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c logb (x a ) logb (x a) = logb

= logb

xa
(x + a) (x a)
xa

= logb (x + a)

Logarithms Using log laws


Exercise 15B
Example 6

Calculate each of the following logarithms.


a log2 8

b log3 27

c log2 2048

d log7 1

e log5 625

f log7 343

g log10 10 000

h log10 1 000 000

b log3 1

c log10 1

d log10 0.01

Calculate:
a log2 1

16
e log5 1
125

27
f log6 1
36

10
g log2 1
1024

b log3 93

c log6 366

Evaluate:
a log2 22
e log3 (273)

Example
7a,b

Example
7c,d

h log10 0.0001

1
10010

f log10

d log2 42
3

g log5 (52 5 ) h log8 2

Calculate each of the following logarithms.


a log2 x = 5

b log3 x = 6

c log10 x = 3

d log10 x = 3

e log10 x = 4

f log5 x = 4

g log2 (x 3) = 1

h log2 (x + 4) = 6

i log2 (x 5) = 3

Solve the following logarithmic equations.


a logx 81 = 2

b logx 8 = 6

c logx 1024 = 5

d logx 1024 = 10

e logx 9 = 2

f logx 1000 = 3

66 Write
Writethe
thefollowing
followingstatements
statementsininlogarithmic
logarithmicform.
form.
11

1 exponentials and logarithms 2 2part 2


Chapter 15
3 Indices,
bb 0.001
dd 1024
0.001==10
103 cc 21 ==22
1024==32
32

2
aa22==(2
(2) )

3 3
2 2

xx

ee10
10 ==NN

ff 52
52==55

00

gg 55 ==11

11

hh 13
13 ==13
13

77 Write
Writethe
thefollowing
followingstatements
statementsininexponential
exponentialform.
form.
aalog
log2 232
32==55
7
ddlog
log3 3273
273==27

bb log
log3 381
81==44

cc log
log10100.001
0.001==3
3

ee log
logb byy==xx

ff log
loga aNN==xx

88 Simplify
Simplifythe
thefollowing.
following.
aalog
log3 377++log
log3 355

bb log
log2 233++log
log2 255

cc log
log2 29+
9+log
log2 277

ddlog
log101055++log
log101020
20

ee log
log6 644++log
log6 699

1
ff log
log3 377++log
log3 3 1
77

99 Simplify
Simplifythe
thefollowing.
following.
aalog
log3 3100
100log
log3 310
10 bb log
log7 720
20log
log7 710
10

cc log
log7 721
21log
log7 733

dd log
log3 317
17log
log3 351
51 ee log
log5 5100
100log
log5 510
10

ff log
log5 510
10log
log5 522

10
10 Simplify
Simplifythe
thefollowing
following
aalog
log2 233++log
log2 255++log
log2 277

bb log
log3 3100
100log
log3 310
10log
log3 322

cclog
log5 577++log
log5 5343
34322log
log5 549
49

dd log
log7 725
25++log
log7 733log
log7 775
75

179

a log3 100 log3 10

b log7 20 log7 10

c log7 21 log7 3

d log3 17 log3 51

e log5 100 log5 10

f log5 10 log5 2

10 Simplify the following

Example 9

a log2 3 + log2 5 + log2 7

b log3 100 log3 10 log3 2

c log5 7 + log5 343 2 log5 49

d log7 25 + log7 3 log7 75

11 Given that log10 2 = a, log10 3 = b, log10 5 = c and log10 7 = d, express in


terms of a, b, c and d:
a log10 12

b log10 75

c log10 210

d log10 6 000 000

e log10 1875

f log10 1050

Example 14

g log10 (2a3b5c7d)
h What does a + c equal?
Suppose a > 0, find the exact value of loga a3?
12 Find a relation between x and y that does not involve logarithms.
2

aSolution
log3 x + log3 y = log3 (x + y)
3

loga a
3
cloglog
5 y== 3 + 22 log5 x
a a

d log7 (1 + y) log7 (1 y) = x

13
14

b 2 log10 x 3 log10 y = 1

loga a
3
V = 4 r=
is3log
thea avolume of a sphere of radius r. Express log2 V
3
2log
aa
of log2 r.
=3
If y = a 210bx, express x in terms of the other pronumerals.

in terms

Check: (a2 ) 2 = a3
15 Solve log10 A = bt + log10 P for A.

180
Example 12

Example 13

ICE-EM Mathematics Secondary 4B

Exercise 15C
1

Use the change of base formula to convert to base 10 and calculate the
following to four decimal places.
a log7 9

b log5 3

c log3 5

d log3 13

e log19 17

f log7 1

Solve for x, to four decimal places.


a 2x = 5

b 3x = 18

c 5x = 2

d 5x = 17

e 2x = 7

f 3x = 5

Solve for x, to four decimal places.


a (0.01)x = 7

b 512x = 3

c 42x1 = 7x3

d 33x3 = 55x5

Simplify:
a (loga b)(logb a)

Example 14

b (loga b)(logb c)(logc a)

Suppose a > 0, change to base a and simplify:


a loga2 a3

b loga2 a7

e loga a8 loga a7 + loga a11

11

c loga3 a5

d log a a
3

f loga a + loga a + loga a


3

Chapter 15 Indices, exponentials and logarithms part 2

183

a 16 384
f 1024
1
k 256

b 256
g 1 048 576
l 1

10 a 9 and 10, 9.97


ANSWERS

c 32
h 256
m 32

d 1 048 576
i 16
n 4096

b 6 and 7, 6.92

e 2 097 152
j 32

c 5 and 6, 5.78

Exercise 15B
1

a 3

b 3

c 11

d 0

e 4

f 3

g 4

h 6

a 4

b 3

c 1

d 2

e 3

f 2

g 10

h 4

a 2
a 32

b 2
b 729

h 6

f 625
5

a 9

a log2 2 = 2

g 5

c 2
d 2
1
c 1000 d 1000

h 60

i 13

e 2
f 2
1
e 10 000

b 2

c 4

d 2

e 3

f 10

b log10 0.001 = 3

g 3

c log 1 2 = 1

d log32 1024 = 2

e log10 N = x

f log5 52 = 32

g log5 1 = 0

h log13 13 = 1

a 25 = 32

b 34 = 81

c 10 3 =0.001

7
2

d 3 =273

e b =y

f a =N

a log3 35

b log2 15

c log2 63

d 2

e 2

f 0

a log3 10

b log7 2

c 1

d 1

e log5 10

f 1

10

a log2 105 b log3 5

c 0

d 0

11

a 2a +b
b b + 2c
f a + b + 2c + d

12

a xy = x + y

13

log2 V = log2 4
+ 3log2 r
3

c a +b + c +d d 7a +b+6c
g aa + bb + cc + dd
1

b x2 = 10 y3

e b + 4c
h 1
1+y

c y = 125x2

d 1y =7
Answers
tobt exercises
15 A
= P 10

y
14 x = 1b log10 a

Exercise 15C
1

a 1.1292

b 0.6826

c 1.4650

d 2.3347

e 0.9622

f 0.7124

a 2.3219

b 2.6309

c 0.4307

d 1.7604

e 2.8074

f 1.4650

a 0.4225 b 0.1587

c 5.3847

d 1

a 32

c 53

3
d 11

b 72

4a 1

b 1
f 133
60

e 12

Exercise 15D
1

y = 3x + 1

y = 2 5x
y = 5x
y=

y=3

y = 3x 2
2
0
1

y = 2x

y=1

2
1

y = 2x

y=

1
2

a
y

(1, 4)

y = log5 x

(4, 1)

1
0

y=x
x

y = 5x

y = log4 x

1
2

y = 4x

1
0

y=

1
2

5x

1
2

y = 2

1
2

y=x
0.01

0.1

10

100

1
36

1
6

36

447