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International Potato Center

ANNUAL REPORT
1994

Cover:
A yac6n (Po lymnia
sonch ifolia) flower.
This Andean root crop
belongs to the
sunflower family.
Its edib le tubers,
which are similar in
appearance to
sweetpotato roots,
grow at altitudes up
to 3,3 00 m, from
Venezuela to
northwestern Argentina.
Photos by
Gigi Cha ng

Photo right: Attacked by


terrorists in 1988, Cl P's
highland station in
Huancayo, Peru, is being
upgr.aded to respond to
new global challenges in
potato research.

CIP in 1994
The International Potato Center
Annual Report

GIGI CHANG

International Potato Center


Apartado 1558
Lima 100, Peru

CIP . 1995.
CIP in 7994.
Th e International Potato Center Annual Report.
Lima, Peru.
ISSN 0256-6 311
Press run : 2,500
Printed in Lim a, Peru
M ay 1995

Writing/Editing:
Jack Keyse r, Edward Sulzberger,
Bill H ardy, Janet Keyser, Michael L. Smith
Coo rdination :
Emm a M artinez
Editorial Assistance:
Ana M arfa Perez Garland
D esign and Layout:
Ruben D. Gutierrez
Cover Design:
Ceci lia Lafosse
Photomechani cs :
Cecosam i
Printing:
Asoc iac i6n Edito ri al Ste ll a

Inside matter printed o n recycl ed paper.

Table

of
Contents
Introduction

Safeguarding the Planet's Biological Capital

lndonesia'.s Waga-Waga Community Harvests First


Sweetpotatoes from Genebank

12

"Lost" Andean Roots and Tubers Travel Ancient Trade Routes

16

In Situ Conservation: A Look to the Future

20

Impact: Returns on Investment in CIP Research Projects


Range from 27 % to 106 %

21

Pesticides Threaten Ecuadorian Farmers, But Soil


and Water Are Untouched

24

TheCGIAR

27

Finance and Administration

28

Donor Contributions in 1994

30

Board of Trustees

31

Staff in 1994

32

Contributions to Scientific Literature

36

Core Research in 1994

38

Training in 1994

44

Special Country Projects and Networks

48

Acronyms and Abbreviations

50

Cl P's Global Contact Points

54

Introduction
In 1994, CIP achieved greaterfinancial stability and passed
a number of important research milestones. After four difficu It
years, the Center is now able to plan for modest increases in
scientific operations.
As readers of past annual reports know, bud get cuts affecting
the development community have reduced the ability of international research centers to fu I ly meet the cha I lenges of food
security and environmental protection.
Th e year 1994 saw significant progress 1n our research
program and a sma ll increase in our investment in training. The
Center ' s mainstay commodity work on potatoes and
sweetpotatoes was marked by advances in breeding for horizontal late blight resistance and the development of true-seed
hybrids. The Center's new biotechnology laboratory for ad vanced research on late blight and glandulartrichomes began
operations in mid-March. These research activities will be
covered comprehensively in the Center's technical report to
be pub I ished in October.
In addition, 1994 marked thefirstfull year of operations forthe
CONDESAN research consortium . Still in its ear ly stages of
development, CONDESAN is helping to promote cooperation
among numerous research partners in an effort to stem natural
resource degradation and to create a sounder base for future
increases in agricultural productivity . CONDESAN was recent ly designated as a core activity by the CGIAR Technical
Advisory Committee (TAC).

G IG I CHANG

The consortium will also play an important role in the CG's


new initiative for sustainable mountain agriculture to be
convened by CIP. The initiative was approved following the
completion of TAC' s recent program and management review
of the Center, which will be presented to CGIAR donors

Working at 3,800 meters,


the upper limits for most
types of agriculture,
farmers in this Peruvian
community have
increased income by
30% using integrated
pest management
practices.

in

May 1995.
In this annual report, we present updates on a range of CIP
research activities.

5---

Identification of virus
diseases using electron
microscopy is an
important step toward
development of virus
detection practices.

---6

We begin with an update on our work to conserve genetic


resources within the context of the international debate on
'Jiodiversity. The report covers traditional genetic resources
work as well as a number of novel programs involving community-level germplasm conservation and plant breeding.
The impact of CIP projects in true potato seed, integrated
pest management, and varietal development is also featured.
The three case studies are part of a larger effort to document the
impact of CIP research and collaboration with various partner
agencies around the world.

From a CIP project in Ecuador comes a technical story that


provides surprising results on pesticide pollution and its impact
on the environment and health. The project illustrates the
difficult choices that need to be made to balance future requirements for greater productivity, environmental concerns,
and social equity. The story also points out the pressing need
for more precise information aboutthe effects of technological
change and the difficulties that policy-makers will encounter
when making decisions that will have consequences well into
the future.
The report ends with sections on finance, staffing, governance, and other day-to-day issues. These sections provide an
indication of the level of investment in CIP made by our many
constituents. They include our 35 donors who continue to
generously invest in CIP, our staff who provide the innovations
needed to move forward on a variety of research fronts, and our
cooperators in national systems and NG Os, especially in our
host country Peru, who help to bring the Center's research to
farmers' fields.

Hubert Zandstra
Director General
April 1995

7---

---10

without a united strategy or r:irogram. Today,


they are defining a new agen l a for the
safekeeping of the world ' s vi 1al biodiversity.
In October 1994,. the CGl t R chairman ,
Ismail Serageld1n , signed a long-awaited
agreement with the Food an Agriculture
Organization of the United ations placing
these priceless germplasm collections under
the auspices of FAO. The C Q;I AR was the
first major holder of food crop germplasm to
sign the accord.
The pact, which establish s an
intergovernmental legal and olitical
identity for the centers' genebanks , was
signed by the directors gener I of 12 CGIAR-

Thousands of years ago, early farmers ,


such as the Quechuas in the Andean
highlands and the Mayas in Mexico, selected
plants that best suited their varied needs.
This process led to great genetic diversity
among traditional populations of potatoes
and sweetpotatoes . But modern agricultural
practices often mean reliance on a limited
number of high-yielding, genetically uniform
varieties .
Today, genetic diversity is under attack.
Areas rich in plant species are being
destroyed by desertification, deforestation ,
soil erosion , and farming itself. Uncertainty
exists as to whether needed increases in
world food production in the next century
can be obtained without this diversity .
Over the past 25 years, the centers of the
Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR) have
accumulated the largest collection of
germplasm ever assembled outside of nature.
Center genebanks contain an estimated 80%
of the genetic resources of major food crops
grown in developing countries.

Defining a New Agenda


Until 1994, the centers managed their
genetic resource work independently,

affiliated centers . Hubert Za ~ dstra signed for


CIP. The agreement ushered in a new age in
international cooperation for the
conservation and use of plant genetic
resources and established th first
systemwide approach to managing CGIAR
germplasm resources , which are held in trust
for the benefit of humanity.
The CGIAR-FAO agreeme twas not
without controversy. Some .overnments and
nongovernmental organizations with
1

environmental and develop ~ent interests


objected to what they saw as foot-dragging
on the part of the World Ban to place the
center collections under the rusteeship of

FAO . The CGIAR insisted it as only


.
following the recommendat1 co ns of a special
study that advised the centerb to set up a
systemwide network to manage germplasm
resources before entering into an agreement
with FAO. That has now been done. The
network operates as the CGI R Systemwide
Genetic Resources Program nder the
direction of the International Plant Genetic
Resources Institute (IPGRI) .
The CGIAR program now mas a steering
committee to guide policies and the
management of genetic reso rces. The
centers will receive separate l funding for
genetic resources work, and
standardized
information system and datalDase will be
developed.

Potato and Sweetpotato Accessions


Maintained by CIP
Type of
germp lasm

Number of accessions
Potato Sweetpotato Total

Wild
1 ,5oo
Weedy
3,694C
Native cu ltivars
Improved cu ltivars
335
Breeding lin es
685
Tota l
6, 214

1,066b 2,566
138
138
3,829
7,523
156
487
1,33 3
1,998
6,522
12,712

a. 93 w ild Solanum spec ies.


b. 11 w ild lpomoea spec ies secti o n Batatas,
51 w ild lpomoea species oth er section s.
c. 8 cultivated Solanum speci es.

Rising Global Concerns


Even prior to the CGIAR-FAO pact, there
were rising globa l concerns about the
contin uin g erosion of biological diversity.
The importance of reversing the alarmin g
trend , which is undermining the wor ld' s
biological capita l, resulted in the United
Nations' Convention on Biologica l Diversity,
approved at the Earth Summit in Rio de
Jane iro two years ago. More than 100
countr ies have ratified th e Convention-

supportin g its chief goa l of conserv in g


biodiversity, and the equitab le shar in g of
benefits arisin g from the use of genet ic
resources.
The CG IAR has offered the Conve ntion i ts
scientif ic and technical expert ise and
biodiversity databases. Decades-long
d isputes between gene - rich d eve loping
count ri es and gene-poor developed co un tr ies
over sovereignty , access , ownership of
genet ic resour c es, and intellectual property
ri ghts are certain to be future items on th e
Convention ' s age nda.
Meanwhile, C IP scientists continue in
their urg ent effort to safe g uard Andean roots
and tubers, knowing th ese precious pools of
biodiversity are fast disappearing . To
increase the pace of the work , the Center is
strengthening its use of in format ion and
training to upgrade national program
capabi liti es. The goal is to create a network
in which responsibilities for prese rvation ,
documentation, and distribution of genet ic
materials are broadly shared.
In t hi s report, C IP presents upd ates on
three current biodiversity projects, two in the
Andes - the cent er of origin of the potato
and lesser-known root and tuber crops-and
another on the i sl and of New Gu in ea , a
secondary sourc e of dive rsity for
sweetpotato.

The Cost of Conservation


Genetic conservation is a painstaking, labo r-intensive, and
costly activ ity. In 19 94, CIP spent $1.5 million on genetic
conservat ion, roughly 8.2 % of its $18.4 million budget.
The figures includ e funding from the German Agency for
Technical Cooperat ion and Swiss Development Cooperat ion
projects, w hi ch were incorporated into the budget fo llowin g the
CG IAR' s approva l of work on lesser-kn own A nd ean root and
tuber crops as a basic Center activity. The figures do not
in c lud e donor in vestments in enh ancement, c leanup,
distribution, or characterization , which in 1994 totaled more
than $1.0 million.

,,

___

Indonesia's Waga-Waga
Community Harvests First
Sweetpotatoes from
Geneban k In November 1994, the Dani ethnic

---12

community of Waga-Waga, in Indonesia,


celebrated the first harvest from its
sweetpotato community genebank. All of
the farmers who participated in clearing and
tilling the land shared in a feast and
received a portion of the harvest of varieties
selected by the community.
For CIP and Indonesian scientists, the
harvest in Waga-Waga was doubly
meaningful as it yielded fresh insights into
the biodiversity and indigenous knowledge
about the sweetpotato varieties found in th e
central highlands of Indon es ia 's lrian Jaya
province.
A Secondary Center of Diversity

Researchers say the island of New Guinea


(lrian Jaya occupies th e western half) is a
secondary center of diversity for sweetpotato .
"New Guinea has enormous sweetpotato
diversity concentrated in a small area and
contains genetic mate ri als that should be of
use to sweetpotato breeders worldwide," says
Peter Schmiediche, CIP' s regional
representative for East and Southeast Asia
and the Pacific.
Scientists believe the crop was introduced
from South America 400 years ago and
developed in iso lated ecological niches .
During that time, evo lution and local
farming practices greatly broadened its
known frontier. In some instances, lrian
Jayan sweetpotato ca n be found growing at
altitudes of up to 2,800 meters, considerably
higher than the landra ces found in South
America.
"lrian Jaya and Papua New Guinea are the
only places in the world where sweetpotato is
cultivated under subalpine conditions ,"
says Schmiediche. " Its adaptation to colder
conditions should be ex tremely valuable to
major sweetpotato-growing countries such as
China, Vietnam, and Thailand ." Growers
and consumers in New Guinea have

developed hu ge stocks of infor ation about


its use, he says . This indigenouis knowled ge
should also be of value in area where
sweetpotato is a major co mpo ent in local
farming systems, such as in nonthern Luzon
and in the Central African higHlands.
The Waga-Waga Experience

"The potenti al of the region s genetic


material , and the knowledge associated with it,
was largel y untapped in lrian Jaya," says
JUrg Schneider, an anthropolo gist who until

l rian }aya and Papua New


Guinea are the only places in
the world where sweetpotato ts
cultivated under subalpine
conditions.

recently served as the project' s coordinator.


"We found that a community garden might
contain 40 cultivars, so it was apparent to us
that farmers knew how to manage genetic
diversity, " he says. "A ll of these landraces
have a common genetic base, but it is
narrower than the one found in South
Americ a. lri an Jaya's achievement is local
plant selection- selection driven by
subsistence needs, not market forces or
breeding c riteria ."
One of the initi al findings of the project
was that ge neti c eros ion is taking place in

Feasting on traditional
varieties harvested from
the Waga-Waga
community genebank.

13 _ __

........____________

-----~

lri an Jaya because farmers are choos in g


faste r maturing landraces . In add ition , the
market eco nomy is expand in g into hi ghland
areas, b rin gi ng w ith it ot her crops , suc h as
rice. Schne ider says that by mo v in g quickly,
the proj ect is he lping to prevent further
eros ion of both th e area's ge net ic d ivers ity
and in digenous knowl ed ge.
Pete r Grego ry, C IP's D eputy Direc tor
General for Resea rc h, adds, "Our object ive
as an in te rn at iona l center is to determ in e
why this particu lar commun ity ha s suc h
strong in st i ncts for co nse rv at ion of its geneti c
resources. The id ea is to lea rn what th e
dynamics are that he lp its traditions surv i ve
and d ete rmin e w het her we can he lp transfer
some of those e lements to other locations .
Commun ity tradition s wi ll survive only if we
ca n find ways to make loc al peop le
pa rti c ipants in global effo rt s to safeguard
ge rm plasm. In do in g so , we also hel p ensure
th at evo luti on continu es un der rea l wor ld
co ndition s."

Research Activities

lrian Ja ya : a secondary
center of diversity for
sweetpotato.

Work officia ll y got und er way in late


1993 , fo ll ow i ng severa l years of inform al
conta cts with Indonesian scientist s. A joint
CIP-lndon es ian tea m subsequent ly selected
4 50 sweetpotato landraces as indic ative of
th e ge neti c dive rsity found in the area and
deve loped a multidis ci plin ary approac h to
local resea rc h op portuniti es .

~--~-

Du r ing fie ld t rip s to lri a n Jaya in 1993-94,


teams of l ndonesian-speaki ng l agronom ists
and soc ia l sc ie nti st s worked t get he r to
obtain inform ati on on tr iba l c lture , c roppin g
syste m s, and the ro l e of wo rn n in t he crop ' s
se lec ti on -to-consumption cycl e.
Partic i pating in stitutions in c l d ed
Cenderawasih Un i ve rsity and th e Centra l
Research Inst i tute for Fo od Cnops.
The effort was a ided by th p ioneer in g
in terest of a Waga-Waga co m unit y e ld e r
w ith a n in sti nct for co ns ervatio n, lo rdan
Surabut, who began ta l k in g w ith Indone si an
exte nsion wo rk e rs abo ut th e meed to
co nse rve loca l landraces as ea rl y as 1990 .
Once the project got unde n way ,
Sc hn e id e r says, th e com muni y se lecte d a
seven-hectare gard e n co m po nd for its
genebank. The area was c leared , fenced,
and p repared for p l a ntin g. Ca re was a lso
t ake n to ens ure that space w s ava il abl e fo r
spir i tual rit es. An e lde r in c h rge o f
customary pract ices for l and fert il ity was
brought in to b less the f ield.
The f i rst p la ntin g took pla e in Feb ru ary
1994 . For the harvest the fo l owing
November, Surabut invited el e rs from
ne ig hborin g co mmuniti es, w o no w wa nt to
get in volved in pr eserv in g varieta l d i ve rsity.
" A lth o ug h ou r perception of what ' s go in g
on m ay be qu i te d i fferent frolil1 theirs , "
Schneider says, " I am co n v in ced t hat
continu in g this act i v i ty in colil1mu nity
conservation is inva lu ab le. " H avi ng th e
co mmunity i nvo l ve d in the co nservat ion of
i ts ge net ic reso ur ces is a gateway t o its
partic i pation in future researc h.
" We beli eve i ndigenous k ow ledge
assoc iated w i t h var iet ies can help determ i ne
d esi rab le att r i butes more effiir ientl y ,"
Schneider con tend s. " In the ase of lri an
Jaya, farmer k nowledge sho uld he l p us
id e nti fy co ld -adapted var iet ie s, or ones that
are suited to diffe re nt soi l or st o rage
cond ition s. "
" We don ' t p retend to und e rst and a ll of the
facto rs at wor k in Waga-Waga, " add s
Gregory, " but we are learni ng fast. "

CIP-24: A Well-Traveled Potato


CIP-24, a moderately disease-resistant potato
clone, and one of Chin a's most w id ely grow n
c u lti vars, was more than 40 yea rs in the making
by potato breede rs on four cont in ents.
" Thi s examp le, " says CIP Director Genera l
Hubert Zandstra, "shows how the free exchange
of genet ic materia l and inform ation can t ranslate
into im pact in farmers' field s."
According to CIP scientist Peter Sc hmi ed ic he,
the first crosses lead in g to CIP-24 were made in
Germany in the 1950s using wild potato mate ri al
of unknown or igin. It was part of a co ll ectio n
assemb led in the 1930s. An early set of seeds
obta in ed from c rosses between wi ld spec ies and
European cul tiva rs was eventually sent from
Germany to Argentina for furthe r crossbreed in g.
This German material was c rossbred w ith
varieties well adapted to th e m ain producing
regions of Argentina. One cross made in 197 1,
with parentage that included the first nationally
bred potato variety released by Argent in a in 1946
and two var iet ies released by the U.S.
Department of Agricu lture in the 1930s and
1940s, eventua ll y became CIP-24 . The
eva lu ation of th e var iety was comp leted in 1979
and it was subsequently released in Argent in a as
Achirana- INTA (afte r a famous ln ca n irri gation
ca nal, Achirana, in Peru). It was not a popular
variety with Argentineans, and its planted area
never exceeded a few hectares annua ll y.
In 1976 , CIP seed specialist Jim Bryan
recognized Ach irana as a clone with a potential
for developing co untri es. It subsequent ly came to
CIP headqua rters in Peru fo r additiona l disease
testing, eva lu ation, and distribution. After
promising results in Latin America, the c lone was
sent from CIP to Australia for disease eli minat ion
and further d istributio n in Asia.
CIP-24 was introduced from CIP in to Chin a in
1978 by the Chin ese Academy of Ag ri cu ltu ra l
Sciences (CAAS) as an in vitro plantlet.
Propagation and initial fi eld tri als we re
conducted by the Wumeng Ag ri c ultural Research
In stitute in Inner Mongolia . After multiplication ,
th e test p lantl ets and or igin al seeds were
distributed to many areas in northern Chin a.

By 1993, the var iety had been released in 12


tropical or subtropica l potato-growing countr ies
rangin g from Madagascar to Bhutan. The
cultivar is currently grown on more than
150,000 hectares in Chi na.
CIP-24 is also helping Chin ese potato farmers
deal with drought. Ch in ese sc ient ists say the
var iety yields substant iall y more in drought yea rs
than do loca l c ulti vars. In Inn er Mongolia,
where annua l rainfall ave rages between 400 and
600 millimeters, CIP-24 prod uces steady yie lds
of 1O tons per hectare in poor years and as much
as 20 tons per hectare in good o nes. It is also
commanding good prices, w hi c h is one reason it
can be found in distant markets, such as those in
Guandong province near H ong Kong .

Cultivar CIP-24-40
years in the makingnow covers more than
150,000 hectares in
China.

15 _ __

"Lost" Andean Roots and


Tubers Travel Ancient
Trade Routes

Lesser-known Andean oot and


Tuber Crops Maintained by CIP

Researchers from Ecuador, Bolivia , Peru ,


and Brazil completed the first year of a fiveyear project in 1994 to collect, preserve, and
use nine of the lesser-known Andean root and
tuber crop species (see box) .
" Until now, there has been little
international interest in these crops ," says
Miguel Holle, the project coordinator .
"A lot of research has been done, but it's
been isolated pockets , and funding has been
almost nonexistent. "
Holle notes that the project combines
conservation efforts with production and
utilization research. Some 160 scientists
from 22 institutions are receiving grant
money from the project. For many
participants, it represents their first
opportunity to work as part of an
international team and to share information
and data.

Genetic Erosion May Not Be Widespread


Scientists in Bolivia have uncovered
information indicating that genetic erosion of
Andean root and tuber crops may not be as
widespread as previously believed. Project
researchers found that some varieties of oca,

Oca (Oxa/is tuberosa)


Ulluco (U//ucus tuberosus)
Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberos m)
Maca (Lepidium meyenil)
Yac6n (Polymnia sonchifolia)
Arracacha (Arracacia xanthor
Achira (Canna edulis)

riza)

Mauka or chago (Mirabilis exl ansa)


Ahipa (Pachyrhizus spp.)
Total

and tubers have economic and nutritional


Andean highlands. Many of these crops are
used as substitutes for expensive fruits and
vegetables in the diet.
In the late 1980s, CIP began a program
to rescue wild and domesticated Andean
root and tuber species threatened with
biological extinction or genetic erosion.
They include:

DRAWINGS: "LO ST CR OPS OF THE INCAS"

33
30
24
20
2
2
977

rarely, if ever, spread more than 25


kilometers from their point of origin. New
evidence has emerged that a umber of
varieties can be found up to 500 km away.
On the eastern side of the Bol vian Andes ,
varieties thought to have been lost were
found in distant villages that were loosely
linked through informal trade.

Ahipa, a close
relative of the popular
jfcama, has received
almost no agronomic
attention to date.
Usually eaten raw and
in salads , its leaves
and stems are toxic. Its
roots are thought to
have insecticidal
properties .

importance to subsistence families in the

395
418
53

ulluco, and arracacha move lcrng distances


along trade routes dating back'. to precolonial
times. It was previously thought that these
root and tuber varieties were distributed
mainly through bartering in local markets and

Ahipa
(Pachyrhizus spp.)

Nine Andean species with edible roots

---16

Number of
accessions

Crop

PHOTOS: GIGI CH ANG

Co nse rvat ion and


cha ra cte riz at ion of wild
species: in th e
fo reground (with ye llow
flo wers), a wild yacon
acc ess io n.

Brazil and Ec ua dor Exchan ge Ge rmplasm

Reintroducing Genetic Materia l

Brazi l, a major p roducer of arracacha roots


used in baby food, is prov id ing proj ect
sc ient ists in Ecuado r w ith improved shortduration arracacha va riet ies . Native
germplasm can take up to 10 months to
produce a crop; Brazi l ian varieties can be
harvested in just 7 months. Ecuador is
providing native materials for Brazi l's
arracacha breed ing prog ram and is serv ing as
a conduit for the exc hange of native and
improved germp las m w ith co un tries outs ide
t he A ndes .

In the past, farmers have usua ll y received


genetic mater ials from resea rchers in the
form of sing le, genetica ll y di st i nct cult ivars.
At the Univers ity of Cusco in Peru,
researchers assemb led, and are d istributing to
farme rs, a m ixture of clones. Fo r examp le,
all known ye l low-colored u ll uco c ul tivars
(ye ll ow is cons idered a desi rab le
characteristic by loca l far mers) are being
grouped and d istrib uted. T he object ive is to
re in troduce large numbers of variet ies into
fa rm ers' f ields and provide loca l prod ucers

Ulluco

Arracacha
(A rracacia
xanthorrhiza)

(Ullu cus tuberosus)


U ll uco is one of the
most wide ly grown and
economica ll y
impo rta nt tube r crops
in the A ndean reg ion.
It contains substa ntial
leve ls of protein ,
calcium, and carotene.
Loca l women be l ieve
that u ll uco eases
chi ldb irth.

Arracach a is
re lated to carrot and
ce lery. The
eco nom ica ll y va luab le
part of the plant is its
starchy storage root,
w hi ch res embles a
wh ite ca rrot. Food
compa ni es process
arracacha roots into
a number of baby
foods.

Oca
(Oxalis tuberosa)
Oca, a perennial
herb, is trad itional ly
eate n in soups and
stews . Ev ide nce
fro m hi storica l
acco unts indicates
that it was a major
Andean stap le in
pre-Co lumbian
times. Yie lds of oca
tubers often equal or
exceed those of
potato.

17 _ ___

w i th the opportunity to se lect cu lt iva rs that


pe rform best und e r their cond it ions .

Detecting Viruses
Wo rk is progress in g on development of
laborato ry pro cedures for deteb in g viruses in
oca, ulluco, mashu a, and m ac . The
procedu res are needed for seetJ certification
programs and fo r ex port quar ntin e purposes .
In potato, the e limin ation of viruses in
planting m at eria l usually res ul ts in autom at ic
y ie ld increases of 30% . In th e case of
A ndean root and tu ber crops , no o ne knows
w hat effect v iru ses have on product ion.
Tests-are currently under way in Ecuador,
Bolivia, and Peru to determin the precise
im pact of v iru s diseases on these c rops.
Mashua
( Tropaeolum
tuberosum).

rn

Our

Ulluco Varieties Released in Ecuador

knowledge of these

crops and their biodiversity is


progressing rapidly thanks to
the efforts of these scientists.

Two ullu co varieties were re lease d in


Ec uado r and distributed to farmers. The
reg ul ati o ns for releasi ng a crop va ri ety in
Ecuador a re rigorous , requirin g extensive
data from mu !ti locat ional testin g in farmers '
fi e lds . The re leases are bel iev.ed to be the
first instance of an Andean ro Ht o r tuber c rop
offi c ially sanction ed by governme nt. Peru 's
natio nal program is plannin g to re lease its
own va ri et ies in 1995 usin g simi lar
procedures. Ullu co has drawm atte ntion from
producers and policy-makers beca us e of its

Mac a
(Lepidium meyenii)

Mauka
(Mirabilis expansa)

Maca is trad iti onal ly


c ultivated at the upper
alt itud e limits for
ag ri c ulture. Its roots are
be li eved to possess
ferti I ity-enh anc i ng
prope rti es . Andea ns
believe it imp roves
phys ica l and mental
capac iti es.

Ma uka was
rediscove red by
sc ientists o nl y in th e
mid-1960s. Its roots
are o nl y eate n after
exposu re to sunli ght,
w hi ch induces suga r
prod ucti o n. Th e roots
are flavo rful and are
hi gh in carboh yd rates
and proteins.

Bolivian Germplasm Returned


T he recent return by CIP of 165 Andean root
and tuber access io ns to Bo l iv ia demonstrates the
va lue of genebank storage and germp lasm
conservation.
Much of the material returned by the Center
from its Andean root and tuber co ll ect ion in Qu ito,
Ecuador, had d isappeared from the Bol ivian
col lection yea rs ago. T he shi pment, wh ich was
returned in t he fo rm of in vitro p lant lets, in cl uded
many rare va ri et ies of oca, ull uco, and mas hu a.
Much of the mater ial was collected by Finnish
researchers in the late 1980s and placed in the C IP
storage faci li ties in Qu ito for safekeeping.
RAYMUNDO MED INA

yie ld potentia l- up to 50 t/ ha-a nd high


consumer demand.

farmer depend ence on pest icides.

Prim a ry Ou tco me
N ew IPM M easures Needed
Researc hers have assumed that weev il
pests that attack oca behave simi larly to
those that i nfest potatoes. Howeve r, the
integ rated pest ma nagement practices for t he
contro l of Andean potato weevi Is prov ed
i nad equ ate for a re lated species that attacks
oca . Resea rch e rs i n Peru are c urrent ly
deve loping contro l p ract ices th at reduc e oca
weev il infestat io n and sig ni f icant ly d i m i n ish

Acco rd i ng to C IP Directo r Genera l


Hubert Zandstr a, t he most i mportant res u lt
of the past year was that scient ists from a
w ide range of inst itutio n s i n t he A nde an
reg ion bega n worki ng co ll abo rat i ve ly to
co ll ect, conserve, and cha racter ize lesserknown Andean root and tu ber species.
" Our know ledge of t hese crops and the ir
biod i versity is pro g ressing rap id l y th anks to
t he effo rts of th ese sc ie n t i sts ."

Mashua

Achira

Yac6 n

(Tropaeolum tuberosum)

(Ca nna edulis)

(Polymnia sonchifo lia)

M as hu a, a root h igh
in prote in, thr ives on
marginal so il s and is
be li eved to contai n hi gh
leve ls of compou nds
w ith medi c in al and pestrepe ll ent prope rties.
It is infrequently
consumed by men
becau se of its reputed
effects as an
ant iaphrod isiac.

Ach i ra, a li tt leknown species from


the warm Ande an
va ll eys, produ ces a
starc hy co rm t hat is
processed into hi ghvalue flour. In
Vietnam , achira is
increasin gly us ed to
make high-qu ali ty,
prem ium nood les .

Yac6n is a d istant
re lat ive of the
sunfl ower. It is not
grow n for its seed but
fo r the ed ible roots,
wh ich are sweet and
low in ca lories and
are eaten raw. Yac6 n
co nta in s inu l in , a
natu ral sugar
subst itu te, which is of
co nsiderable va lue to
d ieters and di abetics .

19 _ ___

In Situ Conservation:
A Look to the
Future

In a project with broad implications for


the future of biological diversity in the
Andes , plans are being developed to help
farmers reestablish and conserve wild
ancestors of Andean potatoes and other
exotic root and tuber crops in their native
habitats. The proposed project, when fully
funded , will be the first major effort to
establish in situ , or on-farm , conservation for
nine Andean root and tuber crops.

Wild Potato Restoration

Growing among the


cacti, a wild potato,

Solanum bukasovii, is a
candidate for
reintroduction into
diversity hot spots.

For potatoes, the project will establish


protected areas to help restore some of the
most important wild species currently
preserved in genebank collections. To
identify these sites , participating scientists
from CIP and national pro g rams will use
information obtained from the lnterGenebank Potato Database , which covers all
cultivated and wild potato species. This
information will be used to identify " hot
spots ," or areas where the greatest number of
wild species were found by previous
collecting expeditions.
Project scientists will then conduct
surveys to determine the status of
biodiversity and the degree of genetic
erosion in each hot spot. These efforts
should provide the scientific basis for
extensive in situ restoration of the species
that originally grew in hot-spot areas .

Community Plant Breeding


In what may well be the most novel
component of the project, scientists will also
help farmers use botanical seed-or true
potato seed-to select new c ltivars
according to local needs and preferences.
The use of true seed, commonly known by its
acronym TPS, will give farmers a measure of
crop insurance against drougnt and frost.
When TPS is used for breeding , there is
great variation in its offspring. The project
will encourage farmers to usel this natural
variability to select genetic mbterials that
solve local problems. For example , farmers
whose crops are infected with potato wart
will be able to select resistan t clones. This
should reduce their dependence on imported
seed , help increase genetic dt ersity, and
reduce the need for chemical sprays .
In addition , by using TPS, local
communities can flush out yi Id-reducing
viruses , a procedure that can now be done
onl y in laboratories. The project will also
help determine the tolerance or preference of
communities for nonuniform ! rops, while
maintainin g genetic diversity.

Virus Eradication
For traditional farmer culti ars , or
landraces, project scientists al o plan to step
up efforts to eradicate viruses and other
diseases in all existing potato accessions
currently held in trust in CIP' World Potato
Collection. Virus-free duplic tes of
traditional cultivars will be p ovided to
national genebanks according to country of
origin.
A similar service will also @e provided for
the lesser-known And ean root and tuber
crops. Studies are currently under way at
CIP to develop diagnostic techniques and
determine the most efficient vy ay to
eradicate the viruses that attack these crop
species. This research will closely resemble
past successful efforts by CIP v irologists
working with potatoes and sweetpotatoes.

Impact: Returns on Investment


in CIP Research Projects
Range from
27/o to 106/o

or Impact case studies


Topic

Locat ion

IRR
(%)

In 1994, C IP eco nomi st s comp leted wo rk


on a ser ies of nin e imp act case studies
coveri ng the Ce nt er's work in va r ieta l
imp roveme nt, in tegra ted pest m anage m e nt,
and im proved seed t ec hnol og ies . Th e case
st udi es rep rese nted a small but im po rtant
c ross section of C IP resea rc h and re l ated
tec hn o l ogies.
Accord in g to Ce nter econom ist Thomas
Walker, ca lc ulated returns o n in vestment for
th e differe nt studi es range from 27% to
106%. Wa l ker notes that the f ig ures are
extreme ly co nservative. T he t ab le (u pper
ri g ht) shows t he an nu a l interna l rates of
ret urn (IRR) and net benefit s for eac h st udy .
Norm a ll y, a ret urn on ag ri c ultur a l resea rch
th at tops 30 - 50% annu a ll y i s cons idered
successfu l .

Impact Case Studies


Th e fig ur es are eve n m ore e nco ura g in g,
Walk er be li eves, w hen cons idered ove r the
longer t e rm. " If yo u take t he tota l
in vestment in C IP sin ce its in cept ion and
co m pare it w it h t he actua l and proj ecte d
i mpact of the techno logies stud ied, you're
li ke ly to see an annua l 11 % return in the
year 20 1 O." In 1994 dollar terms , a n 1 1 %
annu a l ret urn w ill equa l app rox im ate l y $230
million .
" Sti ll , yo u ca n ' t compa re im pact of
potatoes an d swee tpotatoes with the success
of hi g h-yi e ldin g cerea l crops in the 1 960s
and 1970s," W a l ker says. At th e time, t he
h arvest in dex for wheat and ri ce co ul d be
read il y in c rease d and both crops we re
ge neti ca ll y eas ier to wo rk w ith than roots
and tub ers.
C IP's Deputy Director Gen e ra l for
Res ea rc h, Pete r Grego ry, adds, " We knew
that the Cente r had had imp act, but we
never t ri ed to sys te m at ica ll y m easu re or

Late blight breed ing


Late bli ght breed in g
CIP-24
Integ rated pest management
Integ rated pest management
Integrated pest management
True potato seed
Rapid seed mu ltipli catio n
Seed program development

East Afr ica


Peru
Chin a
Tunisi a
Dom. Republic
Peru
In d ia
Vi etnam
Tuni sia

92
27
106
64
29
32
37
81
81

Net Benefits
($ milli on)*
11 .0

9.0
5.0
2.0
0.3
0.6
200.0
0.5
2.0

*Al proj ect maturity.

d ocument it. Th e 1989 ex tern a l rev iew


pointed out the need to begin do c umentin g
our work. Because no syste m at ic im pact
assessm e nt had bee n don e, we were a lso
havin g prob lem s est imating ex ante i mpact
in our priority-setti ng. Th e nin e case st udi es,
w hi c h rep rese nt abo ut a third of t he projects
that we th i nk have had an imp act in
de ve lop in g co untri es, shou ld he l p reso l ve
this probl em. "
The fo ll ow in g are highlights fr om t hr ee of
th e case stud ies.

True Potato Seed in India


In Indi a, C IP scientists and co ll eagues
from th e Ce ntr al Pot ato Resea rch In st itu te
h ave deve loped tru e po t ato seed (TPS)
h ybr id s that prov id e a low-cost, effecti ve
a ltern at i ve to tradit iona l see d systems.
Pot atoes are normally produced by p lantin g
part of last year's c rop o r by usin g im ported
seed tub e rs. TPS is derived from th e sm a ll
fruits produ ced by t he flower of th e p lant.
H ybrid TPS prod uction is g rowing rapid ly
in In dia, backed up by proven pare nt al l ines,
sta nd ardized production tec hniqu es, and
stro ng publi c and private-sector interest. Th e
new h yb rid s yie ld near ly 25% mor e than the
count ry's most popu l ar c lo na l variet ies.

21 _ __

Studies showed i nco m e benefits to fa rm e rs


w ho have switc hed to TPS . Th e use of
seedling tubers g ro w n from true see d nea rl y
doubl ed i ncome per hecta re co mpared with
con v ention al tuber see d . By the yea r 2015,
C IP sc ientists estim ate t hat 1 8% of t he potato
g ro w in g area in In d ia w ill be pl ant ed to TPSder i ved mate ri a ls. Thi s would re prese nt
mor e than 250,000 hec t ares and wou ld make
Indi a th e wor ld leader i n T PS production a nd
us e.
An es tim at ed 20 tons of TPS will m eet
nation a l d em and. Estim ated net benefi t s
from ex ante ana lys is project co nse rvat i ve
retu rn s of $200 million a nnuall y.

Sex Pheromones

Bottle sex pheromone


traps (right) drasticall y
reduce damage caused by
sweetpotato weevils
(left) .

T he case st udi es found th at in tegrated pest


mana ge me nt (IPM ) h as bee n on e of the most
p roduct i ve areas of co ll ab or ative res ea rch
betwee n C IP an d nat ion al agr ic ultura l
resea rc h syste ms (NA RS ). In the D o mini can
Rep u b li c, est i mates from 3 1 sweetpo t ato
fields sampled in 199 1 in d ica t e average
losses of 39% from weev il infestat io n, a
fi gur e that tr ansl ates into 40 % dec reases in
gro ss i nco m e fo r farmers . Average es tim ated
in c id e nc e a nd sever ity of d a m age were
calc ul at ed at $300 per hec t are.
C IP's p il ot IPM pro j ec t in th e Domini ca n
Rep u b l ic e m phas ized a variety of co ntrol
measu re s, in c ludin g c rop rota tion , deep

plowin g, tim e ly weedi ng, and the use o f sex


ph ero m o ne traps. Sex pheromones a re
produced by fema les o f m any in sect spec ies
to attra ct m a les fo r mating. Expe rim ents
showe d t hat pla c in g th e phe romo ne in a used
p last ic co nt ai ne r fill ed w ith soapy wate r m ad e
for an efficient and econo mi ca l tr ap. For
far me rs , ph ero mon e traps pro'\led to be an
attract i ve op tion beca use of the ir
effect ive ness and low cos t-eac h tr ap cos ts
about $2.75 , for a tota l cost of $11 pe r
hectare.
Ini t ia l acceptance of pheromone t raps
was enco ur aging. By 1993, 15 % of a ll
sweet pot ato f ie ld s in the Do ini ca n
Rep u b li c were protected by he tr ap s.
Repo rted th efts of p hero m o ne d ispe nsers
attested to dema nd . Benefits were
ca lculated from farme rs' fie ld s m o nitor ed in
199 3 a nd 1994.
On average, far m e rs w ho practiced IP M
produced sli g h t ly hi g her y ie l ds , but a lso
expe rienc ed su bsta n tia ll y l es s dama ge than
other fa rm e rs. Without pheromone t raps ,
dam age was 1 .8 t/ ha ; wit h th e pheromones ,
da m age tot a led ju st 0.7 t/ ha . The eco nomic
va lu e of a 1 . 1 t/ ha gai n was appro x im ate l y
$ 11 0 p er hectare .
C IP sc ie ntist s be li eve that hal f of a ll
swee tpota to in th e D omin ican Rep ubli c wi ll
be g rown und er pheromon e JD rotect io n by
19 97 . In that eve nt, the net pe nef it from
resea rch shou ld reac h $300, r OO a nnuall y
by t he year 2000 .

CIP-24
Potato va ri ety C IP- 24 (see l A W e i/ -

Trave led Potato, page 15 ) was intr od u ce d


into C h i n a in the l at e 1970s nd
expe ri enced rap id expansion st art in g in
19 84. Co nse r vative l y es tim ted , n et an nu a l
benefits in j ust three provin es reached $ 1
m illi o n in 1987 and $4 m illi o n by 1990;
c u rrent benefit esti m at es th ra> ug h t he y ea r
2000 are ap pro x im at e l y $5 nn illi on
a nnu a ll y. Thi s f ig ur e rep res nts an ave ra ge
y ie ld in c rease of 3 t/ ha . In hi na , pot ato es
a re va lu ed at ap pr ox im ate l y 35 per ton,

True potato seed: each


berry contains up to
400 seeds.

probably the lowest price for the crop


anywhere in the world.
Lon g- range prospects for the variety are
co nsidered to be good . CIP-24 has exce ll ent
agro nomic c haracte ristics in C hin a's northern
and sout hern potato-g rowing regions ,
a lth o ugh its re lat ive ly lon g g rowing period
makes it a prob lem in multiple cropp in g
systems. Its hi gh to lerance of drou ght and
resistan ce to some diseases are im portant in
poorer areas with low rainfall . The c ultivar's
low rate of dege nerat ion also makes i t
att ra ctive to farme rs who retain seeds over
lon g periods of time .
Copies of the CIP impact case studies are
ava ilabl e upon request from the Ce n te r 's
Social Sc i en ce Departmen t.

Potato Varietal Releases: A Study in Slow Motion


In Europe and North America, the
potato vari eties that people eat today are
much th e same as those their parents and
grandparents ate years ago. The most
popul ar potato va ri et y in th e United
States, Russet Burbank, was bred in 1872.
The story in deve lopin g cou nt ri es is
q ui te different . C IP economist Thomas
Walker notes that ov"er the past 20 years,
developi ng co untries have proven
themselves more likely to rel ease and use
new var ieti es than industrialized nations.
In Europe and North America , market
forces and a depend ence o n
agrochemica ls ha ve v irtu all y locked o ld er
var iet ies into place. Th is is not so,
however, in the deve loping wor ld , where
farmers are eager to expe rim ent w ith less
c hemically dependent breedin g lin es .
Potato varieties rele ased in the 1970s
and ear ly 1980s, Walker says , came
a lm ost exc lu sively from c lo nes bred in
industria li zed countr ies and , to a lesse r
extent, from national breeding programs
(see Figure). By the mid-1980s, however,
N ARS-bred clones-identified and

distributed by CIP- accounted for alm ost


half of all develop in g-country varietal
releases.
Current ly, materials se lected from CIPbred pop ul at ions accou nt for about 40% of
all such releases, a f igure that Walker
beli eves w ill ri se substa nti ally as th e
superior qua liti es of CIP-bred parents-in
parti c ul ar their disease and pest
res istance- become better known.

Percentage of released varieties

100
90
80

CIP cross , '


NARS selected

CIP distributed,
~ NARS bred

60

NARS bred,
no CIP role
v/l Clones from
L.":-,.J developed countries

50

40

D Others
0
Before 1980

1980-86
Years

1987-93

23 I

Pesticides Threaten Ecuadorian


Farmers, But Soil and Water
Are Untouched

---24

In the fields above San Gabriel in th e


mountain s of northern Ec uador, a farmer w ith
a backpack spraye r appl y in g a pesticide to a
potato crop is a common scene.
This sce ne, repeated daily on million s of
farms throughout the deve lop in g world , poses
a dilemma. It has polarized two important
interest groups-e nv ironm entalists and
ag riculturali sts-a nd locked them in a bitter
polic y struggle.
In re cent yea rs, the debate on th e
sustainability of modern ag ri c ultural
technology has increasingly foc used on
health and env ironmental issues. Concerns
includ e depletion of natural reso urces, so i I
erosion, water pollution, deforestation , and
the contamination and poisoning caused by
agricultural c hemical s. The dilemma is how
to balance ag ricultural development that
includes th e use of che mi ca l inputs w ith the
demands of sustainabl e agr ic ulture th at is
environmentally sound.
The iss ue is not ju st an academ ic question
in Ecuador. Environmental groups th ere c laim
that potato fa rm ers w ho use chem ica l
pesticid es are poisoning the envi ronm ent.
Based on th ese arguments, the environmental
lobby has recom mended banning numerous
pesticides , in c ludin g insecticides used to
control th e Andea n potato weev il , th e most
devas tatin g potato pest in the Andes. Th e
farm lobby opposes this proposition.

Classic Agriculture-Environment Conflict


Charles Cri ssma n, a C IP eco nomi st, says
that th e Ecuadorian situat ion is a classic
agriculture-environment co nfli ct-the tradeoff betwee n agr icultural production and
environmental quality. With powerful
intere sts on bot h sides, the iss ue w ill in all
eve ntu ality be decided in the political arena .
Unfortun ate ly, issues such as this are
characterized by a lack of so lid inform ati o n
on the size of potential trade-offs. For
example: H ow much agricultural produ ct io n

mu st be g ive n up to impro ve the env ironment


or hea lth ? Politi c ians, w ho intwiti ve ly
und erstand trade-offs, frequently operate
w ith o ut the inform ation needed to back up
th eir decisions.
Add ress in g the env ironment agriculture
1
dil emma, the CGIAR is encour . gi ng its
member in stitution s to incorpo ate iss ues of
su stain ab ility into the ir researc lh age nd as .
One response of the CG IAR ce ters has been
to ini tiate resear c h p rogra ms based on
agroecosyste ms rath er than on commod ities
alon e.
In a rece nt res earc h project headed by
Crissman , the Center loo ked at ,y ie ld and the
envi1onmental and health imp acts of
pesticide use in potato product on in the San
Gabriel area. Bes id es sheddin li ght o n th e
ongoing Ecuador debate, the ri sea rc h is
va lu ab le for the Center, w ho se_ lprin c ip al
c harge is to generate improved agr icu ltural
technologies , especially for por fa 1mers.
" New tec hnolog ies ca n increase cro p
y ield s an d farm in co m es, but t h\ ey can also
have indirect or 'off-s ite' impa cr ts," Cri ss man
says. " The se latter imp acts haJe become
more important in eva lu atin g new
techno log ies and ret urn s to research. For
example, the largest benefit of i ntegrated pest
m anage ment (!PM ) m ay not be fewer cro p
lo sses, but rather the red uced ontamination
from less insecti c id e use. "

Pesticide Impacts
For the study in northern Ecuador, Cl P
sc ienti sts are work in g w ith co unterp arts from
Ecuador's Catholi c Univers ity, Montana
State and Co rn ell universiti es in the United
States, and M cM aster University in Ca nada.
Together they have desi gned a resea rc h
met hod to provide an extensive ana lyt ica l
backdrop that co mbin es f ield- leve l
relati ons hi ps amon g farm mana gemen t
p ract ices, th e env ironmenta l c haracter ist ics
of the land, and nonpoint po llu tion w ith
impacts o n hum an hea lth. To be usefu l for
po li cy analys is, the researc h methodo logy
w as des igned to make a link between hum an
hea lth and the phys ica l c hanges i n
environmenta l and resou rce qua li ty
attributab le to agric ultural practices.
Th e bas ic p remi se was th at a w e ll -known
econo mi cs too l, benefit-cost ana lys is, co uld
provide the framework to co mbin e
d isc ip lin ary mode ls and data fo r po li cy
ana lysis. A researc h team of so il sc ient ists /
ep id emi o log ists, medical docto rs, and
ag ri c ultural eco nomists app li ed the mode l in
resea rc h that focused o n groundw ater
pollution and fa rm wo rk er po isoni ngs .

An Eightfold Increase in Pesticide Poisonings


Workin g in two adjo inin g waters heds in
San Gab ri el ove r a two-year per iod,

resea rc hers found that when potato fa rm ers


used co mbin at ion s of c hemi ca l pest ic ides
to co ntro l the Andean weev il and late
bli ght, the amo un t of pest ic id es leac hin g
o ut of the potato root zone was we ll be low
Wor ld H ea lth Orga ni zat ion sta nd ards,
eve n in wo rst-case sce nari os. T he
com bin ed effects of the hi gh organic
matter co ntent of the volcan ic so il s, the
short half- li fe of the act ive ingred ients of
the compo unds used, and the li ght rain fa ll
pattern moved th e c hemi ca ls slow ly
through th e so il , w here they bou nd wit h
the organ ic matter and deg rad ed relat ive ly
rap id ly.
The exper im ental res ults thu s refute the
argum ents of the env ironm ental lobby. In
potato prod uct io n simil ar to that of the
study site-whi ch inc ludes most of
Ecuado r-e nv iro nm ental conta min at ion
from pest ic ides is minim al .
Th ese res ults, howeve r, fail to co nsid er
hea lth impacts . Fo ll ow in g up on
po iso nin gs reported by hea lth ca re
p rov iders, the resea rc h team found that
th ere was an eightfo ld in c rease in the rate
of repo rted pesticide po isoni ngs in the San
Gabrie l reg ion- from 21 cases per 100,000
persons to 171 per 100,000 . Furth er
fo ll ow- up showed that the majority of
th ese cases were men engaged in pest ic id e
sp ray in g. Tests of San Gabrie l spray
ope rators showed a consiste nt pattern of
ch ron ic ras h and ce ntral nervo us system
damage from pest icide residues absorbed
throu gh the skin, spec ifica ll y th e hands.
Resu lts from mode ls shed cons iderable
l ight o n th e Ecuado r debate . " Pesti c ide use
in potato prod uct io n is not contaminating
th e enviro nm ent," Cr is sman says, "b ut is
poi so nin g a large seg ment of t he rur al
pop ul at ion . Th e po li cy prescr iptions are
thu s marked ly d ifferent fo r th ese different
o utcomes. Instead of an enviro nm enta l
policy outcome such as wa ter qua lity
regulat ions, what is reco mm end ed are
pub li c hea lth polic ies suc h as hea lth
ed uca ti on programs."

White patches on a
farmer-volunteer are
used to measur e
exposure to pesticid es.

25 _ __

---26

Environmental and Production Trad -offs


Despite information glea ned from disciplinary
mode ls, po li cy-makers freq uentl y co nfront the
probl em of how much produ ction should be
sacrificed to ac hi eve envi ro nmenta l or hea lth
goa ls. Trade-off possibility fro nti ers are a practical
tool fo r mak in g that decision (see figure).
The slope of the trade-off possibility fro nti er
tell s po li cy- makers how much envi ronmental
qu ality must be traded for an in crease in
agricultural output. Th e resea rch co ndu cted in
north ern Ecuador provi des emp iri ca l estimates of
trade-off possib ility limits.

Environmental
Quality

,.....

c
B
e1

--

--,,

_,

.......

r-..

,..:-;

...... ;i"

'

i--i

'
........

-- --- --- --- ~ ~


.... . ---- ---" -...
:

,.._

-"' ~

'

'' I\N

A Agricultural
Production

Trade-off frontiers are frequently used to illustrate concepts of efficiency, choice, and technological change. This
fi gure shows that for an improvement in environmental
quality from e toe ' , the community must sac rifi ce agricultural production from p to p'. Whether a one-unit improvement in the environment is worth two units of lost
agricultural production is a decision for policy-makers. In
the case of the San Gabriel stud y, a new late-blightresista nt potato variety that requires less fungicide should
cause the frontier to shift outward from AB to AC. The
result would be a higher level of environmental quality for
the sa me level of production.

A seri ous li mitation for making environmental


researc h compati ble w ith po licy ana lys is is the unit
of measu rement by w hi ch the models operate. A
soil sc ientist typ ica ll y works at the plot or field
leve l w hereas po li cy analysis is co nducted at the

nationa l o r reg io nal leve l. Th e prob lem is one of


aggregation , that is, how to aggr ate up from a
fi eld- leve l obse rvation to a ~n i t c mpatibl e w ith
policy analysis. In the framework of the San
Gabrie l stud y, models were used to measure
probabil ity distributions representing phe nomena
such as weather, physica l c haracteri stics of the
fi eld, pesticide app li cations, and-linput and output
pri ces. These probab ility distribJti ons are
inco rpo rated into the integrated simul atio n mode l,
which permits a se ri es of "what if" q uestions.
Th e "what if" questions ca n include sce nari os
of d iffe rent eco nom ic polici es such as taxes o n the
pestic ides, pri ce suppo rts for potatoes, o r changes
in techno logy such as the introduction of varieti es
wi th res istance to late blight o r IPM practices. By
inserting these c hanges into th e integrated
simul ation mode l, a series of poi t estim ates of
ag ri cultural output and env iron ental o r hea lth
qu ality is produced . Th ese po in are co nn ected,
thus creatin g the trade-off possibi li ty frontier .
Q uestio ns of susta in ab le agri ulture lead to
co nsiderations of off-s ite effects of ag ri cultural
practices that lead to co ncern for the state of the
ecosystem in w hi ch agriculture operates. CIP has
recently begun resea rch on these pheno mena.
This set of prob lems is distinct fr<Dm that of
reso lv ing co mm od ity-related pro lems with
experim ental tria l-type agricu ltu rual resea rc h and
ca ll s for new thinking o n metho s. The research
o n pest icid e im pacts in Ecuador is illu strative of
possib le new resea rch methods. Th ese methods
still use the we ll -estab li shed strengths of
di sc ipli nary resea rch, but new mean ing is given to
the word "i nterdiscip linary" when discip li nary
co ncess io ns are made to accom odate d ifferent
units of measureme nt, makin g it possible to
integ rate the res ults of o ne disci ' Ii nary mode l in to
another. The oth er obv ious differe nce is th e use
of modeling, in cl udin g both deterministic and
probabi li stic models in statistica and simul atio n
ana lyses. In extreme ly diverse ecosystems suc h as
the hi gh Andes, exper im ental tria l approac hes are
expe nsive and time-consuming. Modeling th at
can be extrapo lated ac ross broader areas may be a
more efficie nt way to spend researc h money.

The
CGIAR
A Renewal of the International Agricultural
Research System
For nearly a quarter century, the CGIAR-the Consultative Group on
Intern at ion al Agricultural Research- has been one of th e most
effective mea ns for advancing sustainable agriculture and food
security in developing countries.
A voluntary co nsortium of some 45 private and public donors,
CGIAR provides funding for 16 intern ation al agricultural resea rch
centers. In 19 71, it began by supporting a nucleus of four ce nters
workin g on the production of the basic food crops grown in tropical
areas.
CIP w as accepted as a CGIAR cente r in 1972 . Tod ay, the CG
system also in c ludes research on livestock, forestry, fish eri es,
irri gation , policy, and institution building.
By taking adva ntage of the scientific breakthroughs of the Green
Revolution , the CGIAR quickly became a lead ing researc h co ntributor
in efforts to meet the challenge of glob al hun ger and pove rty. Late r,
th e ce nters responded to intern at ion al co nce rns for safeguarding
dwindling natural resources and ac hi ev in g environmentally sustainab le
developm e nt.
Tod ay, the CGIAR is undergo in g a process of renewal involvin g the
deve lopm ent of more sharply focused research priorities, improved
governance, and greater efforts to promote scientific partn ership s. To
those ends, the system ' s three co-spo nsors-the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) of the United Nation s, th e United Nations
Deve lopment Programme (UNDPL and th e World Bank-h ave
appealed to supporters for assistance. Led by the World Bank' s onetime spec ial financial package app rov ed in 1994, government
agencies, multil ateral donor organizations, and private foundations are
responding to th e CGIAR's finan c ial needs for a long-term commitment
to meet g lob al food demand that is expected to doubl e by 2025.
Developments at CIP reflect the c hanges taking place in the CGIAR
system. Drawi ng on its extensive ge rmpl asm collections, CIP has
mad e impress ive ga ins in the sustainable improvement of potato and
sweetpotato worldwide, while in co rporat in g environmental co nce rn s
into its programs and worldwide netwo rk s.
Tod ay, with an international emph as is on ecoregions, CIP is ready
to use its extensive experience in mountain agriculture to co nvene
proj ects
involving a variety of partners, in c luding CGIAR ce nters,
nation al systems, nongovernmental organizations, and the private
sector. The work will promote more sustainable agricultural systems
in the Andes, Him alayas, and hi ghl and s of East Africa.

27 _ __

Finance
and Administration

Facsimile screen from


CIPFIS, Cl P's on-line
project-based budgeting
system.

---28

CIP made special efforts in 1994 to maintain


the strength of its potato and sweetpotato
commodity programs, w hile carrying out new
responsibilities in tropical mountain ecologies.
The Center's response to Agenda 21 and to
other international efforts to sustain environmental
quality has resulted in a small program for
threatened Andean root and tuber crops focused
on preserving their biodiversity in mountain
regions. CIP also became the convening center
within the CGIAR for a global research program on
Sustainable Mountain Agricultural Development.
The Center's financial health brightened
considerably after three consecutive years of
downsizing, the retirement of outstanding debt,
and improved conditions in Peru. CIP is now well
poised to meet future challenges. The Center' s
total core budget for 1994 was $18.4 million, up
from $15.6 million in 1993. The increase w as
partially due to pledges for new core acti v ities in
mountain agriculture and a restricted core activity
for sweetpotato research in Southeast Asia. In
addition, the Center shifted- at the request of the
CGIAR-more than $2 million in complementary
funding into its core budget, thereb y allowing the

BALANCE SHEET (US$000)

Analysis of Budget St< tus 1995

CIPFIS
2
203
20302
503

Level 1:
Level 2:
Level 3:
Expenditure:

Research Manaaement
Rese~rch Suooort
Huancayo
Supp ies

Month

Debit

Exper ture

Credit

January

14,511.28 7,519.05

February

7,312.39

1,790.62

5,521 !77

6,992b

March

5,843.42

1,720.90

4,122 52

April

3,553.45

3,553.45

+Move

....Traniactions

May
June
July
August
September
F1-Help

Accrual
Expend.
6,992.23
12,514.00
16,636.52
20, 189.97
20, 189.97
20,189.97
20,189.97
20,189.97
20,189.97
ESC-Exit

World Bank to release new fundinf to other


centers. Complementary funding totaled $5.7
million , bringing the Center's total revenues to
$24.1 million.
Operating expenses increased ir 1994 because
of inflation in many of the countries where the

1994

1993
Year ended 31 Dece mber

Current Assets
3, 150

1,684

52

49

3,834

2,382

Employees

434

440

Others

267

130

Inventories

740

863

1, 155

931

Cash and short-term deposits


Securities
Accounts receivable:
Donors

Prepaid expenses

9,632

6,479

Investments

670

451

Loans to Employees

508

424

Property, plant, and equipment

19, 944

19,781

Less accumulated depreciation

(10,485)

(1 0,01 2)

9,459

9,769

Total current assets

Fixed Assets

Total fixed assets (net)

ijjfJM

Ce nter operates . Thi s was ca used , in part, by


reva lu ation of th e local c urrenc ies or dec reased
rates of deva luat io n vis-a-vi s loca l inflati o n . Thi s
trend had a signifi ca nt impact in Peru , w here the
Ce nter spend s about 40% of its budget, and in
Ke nya, Ecu ador, and th e Phili pp in es . CIP's
purchasing power fe ll by an estimated $1.5
mi llion in 1994. As a res ult, t he Ce nter fro ze
seve ral i mporta nt internati o nal pos iti ons and
reduced the number of loca ll y rec ru ited staff.
In c reased costs and eroded purc has in g powe r are
an ongoing co nce rn.
Substant ial renovat ions of Cl P's hi ghl and
ex perim ent stat io n began in Hu ancayo, Peru, th e
site of terrori st attac ks in 1988. The Hu ancayo site
w i ll be used for tra inin g and ex panded resea rc h
o n late bli ght, ge netic con se rv at io n, v irol ogy, and
tru e seed. Im proved sec urity in Peru has all owed
CIP to reinstitute ope rati ons in Huancayo .
Resea rc h at th e Yurim ag uas ex periment station in
Peru was termin ated, howeve r, and operation s at
the San Ramo n stat ion we re redu ced by one-th ird
as so me resea rc h activiti es shifted to re giona l
locat ion s in Afr ica and As ia.
Th e In form at io n D epartme nt we nt on - li ne to

BALANCE SHEET (US$000)

Intern et, w ith the Peru v ian Sci entific Netwo rk as its
loca l ca rri er. Th e departm ent switc hed over to
Mi c roso ft Mai l and CG NET II se rvices fo r
enh anced electron ic mail and fax serv ices for
resea rc h and support staff. A simil ar upgrad in g is
pl anned fo r reg iona l offices.
CIP's main sc ientifi c databases- ge rmp las m, in
v itro, seed di stributi o n, and pedi gree-were
integ rated and made access ibl e through th e
Center' s loca l area network. Thi s mea ns th at all
C IP sc ientists, in c ludin g those using ou r new
Geograp hi c Inform ation Servic es, have acces s to
the Ce nter's most impo rt ant sc ientific databa ses.
CIP databases wi ll eve ntual ly be access ibl e to
sc ientists workin g in the reg io ns and elsew here .
Durin g 1994, CIP co ntinu ed to improve its
fin anc ial in form ation se rvices throu gh the CIPFIS
syste m. This user-fr iendly, on - li ne, proj ect-b ased
budget in g and accounting system was ful ly
establi shed at headqu arters and at ex periment
stati o ns in Per u. Each bud get unit has 24-hour-aday co mputer access to its current expe nses an d
bud get status reports . CIPFIS has proved to be a
stro ng managem ent tool fo r reso urce allocat io n
and dec ision-makin g.

1994

The table below


summarizes CIP's
finances in 1994 .
A complete, audited
financial statement is
published separately,
and can be requested
from the Controller's
Office, CIP
headquarters, Lima,
Peru .

1993
Year ended 31 D ecemb er

Current Liabilities
Bank ove rdr afts
Short-te rm loa ns

74

225

592

3,7 1 7

793

Resea rc h co ntracts a nd o rga ni zat ions

905

1,097

Suppli e rs a nd tax es

865

968

44

29

Advan ces from donors


Accounts payab le:

Prov isions fo r seve ra nce ind e mniti es


Tota l c urre nt I iab i I it ies

5,756

3,553

Long-term Loan

5 11

4 37

Accruals and Provisions

180

Capital in ves ted in fi xe d assets

9,459

9 ,769

Cap ita l fund

2,448

2, 1 79

Net Assets

Unexpend ed fund b al a nce


Tota l net assets

1,915

1, 185

1 3,822

13, l 33

29 - .

Donor
Contributions
1n 1994

CIP has had broad,


strong support from
its 35 donors. Ten
funders provided

contributions worth

DONOR (ranked by levels of core contribution in US$000) CORE

DANMARK

World Bank*
Japan
European Economic Community
United States of America
Denmark
Germany
Inter-American Development Bank
Switzerland
Canada
Sweden
United Kingdom
United Nations Development Programme
Netherlands
Austria
Italy
Franee
Australia
Norway
Belgium
China
Finland
Korea
Spain
India
International Development Research Centre
Asian Development Bank
Natural Resources Institute
Rockefeller Foundation
Dan ida/ I reland/ Mexico
British Embassy (in Peru )
OPEC Fund for International Development
Sociedad Qufmica y Minera de Chile
Calbee Potato Inc.
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
CARE Peru

3.50

* Includes $80 0,000 prov is ion fo r " cost recove ry ."

30

2,610
1,348
1,327
1,200
1,094
1,055
1,050
1,040
978
900
698
593
554
390
1 70
150
142
133
125
90
86
60
50
25

COMPLEMENT ARY

one million dollars


or mo iie each.

Anoth r three gave

141

more tihan half a

: million dollars

96
158
3,091

336
556
282
30
71

231

409
99
85
47
29
21
17
12
8
5
4

each.

Board

of
Trustees

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

Dr. K. L. Chadha

Cha irperso n

Deputy Directo r Genera l (Horticulture),


Indian Counci l for Agri cultural Resea rc h
New D elhi , India

Dr . Lindsay Innes
D ep uty D irector, Scottish Crop Research In st itute
Dundee, Scotland

Dr. Lieselotte Schilde

Mrs. Martha ter Kuile

Professo r, Uni ve rsity of TUbingen


TUbin ge n, Germany

(from May 199 4) CIDA Repres entati ve,


Canadian Embassy
Guatema la C ity, Guatema la

Dr. Moise Mensah


(from M ay 19 94)
Cotonou , Benin

Dr. Setijati Sastrapradja


Botani st,
National Ce ntre for Research in Biotechno logy
Indon es ian In stitute of Sci ences
Bogor, Indon es ia

AUDIT COMMITTEE

Chairperso n

Mrs. Martha ter Kuile


(from May 1994)

Dr. Hubert Zandstra


Directo r Ge neral, International Potato Ce nter

Dr. Toshihiro Kajiwara

Lim a, Peru

Directo r, Japan Plant Protection Assoc iat io n


Tokyo, Japan

PROGRAM COMMITTEE

Dr. Klaus Raven


Cha ir person

Dr. Setijati Sastrapradja


Dr. Alfonso Cerrate

_.,
,. I

Professor, Uni ve rsid ad Naciona l Agraria


Lima , Peru
NOMINATIONS COMMITTEE

Executive Director,
ln stituto N ac io nal de ln vestigaci6n Agraria
Lim a, Peru

Ch airperso n

Dr. Durward Bateman

Dr. Klaus Raven

D ea n, Co ll ege of Agriculture and Life Sciences


North Caro lina State University
North Caro lin a, USA

Dr. Franz Winiger

-r,1 ;

Mrs. Martha ter Kuile


(from M ay 19 94)

D epa rtm ent of Potato Production


FAP Zurich-Rechenho lz
Z urich, Switzerland

31 -

Staff
1n 1994
DIRECTORS

Latin America and th e Caribbean (LAC)

Hubert Zandstra , Ph D, Directo r Gene ral


Jose Va l le-R iestra, Ph D, Deputy Director G eneral
for Finance and Adm in istrat ion
Peter Grego ry, PhD , Deputy D irec tor Gen era l for
Resea rch
Ro ge r Co rtbaoui , PhD , D irecto r for Internation al
Cooperat ion

Fernando Ezeta, PhD , Reg io nal Rep rese ntat ive


(Peru)
Liai son Office - Chil e
Pr imo Accatino, PhD 2
Li aiso n Office - Ecuador
Ch arles Crissman , PhD

PROGRAM LEADERS
Production Syst ems
Thomas S. Walk er, PhD
Germplasm M anagement and Enhancement
Al i Go lm i rzai e, PhD
Di seas e Manage ment
Ed wa rd R. Frenc h, PhD
Integ rated Pest Management
Fausto Cisneros, PhD
Propagation , Crop Managemen t
Pat ri c io Ma laga mba, PhD (until Sept. )
Ma hes h Upadhya, PhD (from Sept. )
Postharvest Management, Marketin g

Gregory J. Scott, PhD

CIP biotechnologists
Dapeng Zhang, M arc
Ghislain, and Rosa rio
Herrera.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
(country) = post locat io n, but ac ti v ity reg iona l in
sco pe
co untry = post locat io n

Sub-Sah aran Afri ca (SSA)


Peter Ewe I I, PhD , Regio na l Represe tati ve (Kenya)
Liai son Office - Nige ri a

Humberto Me ndoza, Ph D

Middl e East and North Africa (ME A)

Carlos Mart in , PhD , Re giona l Rep rese ntat ive


(Tunisia)
Li aiso n Office - Egypt
Ram zy El-Bedewy, Ph D
South and We st As ia (SWA )
Ma hes h Upadhya, PhD , Re gional Represe ntat ive
(u nt i I Sept. )
Sarath c hand ra ll anga nti leke , PhD Ondia) (fro m
Sep t. )
East and Southeast Asia and the Pa ifi c (E SEAP)
Peter Schm iedic he, PhD , Reg iona l epresentat ive
(Indones ia)
Li aison Office - People's Republ ic of China
Son g Bo Fu, PhD
Li aiso n Office - Philippines
Enriqu e Chu j o y, PhD (unt il Feb .)
Gordon Prai n, PhD (from Feb .)
INTERNATIONALLY RECRUITED STAFF
Departm ents
Breeding and Genetics
Peter Gregory, PhD , Ac tin g H ead o D epa rtment
H umberto Mendoza, PhD , Gen eti c ist (N igeria) 4
Primo Accatino, PhD , Breeder, Chile 2
Edward Carey, Ph D , Breeder (Kenya) 4

Enr iq ue Chuj oy, PhD, Genet icist (P i /ippi nes)


11 Gin Mok, PhD, Breede r (Indonesia)
H ail e M. Kida ne-M ariam, Ph D , Breeder (Kenya )
Ju an Land eo, Ph D, Breeder 4
' Staff w ho joined durin g th e yea r
Staff w ho left du r ing th e yea r
3 Staff fu nd ed by specia l projec ts
' Project lea der

i:rrrn IN DIA

"'

<X>

"'0-<
,,,

'Jg

"'"'
~
Genetic Resources
A li Go lmirza ie, PhD, Gen eti c ist, H ea d of
Departm ent 4
Ca rl os Arbi z u, PhD , ARTC Consu ltan t 3
Fermin de la Pu ente, PhD , Ge rmp las m Co ll ector i, 4
M arc Gh islain , PhD, Mol ecu lar Bio log ist
Michae l H erm ann, PhD, And ea n Crop Spec iali st
(Ec uador) 4
Z6s imo Huam an, PhD , Germp lasm Curator 4
Kos hun lshiki , PhD, Assoc iate Expert, Ec uador
Ca rlos Ochoa, MS, Ta xo nom ist, Cons ultant
Bodo Trognitz, PhD, Gen et ic ist
Kaz uo W atanabe, PhD, Cytoge neti c ist (USA) 4
Dape ng Z hang, PhD , Breeder 1

A lw yn Chi Ive r, MS, As socia te Expert, Indon es ia 3


Charles Cri ss man, PhD , Econom ist (Ecuador) 4
Pete r Ewe ll , PhD , Eco nom ist (Ken ya) 4
Rob ert Jan Hijm ans, PhD, Assoc iate Ex pert 1 3
Jan Low, PhD , Econom ist (l<enya) i , 3

,,,"'

,f6

"'

""0

,~

1985

-I

J>

-I

,;..

,,,

:0

"',,,
J>

:0
()

:r

Gordon Pra in, PhD , Ant hropol og ist (Philippin es) 4


G regory J. Scott, PhD, Economi st
JUrg Sc hn eid er, PhD , Assoc iate Expe rt, Indonesia 3

Research Support
Fausto Cisneros, PhD, En to m o logist, Head of
D epartment 4
Franc isc o Munoz, PhD , H ead of Qu ito Station ,
Ecuador 2

Nematology and Entomology


Fausto Cisn eros, PhD, Entomo log ist, H ead of
Departm ent 4
An n Braun , PhD , Entomologist (Indonesia) 4
Az iz Lag nao ui, PhD , Entomo log ist (Tunisia)
N ico le Sm it, MS, Assoc iate Expe rt, Uganda 3
Patholo gy
Lu is Salazar, PhD , Virolo g ist, H ead of D epartm en t 4
Grego ry A, Forbes, PhD , Plant Patho log ist (Ecuador)
Ed wa rd R. Frenc h, PhD , Bacteri o log ist 4
Teresa lcoc hea, PhD, Path o logist, Consu ltant 4
Upa li Jayas in ghe, PhD , Viro logist (Ph ilipp i nes) 4
Pedro O ya rz un , PhD , M yco log ist (Ecuador) i , 3
Sy lv ie Priou , PhD, Bacter io log ist (Tunisia) 1,3
Madda lena Qu erc i, PhD , Mo lec ular V i rolo gist 4
Lod J, Turkenstee n, PhD , Adjunct Sc ienti st,
Netherlands

Trainin g
Fern ando Ezeta, PhD , H ead of D epartment
(until Marc h)
Patri c io Ma lagamba, PhD , H ead of D epartment
(from Ma rc h)
Pon s Batuga l, PhD , Tec hnology Transfer
Coo rd in ato r 2
Inform at ion
Carmen Siri , PhD , H ea d of D epa rtm ent
(unt il March ) 2
Michael L, Smith , Jo urn al ist, H ead of Departm ent
(fr om Ma rc h)
Bi 11 H ardy, PhD , En glish and Span ish Writer/ Editor
Directors' Offi ces
Office of the Dire cto r General
Ed wa rd Su lzberge r, MS, Ass istant to th e DC

Ph ys iology
Patricio Ma lagamba , PhD , Ph ys io log ist, H ead of
Departm ent (until Sept ) 4
Mahesh Up adhya, PhD, Phy sio log ist, H ead of
Departm ent (from Sept ) 4
James E. Bryan, MS, Se ni or Seed Spec iali st l, 4
Osca r Hid algo, PhD , Se ni o r Seed Spec iali st 4
Yosh ihi ro Eguc hi , MS, Associ ate Expert
(In donesia) 3
Ramzy El-Bedewy, PhD , Bree der, Egypt
V ita l H agen im ana, PhD, Ph ys io lo gist (Ken ya) i , 3
Sa rath cha ndra ll anga nt il eke, PhD , Ph ys io log ist
(India) 1A
Jukka Korv a, MS, Fe ll ows hi p A gronomist, Ec uador
Noel Pall ais, PhD , Ph ys io logist 4
Chr istophe r Wh eat ley, PhD , Phys io log ist
(I ndo nes ia) 4

Social Science
Thoma s S. W alker, PhD, Economi st, Head of
Department 4

J>
:0

Office of the Deputy Director General for


Finance and Administration
W illi am A, H amJ nn , BS, Ass ista nt to the DDGF & A
Office of the Deputy Director General for
Resea r ch
Jose Lu is Rued a, PhD, Coord in ator, Andean
Natura l Reso urce s

Special Country Projects


SEINPA, Peru
Efra in Franco, M S, Eco nomist, Tea m Lea der

2 3

33 -

-34

FORTIPAPA, Ecuador
Alberic Hibon, PhD, Economist, Team Leader
PROINPA, Bolivia
Andre Devaux, PhD , Seed Specialist, Team
Leader 3
Nelson Estrada, PhD, Breeder 23
Javier Franco, PhD , Nematologist 3
Enrique Fernandez-North cote, PhD , Virologist
Graham P. Thiele, PhD, Tec hnology Tran sfer
Specialist 1 3
Greta Watson, PhD , Human Ecologist 2 3
Liaison Office - Burundi
Donald Berrios, MS, Agronomist

NATIONALLY RECRUITED STAFF (Peru only)


3

Departments
Breeding and Genetics
Walter Amoros, MS, Associate Gen eticist
Jorge Espinoza, MS, Associate Geneticist
Genetic Resources
Fausto Buitron , Ing. Agr ., Tissue Culture
Coordinator
Gisella Orjeda, MS, Biologist
Alberto Salas, In g. Agr. , Taxonomist 4
Roxana Salinas, Ing. Agr., Biotechnologist

2 3
'

Uganda
Ly le Sikka , MS, Consultant on Seed Technology
Nicole Smit, MS, Associate Expert 3
Consortium
CON DESAN
Miguel Holle, PhD, Biodiversity of A ndean Crops
Ruben D arfo Estrada, MS, Natural Resources
Economics (Co lombia ) 3
Robert Jan Hijmans, PhD , Associate Expert 1 3
Carlos Leo n-Vel arde, PhD , Animal Production
Systems 3
Elfas Mujica, MS, A nthropolog ist, Ad junct
Scientist 3
Osvaldo Paladines, PhD , Andean Pastures
(Ec uador) 3
Mario Tap ia, PhD , Agroecologist 1' 3

Nematology and Entomology


Jesus Alcazar, MS, Agronomist 4
Alberto Gonzalez, MS, Nematologi st
2 3
'

Erw in Guevara, Ing. Agr. , Agronom, st


Marfa Palacios, Biol., Biologist 4

Networks
SAPPRAD
Eufemia T. Rasco Jr., PhD , Coordinator
(Philippines) 3
UPWARD
Gordon Prain , PhD, Coordinator (Philippines)
Controller's Office
Carlos Nino-Neira, CPA, Controller
Oscar Gil , CPC , Internal Auditor 2
Office of the Executive Officer
Cesar Vittorel Ii , In g. Agr ., Acting Executive Officer

Pathology
Christian Delgado, MS, Biochemist
Segundo Fuentes , MS, Plant Pathol 1 gist
Charlotte Lizarraga, MS, Plant Pathologist
Hebert Torres, MS, Agronomist
Physiology
Rolando Cabello, Ing. Ag.r._, Asst. A j ronomist
Nelly Espinola, MS, Nutrit1on1st
Social Science
Hugo Fano, Economist
Victor Suarez , BS , Statistician
Research Support
Lombardo Cetraro, Biologist,

Field ~ Greenhouse

Supervisor, San Ramon


J
Roberto Duarte Piskulich, Ing. Agr. Greenhouse
Supervisor, La Molina
Lauro Gomez, Supervisor, Huan ca ye
Hugo Goyas, Ing. Agr., Supervisor, urimaguas
Abilio Pastrana Ramirez, Accountan t, San Ramon
Mario Pozo, Ing. Agr. , Supervisor, l! a Molina

Miguel Quevedo , Ing . Agr., Off-sta1ion Field


Supervisor, Cajamarca
Victor Otazu, PhD, Superintendent, Hu ancayo
Experiment Station

Statistics Unit
Beatri z Eldredge, Bio metr ist, Resea rc h
Database Ass ista nt 2
A lfredo Carda, MS, Bio metri st, Coordin ator
Fe li pe de Me ndibu ru , Biometri st, Researc h
Database Ass ista nt 1
Training
Nelso n Espi noza, Bio l ., Tra ini ng Spec ia li st
A meri ca Va ldez, MS, Train ing Materi al Spec iali st
Information
Communication Unit
Emm a Ma rtinez, MS, Superv iso r Med ia
Prod uct ion
G ig i Chang, MS, A .V . Sect io n Coo rd in ato r
Information Technology Unit
A nth o ny Co l Ii ns, Coo rd in ato r
Jo rge Palom i no, VAX and Network Ma nager 2
Pia Ma rfa O li den, D atabase Ma nager
Library
Fio re ll a Sa la de Ca brej os, MS, Coordin ator 2
Marth a Crosby, BA, Li brarian 2
Cec ili a Ferreyra, Circu lation and Reference,
Use r Se rv ices
Ca rm en I. Podesta, Arc hi ves and Ve rificatio n 2
Controller's Office
M igue l Saaved ra, CPA, Gene ral Acco untant
Rebeca Cuadros, Se ni o r Acco untant 2
Edga rdo de los Rios, CPA, Senior Acco untant
Vi lm a Es cudero, BS, Acco untan t
Accountin g Unit
Rosa rio Pastor, BS, Seni or Accountan t
Jo rge Bautista, BS, Acco un ta nt
Blanca Joo, CPA, Accou nta nt
Edu ardo Pe ralta, Acco untant
Budget Unit
A lbe rto M onteb lanco, CPA, Se ni o r Accountant
De nise G iacoma, CPA, Acco un ta nt
Treasury Unit
Luz Co rrea, CPA, Accountant
So nni a So lari , Chi ef Cas hi er

General Services
A ldo Ta ng, Co md r. (ret.), Ge nera l Se rv ices
Ma nage r
Equipment and Maintenance
G ustavo Ec hecopar, Ing. Agr., Supe rviso r
Security
Jorge Locate lli , Capt. (ret. ), Supe rv iso r
Tran sportation
Car los Bo hl , Superv isor 2
H ugo Dav is Pa redes, Chi ef of Ve hi cle
Ma in te nance
Jacq ues Vande rn otte, Chi ef Pil ot
Pe rcy Z uzu naga, Co- Pil ot

Human Resources
Ju an Pab lo Delgado, Hu man Resources Ma nager
Estan islao Perez Agui lar, Paym aster
Martha Pie ro la, BS, Soc ial W orke r
David H alfi n, MD, Med ica l Officer
Logi stics
Lu cas Rea no, CPC, Log ist ics M anage r
Arturo A lva rez, Purc has in g O ff icer
Jorge Luque, MBA, Wa reho use Office r
Roxana Mo rales Bermudez, Purc has ing Officer
Jose Piza rro, Purchas in g O ffi ce r
Visitors, Travel, and Auxiliary Service s
Rosa Rodriguez, Manager
Auxiliary Services
Mo ni ca Ferreyros, Superv isor
Travel
A na Ma rfa Secada, Supe rv iso r
Vi sitors' Office
Marie ll a Co rvetto, Supe rv iso r

Office of the Ex ecutive Officer


Foreign Affairs Liaison
Marce la Checa, Lia iso n Officer

35 _ .

Contributions to Scientific
Literature
Alcazar, J., W. Catal an, K.V. Raman , F. Cisneros, H.
Torre s, and 0. Ortiz. 1994. Control i ntegrado de l
gorgojo de los Andes. Bo letfn de Capacitaci6n

M . Benavid es, H. Fano , H. Goya s, G. Prain,


H . Roncal , and S. Tafur. 1994. El c amote e n los

No. 5. C IP, Lima , Peru. 18 p.

sistemas alimentar ios de l yunga norte del Peru.

Amauri Bu so, J. and R. N. Espinoza (comps.). 1994 .


Enfermedades bacte ri anas de la papa: Memorias del
EMBRAPA/ PROC IPA/ C IP, Lima , Peru. 100 p.
Cadena s, C. and T . l coc hea. 1994. Comportamiento
de 196 c lon es d e lpomoea ba tatas (L. ) Lam. a n te
l a pudri ci6 n neg ra de Java Lasiodiplodia
th eob romae (Pat. ) Griff. & Ma ub l. Fitopato logfa

29 (3):197-201 .
Chilver, A.S., A . Ko swara, and D. Rachmanunddin.

199 4. Th e economic v iability of true potato seed


(TPS ) in Ind onesia. Working Paper Ser ies No.

1994-1. CIP, Lim a, Peru. 28 p.


Cisnero s, F. and P. Gre gor y . 1994. Potato pes t
management. In: Proceedings of th e Pr esident ia l
Meeting on " Th e Impact of Genetic Var iation on
Susta in ab le Agr ic ulture. " Aspects of App li ed
Bio logy 39. Association of App li ed Bio log ists, UK.

p. 113-1 24.

length po lymorphi sm of a pel ge ne as a tool to


identi fy Erwinia carotovora in re lation to pot ato
dis eases. App l . Env iron. Mi c robial.

No. 5. CIP, Lima , Per u. 28 p.


Forbe s, G.A . and M.C. Jarvis . Ho st resistance fo r
m anage ment of potato late bl ight. In' : Zehnder,
G.M., M.L. Po we lson , R.K. Jan sso n, and K.V.
Rama n (e ds. ). A d va nces in potato pes t bio logy and
man agement. APS Press, St. Pau l,
, USA .

p. 439 -45 7.
Forb es, G.A . and J.T. Korva. 1994. Th effect of usin g
a H orsfa ll -B ar ratt scale on preci sior and accuracy
of v isua l estimation of potato late b ight severity in
the fie ld. Pl ant Pathol. 43 (4 ):6 75-682.
French , E.R. 1994. St rategies for integ rated control of
bacter ia l w il t of potatoes. In: Ha yward, A .C. and
he di sease

and its cau sa ti ve agent, Pse udomon as

solanacearum. CAB In terna ti onal , Wa llin gfo rd ,


UK . p. 199 -207.
Fren c h, E.R., G . Forbes, and J. Land eo. 1994. O la
mi gratoria d e va ri antes mas agres ivbs de
Phytophthora infestans ame na za a I, papa.

60 (5):1437- 1443.
Da s, G .P. and K.V. Raman . 1994. A lternate hosts of
th e pot ato tube rm oth, Phthorim aea operc ulelfa
(Ze ll e r). Crop Protec t. 1 3(2):83-86 .
Doucet, M.E ., E.L. Ponce de Leon, and J. Franco.

1994. Spergula arvensis y su asociaci6n con


Nacobbus aberrans en e l cu lti vo de papa en
Bo li v ia. Nematropica 24 (1 ):69-72.
Ekana ya ke , 1.J . 19 94. Estudi os so bre e l estres por
sequfa y nec esidades de ri ego d e la papa. Gu fa d e
ln ves ti gac i6n No. 30 . CIP, Lima, Peru. 38 p.
Ewell , P.T., H. Fano, K.V. Raman , J. Alcaz ar,

Fitopa tologfa 29 (1 ):15 -1 8.


Ghi slain, M., V. Frankard, D. Vandenbossche, B.F.
Matthews, and M. Jacobs. 1994. Mo lec ul ar
analysis of the as part ate kinase-h o n oser in e
dehydrogenase gene from Arabidop is thaliana.
Pl ant Mo l. Biol. 24:835-851.
Golmirzaie, A .M. , P. Malaga mba, and N. Pallais.

1994. Breeding potatoes ba sed o n t ue seed


pr opagation. In: Brads h aw, J.E. and G.R. Mackay
(eds .). Potato ge net ics. CAB l nte rna io nal ,
Wal l ingford , UK. p. 499 -513.

M . Palacios, and J. Carhuamaca. 1994. Manejo de


p lagas de la papa por los agr icultores e n e l PerC1:
ln fo rm es de un pro yec to inte rdi sc ip l inario d e
in vestigac i6n en determ in adas reg iones de las
zonas a ltas y d e la cos ta. Serie d e l nvest igac i6n
No. 6. CIP, Lim a, Peru. 72 p.
Ewell, P.T., K.O. Fu glie, and K.V. Raman. 1994.
Farm e rs ' perspec ti ves on potato pest management
in d eve lop in g co untries: Interd isc ipl inary resea rc h
at the Internati o nal Potato Ce nter (CIP). In:

Grego r y, P. 19 94. The potato ' s g lobal p>otent ia l. In :


Zeh nder, G.M. , M.L. Powelson , R.K Jansson , and
K.V. Ra m an (ed s.). Advances in pot to pest b io logy

and mana ge m e nt. APS Press , St. Pa I, MN , USA.

p. 652-655.
Hagenimana, V. R.E. Simard, and L.-P . Vezina. 1994.
Amy lol yt ic activity in ge rmin ating s eetpotato
(lpomoea batatas L.) roots. J. Amer. r oe. Hort. Sci.
119 (2):3 13 -320.
Hagenimana, V., l.-P. Vezina, and R.E Simard. 199 4.

Zehnder , G.W., M.L. Powe lson, R.K. Jansson , and


K.V. Raman (eds. ). Advances in potato pest bio logy

Sweetpotato a.- and ~-a m y l ases: Ch racteri zat ion

and management. A PS Press, St. Pau l , M

Food Sci. 59 (2 ):373-377.

p. 597-6 15.

36

Farme r par ti cipa t ion i n the se lection of new


sweetpotato vari eti es. Cl P Re searc h Guide

G.L. Hartm an (eds .) . Bacteria l wi l t:

Darrasse, A., S. Priou , A. Kotoujansky, and Y.


Bertheau . 1994 . PCR and re st ri ct ion fra gment

D ocu mento de Tr abajo No. 1994-4. CIP, Lim a,


Pe ru. 40 p.
Fons eca, C., J.P. Molina, a nd E.E. Care . 1994.

ta ll er, Bras ili a, Brazil , 15-18 March 1993.

RAYf.1U NDO ,\1(01NA

Fon seca, C., M. D aza, C. Aguilar, N. Bezeni;:on,

, USA.

and kinetic studies with e ndo genou

inhi bitors. J.

: This list includes

selected journal

: articles, book
Herrera, J., G. Scott, N. Espinola, W. Amoros, and
M. Ato . 1994. Perspectivas para el desarrollo
agroindustrial de la papa en el Peru. Debate
Agrario (Peru) 19 :67-86.
Kerridge, P.C. and B. Hardy (eds.). 1994. Biology and
agronomy of forage Arachis. Centro Internacional
de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.
209 p.
Larenas de la F., V., T.H. Lopez, and LP. Accatino.
1994. lntroducci6n, selecci6n y comercializaci6n
de nuevas variedades de batata (camote) en Chile.
Serie la Platina-INIA No. 45. lnstituto Nacional de
lnvestigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Santiago de
Chile. 46 p.
Larenas de la F., V., T.P. Ramirez, T.H. Lopez, and
LP. Accatino. Producci6n de papa utilizando
semilla botanica con agricultores de la zona
central de Chile. Serie La Platina-INIA No. 56.
lnstituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones
Agropecuarias (INIA), Santiago de Chile . 24 p.
Leon Velarde, C.U. and R.A. Quiroz. 1994. Analisis de
sistemas agropecuarios: Uso de metodos
biomatematicos. Centro de lnvestigaci6n de
Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente/Centro
Internacional de la Papa/Consorcio para el
Desarrollo Sostenible de la Ecorregi6n Andina
(CIRNMA/CIP/CONDESAN), La Paz, Bolivia. 238 p.
Malamud, O.S., T. Ames de lcochea, and H. Torres.
1994. Potato disease management in Latin America.
In: Zehnder, G.M., M.L. Powelson, R.K. Jansson,
and K.V. Raman (eds.). Advances in potato pest
biology and management. APS Press, St. Paul, MN,
USA. p. 616-626.
Mendoza, H.A. 1994. Development of potatoes with
multiple resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses:
The International Potato Center approach. In:
Zehnder, G.M., M.L. Powelson, R.K. Jansson, and
K.V. Raman (eds.). Advances in potato pest biology
and management. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA.
p. 627-642.
Ortiz, R. and Z. Huaman. 1994. Inheritance of
morphological and tuber characteristics. In:
Bradshaw, J.E. and G.R. Mackay (eds.). Potato
genetics. CAB International , Wallingford, UK.
p. 263-283.
Palacios, M., K.V. Raman, J. Alcazar, and F. Cisneros.
1994. Control integrado de la polilla de la papa.
Boletfn de Capacitaci6n No. 4. CIP, Lima, Peru.
18 p.
Perez, W., L Gutarra, and E. French. 1994. Pythium
ultimum Trow. causante de pudrici6n acuosa en
tuberculos de papa en el Peru. Fitopatologfa
29(3):191-196.

Raman, K.V. 1994. Potato pest management in


developing countries. In: Zehnder, G.M., M.L.
Powelson, R.K. Jansson, and K.V. Raman (eds.).
Advances in potato pest biology and management.
APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA. p. 583-596.
Raman, K.V., A.M. Golmirzaie, M. Palacios, and
J. Tenorio. 1994. Inheritance of resistance to
insects and mites. In: Bradshaw, J.E. and G.R.
Macka y (eds.). Potato genetics. CAB International,
Wallingford, UK. p. 447-463.
Salazar, LF. 1994. Virus detection and management
in developing countries. In: Zehnder, G.M., M.L.
Powelson, R.K. Jansson, and K.V. Raman (eds.) .
Advances in potato pest biology and management.
APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA. p. 643-651.
Scott, G.J. 1994. The emerging world market for
potatoes and potato products with particular
reference to developing countries. Economie &
Gestion Agro-Alimentaire (France) 30:19-27.
Skoglund, LG. and N.E.J.M . Smit. 1994. Major
diseases and pests of sweetpotato in Eastern Africa.
CIP, Lima, Peru. 67 p.

chapters, and CIP

: publications. CIP staff

made many other


contributions such as
invited papers
presented at

meetings and

published in
proceedings.

Cf P's Library can

: provide a complete

list of publications

Thakur, K.C., M.D. Upadhya, S.N. Bhargava, and A.


:
Bhargava. 1994. Bulk pollen extraction procedures

and the potency of the extracted pollen. Potato

generated by CIP in

1994.

Res. 37:245-248.
Valkonen, J.P.T., S.A. Slack, R.L Plaisted, and
K.N. Watanabe. 1994. Extreme resistance is
epistatic to hypersensitive resistance to potato virus
Y0 in a 5olanum tuberosum subsp. andigenaderived potato genotype. Plant Dis.
78(12):1177-1180.
Walker, T.S. 1994. Patterns and implications of
varietal change in potatoes. Working Paper Series
No . 1994-3. CIP, Lima, Peru. 54 p.
Watanabe, K., M. Orrillo, M. lwanaga, R. Ortiz,
R. Freyre, and S. Perez. 1994. Diploid potato
germplasm derived from wild and land race
genetic resources. Amer. Potato J. 71 (9):599-604.
Watanabe, K.N., M. Orrillo, S. Vega, R. Masuelli, and
K. lshiki. 1994. Potato germplasm enhancement
with disomic tetraploid 5olanum acaule. 2:
Assessm ent of breeding value of tetraploid F1
hybrids between tetrasomic tetraploid 5.
tuberosum and 5. acaule. Theor. Appl. Genet.
88(2):135-140.
Zandstra, H.G. 1994. The CG IAR response to new
challenges in agro-environmental research in
developing countries. In: P. Goldsworthy and P.F.
de Vries (eds.). Opportunities , use, and transfer of
systems research methods in agriculture to
developing countries. Kluwer Academic Press,
Netherlands. p. 29-39.

37 _ __

Core Research

1n 1994
Program, Project, and Activity

Locations and Partner Institution s

Characterization of constraints and opportunities for potato production


Yield-gap analys is
Farme r pa rtic ipat ion in c lon al eva lu ati o n
Characterization of potato productio n systems

Ecuador - IN IA P
Bo li via - PRO INPA
East Africa - PRA PACE

Characterization of sweetpotato constraints and opportunities


Sweetpotato c haracte ri zat io n
Users' Perspective w ith Ag ri cul tu ra l
Researc h and Deve lopment (UPWARD )

Africa . Ind ia - CTCR I (ICAR) . So l!l theast As ia


As ia . Chin a* . Net herl ands - Wa en i nge n U

Adaptation and integration of potato production technologies


Va rietal adaptat ion to dive rse agroecologies
Adaptat ion of cu ltivated dip loid potato species
lnte rcro ppi ng
Expand in g p roduct ion to new reg io ns

Bo li v ia - PRO INPA . Came roo n - RA . Ch il e - /N IA


North Chi na . Peru - U Ta cn a . P i/i ppines - MMSU
USA - NCSU
Tun isia - ESH
Buru nd i - ISABU Dom in ican ReP,ubl ic - MA
USA - U Geo rgia

Adaptation and integration of sweetpotato production technologies


Var ieta l adaptation to d iverse reg io ns

Afr ica As ia . Cameroon - IRA . Oh i na - GAAS


Egypt - MA Ind ia - CTCRI (ICAR) Peru - /N IA

Evaluation of the impact and sustainability of potato production technologies


Impact assessme nt

Pestic ides and susta inab i l ity

Argent in a - INTA . Bang lades h - BAR I. Bo livi a IBTA Chil e - IN IA . Ch ina - CAAS . Co lo m b ia CORPOICA . Dom inican Rep ub lic M IP
East Afr ica - PRAPACE Ec uador - IN IAP Egypt ARC . Et hi op ia - IAR . In d ia - CPR/ ICAR) . In don es ia
- LEH R/. Ke nya - KAR I Madagasc r - FI FAMANOR
Nepal - NPRP Per u - /N IA Sri L nka - DA
Taiwan - TARI . V ietnam - BRC, INSA
Canada - McMaste r U . Ecuador - INIAP, MA
USA- Corne ll U , Monta na SU

Potato collection and characterization


Co ll ect io n, c haracter izat io n, co nse rvati o n,
and d istri but ion
In v itro co nse rvat io n
Germ plas m improveme nt for use in
marg ina l but sustai nab le agricu ltu re

Peru - CERRGETYR/Cusco, U TC
USA - USDA
Ecuador - IN IAP Peru
Chil e - U Aus t ra l

Fo r reasons of space, we wi ll w rite Chin a instead of Peop le' s Republic of Ch in a in this li st.

-- 38

CIP's extensive
research
collaboration brings
Program, Project, and Activity

Locations and Partner Institutions

together many
partners worldwide.

Potato germplasm enhancement, application of molecular technology


Germpl as m enh ance ment
Ge nome map p ing and appli cat io n of marker
tec hnology

Potato ge neti c eng in ee ri ng fo r pest


and di sease res ista nce

Chil e - IN IA . Italy - ENEA . Peru. USA Co rn ell U


A rge nt ina - INTA Braz il - CN PH (EMBRA PA)
Chil e - IN IA . Neth erl ands - CPRO - D LO, IPO DL O Phi li ppin es - U PL B UK - SCR I
USA - Corne ll U
Austria - ARCS . Be lgium - PG S Chil e CUC . Ita ly - Viterbo U, U Nap les . Peru
U K - Ax is Ge neti cs Ltd., O D A U SA - LSU, SPI

In v itro con se rvatio n and viru s eradicati o n


Co ll ection and eva lu ati o n of in d ige nous
k no wled ge

summarizes CIP's
core research
activities in 1994,
and the principal
places and
institutions involved.

Sweetpotato collection and characterization


Co ll ect io n, characterizati o n, co nse rva ti o n,
doc um enta ti on, di stributi on, and evalu atio n

This table

A rgent in a - INTA . Ba nglades h - TC RC (BA RI)


Braz il - CN PH (EMBRAPA) . Chin a - XS PRC
Hond uras - CURLA (U N A H) . M ex ico - INIFAP
Pa raguay - IAN Peru
A ustri a - ARCS Peru USA - Co rn ell U
Venez uela - FO NA IAP
In do nes ia - U PWARD

Sweetpotato germplasm enhancement and molecular techniques


Comb inin g t raits using co nvent io nal
tec hniqu es in di ve rse agroeco log ies
Uti I iza t ion of wi Id relativ es of sweetpotato
Molec ul ar tech ni ques fo r sweetpotato
improve ment

Chin a - GAAS, JAAS East Afri ca (Ke nya KAR I, Tanza ni a - M OA, Uga nda - NARO)
.Ind ones ia - CRIF C . Per u USA - USV L
Ge rmany - U Tubin gen. Peru. U K U Birmin gham
Japan - Nagoya U Peru

Andean root and tuber crop collection and characterization


Ge rmpl asm manage ment in fa rm ers' fi eld s
(in situ )
Deve lopm ent of a network for ex situ
co nserv ati o n

In v itro co nse rva ti on and di stributi on


Pathoge n erad icat io n and seed p ro du cti o n
Co mmodity syste ms analysis

. .

Bo li via - IBTA, NGO . Ec uador - INI AP . Peru - INI A,


UN SAAC, UN SCH, NGO
A rgent in a - INTA . Bo liv ia . Brazi l - CN PH
(EMBRA PA) Chil e - U Au stral Co lo mb ia CO RPO ICA . Ecuado r - INI A P Peru - UNDAC,
UNSAAC, UN SCH , U RP, UTC
Ecuado r - IN IA P Pe ru - U NM SM , U NSC H
Ecuado r - IN IAP
Peru - IN IA, U NCP, UTC
Bo li v ia- UM SS Ec uador - INIAP, U A mbato
Peru - UNA, N GOs

.. ..

Control of potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans)


Breedi ng and sc reen in g for res istance

China - SAAS . Co lombia - CO RPO ICA


Ecua do r - CIP-Q uito Ke nya - KAR I, CIP
Mexico -I N IFA P. Peru - INI A

39 -

Program, Project, and Activity

Locations and Partner Institutions

Integrated contro l
Fundamental host-pathogen resea rch

Bolivia - PROINPA
Ecuador - FORTIPAPA, Central & Catho li c
universities, Quito, C/P-Quito. Kenya - KARI
Netherlands - /PO - DLO. Peru - I IA. Philippines UPLB S cotland - SCRI USA - Corne ll U

Integrated control of potato bacterial wilt


Fundamental research for control strateg ies
Development of resistance

Integrated control

Ch ina - CAAS Colombia - CORPCDICA


En gland - RES Peru
Brazi l - CNP H (EMBRAPA) Chin a - CAAS
Ind ones ia - LEHRI Maur itiu s - MS RI Peru - INIA
Philippines - DA
Burundi - ISABU Kenya - KARI Peru - C EPESER,
INIA

Combining resistances to potato viruses and fungi


Development of vi rus- and viro id-resistant
materials
Breeding for early blight resistance
Selection of comb ined resistance to viruses
and fungi

France - INRA . Peru - UNA . Pola md - IPR, IZ


Tuni sia - CPRA
Peru
Argentina - INTA Braz il - CNPH (EMBRAPA)
Cameroon - MA . Central America & the
Caribbean Co lomb ia - CORPOICA. East Africa
- Kabete RS, Mau Narok RS Ecuador - INIAP
Egypt - MA. Nigeria Paraguay - M A. Peru
- INIA Philippines - NPRCRTC .PR CIPA
Uru guay - CIAAB (/NIA) . USA - Cornell U
Venezuela - FONAIAP

Control of field and storage diseases of Andean root and tuber crops, including potato
Development of resistance to soft rot and
blackleg
Integrated control of Erwinia diseases
Control of soi I-borne fungi
Diseases of ARTC

Peru - UNA
Tunisia - ESH
Peru - INI A
Peru

Detection and control of potato viruses


Resistance to PLRV
Detection of viruses and v iroids
Epidemiology of PVY
Transmission of potato viruses and viroids

Peru - U lea. Scotland -SCRI


Bolivi a - PROINPA. China - U Inner Mongolia
.Colombia - CORPOICA In dia- CPRI Peru - UNA
Tuni sia - INRAT
Peru Philippines - NPRCRTC

Identification and control of sweetpotato viruses


Detection , identification, and eradication
of vi rus es
Resistance to viruses
Integrated control

--40

Peru
Israel Peru - UNA
Kenya. Madagascar . Rwanda. Tanzania
Ugand a

Program, Project, and Activity

Locations and Partner Institutions

Control of bacterial and fungal diseases of sweetpotato


Etiology of fungal and bacteri al diseases
Resistance to diseases

Kenya - NAL. USA - LSU


South east Asia - SARIF and NRI - UK

Molecular approaches for detection and control of pathogens


Genetic resistanc e and probe development

Peru England - The Sainsbury Lab .

Virology of Andean roots and tubers


Detection and characterization of viruses

Elimination of pathogens
Production loss by viruses

Bolivia -PROINPA Ecuador - INIAP


Peru - CICA-Cusco, INIA-Puno, UNA, UNMSM,
UNSCH
Peru - INIA, UNCP, UTC
Bolivi a - PROINPA E cuador - INIA
Peru - CICA, UNCP

PROGRAM 4: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT


Potatoes with resistance to major insect and mite pests
Development of resistant genotypes
for potato tuber moth and leafminer flies
Pota toes with glandular trichomes
Transgenic potatoes with insect res istance
Fi eld evaluation of res istant plants

Peru USA - UNDP


Peru. USA - Cornell U
Belgium - PCS. Peru
Peru - CIED

Integrated methods for control of potato tuber moth


Generation of technologies
Use of sex ph eromones and granulosis virus
Applied field manage ment

Bolivia. Colombia. Dominican Republic Peru TALPUY, INIA, CARE USA- UNDP
Bolivia. Colombia & Peru - PRACIPA
Dominican Republic - MIP. Tunisi a
Bangl adesh-BARI, TCRC Bolivia - PROINPA
Colombia - CORPOICA. Dominic an Republic MIP Egypt Kenya - KARI o Morocco IAV, INRA o Tunisia - CPRA, INRAT Ven ez uela FONAIAP. Yemen - AREA, SPPC, YGPPP

Integrated methods for control of sweetpotato weevil


Development of res istance
Use of sex pheromones
Biological control
Applied field man age ment

Asia Peru USA - Miss SU


Cuba - INIVIT. Domini ca n Republi c - MIP
Cuba - INIVIT. Peru
Bangl ades h - BARI, TCRC. Cuba - INIVIT
Domini ca n Republi c - MIP. Indon es ia . Kenya ICIPE, KARI Philippines - UPLB, ViSCA. Uganda

Integrated methods for control of sweetpotato nematodes


Development of res istance
Applied field management

Peru
Peru - UNSAAC, farmer co -ops

f.l,\Y/\.H ' NllO ,\ \I lllN,\

41 _ ___

Program, Project, and Activity

Locations and Partner Institutions

Integrated methods for control of Andean potato weevil


Deve lopment of res istance
Cu lt ural and b io log ica l co nt ro l met hods
App l ied f ield ma nage ment

Per u - IN IA
Bo li via - PRO INPA . Peru - IN IA
Bol ivia - PRO INPA Co lom b ia - OOR PO ICA
Ec uador - FORTI PA PA, IN IAP Peru -CARE , IN IA,
TA LPUY

Integrated methods for control of potato cyst nematode and false root-knot nematode
Crop rotat io n schemes
App lied fie ld manage ment

Peru (Cajamarca, Cusco, Pun o )


Bo li v ia - PRO INPA . Ecuador - IN IAP . Pe ru - IN IA
PRAC IPA

Propagation of healthy clonal potato planting materials in diverse agricultural systems


Researc h suppo rt to in-co untry bas ic
seed programs

Ba ng ladesh - TCRC (BAR I) Bo li v i - PRO IN PA


Bu rundi - ISABU . Cameroo n - JR/\ . Co lomb ia CORPO ICA . Ecuador - FORTI
IN IAP I ta ly IAO . Paraguay - JAN, SEAG . Peru - SE IN PA
Phi li ppi nes - PCA RRD. Uganda . enez uela FONA IA P West Afr ica

PAP~,

C~'"'

Sexual potato propagation


Breed ing for improved TPS fami li es
T PS ag ro no mi c adaptat io n to d iverse
ag roeco logies

St udi es o n TPS producti o n

Acgeot;oo - INTA (h; le - IN IA


- SAAS, YNU
In d ia . Italy - U Nap les . Ke nya . Reru
Ban glades h - TCRC (BAR I) . Ch ina - CAAS , Egypt
In d ia - CPRI (ICAR ) I ndo nes ia - L H RI. Ita ly - IAO
Montserrat - CARD I Morocco - I V Nepa l PDP (DA) . N ica rag ua - MA . Paragmay - JAN
Peru - IN IA, SE INPA . Ph i l ippi nes Sri Lanka
Tu nis ia - CPRA . V ietnam
Bang lades h - TCRC (BA RI ) . Ch il e IN IA . Ind ia CPRI (ICA R) I ndo nes ia - LEHR I Nepa l -P D P (DA)
Per u Turkey - AAR I

Sweetpotato production through improved management techniques


Crop management pract ices
Studi es o n to lerance of ab iotic stresses
Ma nageme nt of forage-type sweetpotatoes

Buru nd i - ISABU . Cameroon - IRA . Chin a - GAAS,


UCR I Pe ru - UNA Phi lipp in es
China - GAAS, UCR I. Egypt . Per
Phi l ipp in es
Per u - UNA

- U Tac na

Maintenance, international distribution, and monitoring of performance of advanced p tato germplasm


Ongo ing acti vities (seed units)

-- 42

Kenya . Pe ru . Phili ppines

Program, Project, and Activity

Locations and Partner Institutions

Maintenance, international distribution, and monitoring of performance of advanced sweetpotato


germ plasm
Ongoing act ivities (seed units)

Kenya. Peru. Philippin es

Abiotic stresses and potato crop management


Breed in g for im proved tol erance of ab iot ic stresses Bolivi a - PRO INPA . Ch il e - !NIA . Pe ru U Tac na . Phi li ppi nes . Southeast As ia
Agro no mi c res ea rc h for potato es grow n un de r
E gypt - MA Peru - UNA Philippin es PCAR RD . Uga nd a - MA USA - U Georg ia
stress

Propagation of Andean root and tuber crops and management of Andean natural resources
Seed prod uct ion, Andean root and t uber crops
Management of Andean natura l reso urces

Ecuado r -INI AP . Peru - !N IA, PICA, UNCP, UNDAC


Peru - UNA

Expanding utilization of potato in developing countries


Low-cost storage of tab le and seed potatoes

Potato breedin g for process in g


Market in g and demand for potato es

Potato processing

Ch in a - CAAS . Egypt - MA . In d ia - CPR !


(!CAR) Ke nya - KARI Pakistan - PSPDP/A IT
Phili ppines - UPL B . Thail and - Chiang Mai U
Indi a - CPR ! (!CAR) . Peru - !NIA . Phi l ipp ines PCARRD, Benguet U . Tuni sia - INRAT
Co lombia - CORPO ICA England - U Oxford
Nether lands - W ageninge n U. USA - IF PR I,
Stanford U Tuni sia - INRAT
China - CAAS . Peru - Centro de Id eas

Product development for sweetpotato in developing countries


Eva lu at ion and distribution of eli te sweetpotato
materials for process in g
Market in g and dema nd for sweetpotatoes

Processi ng of sweetpotato

Postharvest m anage ment of Andean natural


resources

Ch in a - CAAS . Ind on es ia - CR IF C . Kenya KARI. Peru - !NIA, UNA . Philippin es - PCAR RD


U ga nd a - NA RO USA - NCSU . Vietnam - INSA
Argent in a - IESR/ INTA. Bangladesh - BARI/Cl DA
Ch in a - CAAS, CNCQS . Indones ia - CRIFC. Ken ya U Na irobi . Neth erl ands - W age nin gen U. Peru !NI A . Ph ili pp in es - PCARRD, UPLB SAPPRAD
USA -Stanfo rd U
Cameroon - PDA, IRA . Ch in a - CAAS, SAAS/
UPWARD. Indi a - CTCR I (!CAR) . In dones ia CRIFC/UPWA RD, !P B, SAR IF Kenya - KAR I. Peru JIN , UNA Philippin es - PCARRD, UP LB, Be nguet U,
SEARCA. SAPP RAD Tanza nia - MA, TFNC
.U ga nd a - NARO, NRI. UK - NR I. U SA - Co rn ell U ,
UNDP . Vietnam - INSA/ UPWARD, A IT
Bolivi a - IBTA. Braz il - EMBRAPA, EPAM IG,
EMATER. Co lo mbi a - CORPO ICA E cuado r IN IAP, FUNDAGRO. Peru - !NIA

43 _ __

Training

1n

1994

Program and Title


PROGRAM 1: PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

CIP entomologist-trainer
Maria Palacios with
Peruvian
cooperators.

--44

Countries Represented
:

Partner Institution
,

II National course on potato seed production


(3 days)

Pa rag uay

Course on sweetpotato production,


multiplication, and storage (3 da ys)

Egy pt

Macroeconomic policies, regional integration,


and Andean food systems: The case of potato
(2 days )

Boli via , Ca nada, Colombia ,


Ecuad or, Peru

l[)RC

Workshop on performance monitoring and


impact assessment for agricultural research
scientists in Eastern and Central Africa
(10 d ays)

Ken ya, Ma law i, Uga nda

USAID/C IP

Course on rapid multiplication and tissue


culture techniques (12 days)

Chil e, Peru

IDB Special Project

First Asian workshop on biotechnology,


germplasm evaluation, and breeding
(4 da ys)

Bangladesh , Chin a, Indi a,


Ind onesia , Philippines,
Sri Lan ka, Th a il a nd

U DP Special

Course on sweetpotato germplasm


characterization and evaluation (11 days )

Cuba, Guate mala, Hondu ras,


Mexico , N ica rag ua, Peru,
Venezuela

IDB Special Project

DIA/ IAN/ PROC IPA

p r ject

: The responsibilities of

Cl P's staff members

: posted at our regional

Program and Title

Countries Represented

Partner Institution

Biotechnology workshop (4 d ays)

Arge ntin a, Bo li via, Chil e,


Uru g uay

UNDP Spec ia l
Project

In-country workshop on baseline studies and


germplasm collection (5 days)

Tanza nia

Vines to roots: Sweetpotato breeding for


impact (3 da ys)

Chin a, Cuba, In do nesia,


Ke nya, Ni ge ri a, Pe ru ,
Philippin es, Rwa nd a, USA

Ill International training on sweetpotato


variety evaluation (4 wee ks )

Regional workshop on selection


and germplasm management (6 days)

offices involve
ongoing collaboration
to support national

program needs.

Some of this is carried


out through the

: courses and

Indo nes ia, Ph ili ppi nes,


Sri La nka , Th a il a nd

SAPPR AD

Costa Rica , Cuba, Ecu ado r,


El Sa lvador, Honduras, Mex ico,
Nic a rag ua, Pa na ma

PRECO DEPA

workshops in this list .

: But much of Cl P's

support comes from


less tangible, day-to-

day exchanges.

Field virology for potato and


sweetpotato (1 2 days)

Chil e, Ita ly, Pe ru , US A

IDB Spec ia l Proj ect

Advanced virology (4 wee ks)

Chil e , Indi a, Peru, Sy ri a, USA

IDB Spec ia l Proj ect

Virus diseases in potato (5 da ys)

Pe ru

Specialized individual
training in 1994 at
headquarters served

37 participants from

17 different countries.

PROGRAM 4: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT


Integrated pest management: Information
gathering and planning workshop (8 d ays)

Philipp in es

UPWARD/
SAN REM

Workshop on IPM of sweetpotato weevil


(6 d ays)

Cuba, Domini ca n Re public

IDB Spec ia l Proj ect

International course on IPM of potato


(1 0 d ays)

Bolivi a, Chil e, Co lo mbi a,


Domini can Re publi c, Ec uado r,
Pe ru , Ve nez ue la

IDB Speci a l Proj ect

II Course on integrated pest management:


Andean potato weevil and tuber moth
(2 d ays, si x in -c ountry co urses)

Pe ru

IDB Spec ia l Proj ect

IPM for sweetpotato (4 d ays)

Uga nd a

45 _ __

Program and Title

Countries Represented

Pa rtner Inst itution

iiMM\hi.!@it.1$G;i.Jajtj>@il!ll---...Ill Latin American course on potato produ ction


from TPS (12 days)

Braz il , Cuba, El Sa lvador,


G uatema la, N icarag ua, Pe ru

IOB Specia l Project

Potato cropping with emphas is on soil and


fertilization management (3 days)

Pe ru

IDB Specia l Proj ect

In-country course on seed potato production

Peru

PIPAC

Course on seed production (15 days)

Ita ly, Mex ico, Pe ru, Sy ria

IDB Specia l Pro j ect

Potato seed production techniques

Bu rund i

Bv.irun di Spec ial


Prroj ect

Regional course on root crops management


and developm ent (26 days)

Kenya , M alawi

S RRN ET

In-country course on potato seed


production (5 days)

Eth iopia

Workshop on true potato seed

Buru ndi, Egypt, Eth iopia ,


Rwa nda, Tun is, Uga nda

(10 days)

(3 days)

(6 days)

Skills training on sweetpotato production

Phi li pp ines

UPWARD

Phili pp ines

U WAR D/
NOM IA RCADB Specia l

(2 days)

True potato seed training for farmers


(2 days)

Pr j ect

Sweetpotato production and management

Phil ipp ines

UPWARD

(2 days)

PROGRAM 6: POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENl, MARKETING

--- 46

International training workshop on storage


of potatoes in developing countries (6 days)

Ba nglades h, Ind ia, Kenya, Nepa l,


Pa ki stan , Rwanda , Sri Lanka ,
Thail and, Tuni sia, V ietn am

Workshop for biological scientists on


performance monitoring and impact
assessment (1 0 days)

Ke nya

COTE SU/ Paki stanS iss Potato


D eve lop ment
Project

Program and Title

Countries Represented

Partner Institution

International workshop on INFOANDINA


(2 days)

Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, CONDESAN


Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, USA

Workshop for monitoring biological


performance and impact assessment
(1 0 days)

Kenya

USAID/REDSO

Statistics and use of MST AT (1 3 days)

Kenya

PRAPACE

Workshop on planning and participatory


methods (4 days)

Philippines

UPWARD/
SAN REM

Workshop on planning and methods for


root crop utilization (6 days)

Vietnam

UPWARD/CIP/NRI/
INSA/PHTI

International training on farm household


diagnostic skills (8 days)

Philippines

UPWARD

Seminar on indigenous knowledge in


agricultural research (6 days)

Indonesia

UPWARD

RA YMUN DO MEDINA

47 _ ___

Special Country Projects


and Networks

--48

Project Title

Donor

Multiple sites

Improved genetic resistance


for disease and virus
eradication

Austrian government

Sub-Saharan
Africa

Selection, maintenance, and


distribution of improved
potato and sweetpotato
planting materials in SubSaharan Africa

BMZ/ GTZ-Germany

Andean zone

Germplasm characterization
and utilization of Andean
root and tuber crops

BMZ/ GTZ-Germany

Production of improved

Italian government

Location
RESTRICTED CORE

Multiple sites

potatoes
Multiple sites

Integrated pest management

Netherlands government

Andean zone

Conservation and
improvement of the
Andean agroecosystem

Spanish government

Multiple sites

Biotechnology-assisted
breeding to reduce pesticide
use in potato production

UNDP

SPECIAL COUNTRY PROJECTS

East & Southeast


Asia

Field testing of true potato


seed in lowland tropics

ADB

Burundi

Potato and sweetpotato


improvement

AGCO-Belgium

Latin America

Development of human
IDB
resources to improve the
production and use of potato,
sweetpotato , and Andean
root and tuber crops

Andean zone

Policies for sustainable rural


development

IDRC-Canada

Andean zone

Sustainable Andean
development

IDRC-Canada

Many donors pro


: vide Cl P with

Location

Project Ti tle

D onor

Andea n zo ne

Co nso rt ium for the


Susta inab le Deve lo pm ent
of the An dea n
Ecoreg io n-CON DESAN

ID RC-Ca nada

Susta inab le hi gh land


agri culture

ID RC -Ca nada

Deve lopme nt of potatoes


and sweetpotatoes fo r
South As ia

Japa nese gove rnm ent

A nd ea n zo ne

A ndea n h igh lands


co nso rt ium

Netherlands gove rnm ent

Andean zo ne

Biod ivers ity of Andea n root


and tuber crops

COTESU-Switze rl and

Prese rv ing the biodivers ity


of sweetpotato in Indo nes ia

COTESU-Sw itze rl and

Ec uador

FORTI PA PA -Phases I and II

COTES U -Sw itzer land

Bo liv ia

PRO INPA- Phases II and Ill

COTESU -Sw itzer land

An dea n zo ne

So ut h As ia

Indo nes ia

compl ementary o r
restri cted co re fund s
for spe cific resea rch

: projects . Th ese

initiatives often fa ll
outside the bounds of

: activit ies listed

e arli e r. Technical

: assistance efforts to

fortify national
programs- in
particular Cl P's

: Specia l Country

Projects and
Networks-are
among these

: complementary

activiti es.

NETWO RKS
Asia

SAPPRAD

AC IAR-A ustra l ia

East & Wes t Afri ca

PRAPACE

USAID

Ca r ib bea n

PRECODE PA

COTESU -Sw itzer land

And ea n zo ne

PRAC IPA

I DRC-Ca nada

So uth ern Co ne
(Sou t h Amer ica)

PROC IPA

IDB

As ia

UPWARD

Netherland s governmen t

Afr ica

SARR N ET

USAID

49 _ __

Acronyms
and Abbreviations
AAR I

Aegea n Agri cul tu ral Rese arc h In stitute, Turk ey

AC IA R

A ustralian Centre fo r Intern at ion al Agricultura l Resea rch

ADB
AGCO

Asia n Deve lop ment Bank


Ad ministration Ge nerale de la Cooperat ion au D eve loppement,

A IT

Belgium
Asia n In sti tute of Tec hnology

ARC
A RCS

Ag riculture Resea rc h Center, Egypt


A ustrian Resea rc h Centre at Se idersdorf

AR EA

Ag ri c ultural Resea rch and Exten sion A uthority, Yemen

ARTC
BAR I

A ndean root and tuber crop s


Bangladesh Agric ultural Resea rc h Insti tute

Benguet U

Benguet State Un ive rsity, Philippin es


German Mini stry fo r Econ om ic Development and Cooperati o n

BMZ
BRC
CAAS
CAR DI

Biotechno logy Resea rch Center, V ietnam


Chinese Academy of Agricultural Scie nc es
Ca ribbea n Ag ri c u ltura l Research and De velopment Institute,
Trinidad

CEPE SER
CERRGETYR

Cen tral Perua na de Servicios


Cen tro Region al de Recursos Geneticos de Tubercu los y Ra ices,
Universidad N ac ional San Anto ni o Abad de Cusco, Peru

CG IA R
Chi ang Mai U

Co nsultat ive G roup on International Agricultural Research , USA


Chi ang Ma i Uni ve rsity, Th ail and

C IAAB

Centro de ln vestigac io nes Ag rfco las A. Boerger, Urugua y


Cen tro Intern ac iona l de Agricultura Tropica l, Co lomb ia

CIAT
CICA

Ce ntro de ln vestigac i6n en Culti vos Andinos , Peru

CIDA

Ca nadian Intern ational D eve lo pment Agency

CIED
CIP

Centro de ln vestigac i6n, Edu caci6 n y Desarro l lo, Peru


International Pot ato Center, Peru

CNCQS
CN PH
CON DESAN

Ce ntro Na c ional de Pesqui sa de Hortali ps, Brazil


Co nsortium for the Sustainab le De ve lopment of the Andean

Co rn el l U
CO RPOICA

Co rnell University, USA


Corporac i6 n del ln stituto Colombiano Agrope cuario

COTE SU

Coopera c i6n Tecnica Sui za, Sw itze rland

CP RA

Ce ntre de Perfectionnement et de Recyclage Ag ri co le de Sa.Id a,

Chinese Nationa l Cen tre fo r Q ualit y Supervis ion and Test of Feed

Ecoregion

CPR I
CPRO-DLO
CRIFC
CTC RI
CUC
CUR LA (U NAH)

ORT/PAPA

-- so

Tunisia
Ce ntral Potato Resea rch In st itute, India
Ce ntre fo r Plant Breed ing and Reproduction Resea rc h- Agr iculture
Research Depa rtme nt, Netherlands
Ce ntral Researc h In stitute for Food Crops, Ind o nes ia
Ce ntral Tuber Crops Res ea rc h In stitute, Indi a
Ca tholic Universi ty of Chile

DA

Ce ntro Un ive rsita ri o Reg io nal del Litoral At lantico-U ni versida d


Aut6 noma de Honduras
Depa rtm ent of Ag ri c ulture

DIA
EMATE R

Direcci6n de lnvesti gac i6n Ag rfco la, Para guay


Empresa de Ass istenc ia Tecnica e Extensao Rural do Estado de

EMBRAPA
ENEA

Minas G erais, Bra z il


Empres a Bras il eira de Pesquisa Agropec uari a, Braz il
Co mitato N az ion ale per la Ri ce rca e per lo Svi luppo dell ' En ergia
Nucleare e dell e Energie Alternat ive, Italy

EPAMIG
ESEA P
ES H

Empresa de Pes quisa Agropecu aria de Minas Gera is, Brazil


East and South eas t As ia an d th e Pac ifi c, CIP reg io n
Eco le Superi eure d' Horti c ulture, Tun is ia

FAO
FONAIAP
FORTI PAPA
FUN DAG RO
GAAS

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy


Fonda Nacional de lnvestigaciones Agropecuarias, Venezuela
Fortalecimiento de la lnvestigaci6n y Producci6n de Semilla de
Papa, Ecuador
Fundaci6n para el Desarrollo Agropecuario, Ecuador
Guandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

GTZ

geographic information systems


German Agency for Technical Cooperation

IAN

lnstituto Agron6mico Nacional, Paraguay

GIS

IAO

lstituto Agronomico per l'Oltremare, Italy

IAR

Institute of Agricultural Research, Ethiopia

IAV

lnstitut Agronomique et Veterinaire, Morocco

IBTA
ICAR

lnstituto Bol iviano de Tecnologfa Agropecuaria


Indian Council of Agricultural Research

ICIPE

International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, Kenya

IDB

Inter-American Development Bank

IDRC

International Development Research Centre, Canada

IESR/INTA

lnstituto de Economfa y Sociologfa Rural del lnstituto Nacional


de Tecnologfa Agropecuaria, Argentina

IFPRI

International Food Policy Research Institute, USA

llN

lnstituto de lnvestigaci6n Nutricional, Peru

INIA
INIA

lnstituto Nacional de lnvestigaci6n Agraria, Peru


lnstituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile

INIA

lnstituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Agropecuarias, Uruguay

INIAP

lnstituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Agropecuarias, Ecuador

INIFAP

lnstituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias,

INIVIT

Mexico
lnstituto Nacional de Viandas Tropicales, Cuba

INRA

lnstitut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France

INRAT

lnstitut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie


National Root and Tuber Crop Improvement Institute, Vietnam

INSA
INTA

lnstituto Nacional de Tecnologfa Agropecuaria, Argentina

IPB
IPGRI

Bogar Agricultural University, Indonesia


International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Italy

IPM
IPO-DLO

integrated pest management


Institute for Plant Protection-Agriculture Research Department,

IPR

Netherlands
Institute for Potato Research, Poland

IRA
IRR

lnstitut de Recherche Agronomique, Cameroon


internal rates of return

ISABU

lnstitut des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi

IZ

lnstytut Ziemniaka, Poland

JAAS

Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China


Kenyan Agricultural Research Institute

KARI
LAC
LEHRI

Latin America and the Caribbean, CIP region

LSU
MA
McMaster U

Louisiana State University, USA

MENA
MIP

Lembang Horticultural Research Institute, Indonesia


Ministry of Agriculture
McMaster University, Canada
Middle East and North Africa, CIP region
Programa de Manejo lntegrado de Plagas, Dominican Republic

Miss SU

Mississippi State University, USA

MMSU
MOA

Mariano Marcos State University, Philippines


Ministry of Agriculture, Tanzania

Montana SU

Montana State University, USA

51

--- 52

MSIRI

Mauri tiu s Sugar Industry Resea rch Institute

Nagoya U
NAL
NARO

Nagoya Un iversity , Japa n


Natio nal Agricu ltural Laborator ies, Kenya

NARS
NCSU

national agricu ltural research syste ms


North Carolina State University, USA

NGO
NOM IARC

nongovernmental organization

NPRCRTC

Northern Philippin e Root Crops Research and Tr ainin g Center

NPRP

Nationa l Potato Research Program , Nepa l


Natura l Resources In stitute, UK

National Agricultura l Research Organization, Uganda

Northern M in danao Agric ultural Researc h Center, Phili ppines

NR I
ODA

Overseas Development Administrat ion, UK

OPEC
Oxford U

O rganizat ion of Petroleum Exporting Countries


University of Oxford, Eng lan d

PCARRD

Philippine Counc il for Agricu ltu re & Resources, Research &


Development, Philippines
Pro vi ncial D elegation of Ag ri c ulture, Cameroon

PDA
PDP
PGS

Potato Deve lopment Program, Nepa l

PHTI

Postharvest Tech no logy Institute, Vietna m

Plant Genetic Systems, Belgium

PICA

Programa de ln vestigac i6n de Cu lti vos Andi no s, Peru

PIPAC
PRACIPA

Programa de ln vestigac i6n pa ra Papay Camote, Peru

PRAPACE

PR ECODEPA

Programa And in o Coope rativo de ln vestigaci6n en Papa, CIP


network
Pro gramme Re gion al de I' Ame li o ratio n de la Cu ltu re de la
Pomme de Ter re et de la Patate Douce en Afrique Centra le et de
l'Est, CIP network
Pro grama Regiona l Cooperativo de Papa, CIP network in Central
America an d the Caribb ea n

PROCIPA
PROINPA
PS PDP
RED SO

Programa Cooperativo de lnvestigaciones en Papa, CIP network i n


Southern Cone
Pro yecto de lnvestigac i6n de la Papa, Bol iv ia
Pakistan-S wiss Potato Development Program
Regional Developm ent Services Office (USA ! D )

RES

Rothamsted Experiment Station, UK

RS

resea rc h station
Sich uan Academy of Agr icultural Sciences, Chi na

SAAS
SAN REM
SAPPRAD

Sustainab le Agricu lture and Natural Resources Management,


netwo rk i n Southeast Asia
Southeast As ian Program for Potato Research and Development,
CIP network

SAR IF

Sukamandi Research Institute for Food Crops, Indones ia

SAR RN ET
SCRI

Southern Africa Root Crop Research Network


Scott ish Crop Research Institute

SDC

Sw iss Developm ent Cooperat ion

SEAG
SEAR CA

Serv icio de Extensio n Agrico la y Ganadera, Paraguay

SE IN PA
SP I
SPPC
SSA
Stanford U

Semi ll a e l nvestigacion en Papa, Peru


Sma rt Plant Internat iona l, USA
Seed Potato Production Center, Yemen
Sub-Saharan Africa , C IP region
Stanford Unive rsity, USA

SWA

South and West Asia , CIP region

Southeast As ian Reg iona l Center fo r Graduate Studies and


Research in Agr ic ulture, Phi li ppines

TALPUY

Grupo de ln vestigac io n y Des arrol lo de Cie nc ias y Tecno logfa


Andin a

TAR I
TCRC

Taiwa n Agric ultural Researc h Insti tute


Tropica l Crops Resea rc h Center, Bangladesh
Tanza ni a Food and N utrition Centre
tru e potato seed
Universidad de Ambato, Ecuador
Uni ve rsid ad Austral, Chil e
Un ive rsity of Bi rm ingham , En gland

TFN C
TPS
U Ambato
U Austral
Birmingham

u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u

Georgia
Uni ve rsity of Georgi a, USA
lea
Universid ad Sa n Lui s Gonzaga de lea, Peru
Inner Mongo lia Uni ve rsity of Inner Mongo li a, Chin a
N airo bi
Uni ve rsity of Na irob i, Kenya
Nap les
Uni ve rsity of Nap les, Ita ly
Oxford
Uni ve rsity of O xfo rd, Eng land
Tac na
Universidad Jorge Basad re G rohm ann de Tacna, Peru
Uni vers ity of Tubin ge n, Germ any
U TUbin ge n
UC RI
Upl and Crops Research In stitute, Ch ina
UMSS
Universid ad M ayor de San Simo n, Bo li vi a
UNA
U ni vers id ad Naciona l Agraria, Peru
UNCEN
Un ive rsitas Cenderawas ih, Indon es ia
UNCP
Uni ve rsid ad Nacion al de l Centro del Peru
UNDAC
UNDP
UNM SM
UNSAAC
UN SCH
UPLB
UPWARD
URP
USA I D
US DA
US VL
UTC
Vi SCA
Viterbo U
W age nin gen U
XS PR C
YGPPP
YNU

Uni ve rsid ad Nac ional Dani el Alc ides Carr io n, Peru


United Nations D eve lo pm ent Programm e, USA
U ni ve rsid ad N ac ion al Ma yo r de Sa n Marcos, Peru
Universidad Nac io nal San Antonio Abad de Cusco, Peru
Universid ad Nac iona l San Cri stoba l de Hu amanga de
Aya c uc ho, Peru
Uni ve rsity of the Philippin es, Los Banos
Users' Perspec tive w ith Ag ri c ultural Resea rc h and
D eve lopment, CIP network
Uni ve rsidad Ric ard o Pa lm a, Peru
United States A ge ncy for In ternation al D eve lop ment
United States Departmen t of Agr icu lture
United States Vegetable Laboratory
Uni ve rsidad Tecn ica de Caj ama rca, Peru
Vi sayas Co ll ege of Ag ricu lture, Philippin es
Uni ve rsita Deg li Stud i Dell a Tus c ia, Ita ly
W age nin ge n Uni ve rsity, Nethe rl ands
Xuz hou Sweet Potato Researc h Center, Chin a
Yemen i/ Germ an Plant Protection Proj ec t
Yunn an Norm al Universi ty, Chin a

CONDESAN

53 _ __

CIP's Global Contact


Points
(as of March 31, 1995)

- - 54

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

REGIONAL OFFICE/ HEADQUARTERS

REGIONAL OFFICE

Peru
Internationa l Potato Center
Apartado 1558
Lima 100, Peru
Phone: (5 1-1) 436-6920/ 435-4354
Fax: (51 -1) 435-1570
Tele x: 25672 PE
Cab le: C IPAPA, Lima
I nternet/E-ma i I :
c ip@cgnet. co m or c ip@c ip a.org.pe

Kenya
P.O . Box 2517 1
Nairobi , Kenya
Phone: (254-2) 63-2054/ 63 -2206/& 3-2151
Fa x: (254-2) 63-0005

Research Stations
Co lombia
Rionegro
c/ o CIP-I CA (La Selva )
Apartado Aereo 1 28
742 Rionegro, Ant ioqui a
Colombia
Phone: (57-4) 537-0161/537-0079
I nternet/E-Mai I:
cipco l@s igma .eafit. ed u .co

Ecuador
Estacion Experimental INI AP Santa Cata lin a
Km 17 Pa namericana Sur
Quito, Ecuador
Phone : (593-2) 690 -362/ 63
692-602/ 695
Fax: (593-2) 692-604
lnternet/ E-mai I :
c ip-qui to@cgnet.com or
irs@cip.org.ec or stacata@c ip .o rg.ec
Special Projects
E cuador
FORTIPAPA (at Sa nta Catalina Station ,
same as above)
Phone : (593 -2 ) 690 -364/ 695
lnternet/E-mai I:
c ip-quito@cgnet.com or
fpapa@cip.org .eccom or
fpapa@cip.org.ec

B olivia
PROINPA (IBTA-C IP)
Man Cesped 293
Cas ill a Postal 4285
Cochabamba, Bolivia
Phone: (59 1-42 ) 49506/ 490 13
Fax: (59 1-42) 45708
lnternet/ E-m ai/: proinpa-bolivia@cgnet.com or
proinpa@papa.bo

Tele x: 22040
Cable: CIPAPA, Nairobi
lnternet/ E-mai I : cip-nbo@cg net.com
Liaison Office
Cameroon
c/o Delegation of Agricu lture
North West Provi nee
Bamenda
P.O. Box 279
Phone: (237-36) 2289
Fax: (237 -36 ) 3893 (p ublic booth )
(237-36) 3284 (Sky line H otel)
Tele x: 58442 (NWDA)

Ni ger ia
c/o llTA
PM B 5320, Ibadan
Phone: (234 -22) 400 300-3 18
Fax: 874-1772276 v ia INMARSAT Satellite or
(23 4-2 ) 241 221
1
Telex: TR OP IB NG (905) 31417 , 31159
Cabl e: TROPFOUND , IKEJA
I nternet/E-mai I: i ita@cgnet.com
Attn: H. Mendoza/CIP
U ga nda
P.O. Box 6247
Kampala, Uganda
Phone: (256-41) 567670
Fax: (2 56-41 ) 567635
lnternet/E-mai I: c iat- uga nda@cgn et.co m
Network

PRAPACE
PRAPACE/Uganda
c/o National Agri c ultural ResearcH Organization
(NARO)
P.O. Box 295
Entebbe , Uganda

This list indicates

CIP's principal
contact points
MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

Liaison Offices-Philippines

REGIONAL OFFICE

Los Banos O ffi ce


c/o IRRI
P.O. Box 933
M anil a, Phili ppin es
Phon e: (63 -94) 50 23 5, 5001 5 -19 , ext. 24 8
Fax: (63 -2) 522 4 240
lntern et/ E-mail : g. prain @cg net. com

Tuni sia
11 Ru e des Orange rs
20 80 Ar iana
Tuni s, Tuni sia
Ph o ne: (2 16-1 ) 7 1-604 7
Fi eld ph o ne: (2 16- 1) 53-909 2
Fax : (2 16-1 ) 7 1-8 4 3 1
Telex: 14965 CIP TN
I ntern et/ E-m ai I: c ip-tun is@cgnet. co m

Liaison Office
Egypt
P.O. Box 17
Kafr El-Zaya t, Egypt
Phone: (2 0-40) 58-6 72 0
Fax: (2 0-40) 3 174 76
Telex: 236 0 5 PBTNA UN
SOUTH AND WEST ASIA
REGIONAL OFFICE

Indi a
IARI Ca mpu s
New Delhi 11001 2, Indi a
Phon e: (9 1-11 ) 574-80 55/5 74-14 8 1
Telex: 3 1 73 140 Fl IN
3 173 168 EiC IN
Ca bl e : CIPA PA, New Delhi
lntern et/E -m ai I: c ip-delh i@cg net. co m
EAST AND SOUTHEAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
REGIONAL OFFICE

worldwide, by
region. A more
detailed list,
including current
staff contacts, can
be obtained from the

B ag ui o O ffi ce
c/ o NPR CRTC
P.O . Box 1234
2600 Bag ui o City, Philippines
Phon e: (63 -9 12) 3083 910/ (63-7 4) 4 322 4 39
I ntern et/E-m ai I: cip-bag u io@cgnet. co m

office of the
Director for
International

Chin a
c/ o The Chin ese Aca demy of Agri cultural Sc iences
Bai Shi Q iao Rd. No . 30
W est Suburbs of Be ijin g
Beijin g, Peo pl e's Republic of Chin a
Phon e: (86- 1) 83 1-65 36
Fax: (8 6-1) 83 1-53 29
Telex : 22 233 or 22 2720 CAAS CN
Cabl e: AG RI ACA
lntern et/ E-m ail : c ip-c hin a@cgnet. co m

Cooperation.

Networks
SAPPRA D
(sa me as Philippin es - Los Banos Li aiso n Office)
UPWARD
(sam e as Philippin es - Los Banos Li aiso n O ffi ce)

Ind ones ia
c/o CRIF C
P.O . Box 929
Bogo r 163 0 9, W est Java, Indon es ia
Phone: (62 -25 1) 3 1795 1/ 3 13687
Fax: (62 -2 5 1) 3 16 264
lntern et/ E-m ai I: c ip-bogor@cg net. co m
Lembang A nn ex
Fax: (6 2- 22) 28 -6025
I ntern et/ E-m ai I: c ip-indonesi a@cg net. co m
ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

SOUTH

AND WEST ASIA

}~ . .
r!j 0

.,

\J=-!::~~ g 0

\'.)

'

tJ't;

55 _ __

We dedicate this report to our colleagues


detained while in service to agriculture and th e CG IAR .
Martin Bicamumpaka , Rwanda, February 2, 1995
Thomas R. Hargrove, Colombia, September 23, 1994