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Block-based vs.

Transaction-based
Replication
Whats Right for You?

Mike Warkentin
Product Sales Tech Lead
DataMirror Corporation
3100 Steeles Ave East Suite 1100
Markham, Ont L3R-8T3
EMAIL: mwarkentin@datamirror.com
(905) 415-0310 x249

Session 770110 (42BX)


Wednesday Mar. 16 2004
9:30am 10:45am

Agenda

SAN Background Concepts


What About High Availability?
Basics of Block-based, I/O-based and Transaction-based
Replication
Statement of the Problem
Whats Out There in the Marketplace
Transaction-based & Block-based Integration Examples
Benefits of an Integrated Solution
Summary
Additional Resources
Q&A
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 2

SAN Background Concepts

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

pSeries

iSeries

HP
Fibre channel
connect

Storage Area Network

Proprietary
Internal
Storage

SAN
Storage
System

Sun
Intel
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 4

zSeries

You May Need a SAN if

You already have multiple platforms:


Sun, HP, zSeries, pSeries, NT Servers, etc.

Disk storage needs keep expanding


You can have an IT staff meeting by
looking in the mirror
Your computer room is starting to look
like a techie geeks flea market
You need a GPS to find your way
through your disk farm

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 5

Why has the iSeries not been a


SAN Player Until Now?
iSeries already provides many SAN benefits
SANs have been too expensive for small AS/400 shops
Disk prices are now much lower (.07$ per MB)

iSeries storage needs traditionally have been small


iSeries can now scale up to 72TB or 2047 disk arms
(i890 at V5R2)

AS/400 connectivity has been through slower 6501 SCSI


connection
Fibre channel connectivity is available at V5R1
Enhanced further at V5R2

Provides seamless integration and near internal disk performance

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 6

Fibre Channel Topologies

Point-to-Point (V5R1)
Dedicated link between two ports
Point-to-Point

Typically 2 node FC-AL

Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) (V5R1)


Shared bandwidth

FC-AL

2 to 126 nodes

Switched Fabric (FC-SW) (V5R2)


Scalable bandwidth
16 million nodes
FC-SW

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 7

What About High Availability?

Levels of Application Availability

Standard Availability
Up to 99%
87 hours of outage per year (3.6 days)

High Availability
Up to 99.99%
53 minutes of outage per year

Five Nines Availability


Up to 99.999%
5 minutes of outage per year

Continuous Availability
Up to 100%
No outage per year
Source: IBM, March 2002
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 9

Types of Data Resiliency


High Availability

Disaster Recovery

(Ability to tolerate scheduled activities)

(Ability to tolerate disasters)

Tape backup routines


Batch routines
Housekeeping routines
Software patches & upgrades
Hardware maintenance and upgrades

Business Continuity
(Ability to tolerate failures)

Hardware Failure
Operating system failure
Application software failure
Power failure
Communications failure
Human error

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 10

Fire
Flood
Terrorism
Earthquake
Tornado
Hurricane

RPO & RTO


Recovery Point Objective (RPO)

Recovery Time Objective (RTO)

(How much data will be lost?)


Days

Hrs

Mins

(How long before users are back on-line?)


Secs

Secs

Mins

Hrs

Days

TAPE BACKUP & RESTORE

SWITCHED/SHARED DISK
(Processor failure only)
BLOCK LEVEL MIRRORING

TRANSACTION LEVEL MIRRORING

CLUSTERING/GRID TECHNOLOGIES
(Future)
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 11

Basics of Block-Based, I/O Based


and Transaction-Based Replication

SAN Block-based
Replication Solutions
Data is viewed as a collection of blocks which are
stored on a number of disks

Disk

Strengths:
Complete image of the
production volume
maintained
Possible to move large
volumes of data
Easy set-up and
administration

Weaknesses:
Cannot select to mirror or
fail-over an individual
Tracks
application, file or object
Target volume remains
Block
closed during replication
When data changes in a block, the block is copied to Data Corruption propagation
the recovery database
Large bandwidth/resource
utilization
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 13

Block Level Replication


Primary Node

Backup Node

Strengths:
Maximum data currency
Minimum data loss

Weaknesses:
4
1

Impacts business applications


Not suitable for inter-state mirroring

3
Synchronous
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 14

Who are the Major High End SAN Players?

IBM
ESS aka Shark
PPRC Peer-to-Peer
Remote Copy
synchronous block level
mirroring
FlashCopy
one-time volume refresh
within the same Shark

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 15

EMC
Symmetrix
SRDF Symmetrix Remote
Data Facility
synchronous block level
mirroring
TimeFinder
one-time volume refresh
within the same Symmetrix

I/O-based Replication
Strengths:

Source

Target

No transaction logs required


Can work across a WAN
Handles environments not covered by
transaction based solutions

Application
1
Kernel
I/O Manager

Weaknesses:
Difficult to determine what to replicate
Usually Windows only platforms

Soln Driver

Disk
12

3
9

Cache

Blocked Files

5
7

File System

10

Soln Service

Soln Service

4
8
Overflow

Disk
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 16

11

Transaction Level Replication


Transaction Level Mirroring views data as
business application groups

Strengths:
The integrity of the
backup database is
continuously maintained
while mirroring
Sales
Payroll
Warehouse Select to mirror
Application
Application
Application
only what you need
Invoice
Employee
Delivery
The backup volume is
open to read-only
Order
Payslip
Adjustment
applications
Customer
Appraisal
Dispatch
Weaknesses:
Does not mirror operating
system and memory
Some administration
required
Within each application, data is viewed as
Some host CPU overhead
groups of business transactions
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 17

Transaction Level Replication


Primary Node

Backup Node

Asynchronous

2
1

Strengths:
Suitable for inter-state mirroring
Minimum impact on business
applications
Weaknesses:
Backup node may lag a few seconds
May have to re-enter last transaction

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 18

Statement of the Problem

Summary of the Problem


Transaction-based
Strengths:
Suitable for inter-state mirroring
Minimum impact on business applications
Transactional consistency
Mirror only what you need
Backup volume open to read-only apps
Data corruption not propagated

Weaknesses:
No OS replication PTFs etc.
Backup node may lag a few
seconds
May have to re-enter last
transaction
Some admin and setup required

Block-based
Strengths:
Complete OS image
Maximum data currency
Minimum data loss
Easy to set up and admin
Refreshes large data
volumes quickly
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 20

Weaknesses:
Not suitable for inter-state mirroring
Impacts business applications
Not aware of transactions
All or nothing mirrored
Backup volume not available until IPL
Data corruption propagation

When to use Block-based Replication

When you have multiple database and hardware platforms already


connected to a SAN

When you have sufficient bandwidth

When you are not too concerned about a lack of geographical


dispersion between production and backup locations

When no transaction log exists for the objects or databases that


need to be protected

When you can afford downtime to bring up the backup server and
re-instantiate the database

When access to the target volume for queries, reporting or


backups, is not required

If you want the security and ease of administration of a hardware


based replication solution

When synchronizing large data volumes for transaction-based


replication solutions

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 21

When to use Transaction-based


Replication

When you have no SAN

When you have platforms that are not supported by block level
replication solutions

When you want to use the backup volume for reporting, queries
and backups

When Disaster Recovery with geographical dispersion is a


prime requirement

When your platforms are susceptible to data corruption

When you want to be very selective as to what you mirror

When you have NO time for an IPL/INIT or database recovery in


case of a primary system outage

When you want to employ distributed computing environments


(Master to Master Database)

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 22

When to use I/O-based Replication

Primarily for Windows environments

When you need to replicate more than just the database

When a transaction log, redo log or journal is not available for


the objects that require replication

When you need to replicate the environments above across a


WAN

Where data corruption is a concern

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 23

Whats Out There In the Marketplace?


And More Importantly How Do I Choose?

Transaction-based Resiliency Solution for


iSeries - DataMirror
DataMirror iCluster
Real-time asynchronous transactionalaware mirroring
Supports SAN
Single Integrated Product
Graphical Clustering Interface
IBM Cluster Resource Services
IBM ClusterProven Applications
Real-time IFS & QDLS/DLO
Full remote Journaling
LOB, MQ Series 5.2, OS/400 V5R2,
Data Area/Data Queue journal support
Xtreme Cache
Auto-registration
Enhanced Trigger Support
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 25

Transaction-based Resiliency Solution for


iSeries Other Solutions
Lakeview Technologies
www.mimix.com
Mimix
Vision Solutions
www.visionsolutions.com
Vision Suite
Orion

Berco Informatique
www.bercoqc.com
RealSynch Suite

Local & Remote


Journaling

Remote Journaling
Only Solutions

Maximum Availability
www.maximumavailability.com
*noMAX
OS Solutions
www.os-solutions.com
OS Director
Traders
www.quick-software-line.com
QuickEDD
XKS Limited
www.xks.co.uk
MiRREX

Asynchronous or Synchronous
Local
journal

iTera
www.iterainc.com
Echo2

Remote
journal
ADDRMTJRN

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 26

Transaction-based Resiliency Solution for


iSeries Other Solutions
How do I choose?
Will it replicate all the objects that I need?
Will it work across a WAN?
What impact will it have on my
bandwidth, CPU, memory etc
Does is provide sync check and monitoring
capabilities?
Cost
software, maintenance, implementation
Company and product reputation
Ease of use, switchover, administration
Business Partner or vendor relationship
financial stability, support etc.
POC?

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 27

Transaction-based Resiliency Solution for


Oracle9i
DataMirror iReflect
Real-time Asynchronous Transactionbased Mirroring for Oracle9i
Single Integrated Product
Full DML/DDL Support
Master to Master Replication
Recursion Prevention
Collision Detection/Resolution
Data and Definitional Sync Checks
User Exits
Alarms, Alerts & Thresholds
JAVA Based GUI Administrator & Monitor
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 28

Transaction-based Resiliency Solution


Other Solutions
Cross Platform
It depends on your database:
Oracle
Oracle
www.oracle.com
DataGuard

SQL Server
Microsoft
www.microsoft.com
DTS

Quest
www.quest.com
Shareplex
Sybase
Sybase
www.sybase.com
Sybase Replication Server
ASE Replicator
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 29

Aivant
www.aivant.com
DBShadow
DataMirror
www.datamirror.com
Integration Suite
IBM
www.ibm.com
Websphere II
GoldenGate
www.goldengate.com
GoldenGate Platform
PeerDirect
www.peerdirect.com
PeerDirect

Transaction-based Resiliency Solution


Other Solutions
How do I choose?
Do you want a hub and spoke solution?
Do you want bi-directional or master-to-master
Do you care if it uses ODBC or JDBC for source or
target access?
Does it have to be cross platform?
will it support my database?
Is it free with the database or a third party product?
Will it work across a WAN does it have to?
How is it administered GUI, via the web?
Does it also allow for filtering and transformation or
is it straight copy?

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 30

I/O Based Resiliency for


Windows NSI Doubletake
Features & Benefits
File Centric, Byte Level Replication

Include or exclude files, directories, wildcards


Byte level file system changes captured for replication
Minimum amount of data transmitted

STAR Technology

Sequential Transfer
Asynchronous Replication

Negligible impact on server, application and I/O performance

www.nsisoftware.com

Live File System on Target

No Volume Mount / Check


Read Only Usage such as Backup, Replication Chaining

Leverages Double-Take replication engine


Extends MSCS

Adds data redundancy with replicated volumes


Geographic separation of cluster nodes
Hardware independent

Tight Integration with MSCS cluster aware applications

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 31

I/O Based Resiliency for Windows


EMC Legato Replistor

Features & Benefits


EMC FullTime RepliStor delivers a simple and reliable
asynchronous replication capability for Windows that geographically
distributes identical sets of data instantly to one or many computers.
FullTime RepliStor increases the availability of your data by
delivering real-time replicas of as many copies as needed to virtually
any location. Your data can be used for off-line backup protection,
disaster recovery, data distribution, and countless other applications
Features

Benefits

Data Replication for


Windows

Provides a second set of data for 24x7 access during a system failure or maintenance.

Works over LAN, MAN


and/or WAN

Protects mission critical data and servers against local or site disasters.

Centralized backup
consolidation

Ensures data is available from the remote office for centralized backup.

Automated failover

Avoids any business disruption by restarting application, corresponding resource, and data on a
failover node.

Integration with AutoStart


and VMware

Reduces cost of traditional physical to physical application failover and DR over WAN.

www.legato.com
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 32

I/O Based Resiliency for Windows


Veritas Volume Replicator

Features & Benefits


Feature

Benefit

Synchronous or asynchronous replication

Administrators may choose either synchronous mode (no data


loss) or asynchronous mode (maximum performance) and still
be assured of 100% data consistency.

Ease of Management/ Flexibility

Administrators can now manage VVR replication jobs through


the java gui or through a VVR web-based GUI. Administrators
have the flexibility to change their configurations on-the-fly and
while being online. Remember: "If you know VM, you know VVR"

Online Initialization of secondary

Provides various methods to initialize the secondary, including:


1) Over the wire by sending all data over the network, or 2) Via
local mirroring between storage arrays or 3) Via backup and
restore (for very large databases). All operations can be
performed completely online.

Supports up to 32 participating nodes

Adds flexibility to support one-to-many and many-to-one


scenarios to better utilize hardware investments.

IP Based

Can replicate between any hosts connected by an IP network


without requiring additional network hardware or dedicated fibre
connections.

Integrated with Volume Manager

Extends the familiar Volume Manager paradigm to


geographically mirror data. Also enables Volume Replicator to
outperform other 3rd party software alternatives and awkward
hardware based replication. "If you know VM, you know VVR"

VCS and Global Clustering Integration

Allows replication services to remain highly available during


local fail-over and failover across data centers

Oracle Approved

First solution to pass Oracle Storage Compatibility Program


(OSCP) and the only remote mirroring technology qualified in
both sync and async modes.

www.veritas.com
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 33

I/O Based Resiliency for


Windows
How do I choose?
Will it support everything I need in Windows?
files, directories, shares, apps
How does switchover work?
IP addresses, can backup server be online in
failover etc.
Ease of use, administration
Will it work across a WAN?
Will it integrate with other HA products?
What impact will it have on my server?
CPU, memory etc.
Cost

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 34

Block Based Replication


Solutions Ion
Features & Benefits

www.ioncomputer.com
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 35

Block Based Replication


Solutions DNF
Features & Benefits
StorMaster SNi-2400 SAN NAS iSCSI Storage Server
6TB to 9.6TB - 24 Drive 5U All-in-One Server
Snapshot Service with 32 Delta-Based Snapshots Option
The Snapshot Service options creates up to 32 delta-based snapshots of designated
disks based on an administrator-defined policy.

Synchronous Mirroring Option


The Synchronous Mirroring option protects against the potential failure of storage
devices by duplicating the writes (in exact order of arrival) between the primary and
secondary RAID controllers within the StorMaster SNi Server in real-time.

Local File/Directory Replication for Workstation/Server Hosts Option


The Local File/Directory Replication option provides scheduled file-based delta replication of
host's direct attached storage (DAS) to the StorMaster SNi Server.

Local Disk Replication for Workstation/Server Hosts Option


The Local Disk Replication option provides continuous block-based replication of host's
direct attached storage (DAS) to the StorMaster SNi Server.

www.dynamicnetworkfactory.com
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 36

Block Based Replication


Solutions Others
Almost every SAN device out there provides some form of
Block-based replication
EMC with Symmetrix, IBM with ESS and Hitachi with
TagmaStore are the big players.
Other starter SANS offer also offer block replication
Compellent Storage Center QuickStart
www.compellent.com
DELL AX100
www.dell.com
HP StorageWorks MSA1000 Small Business SAN Kit
www.hp.com
iQstor iQ1200 SATA Storage System
www.iqstor.com
MPC DataFrame 420
www.mpccorp.com
Nexsan SATABlade
www.nexsan.com
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 37

Block Based Replication


Solutions
How do I choose?
Cost
replication software may be extra
Vendor relationship
Platforms supported
Will it support both Synchronous and Asynchronous?
Method of communication to servers
Redundancy
Performance
POC

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 38

Transaction-Based, Block-Based and


I/O Based Examples

Integration Example With


Single SAN
P-Series
Primary
Node

Volume on-line
to server

Production
Volume
(R1)

FlashCopy
(Refresh)

System level
refresh

Users
Application aware
mirroring

P-Series
Backup
Node

Backup
Volume
(BCV)

ESS (Shark)
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 40

Strengths:
High Availability
Business Continuity
Workload Balancing

Integration Example With


Two SAN Towers
iSeries
Primary
Node

iSeries
Backup
Node

Volume on-line
to server

System level
refresh

Users

Production
Volume
(R1)

TimeFinder
(Refresh)

SRDF

Recovery
Volume
(R2)

Symmetrix 1

Application aware
mirroring

Backup
Volume
(BCV)

Symmetrix 2

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 41

System level
mirroring

Strengths:
High Availability
Business Continuity
Disaster Recovery
Workload Balancing

Integration Example
(Transaction-based and I/O-based)
Primary iSeries

Backup iSeries
192.168.6.13

192.168.6.12

192.168.3.1

192.168.3.1

Virtual Ethernet
P to P

192.168.3.2

192.168.3.2

192.168.6.100 Corporate LAN

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 42

192.168.6.101

Integration Example (All Methods)


Backup P-Series Oracle9i

Primary P-Series Oracle9i

PPRC
Production
Volume
(R1)

Recovery
Volume
(R2)

FlashCopy

Backup
Volume
(BCV)

Primary Windows Server


Backup Windows Server
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 43

Benefits of an Integrated Solution

So Why Integrate?
Whats in it for my Shop?
Reduced recovery time (RTO) vs. tape or block level only
Reduced recovery point (RPO) to the last transaction
Increased utilization of IT resources
Backups, reporting and queries off backup system

Multiple methods of recovery


Entire enterprise can be protected
Block level solutions can provide better initial
synchronization as well as periodic OS refreshes
Transaction level solutions prevent data corruption
propagation
I/O-based solutions can replicate environments not covered
by log-based replication
Windows, IXS, Linux
Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 45

Summary
Transaction-based replication

Selectable replication but not the OS

Recovery system open for backups, queries, etc.

Requires logs, some admin and CPU overhead

Supports distributed application processing

Block-based replication

Everything is replicated including the OS good for initial sync

No workload balancing backup system is locked

Data corruption propagation

Easy to administer, no logs required

I/O-based replication

Selectable but difficult to get the right data

Recovery system open for backups, workload balancing

No logs required, can handle Windows

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 46

Additional Resources

www.aberdeen.com
www.idc.com
www.availability.com
www.highavailabilitycenter.com
InfoWorld January 31st Issue

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 47

Learn to Think Outside the Box Unless

Spring UserBlue 2005 770110: Block-Based vs. Transaction-Based Slide 48

Block-based vs. Transaction-based


Replication
Whats Right for You?

Mike Warkentin
Product Sales Tech Lead
DataMirror Corporation
3100 Steeles Ave East Suite 1100
Markham, Ont L3R-8T3
EMAIL: mwarkentin@datamirror.com
(905) 415-0310 x249

Session 770110 (42BX)


Wednesday Mar. 16 2004
9:30am 10:45am