straight line between 7 and 9 seconds which we

can use to answer this question. The acceleration is equal

to the gradient of the graph, so:

a=

3

2

= 1.5ms2

line, and then returns to its original location over the

next 4 minutes, travelling at a constant velocity. Draw

a distance-time graph showing the distance the car

has travelled from its original location.

10ms1 = 600 metres / minute.

v=

3103

4

109

3. A goose in ight is travelling at 4 ms1 . It accelerates at a rate of 1.5 ms2 for 7 seconds. What is its

new speed?

u = 4, a = 1.5, t = 7

v = u + at = 4 + (1.5 x 7) = 14.5 ms1

4. How far does an aeroplane travel if it accelerates

from 400 kmh1 at a rate of 40 kmh2 for 1 hour?

u = 400, a = 40, t = 1

s = ut +

at2

2

= (400 1) +

4012

2

= 420km

Power/Worked Solutions

7. The velocity of a ball is related to the time since it

was thrown by the equation v = 30 9.8t . How far

has the ball travelled after 2 seconds?

t

2

s = t12 f (t) dt = 0 30 9.8t dt = [30t 4.9t2 ]20 =

30(2)4.9(22 )30(0)+4.9(02 ) = 6019.6 = 40.4 m

table with a force of 20N. If friction opposes me with

a force of 14.2N, what is the resultant acceleration of

the ball away from the cue?

Resultant force = 20 - 14.2 = 5.8N

F = ma

5.8 = (5 x 103 )a

Physics)/Kinematics/Worked

Solutions

a = 1160ms2

2. A 10g ball rolls down a 1.2m slope, and leaves it

with a velocity of 4ms1 . How much work is done by

friction?

1. A person accelerates from a speed of 1 ms1 to 1.7 0.117J

ms1 in 25 seconds. How far has he travelled in this

k.e. at bottom of slope = mv2 = 0.5 x 10 x 103 x 42

time?

= 0.08J

u = 1, v = 1.7, t = 25

Assuming the remainder of the g.p.e. becomes heat /

1+1.7

25 = 1.35 25 = 33.75m

s = u+v

2 t=

2

sound due to friction:

2. A car accelerates at a rate of 18 kmh2 to a speed work done by friction = 0.117 - 0.08 = 0.037J.

of 60 kmh1 , travelling 1 km in the process. How fast

was the car travelling before it travelled this distance? 3. An electric train is powered on a 30kV power supply, where the current is 100A. The train is travelling

a = 18, v = 60, s = 1

at 90 kmh1 . What is the net force exerted on it in a

2

2

v = u + 2as

forwards direction?

602 = u2 + (2 x 18 x 1)

P = IV = Fv

3600 = u2 + 36

u2 = 3564

F = 120000N

110

Physics)/Exponential Relationships/Worked Solutions

dp

dt

= nz = z ap

dp = z ap dt

1

z

p dp =

a dt

ln p =

zt

a

zt

zt

1. Simplify Newtons Law of Cooling for the case p = e

= e a ec = ke a (where k is a constant - k =

when I place a warm object in a large tank of water ec )

which is on the point of freezing. Measure temperaThere must have been a rst page, which marked the point

ture in C.

where t = 0, so:

Newtons Law of Cooling states that Tt = Tenv + (T0

z

1 = ke a 0 = ke0 = k

Tenv )ert

The freezing point of water is 0 C, so, if we measure T Therefore:

zt

in C, T = 0:

p=ea

zt

a +c

Tt = 0 + (T0 0)ert

Tt = T0 e

pages should there have been 6 years later? (Take a

= 20, z = 10 yr1 .)

rt

106

zt

p = e a = e 20 = e3 = 20

after 30 seconds? (Take r=103 s1 .)

3

Tt = T0 ert = 40 e10

30

6. The actual number of pages in Wikibooks in mid2009 was 35,148. What are the problems with this

3. A body is found in a library (as per. Agatha

model? What problems may develop, say, by 2103?

Christie) at 8am. The temperature of the library is

kept at a constant temperature of 20 C for 10 min- There are two key problems with this model:

utes. During these 10 minutes, the body cools from

25 C to 24 C. The body temperature of a healthy

We have estimated the values of the constants.

human being is 36.8 C. At what time was the person

These should have been determined statistically.

murdered?

= 38.8 C

24 = 20 + (25 20)e10r

4 = 5e10r

e10r = 0.8

10r = ln 0.8

r=

ln 0.8

10

= 0.0223 minute1

reality, as the amount of content on Wikibooks increases, more people think Wikibooks already contains this content, so I am not going to add anything.

This means that both z and a change with time. Our

exponential model only applies over small periods

of time. Each of these small periods of time has

dierent values for the constants.

In the future, such as 2103, the constants will have

8am:

changed so radically as to be useless. Question 5 shows

25 = 20 + (36.8 20)e0.0223t

how much they change over just 6 years - how much more

must they change over a whole century!

5 = 16.8e0.0223t

e0.0223t =

5

16.8

5

0.0223t = ln 16.8

t=

5

ln 16.8

0.0223

= 54 minutes

4. Suppose for a moment that the number of pages on

Wikibooks p can be modelled as an exponential relationship. Let the number of pages required on average to attract an editor be a, and the average number

of new pages created by an editor each year be z. Derive an equation expressing p in terms of the time in

years since Wikibooks was created t.

Let n be the number of editors.

n=

p

a

Physics)/Capacitors/Worked

Solutions

1. A 2 mF capacitor is connected to a 10V DC power

supply. How much charge can be stored by the capacitor?

Q = CV = 2 103 10 = 0.02 C

Note that this is the maximum charge - since capacitors

charge, as well as discharge, exponentially, we would have

to leave the capacitor charging for an innitely long period

of time to charge it to capacity.

2. What is the highest possible energy stored by this

capacitor?

E = 12 QV = 0.5 0.02 10 = 0.1 J

111

Physics)/Radioactive

Decay/Worked Solutions

and charged to capacity. How long would it take for

1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 atoms

the charge in the capacitor to be reduced to 1 mC?

Q = Q0 e RC

t

Q0 = Qe RC

t

e RC =

t

RC

Q0

Q

= ln QQ0

0.02

t = RC ln QQ0 = 5 0.002 ln 0.001

= 0.0300 s

1u = 1.66 x 1027 kg

1. Americium-241 has a decay constant of 5.07

x 1011 s1 . What is the activity of 1 mole of

americium-241?

A = N = 5.07 1011 6.02 1023 = 3.05

1013 Bq

This is why we only need very small samples for use in, for

4. After this time has elapsed, how much energy is

example, smoke detectors. In fact, safety considerations

stored in the capacitor?

necessitate a small sample - otherwise we would all have

2t

E = 12 QV = 12 Q0 V0 e RC = 0.5 0.02 10 cancer!

20.03

e 50.002 = 2.5 mJ

2. How many g of lead-212 ( = 18.2s1 ) are required to create an activity of 0.8 x 1018 Bq?

18

0.810

22

N = A

nuclei = 4.40

= 18.2106 = 4.40 10

22

27

10 212 1.66 10

= 15.5 g

to 1.5kg of lead-212?

Mass is proportional to the number of atoms, so:

m = m0 et

m

m0

= et

m0

m

= et

0

t = ln m

m

t=

ln

m0

m

2

ln 1.5

18.2106

It becomes another isotope - in this case, mercury-208.

5. What is the capacitance of the equivalent capacitor Some also becomes alpha particles.

to the following network of capacitors?

5. Some americium-241 has an activity of 3kBq.

First, ignore the fact that the capacitances are in mF, not What is its activity after 10 years?

F - we will not be using any other units, so if we put in A

=

A0 et

=

3000

mF, we will get out mF.

5.071011 10365.24246060

e

= 2.952 kBq

Then work out the equivalent capacitance of the second 6. This model of radioactive decay is similar to taking

row:

some dice, rolling them once per. second, and remov1

1

1

1

11

ing the dice which roll a one or a two. What is the

=

+

+

=

C2

1

2

3

6

decay constant of the dice?

6

C2 = 11

mF

The decay constant is the probability of removing a die Then work out the equivalent capacitance of the third = .

row:

7. If you started out with 10 dice, how many dice

1

1

1

C3 = 2 + 2 = 1

would you have left after 10s? What is the problem

C3 = 1 mF

with this model of radioactive decay?

The equivalent capacitance of the rst row is easy, since N = N0 et = 10 e 3 10 = 0.357 dice

it contains just 1 capacitor: 3mF. So, the total equivalent Obviously, you can't have 0.357 dice. The problem with

capacitance is:

this model of radioactive decay is that, once you have suf6

C = 3 + 11

+ 1 = 50

4.55

mF

ciently few nuclei, the decay ceases to be continuous.

11

1

112

As time passes, the pattern becomes relatively more random. The model also says that the number of nuclei will

always decrease. In reality, since there can only be an integer number of nuclei, there will eventually come a point

when there are no nuclei left.

Forces/Worked Solutions

1. Jupiter orbits the Sun at a radius of around 7.8 x

1011 m. The mass of Jupiter is 1.9 x 1027 kg, and the

mass of the Sun is 2.0 x 1030 kg. What is the gravitational force acting on Jupiter? What is the gravitational force acting on the Sun?

m

Fgrav = GM

=

r2

23

4.17 10 N

Physics)/Half-lives/Worked

Solutions

(7.81011 )2

2. The force exerted by the Sun on an object at a certain distance is 106 N. The object travels half the distance to the Sun. What is the force exerted by the Sun

on the object now?

1

2

( 12 )

=4

1. Radon-222 has a decay constant of 2.1s1 . What

3. How much gravitational force do two 1kg weights

is its half-life?

5cm apart exert on each other?

ln 2

t 12 = 2.110

6 = 330070 s = 3.82 days

11

m

11

Fgrav = GM

= 6.6710

= 2.67

r2

0.052

2. Uranium-238 has a half-life of 4.5 billion years.

108 N

How long will it take for a 5 gram sample of U-238 to

In other words, ordinary objects exert negligible gravitadecay to contain 1.25 grams of U-238?

tional force.

2 half-lives, since 1.25 is a quarter of 5. 2 x 4.5 = 9 billion

4. The radius of the Earth is 6360km, and its mass

years.

is 5.97 x 1024 kg. What is the dierence between the

3. How long will it be until it contains 0.5 grams of

gravitational force on 1kg at the top of your body, and

U-238?

on 1kg at your head, and 1kg at your feet? (Assume

First calculate the decay constant:

that you are 2m tall.)

(

)

ln 2

ln 2

10

1

1

1

= t 1 = 4.5109 = 1.54 10

yr

Fgrav = GM m 6360000

= (1.55

2 63600022

2

20

20

11

10

)GM

m

=

1.55

10

6.67

10

5.97

10

0.5 = 5e1.5410 t

1024 1 = 6.19 N

10

0.1 = e1.5410

ln 0.1 = 1.54 10

t=

ln 0.1

1.541010

10

This is why it is acceptable to approximate the acceleration due to gravity as constant over small distances.

= 14.9 Gyr

Helium-3. After 1 year, 94.5% is left. What is the

half-life of tritium (H-3)?

0.945 = e1 (if is measured in yr1 )

= ln 0.945 = 0.0566 yr

ln 2

t1

2

t 12 =

ln 2

0.0566

= 12.3 yr

Fields/Worked Solutions

in series with a 5 resistor and contains 5C of charge. G = 6.67 x 1011 m3 kg1 s2

What is its time constant?

1. A 15kg object has a weight of 8000N. What is the

gravitational eld strength at this point?

= RC = 5 0.5 = 2.5 s

1

6. How long will it take for the charge in the capacitor g = grav

= 8000

m

15 = 533 Nkg

5

to reach 0.677C? ( 0.677 = e2 )

2. Draw a graph of gravitational eld strength

2 x = 5s

against distance.

F

Since we want a negative d (because of the minus sign we

ignored right at the beginning):

d=

4.598272102 1+4.8533415521021

7.18481014

= 13155 km

error that it is almost certain that this is the wrong answer.

If you fancy wading through and checking, feel free! -Sjlegg (talk) 14:18, 23 April 2009 (UTC)

Potential

Energy/Worked

Solutions

1. A ball rolls down a 3m-high smooth ramp. What

speed does it have at the bottom?

mgh = 12 mv 2

gh = 12 v 2

Since gravitational eld strength is proportional to gravi- 2. In an otherwise empty universe, two planets of

tational force, the two graphs look very similar.

mass 1025 kg are 1012 m apart. What are their speeds

3. What is the gravitational eld strength of the Sun when they collide?

(mass 2 x 1030 kg) on the Earth (mass 6 x 1024 kg,

mean orbital radius 15 x 1010 m)?

g=

GM

r2

6.671011 21030

(151010 )2

= 5.93 mNkg

GM m

0.5r

GM

0.5r

= 12 mv 2

= 12 v 2

4GM

= v2

r

6.671011 1025

v = 2 GM

=

2

= 52 ms1

gravity over a vertical distance d?

r

1012

(

)

GM

1

1

GM

= GM (r+d)

= (Not too sure about this one. Please check.)

g = (r+d)

2

2 r2

r2

GM (r 2 (r+d)2 )

r 2 (r+d)2

GM (r 2 r 2 2rdd2 )

r 2 (r+d)2

GM d(2r+d)

r 2 (r+d)2

drive up a 100m hill?

the Earths surface to notice a 1Nkg1 dierence in mgh = 2000 9.81 100 = 1.962 MJ

gravitational eld? (The Earth has a radius of 6400 4. How does the speed of a planet in an elliptical orbit

km.)

change as it nears its star?

1=

GM d(2r+d)

r 2 (r+d)2

and so gains kinetic energy, so its speed increases.

GM d(2r + d) = r2 (r + d)2

2GM rd + GM d2 = r2 (r2 + 2rd + d2 ) = r4 + 2r3 d +

r 2 d2

d2 (r2 GM ) + dr(2r2 2GM ) + r4 = 0

Using the quadratic formula:

d =

2(r 2 GM )

2(r 2 GM )

3

4

r 2 +4G2 M 2 4r 4 +4GM r 2

= 2GM r2r r 4r 8GM

2(r 2 GM )

Potential/Worked Solutions

=

G = 6.67 x 1011 m3 kg1 s2

g = 9.81 ms2

Which is very horrible. If you plug in the numbers, you surface? (mass of Earth = 5.97 x 1024 kg,radius of

get:

Earth = 6371 km)

d=

4.598272102 14.8533415521021

7.18481014

Vgrav =

GM

r

6371000

114

62.5 MJkg1

So k =

10

0.05

= 200N m1

2. Taking the Earths surface as V = 0, what is the 2. The spring is taken into outer space, and is

gravitational potential 2m above the ground?

stretched 10cm with the two weights attached. What

is the time period of its oscillation?

1

V

gh = 9.81 2 = 19.62 Jkg

grav

3. A 0.2kg rework reaches a gravitational potential First calculate the mass of the two weights:

relative to the ground of 500Jkg1 . If the rework is 20 = 9.81m

30% ecient, how much energy was expended to get m = 2.04kg

there?

m

2.04

Egrav

T

=

2

=

2

k

200 = 0.634 s

Vgrav =

m

However, this is only 30% of the energy expended, so:

In what direction?

This displacement is the amplitude of the oscillation, and

4. Express gravitational potential in terms of gravi- we need f(t) to be positive at t=0. So, we use an equation

tational force.

for the displacement with a cosine in it. We have already

Fgrav dr

derived the acceleration in this case:

V

=

Eexpended =

grav

100

0.3

333 J

2

5. Draw the equipotentials and eld lines surround- a = cos t

1

2

ing the Earth.

= 2

T = 6.34 = 0.99 rad s

So:

a = 0.992 cos 0.99 t = 0.538 ms2

The minus sign means that the acceleration is in the opposite direction to the initial displacement.

4. A pendulum oscillates with a frequency of 0.5 Hz.

What is the length of the pendulum?

= 2f

g

l = 2 0.5

9.81

l =

9.81

l

= 2

l=

9.81

2

= 0.994 m

simple harmonic oscillator. Draw graphs of its velocity, momentum, acceleration and the force acting on

it.

x is a sine wave, so:

x = A sin t

Physics)/Simple Harmonic

Motion/Worked Solutions

1. A 10N weight extends a spring by 5cm. Another

10N weight is added, and the spring extends another

5cm. What is the spring constant of the spring?

F = kx

10 = 0.05k

v=

dx

dt

= A cos t

a=

dv

dt

d2 x

dt2

= A 2 sin t

p = mv = mA cos t

F = ma = mA 2 sin t

Since you haven't been given any details, the amplitudes

of the waves don't matter. The phase dierences, however, do.

begins to oscillate. If it reaches a maximum velocity

of 15ms1 , what is the spring constant of the spring?

1

2

2 mvmax

k=

= 12 kx2max

2

mvmax

x2max

0.5152

0.52

= 450 Nm1

a mass on a spring (ignoring gravity).

Ee cos2 t

Ek sin2 t

6. A pendulum can only be modelled as a simple harmonic oscillator if the angle over which it oscillates is

small. Why is this?

Simple harmonic oscillators work because the force acts

in the opposite direction to the displacement. As the pendulum moves away from the area immediately below the

peg it is hanging on, the force no longer acts in the opposite direction to the displacement.

Physics)/Energy in Simple

Harmonic Motion/Worked

Solutions

5. Use the trigonometric formulae for x and v to derive an equation for the total energy stored by an oscillating mass on a spring, ignoring gravity and air

resistance, which is constant with respect to time.

x = A cos t

v = A sin t

1. A 10g mass causes a spring to extend 5cm. How Substitute these into the equation for the total energy:

much energy is stored by the spring?

E = 12 (kx2 + mv 2 ) = 12 (k(A cos t)2 +

mg

1

0.019.81

k = F

=

=

=

1.962

Nm

1

2

2

x

x

0.05

+

m(A sin t)2 )

=

2 (kA cos t

2

1

2

2

2

2

A

2

2

2 2

E = 2 kx = 0.5 1.962 0.05 = 2.45 mJ

mA sin t) = 2 (k cos t + m sin t)

2. A 500g mass on a spring (k=100) is extended by We know that:

k

universe. What is the maximum velocity which it = m

reaches?

Therefore:

1

2

2 mvmax

2

vmax

=

= 12 kx2max

2 =

kx2max

m

vmax = xmax

k

m

= 0.2

k

m

By substitution:

100

0.5

= 2.83 ms1

otherwise empty universe is extended by 0.5m, and

2

E = A2 (k cos2 t + mk

m sin t) =

2

2

2

k sin2 t) = kA

2 (cos t + sin t) =

A2

2

2 (k cos

2

kA

2

t +

116

Physics)/Damping/Worked

Solutions

damped oscillation.

5. The graph above is an exponentially damped oscillation. If the displacement of the undamped oscillation is given by sin t, what is an approximate equation for the damped oscillation, in terms of a constant

k which describes the degree to which the oscillation

is damped?

x = ekt sin t

If k doubles, the e-kt will be squashed to half its size along

the t-axis, so as k increases, the rate of damping increases.

Physics)/Conservation

of

Momentum/Worked Solutions

1. A ball of mass 0.5kg collides with a stationary ball

of 0.6kg at a velocity of 3ms1 . If the stationary ball

1

2. How would you critically damp an oscillating pen- moves o at a speed of 2ms , what is the new velocity

of the rst ball?

dulum?

Grab the weight, move it to its equilibrium position, and 0.5 3 = 0.5v + (0.6 2)

stop it moving.

1.5 = 0.5v + 1.2

3. How would you damp an oscillating pendulum us- 0.5v = 0.3

ing only a weighted polystyrene block?

v = 0.6 ms1

Put the block in the path of the pendulum, which will 2. Two balls are moving in opposite directions with

bounce o the weight, losing a bit of energy each oscilla- velocities 5ms1 and 10ms1 . They collide, and

tion.

move o in opposite directions with new velocities of

4. What would the displacement graph look like for 7.5ms1 each. If the mass of the rst ball was 1.25kg,

what is the mass of the second ball?

this oscillation, before and after damping began?

= 152

5

2

2

15v1 + 9v1 + 96v1 + 256 =

17.5m = 15.625

m = 0.893 kg

v1 2 + 4v1 21 = 0

3v1 2 +

760

of equal mass. One of the balls is stationary. What

So, v1 is either 7 or 3 ms1 .

happens?

If v1 = 7ms1 , by (1):

Since momentum must be conserved:

21 + 5v2 = 16

mu = mv1 + mv2

5v2 = 5

u = v1 + v2 (1)

v2 = 1 ms1

Since kinetic energy must be conserved:

If v1 = 3ms1 :

2

mv1 2

mu2

+ mv22

2 =

2

9 + 5v2 = 16

u2 = v1 2 + v2 2

5v2 = 25

Substitute in the value of u from (1):

v2 = 5 ms1

(v1 + v2 )2 = v1 2 + v2 2

This last solution is non-physical since it requires the balls

v1 2 + 2v1 v2 + v2 2 = v1 2 + v2 2

to move through each other. So, v1 = 7ms1 and v2 =

1ms1

2v1 v2 = 0

Therefore, either v1 or v2 is 0. Using equation (1), if v1 is

zero, then v2 = u, and vice versa. However, v1 cannot be

the same as u, as this would mean that the rst ball had

to move through the second ball! So, the only physical

solution is that the rst ball stops, and the second ball

continues moving with the rst balls original velocity.

same velocity. Why doesn't the wall move?

Let the mass of the wall be M, and the mass of the ball

be m:

mu = M vwall mu

masses 1kg and 2kg. The 1kg particle moves with vwall = 2mu

M

velocity 45ms1 . With what velocity does the other

The mass of the wall is large. As M tends to innity,

particle move?

therefore, v tends to 0.

0 = (1 45) + 2v

2v = 45

v = 22.5 ms1

i.e. in the opposite direction to the motion of the 1kg

particle.

5. A 3kg ball moving at 3ms1 collides with a 5kg ball

moving at 5ms1 . The collision is perfectly elastic.

What are the new velocities of the balls?

Physics)/Forces and Impulse

in Collisions/Worked Solutions

much impulse must be exerted on a 47000kg payload

to get it to travel away from the Earth?

332

2

3v1 2

+

+

2

5(5)2

1

= 3v

2

2

5v2 2 = 152

5v2 2

2

From (1):

v2 =

163v1

5

3v1 2 + 5

( 163v1 )2

= 152

( 2

)

1 +256

3v1 2 + 5 9v1 +96v

= 152

25

5

moving at 5ms1 , and the other at 2ms1 . After the

collision, the rst billiard ball is moving backwards

at 4ms1 . The collision takes 1 ms. What force was

exerted on this ball?

I = m(v u) = 0.01(5 (4)) = 0.09 Ns

F =

I

t

0.09

0.001

= 90 N

ball?

118

impulse of 10Ns. How many times would he have to

do this to reach a speed of 1 ms1 from stationary?

v =

I

m

10

60

1

6

ms1

a speed of 1ms1 .

ball of mass 0.1kg at 3ms1 , slowing to 2.5ms1 . It

exerts a force of 100N on the ball. How long did the 1. A tennis ball of mass 10g is attached to the end of

a 0.75m string and is swung in a circle around somecollision take?

ones head at a frequency of 1.5Hz. What is the tenF = m(vu)

t

sion in the string?

m(vu)

5(32.5)

t =

= 100 = 0.025 s

= 2f = 2 1.5 = 3 rad s1

F

Physics)/Rockets, Hoses and

Machine Guns/Worked Solutions

0.666 N

2. A planet orbits a star in a circle. Its year is 100

days, and the distance from the star to the planet is

70 Gm from the star. What is the mass of the star?

100 days = 100 x 365.24 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 3155673600s

f=

1

T

1

3155673600

= 3.17 1010 Hz

1. A machine gun res 300 5g bullets per. minute at = 2f = 2 3.17 1010 = 1.99 nrad s1

800ms1 . What force is exerted on the gun?

GM

2

r2 = r

3000.005

=

800

=

20

N

F = v dm

dt

60

(1.99109 )2 (70109 )3

2 r3

= 2.04 1025 kg

6.671011

2. 1 litre of water is pumped out of a tank in 5 seconds M = G =

through a hose. If a 2N force is exerted on the tank, 3. A 2000kg car turns a corner, which is the arc of a

at what speed does the water leave the hose?

circle, at 20kmh1 . The centripetal force due to friction is 1.5 times the weight of the car. What is the

The ow rate is about 0.2 kg s1 .

radius of the corner?

2 = 0.2v

20kmh1 = 20000 / 3600 = 5.56ms1

2

v = 0.2

= 10 ms1

W = 2000 9.81 = 19620 N

3. If the hose were connected to the mains, what probFr = 1.5 19620 = 29430 N

lems would there be with the above formula?

mv 2

20005.562

= 61728

r

r

The force would not be exerted on the tank, but would 29430 = r =

instead be referred back through the pipe - it is not gaining r = 61728

29430 = 2.1 m

velocity at the nozzle.

This is a bit unrealistic, I know...

4. The thrust of the rst stage of a Saturn V rocket is

4. Using the formulae for centripetal acceleration

34 MN, using 131000kg of solid fuel in 168 seconds.

and gravitational eld strength, and the denition of

At what velocity does the fuel leave the tank?

angular velocity, derive an equation linking the or34 106 = v 131000

bital period of a planet to the radius of its orbit.

168

v=

34106 168

131000

= 43600 ms1

2 r =

GMstar

r2

2 3

5. Escape velocity from the Earth is 11km1 . What r = GMstar

is the velocity of the rocket after the rst stage is used = 2

T

up, if the total mass of the rocket is 3 x 106 kg? How

4 2 r 3

does this compare to escape velocity?

T 2 = GMstar

ma = 34 106 mg

34106

3106

T2 =

4 2 r 3

GMstar

So, orbital period squared is proportional to radius of orbit cubed. Incidentally, this is Keplers Third Law in the

v = at = 168 1.52 = 255.92 ms1 0.256 kms1 special case of a circular orbit (a circle is a type of elThis is 0.002% of escape velocity, hence the need for the lipse).

a=

Physics)/Radar and Triangulation/Worked Solutions

119

at midnight on June 1 as 89.99982. How far away is

the star?

tan a tan b

d = 2r

tan a+tan b =

4.52 1013 km

tan 89.9998+tan 89.99982

1. A radar pulse takes 8 minutes to travel to Venus 5. Why can't triangulation be used to measure the

distance to another galaxy?

and back. How far away is Venus at this time?

The dierence between the two angles becomes so tiny

2d = ct = 3 108 8 60 = 1.44 1011 m

that we don't have good enough equipment to measure it.

d = 1.44 1011 0.5 = 7.2 1010 m

2. Why can't a radar pulse be used to measure the

distance to the Sun?

It would be impossible to pick up the reected signal

due to all the other signals coming from the Sun. Also,

the signal would almost certainly be absorbed anyway.

<<Added>> Regardless of () wavelength, power density, or wavefront properties, the pulse would be absorbed

with no reection possible. Distances to pure energy

sources are generally measured in terms of received light

intensity, shifts of the light spectrum, and radio interferometry. The RF spectrum; and Laser (light) spectrum

can be used to listen to radiation, but not bounce a pulse

from an energy source having no true angle of incidence.

Just as an observation, I will note that the sun can be seen

on most radars either sunrise or sunset, usually when the

sun is just above the horizon. But these receptions are

unusable strobes (interference) and not a result of receiving a radar pulse from the sun. Radar technicians also

use the sun as a known exact position to align the system to true north (and magnetic variations); this is called

solar-boresighting and, again, only receives the radiation.

20.48 A-level

Physics

(Advancing

Physics)/Large

Units/Worked Solutions

1. What is one parsec in m?

206265 AU x 150 x 109 = 3.09 x 1016 m

2. Convert 3 light days into km.

c = 3 x 105 kms1

3 x 3 x 105 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 7.78 x 1010 km

3. Convert 5.5 parsecs into light years.

1 ly = 9.46 x 1015 m

5.5 pc = 5.5 x 3.09 x 1016 m = 1.70 x 1017 m

Divide by 1 ly in metres to get a nal answer of approximately 18ly.

4. The dierence in angle of a star on the perpen3. Radar is used to measure the velocity of a space- dicular to the plane of the Earths orbit which passes

craft travelling between the Earth and the Moon. Use through the Sun when viewed from either side of the

Earths orbit is 0.1. How far away is the star in parthe following data to measure this velocity:

secs?

First, calculate the distance of the spacecraft from the

The angle between the perpendicular and the line which

Earth at each time:

8

goes through the Earth is 0.05 = 180. So, the star is

3.010

(45.5121345.31213)

1

d1 = ct

=

= 1/180 pc away.

2

2

30, 000 km

2

d2 = ct

2

30, 064.5 km

3.0108 (46.5278546.32742)

2

between the two pulses:

d = d2 d1 = 30, 064.5 30, 000 = 64.5 km

Physics)/Orbits/Worked Solutions

Now, calculate the time elapsed between the transmission 1. The semi-major axis of an elliptical orbit can be

of the two pulses:

approximated reasonably accurately by the mean distance of the planet for the Sun. How would you test,

t = t t = 46.32742 45.31213 = 1.01529 s

Finally, divide the distance the spacecraft has travelled using the data in the table above, that the inner planbetween the two pulses by the time between the trans- ets of the Solar System obey Keplers Third Law?

mission of the two pulses, to give the average velocity of Divide T2 by R3 and for each planet and see if this value

is roughly constant.

the spacecraft in that interval of time:

v=

d

t

64.5

1.01529

63.5 kms1

4. The angles between the horizontal and a star are So, Keplers Third Law does hold for the inner planets,

120

vs

c

R.

vs

3108

C=

T2

R3

C=

R3

T2

0.2

121.6

= 0.00164

This is the constant of proportionality. It should be classical Doppler eect for.

roughly the same for all the planets around the Sun. Alternatively, you can use:

We will be using the former to answer the next two questions, but you should be able to get the same answers using

the latter.

Physics)/Big Bang Theory/Worked Solutions

1

radius of 421600km, and a year of 1.77 Earth days. 1. What is the Hubble Constant in s ?

What is the value of C for Jupiters moons?

H0 = 70 kms1 Mpc1 = 0.07 ms1 pc1

T2

R3

C=

(1.77246060)2

(421600000)3

= 3.12 1016 s2 m3

1 pc = 3.09 x 1016 m

0.07

18 1

s

5. Ganymede, another of Jupiters moons, has a H0 = 3.091016 = 2.27 10

mean orbital radius of 1070400km. How long is its 2. How old is the universe?

year?

1

17

s = 14.0 bn years

H0 = 4.41 10

T2

3.12 1016 = 1070400000

3

3. What eect might gravity have had on this gure?

Gravity would slow the expansion of the universe, so the

7.16 days

age of the universe would actually be lower than 14.0 bilWhich isn't that accurate, due to the approximations that lion years.

we used.

4. Polaris is 132pc away. What is its velocity of recession, according to Hubbles Law?

20.50 A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Doppler Ef20.52 A-level Physics (Advancfect/Worked Solutions

ing Physics)/Heat and Energy/Worked Solutions

1. M31 (the Andromeda galaxy) is approaching us at

about 120kms1 . What is its red-shift?

z=

vs

c

120000

300000000

= 0.4 103

energy per. particle does this correspond to?

2. Some light from M31 reaches us with a wavelength

2. A certain chemical reaction requires particles

of 590nm. What is its wavelength, relative to M31?

with mass of the order 1026 to move, on average, at

0

590109

0.0004 =

=

=

1

=

1

0

0

0

0

10ms1 . Roughly what temperature does this corre9

spond to?

0.9996 = 59010

0

0 =

59010

0.9996

= 590.23 nm

5 1025 = kT

3. Some light has a wavelength, relative to M31, of

51025

2

T = 1.3810

K

23 10

480nm. What is its wavelength, relative to us?

0.9996 = 0 = 48010

9

energy per. particle does this correspond to?

= 0.9996 480 109 = 479.808 nm

100C = 373K

4. A quasar emits electromagnetic radiation at a

23

21

J particle1

wavelength of 121.6nm. If, relative to us, this wave- E kT = 1.3810 373 510

length is red-shifted 0.2nm, what is the velocity of re- 4. Thermionic emission from copper requires around

5eV of energy per. particle. How hot will the wire be

cession of the quasar?

at this energy level?

19

5eV = 5 x 1.6 x 10

T =

19

810

1.381023

121

= 8 x 10

19

J particle

6 104 K

Physics)/Specic Heat Capacity/Worked Solutions

If we combine Charles Law with the pressure law, we

nd that:

T pV

Volume is multiplied by 0.8, but pressure is multiplied by

1.25, so there is no change in temperature - it remains at

300K.

5. 25% of the argon is sucked out. What is its pres1. How much work would it take to heat 100kg of sure now?

liquid water from 20C to 36.8C?

Using the amount law, if N decreases by 25%, the pressure must also decrease by 25% to 0.1125 MPa.

E = mc = 100 4180 16.8 = 7.022 MJ

2. How much work would it take to heat a wellinsulated room from 15C to 21C, if the room is a

cube with side length 10m, and the density of the air

is 1.2kgm3 ?

V = 103 = 1000 m3

=

m

V

E = mc = 1200 1010 6 = 7.272 MJ

1. Five molecules are moving at speeds of 1,5,6,8, and

36ms1 . What is their mean square speed?

2

= 284.4 m2 s2

5

3. A 10kg block of iron at 80C is placed in the room c =

above once it has reached 21C. If the iron cools by 2. What is the mass of one molecule of N2 (atomic

40C, what is the new temperature of the room?

mass 14, 1u = 1.66 x 1027 kg)?

Nitrogen takes up 2.3 m3 at about 10C, what is the

mean square speed of the molecules in the air outside,

assuming that the atmosphere is 100% nitrogen (in

reality, it is only 78%)?

pV = 1 N mc2

180000

1212000

= 0.149 C

20.54 A-level

Physics

(Advancing

Physics)/Ideal

Gases/Worked Solutions

101235 2.3 =

c2 =

1

3

31012352.3

6.021023 6.6481022

= 1745 m2 s2

the above conditions?

1. I heat some argon from 250K to 300K. If the under

pressure of the gas at 250K is 0.1 MPa, what is its c = c2 = 1745 = 41.8 ms1

pressure after heating?

5. The particles in question 1 are duplicated 3000

The temperature has increased by 20%, so the pressure times. If they have a completely unrealistic mass of

will also increase by 20% (using the pressure law). So, 1g, what is their pressure when they are crammed

the new pressure is 0.1 MPa x 1.2 = 0.12 MPa.

into a cube with side length 0.5m?

2. The argon is in a 0.5m long cylindrical tank with p =

radius 10cm. What volume does it occupy?

N mc2

3V

53000103 284.4

30.53

= 11376 Pa

3. The argon is then squeezed with a piston so that in

only occupies 0.4m of the tanks length. What is its

new pressure?

Physics)/Boltzmann

Factor/Worked Solutions

The volume occupied decreases by 20%, which is equivalent to multiplying by 0.8. So, by Boyles Law, the pressure is multiplied by the reciprocal of 0.8 - 1.25. So, the 1u = 1.66 x 1027 kg

122

g = 9.81 ms2

1. A nitrogen molecule has a molecular mass of 28u. what is the ux density at any point in the core?

3

= 0.85110

= 0.945 Wbm2

9104

temperature of 18C, what proportion of nitrogen

4. Draw a diagram showing the lines of ux within

molecules reach a height of 2km?

the core.

= mgh = 28 1.66 1027 9.81 2000 =

9.12 1022 J

n

n0

9.121022

2. What proportion of the molecules in a box of hydrogen (molecular mass 2u) at 0C have a velocity

greater than 5ms1 ?

= 12 mv 2 = 0.5 2 1.66 1027 52 = 4.15

1026 J

n

n0

4.151026

3. What is the temperature of the hydrogen if half of

the hydrogen is moving at at least 10ms1 ?

= 12 mv 2 = 0.5 2 1.66 1027 102 = 1.66

1025 J

0.5 = e kT

ln 0.5 = ln 2 =

T =

k ln 2

kT

1.661025

1.381023 ln 2

= 0.0174 K

4. Some ionised hydrogen (charge 1.6 x 1019 C)is

placed in a uniform electric eld. The potential difference between the two plates is 20V, and they are

1m apart. What proportion of the molecules are at

least 0.5m from the positive plate (ignoring gravity)

at 350K?

= 0.5 20 1.6 1019 = 1.6 1018 J

n

n0

1.61018

= e 1.381023 350 0

Physics)/Induction/Worked

Solutions

1. What is the ux linkage of a 30cm coil of 0.5mm

thick wire with a ux perpendicular to it of 10Wb?

N=

30102

0.5103

= 600 coils

N = 600 10 = 6000 Wb

Physics)/Flux/Worked Solutions

of 2s, what emf is maintained?

| |=

dN

dt

6000

2

= 3000 V

This principle of removing the ux linkage rapidly (although not usually by destroying ones equipment) is used

1. A circular steel core has a cross-sectional area of 9 to create very high voltages for short periods of time.

cm2 , and a length of 0.5m. If the permeability of steel

3. The ux in a ux circuit varies according to the

is 875 NA2 ., what is the permeance of the core?

equation = sin t. What is the equation for the

875106 9104

= A

= 1.58 WbA1

emf induced?

L =

0.5

d

dt = N dt sin t = N cos t

the top of the core, and a 9A direct current is put 4. Using a constant k, what is the equation for a curthrough the coil. How much ux is induced?

rent which could induce the ux in the ux circuit

= N I = 1.58 106 60 9 = 0.851 mWb

above?

123

I = k sin t

5. Draw a graph of the ux, ux linkage, emf and moving through a magnetic eld. Draw an arrow representing the direction of the force on the charge.

current as deduced in the previous two questions.

In order to keep the scales sane, I used a 2-coil (N=2) coil

to plot the following graph:

would be in the opposite direction (upwards).

4. The following diagram shows a wire in a magnetic

eld. Draw an arrow representing the direction of the

force on the wire.

ux linkage), which is in turn inducing the emf.

Solutions

1. What force is exerted by a 1T magnetic eld on an

electron (of charge 1.6 x 1019 C) moving at 5% of

the speed of light (3 x 108 ms1 )?

F = Bqv = 1 1.6 1019 0.05 3 108 =

2.4 1012 N

This may seem tiny, but remember that the acceleration

of the electron will be far greater, as it has such a small

mass. The fact that the electron was moving at 0.05c

means that we don't have to do any relativistic corrections.

2. What force is exerted by a 5mT magnetic eld on a

20cm wire with resistance 1 attached to a 9V battery?

and 50 coils on the other. If 30 kV AC is put in, what

voltage comes out?

V = IR

I=

V

R

F = BIl =

Physics)/Transformers/Worked

Solutions

BV l

R

5103 90.2

106

= 9 kN

300

50

30000

Vs

=6

124

Vs =

30000

6

200

980

Vp

25000

25000200

980

= 5 kV

2. A step-up transformer has 200 coils on one coil, motor be increased?

and 980 coils on the other. If 25 kV AC comes out, Increase the frequency of the three-phase power.

what voltage was put in?

5. A squirrel-cage motor relies on eddy currents running along the rotor to function. However, if eddy

currents run across the rotor, then the force on the

Vp =

5.1 kV

rotor is reduced. How may these eddy currents be re3. An ideal transformer transforms a 50A current duced without reducing the desired eddy currents?

into a 1A current. It has 40 coils on the primary coil.

Laminate the plates which connect the rods to each other

How many coils are in the secondary coil?

so that currents are restricted from running in the wrong

Ns

50

direction.

1 = 40 = 50

Ns = 40 50 = 2000 coils

=

eect does this have on the eciency of the transformer?

Physics)/Generators/Worked

Solutions

There are wires with current in them going perpendicularly through a magnetic eld. According to F = BIL, a

force is exerted on the wires. This means that some of

the energy is converted into kinetic energy, reducing the

1. Draw diagrams of an alternating current, the 'dieciency of the transformer.

rect current' produced by a DC generator, and this

5. Air does have some permeability. What eect does current once it has been smoothed with a capacitor.

this have on the eciency of the transformer? Why?

Some of the ux passes through the air instead of the core,

and so does not pass through the secondary coil, and is not

used to create AC. This means that some of the energy put

in oscillates in and out of the magnetic eld, reducing the

eciency of the transformer.

Physics)/Motors/Worked Solutions

1. How could you adapt the simple DC motor to use

AC?

Connect the coil in the stator in series with the coil in 2. What is the phase dierence (in radians) between

the rotor via a slip-ring commutator. This must be in the the voltages produced by a three-phase generator?

correct direction to ensure that the elds created by the 2 c

3

two parts of the coil are constantly repelling each other,

3. According to Faradays law, what three things will

rather than constantly attracting each other.

increase the amplitude of the emf created by a gen2. Why does a three-phase motor have a constant an- erator?

gular velocity?

= dN

dt

The vectorial sum of the three currents is constant, so the

vectorial sum of the forces on the rotor due to each of the So, more coils, a stronger magnetic eld or a higher frequency of rotation will increase the amplitude of the emf.

three currents is constant.

3. What is the dierence between a split-ring and a 4. If an albatross touched two power cables carrying

AC in phase, what would happen?

slip-ring commutator?

A split-ring commutator makes the current change direction every half-rotation, whereas a slip-ring commutator

merely maintains a connection between the moving rotor

and the stationary stator.

cables.

5. What would happen if the two cables carried threephase power?

125

Unfortunately, dead albatross - there is potential dier- the charge located? Why?

ence between the two cables.

The charges are free to move within a conductor. The

opposite charges in each plate are attracted to each other

and try to move as close to each other as possible. So,

20.63 A-level

Physics

(Ad- they end up on the inside edge of the plates.

vancing

Physics)/Electric

Force/Worked Solutions

e = 1.6 x 1019 C

1. A positron (charge +e) is 1 m from a lithium

nucleus (charge +3e). What is the magnitude of the

force acting on each of the particles? In what direction is it acting?

20.64 A-level

Physics

(Advancing

Physics)/Electric

Field/Worked Solutions

8.99109 13(1.61019 )2

(106 )2

with negligible internal resistance. If the plates are

10cm apart, what is the electric eld at either of the

This may seem tiny, but the mass of an electron is also plates?

tiny, so the acceleration is considerable.

9

Eelectric = Velectric

= 0.1

= 90 Vm1

d

2. An electron is 1mm from the positively charged

2. What is the electric eld at the midpoint between

plate in a uniform electric eld. The potential difthe plates?

ference between the plates is 20V, and the plates are

10cm apart. What force is acting on the electron? In The whole point of a uniform electric eld is that the eld

does not change anywhere between the plates - at the midwhat direction?

point, as anywhere, it is 90 NC1 .

The 1mm is a red herring.

3. The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 1019 C. What

1.61019 20

Felectric = qV

= 3.2 1017 N

d =

0.1

is the electric eld 1m from a hydrogen nucleus?

3. The acceleration due to gravity around a point

1.61019

Eelectric = 4Q0 r2 = 48.8510

=

12 (106 )2

mass is constant, irrespective of the mass of the ob1

jects it is acting on. The acceleration due to electricity 1440 Vm

around a point charge is not. Use Newtons Second 4. What is the direction of this eld?

Law (F=ma) to explain this.

The hydrogen nucleus has a positive charge, so the electric

F

a= m

eld goes away from the nucleus (by convention).

Felectric = kQq

=

r2

6.90 1016 N

agrav =

GM m

mr 2

aelectric =

GM

r2

kQq

mr 2

electrical acceleration, since charge does not provide a

resistance to a force.

what point will the electric eld be 0?

Dene the distance r as shown:

though the overall charge on the insulator is 0. Why

is the insulator attracted by a nearby charge?

The electrons in the atoms can move within certain

bounds. Being in an electric eld means that they spend

1

2

more time closer to a positive charge, and so the parts of 40 (1+r)

2 = 4 r 2

0

the insulator which are attracted to the charge end up be2

1

ing closer to the charge than those which are repelled. (1+r)2 = r2

This means that the attractive force on the insulator is (1+r)2

= r2

2

greater than the repulsive force. This causes the insulator

as a whole to be attracted to the charge if it is positive. (1 + r)2 = 2r2

If it is negative, the reverse happens, and the insulator is 1 + r = r2

repelled.

r( 2 1) = 1

5. Where in the charged conducting plates which cre

2+1

1

ate a uniform electric eld would you expect to nd r = 21 = (21)(2+1) = 2 + 1 2.41 m

126

Physics)/Electric

Potential/Worked Solutions

100V. What is the potential dierence between a

point halfway between the plates and one of the

plates?

1. Draw a diagram of a uniform electric eld between

4. What is the electric potential at a point 0.2m from

two plates, showing the eld lines and the equipotenan alpha particle (charge on an electron = 1.6 x

tials.

1019 C)?

The charge on an alpha particle is 3.2 x 1019 C.

V =

Q

40 r

3.21019

48.851012 0.2

= 1.44 108 V

at the negative electrode of an electron gun if the potential dierence between the electrodes is 10V?

U = V q = 10 1.6 1019 = 1.6 1018 J =

10 eV

Physics)/Electric Potential

Energy/Worked Solutions

k = 8.99 x 109 Nm2 C2

1. Convert 5 x 1013 J to MeV.

51013

1.61019

0.9 109 1.6 1019 = 1.44 1010 J

2. Do the same for the electric eld around a point 3. What is the potential energy of an electron at the

negatively charged plate of a uniform electric eld

charge.

when the potential dierence between the two plates

is 100V?

elec = Velec q = 100 1.6 1019 = 1.6 1017 J =

0.1 keV

127

Physics)/Quarks/Worked

Solutions

from a 0.5C charge?

elec =

kQq

r

8.99109 20.5

0.02

= 4.5 1011 J

its total charge?

5. What is represented by the gradient of a graph of Baryons are made of three quarks. 3 x + = +2e

electric potential energy against distance from some 2. The - baryon has a total charge of 1e. Given

charge?

that it is made up of only one type of rst generation

quark, what is this quark?

Force exerted on the charge with that energy.

Three identical quarks must have a total charge of 1e,

so one of these quarks has a charge of -e. This is a down

quark.

3. What is an antiproton made of? What is its

charge?

u

u

d , total charge 1e.

4. A K+ meson is made of an up quark and an antistrange quark. What is its total charge?

Model/Worked Solutions

+ = +1e

5. Lambda () baryons are made up of an up quark,

a down quark, and another quark (not an antiquark).

The 0 is neutral, and contains a second generation

quark. What is this quark?

0 = + - + q

in the Standard Model to have its existence proven

experimentally (in 1995). It is also the most massive The second generation quark with a charge of -e is the

of the quarks. Why was it so dicult to observe a top strange quark.

quark?

Creating massive particles requires a lot of energy. It took

a long time to develop a particle accelerator which accelerated other particles to the energy required to create top

quarks.

2. What observable phenomena does the Standard

Model not explain?

Gravity, as well as mass, and the large number of constants in the Standard Model.

3. How much more massive is an up quark than an

electron?

2.4

0.511

= 4.7 times

Model?

Physics)/Bosons/Worked Solutions

5. The antiparticle of the electron (e- ) is the positron.

What is the charge and rest mass of a positron?

Charge: +1.6 x 1019 C

Mass: 0.511 MeV/c2 = 9.11 x 1031 kg

regular intervals. Draw a Feynman diagram to represent this.

128

They are tiny, chargeless, and almost massless.

4. Complete the following equation for the emission

of a beta particle from a nucleus:

1

0n

1 e

11 p +

+ 00 e

of an antielectron from a nucleus:

1

1p

10 n + 01 e+ + 00 e

an electron by a nucleus:

1

1p

1 e

10 n + 00 e

Physics)/Millikans Experiment/Worked Solutions

h = 6.63 x 1034 Js

c = 3 x 108 ms1

g = 9.81 ms2

1. Rearrange the formula above in terms of q.

2. Write two equations (including a W+ boson) which

describe positron emission.

qV

d

= mg

p n + W+

qV = mgd

W + + e+

q=

1.6 x 1019 C, since it has to balance the charge on a

proton.

mgd

V

Express the mass of an oil drop in terms of its radius

r and its density , and, by substitution, nd a more

useful formula for q.

m

4. Read Richard Feynmans excellent book, QED - =

Volume

the Strange Theory of Light and Matter, ISBN 978m = Volume

0-140-12505-4.

Assuming that the oil drop is spherical:

Don't look here. I can't read a book for you. Visit your

Volume = 43 r3

library, bookshop, or whatever.

m = 43 r3

Physics)/Leptons/Worked

Solutions

q=

4gdr 3

3V

1m is held stationary in between two plates which

are 10cm apart. At what potential dierences between the plates is this possible?

1. An electron is produced by a nuclear reaction, but q must be a multiple of e, the charge on an electron:

an electron-antineutrino is not produced. What other

q = ne , where n is an integer.

particle is produced?

4gdr 3

A positron, since this is the only other rst-generation ne = 3V

particle with a lepton number of 1.

V =

4gdr 3

3ne

48859.810.1(106 )3

31.61019 n

25.7

n

2. Why do electrons not make up part of the nucleus? Then, to nd some actual values, take n = 1,2,3 ... , so V

Electrons do not interact with the strong nuclear force.

= 25.7V, 12.8V, 8.6V ...

3. Why did it take until the 1950s to detect the rst 4. If the X-rays used to ionise the oil are of waveantineutrino?

length 1nm, how much energy do they give to the elec-

trons? Why does this mean that the oil drops are

ionised?

c = f

f=

129

Physics)/Particle Accelerators/Worked Solutions

6.631034 3108

109

the radius of motion depends on the speed of the moving object.

This provides the energy required for an electron to es2

cape from its energy level, becoming unbound.

F = mv

r

E = hf = hc

=

1016 J = 1.24 keV

5. In reality, the oil drops are moving when they enter r = mv2

F

the uniform electric eld. How can this be compenSo,

if

F is constant:

sated for?

2

rv

Either:

2. A cyclotron with a diameter of 1.5m is used to ac31

max Use a slightly stronger potential dierence to slow celerate electrons (mass 9.11 x 10 kg). The 18

imum

force

exerted

on

an

electron

is

2.4

x

10

N.

the oil drop down, and then reduce the potential difWhat

is

the

maximum

velocity

of

the

electrons?

ference to keep the oil drop stationary.

F =

mv 2

r

Measure the voltage required to keep the oil drop v 2 = F r = 2.41018 0.75 = 1.97 1012 m2 s2

m

9.111031

moving at a constant (terminal) velocity, using more

v = 1.41 106 ms1

sophisticated equipment.

3. What are the problems involved in constructing a

large cyclotron?

Physics)/Pair

Production

and Annihilation/Worked

Solutions

(for example, the land area enclosed by the LHC!) means

that cyclotrons have been largely replaced in experimental

particle physics by tubes, instead of at cylinders.

4. Why don't particles stick to the electrodes when

passing through them?

h = 6.63 x 1034 Js

There are two reasons. Firstly, alternating current is sinu1. The mass of an electron is 9.11 x 10-31 kg. What is soidal, so there is no charge on the electrode when the parthe minimum amount of energy a photon must have ticles are passing through them. Secondly, even if there

were charge on the electrode, the net force on the particle

to create an electron?

would still be 0, since the force would be equal in every

E = 2mc2 = 2 9.11 1031 (3 108 )2 = 1.64 direction.

1013 J = 1.02 MeV

2. A 1.1 MeV electron annihilates with a 1.1 MeV

positron. What is the total energy of the photon produced?

13

f=

E

h

3.521013

6.631034

= 5.31 1020 Hz

20.74 A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Cloud Chambers and Mass Spectrometers/Worked Solutions

=

c

f

3108

5.311020

= 5.65 1013 m

31

5. What classical physical conditions might cause a Mass of electron = 9.11 x 10 kg

newly produced electron-positron pair to annihilate u = 1.66 x 1027 kg

almost immediately?

1. An electron enters a cloud chamber, passing into a

Electrons and positrons have opposite charges, and so 0.1T magnetic eld. The initial curvature (the recipthey attract each other. When they are created, they must rocal of its radius) of its path is 100m1 . At what

have enough kinetic energy to escape each others attrac- speed was it moving when it entered the magnetic

eld?

tion. If this is not the case, they will annihilate.

130

r=

mv

qB

v = qBr

m =

0.585c

1.61019 0.10.01

9.111031

Physics)/Radioactive Emissions/Worked Solutions

relativity, however we just did.

2. The electron spirals inwards in a clockwise di1. Americium-241 is an emitter. What element,

rection, as show in the diagram on the right. What

and what isotope, is produced by this decay?

would the path of a positron, moving with an identi241

b

4

cal speed, look like?

95 Am a ? + 2

b = 241 - 4 = 237

a = 95 - 2 = 93

So, 237

93 N p (Neptunium-237) is produced.

2. Iodine-129 is a - emitter. What element, and what

isotope, is produced by this decay?

129

53 I

b

a?

+ 00

b = 129

a = 53 + 1 = 54

So, 129

54 Xe (Xenon-129) is produced.

3. Gamma rays are used to kill microbes in food.

Why doesn't the food become radioactive?

Gamma radiation only interacts with the electrons of the

atom, not with the nucleus. Radioactivity is due to nuclear

properties, not chemical properties.

4. Plutonium-244 decays by emitting an particle. It

does this twice, emits a - particle, and then emits a

further two particles. The nucleus becomes a different element each time. What element is produced

at the end?

244

P u ba ? + 4 42 + 01

3. Using a 2T magnetic eld, what electric eld 94

strength must be used to get a velocity selector to se- b = 244 - 16 = 228

lect only particles which are moving at 100ms1 ?

a = 94 - 8 + 1 = 87

E

v=B

So, at the end of this decay chain, 228 F r (Francium-228)

87

is produced.

4. Some uranium (atomic number 92) ions (charge 5. Carbon-11 changes into Boron-11 by a radioactive

+3e) of various isotopes are put through the veloc- emission. What was emitted?

ity selector described in question 3. They then enter 11 C 11 B + b ?

a

6

5

an 0.00002T uniform magnetic eld. What radius of

b = 11 - 11 = 0

circular motion would uranium-235 have?

m

a=6-5=1

= rBBselector

q

Eselector

2351.661027

31.61019

r=

=r

20.00002

200

2351.661027

0.000000231.61019

= 0.0000002r

= 4.06 m

the lepton numbers to balance, a neutrino ( 00 ) must also

be emitted.

6. Uranium-236 decays, following the equation:

236

92 U

232

90 T h

+ X

Solve these type of problems by applying the conservation laws: e.g. the decay must balance electric charge,

nucleon number, proton number, lepton number etc. Nu-

131

cleon number doesn't balance (236 = 232 + ?), so X must How many neutrons are produced (i.e. what is the value

have a nucleon number of 4.

of N)?

The Proton number does not balance either (92 = 90 + ?) Consider the mass numbers:

therefore X must have 2 Protons.

1 + 235 = 141 + 92 + N

Therefore it can be concluded that X is an alpha particle. N + 233 = 236

N =3

be absorbed in order to make the reaction stable?

Two thirds, assuming that Uranium-235 always produces

three neutrons when split, which it doesn't.

The following table gives the wavelengths of light absorbed?

given o when electrons change between the energy

The reaction would stop.

levels in hydrogen as described in the rst row:

1. Calculate the potential energy of an electron at 4. Alternatively, Uranium-235 can split into Xenon140, two neutrons and another element. What is this

level n=2.

element? (You will need to use a periodic table.)

c = f

Consider the mass numbers:

3 108 = 364.6 109 f

1 + 235 = 140 + N + 2

f = 8.23 1014 Hz

N + 142 = 236

E = hf = 6.631034 8.231014 = 5.46

N = 94

1019 J = 3.41 eV

2. Calculate the dierence in potential energy be- Then consider the atomic numbers:

tween levels n=2 and n=3.

0 + 92 = 54 + n + 2(0)

n = 38

f=

E

h

c=

E

h

1

0n

E = ch

=

1.89 eV

3108 6.631034

656.3109

= 3.03 1019 J =

n=3?

3.41 + 1.89 = 1.52 eV

4. If an electron were to jump from n=7 to n=5, what

would the wavelength of the photon given o be?

(

)

ch

1

1

E = ch

=

ch

= 3 108

5,2

5,2

7,2

( 7,2

)

1

1

6.63 1034 434.110

= 4.28

9 397109

1020 J

=

ch

E

3108 6.631034

4.281020

1

94

140

+235

92 U 54 Xe +38 Sr + 20 n

Physics)/Fusion/Worked Solutions

c = 3 x 108 ms1

1. In the Sun, two tritium nuclei ( 31 H ) are fused

to produce helium-4 ( 42 He ). What else is produced,

apart from energy?

231 H

= 4.65 m

Physics)/Fission/Worked Solutions

4

2 He

+ 220 n

6 C ) is fused with protium ( 11 H ). What single nucleus does this produce?

12

6 C

+ 11 H

13

7 N

What dierence in binding energy, in J, does this correspond to?

1.95MeV = 1.95 x 106 x 1.6 x 1019 J = 3.12 x 1013 J

1. A neutron is red at some Uranium-235. Barium- 4. If all this energy was emitted as a photon, what

141 and Krypton-92 are produced:

would its frequency be?

1

0n

141

92

1

+235

92 U 56 Ba +36 Kr + N0 n

E = hf

132

E

h

3.12106

6.631034

= 4.71 1020 Hz

delivered to the head when making a 10-minute teleThis is a within the wavelength spectrum of a gamma-ray,

phone call?

so we can assume all energy is released as a gamma-ray

1.2 x 5 = 6 grays are absorbed per. second. 10 minutes

photon.

= 600 seconds.

5. In order to contain a fusion reaction, electromagnetism may be used. What other force could be used? 6 = dose

f=

600

Why is this not being used for fusion reactors on So, the total dose is 3600 Gy.

Earth?

Note to reader: There is currently something wrong with

Gravity, as in stars. However, the amount of mass re- this question, since 3600 Gy is enough to kill 600 people.

quired to do this is far larger than the Earth, so we cannot Mobile phones don't do that. I'm working on it. --Sjlegg

do this.

(talk) 14:30, 6 April 2009 (UTC) Suggestion : A mobile

phone does not emit ionizing radiation as the kinetic energy is to low. Therefore the gray unit cannot be used for

20.79 A-level Physics (Advanc- this exercise. The unit of measurement for absorption of

energy by a body is the SAR.It measures

ing Physics)/Binding En- electromagnetic

the time rate of absorption of electromagnetic energy by

ergy/Worked Solutions

a body. It is measured in W / kg.

The SAR can be determined from the electric eld

1. Deuterium (an isotope of Hydrogen with an ex- strength E in the body or from the rate of temperature

tra neutron) has a nuclear mass of 2.01355321270 u. rise (t).

What is its binding energy?

2. What dose equivalent does this correspond to?

Total mass of neutron and proton is 1.00727647 +

Quality factor for photons is 1, so dose equivalent is 720

1.00866492 = 2.01594139 u

Sv.

Mass defect = 2.01594139 - 2.01355321270 =

3. How many nuclei are there in 1mg of Americium0.002388178 u = 3.965662187 x 1030 kg

241?

E = mc2 = 3.57 1013 J = 2.23 MeV

The mass of 1 Americium-241 nucleus is 241u, which

2. Uranium-235 has a nuclear mass of 235.0439299 corresponds to 241 x 1.66 x 1027 = 400 x 1027 kg.

u. It contains 92 protons. What is its binding energy?

103

21

4001027 = 2.5 10

235 - 92 = 143 neutrons

4. An ham sandwich becomes contaminated with 1

Total mass of baryons is (92 x 1.00727647) + (143 x g of Americium-241, and is eaten by an 80kg person.

1.00866492) = 236.9085188 u

The half-life of Americium-241 is 432 years. Given

Mass defect = 236.9085188 - 235.0439299 = 1.8645889 that Americium-241 gives o 5.638 MeV alpha particles, how long would it be before a dose equivalent

u = 3.096222181 x 1027 kg

of 6 Sv is absorbed, making death certain?

2

10

E = mc = 2.79 10

J = 1.74 GeV

First calculate the activity:

3. How would you expect H-2 and U-235 to be used

A = N

in nuclear reactors? Why?

H-2 is used in experimental fusion reactors, since it has a t 12 = ln2

smaller nucleus than Iron-56.

= lnt 12

2

U-235 is used in ssion reactors, since it has a much larger

nucleus than Iron-56.

A = Nt ln1 2 =

2.51021 ln 2

432365.24246060

= 1.27 1011 Bq

Physics)/Risks, Doses and

Dose Equivalents/Worked

Solutions

Then calculate the dose per. second:

0.115

80

= 1.43 mGys1

to get a dose equivalent per. second of 0.0287 Svs1 .

6

1. A mobile phone emits electromagnetic radiation. 0.0287

= 209 s = 3 min 29 s

1.2 watts of power are absorbed per. kilogram.

5. What assumptions have you made?

Assuming that the radiation is absorbed uniformly

20.80. A-LEVEL PHYSICS (ADVANCING PHYSICS)/RISKS, DOSES AND DOSE EQUIVALENTS/WORKED SOLUTIONS133

We assumed that the Americium was absorbed uniformly

throughout the body, and that the activity remained constant. The latter is acceptable since this period of time is

relatively short. The former is not acceptable.

Chapter 21

licenses

21.1 Text

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/Refraction?oldid=2271714 Contributors: Albmont, Sjlegg, AdRiley, Recent Runes, Anonymous Dissident, CarsracBot, Wjh31, Fasolakia

and Anonymous: 4

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QuiteUnusual, Adrignola, Avicennasis and Anonymous: 3

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Induction Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%20(Advancing%20Physics)

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Avicennasis

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Anonymous: 1

A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Resistance and Conductance/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/

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Adrignola, Avicennasis and Rynbrgss

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Adrignola

A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Stress, Strain & the Young Modulus/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.

org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%20(Advancing%20Physics)/Stress%2C%20Strain%20%26%20the%20Young%20Modulus/Worked%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/What is a wave?/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Half-lives/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Gravitational Forces/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Gravitational Fields/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Gravitational Potential Energy/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Simple Harmonic Motion/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%

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Adrignola and Anonymous: 1

A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/

A-level%20Physics%20(Advancing%20Physics)/Energy%20in%20Simple%20Harmonic%20Motion/Worked%20Solutions?oldid=

1485189 Contributors: Sjlegg and Adrignola

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Adrignola and Avicennasis

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wiki/A-level%20Physics%20(Advancing%20Physics)/Forces%20and%20Impulse%20in%20Collisions/Worked%20Solutions?oldid=

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Radar and Triangulation/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Orbits/Worked Solutions Source:

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Anonymous: 1

A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Big Bang Theory/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Heat and Energy/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%

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Adrignola

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Induction/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Force/Worked Solutions Source:

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Transformers/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Motors/Worked Solutions Source:

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Generators/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%

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Avicennasis

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A-level Physics (Advancing Physics)/Energy Levels/Worked Solutions Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level%20Physics%

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