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ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

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INTRODUCTION

This section is a guide for calculations regarding the drilling fluid such as capacity of mud,
tanks volumes, tubulars and holes, circulation times, velocity of the mud in the annular and
in the drill pipes and other important calculations. The capacity of calculating muds
formulations and various situations by means of solids and liquids additives is necessary in
fluids engineering.

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FIELD UNIT SYSTEM

The unit of measure most commonly used is the Field Unit.


However, the decimal measuring system is more and more used in drilling.

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FIELD UNIT SYSTEM

Metric System

Field Unit

Mass

Kilogramme (kg)

Pounds (lb)

Length

Meters (m)

Feet (ft) and inches (in.)

Volume, Capacity
and Displacement

Cubic meters (m3) and litres


(l)

Barrels (bbl) and gallons


(gal)

Density

grams/ cubic centimetres


(g/cm3) e (kg/l) Either
equal at specific weight

Pounds/gallon (lb/gal)
and pounds/foot3 (lb/ft3)

Pressure

kiloPascals (kPa), bar or


atmospheres

pounds/inch2 (lb/in.2 o
psi)

Concentration

kilogram/cubic meter
(kg/m3)

pounds /barrel (lb/bbl)

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CONVERSION FACTORS
Multiply

by

To obtain

Volume
Barrels(bbl)

5.615

Feet3 (ft3)

Barrels(bbl)

0.159

Meters3 (m3)

Barrels(bbl)

42

Cubic feet (ft3)

0.0283

Cubic feet(ft3)

7.48

Gallons, U.S. (gal)


Meters3 (m3)
Gallons, U.S. (gal)
Meters3 (m3)

Gallons, U.S. (gal)

0.00379

Gallons, U.S. (gal)

3.785

Litre(l)

Cubic Meters (m3)

6.289

Barrels(bbl)

Cubic Meters (m3)

1,000

Litres(l)

Pounds (lb)

453.6

Grams (g)

Pounds (lb)

0.4536

Kilograms(kg)

Kilograms (kg)

2.204

Pound (lb)

Metric tons (mt)

1,000

Kilograms (kg)

0.3048

Metres (m)

Mass or Weight

Length
Feet (ft)
Inches (in.)

2.54

Centimetre(cm)

Inches (in.)

25.4

Milliletre (mm)

Meters (m)

3.281

Feet (ft)

Miles (mi)

1.609

Kilometres (km)

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CONVERSION FACTORS
Multiply

To obtain

by

Pressure
lb/in.2 (psi)

6.8948

lb/in.2 (psi)

0.068948

lb/in.2 (psi)

0.0703

kg/cm2

kiloPascal (kPa)

0.145

lb/in.2 (psi)

bar (bar)

100

kiloPascal (kPa)
bar (bar)

kiloPascal (kPa)

Concentration
pounds/barrels (lb/bbl)

2.853

kg/m3

kilograms/cubic metre(kg/m3)

0.3505

lb/bbl

119.83

kg/m3

kilogram/cubic meter (kg/m3)

0.008345

lb/gal

pound/gallon (lb/gal)

0.11983

g/cm3, kg/l or SG

Density
pounds /gallons (lb/gal)

pound/cubic feet (lb/ft3)

16.02

kg/m3 and g/l

g/cm3, kg/l or SG

8.345

lb/gal

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HOLE CALCULATIONS

Capacity
Volume
Displacement

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HOLE CALCULATIONS

Mud pits and tanks Capacity and Volume


Rectangular Tanks
V = Volume or Tank Capacity
L = Length
W = Width
H = Height
M = Fluid Level

Volume = L x W x H

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HOLE CALCULATIONS
Vertical cylindrical tanks
Vcyl = Cylindrical tank capacity
D = Cylinder diameter
Acqua distillata
H = Cylinder height
M = Fluid level
= 3.1416
To calculate the diameter, measure the circumference and divide by 3.1416:
D = Circumference/
The formula to calculate the capacity of a vertical cylindrical tank is:
Vcyl

The volume of the fluid (VMud) in a vertical cylindircal tank is calculated as


follows :
x D2 M
3
3
VMud (ft or m ) =
4

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HOLE CALCULATIONS

Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks


VCyl = Horizontal cylinder capacity
D = Cylinder diameter
L = Cylinder length
M = Material level
= 3.1416

VCyl

Agip KCO

L
=
2

(2 M D ) MD M

2
D2
D
1 2 M
+
1 +
sin
2
4
D

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HOLE CALCULATIONS
Hole Volume
The volume of each interval is calculated as follows:

Hole

section

Where: DW = Internal diameter (ID) of the casing, liner or open hole


L = Interval Length
If the diameter (DW) is in inches:

VHole

D2 W ( in.)
section (bbl / ft ) =
1029

On the contrary, with the decimal measuring system:

V Hole

Agip KCO

section

D 2 W ( in. )
m /m =
1974

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HOLE CALCULATIONS

Drill Pipe or Drill Collars capacity (volume of the internal diameter)


The volume, with the drill string in the hole, is the sum of the internal capacity of
the drill pipes plus the volume of the annular space.

Pipe

(bbl

/ ft

)=

ID

)=

ID

(in . )

1029

With the metric system:

V Pipe

Agip KCO

(l

/ m

(in . )

1974

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HOLE CALCULATIONS
Annular volume
The volume of the annular space is determined subtracting the external volume of the drill
string from the hole capacity(or casing).

V Annulus

ID 2 W (in .) OD 2 P (in .)
(bbl/f t ) =
1029

Where: IDW = Internal diameter hole or casing


ODP = External diameter drill pipes or drill collars
With the metric system:

ID 2 W (in.) OD 2 P (in.)
VAnnulus (l/m ) =
1974
Or:
VAnnulus = CapacityWell DisplacementDrillstring CapacityDrillstring

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Annular Volume

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HOLE CALCULATIONS

Displacement
The drill string displacement can be estimated (VPipe Displ.) using the OD and the ID
of the drill pipes and the drill collars.

V Pipe

Displaceme

nt

(bbl/ft ) =

OD

(in. ) ID 2 P (in. )
1029

Where: ODP = External diameter drill pipe or drill collars


IDP = Internal diameter drill pipe or drill collars
With the metric system:

VPipe Displaceme

Agip KCO

OD 2 P (in .) ID 2 P (in .)
nt (l/m ) =
1974

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PUMPS CAPACITY

TRIPLEX PUMPS
In the triplex pump, pistons are three and operate in the same direction. Generally, they
are short stroke, (from 6-in. to 12-in.) and operate at rates from 60- to 120-stk/min.
Triplex pump performance calculation formula:

V Pump

Agip KCO

Output

3 x 3 . 1416 xID

Liner

xLxP Eff

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PUMPS CAPACITY

Where:
VPump Output = Pumps Performance
IDLiner = Liner Internal Diameter
L = Stroke Length
PEff = Volumetric efficiency (dimensionless)

V Pump

Output

(bbl

/ stk ) =

ID

Liner

(in .)xL (in .)xP Eff


4117 . 7

With the metric system:

V Pump

Agip KCO

Output

(l

/ stk

)=

ID

Liner

(in . )xL (in . )xP Eff


25 . 90

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PUMPS CAPACITY

DUPLEX PUMPS
The pistons of a duplex pump are two and operate in both directions. The difference
between the calculations for a duplex and for a triplex is that the volume of the rod pistons
must be subtracted form the volume of one of the cylinders plus the difference in number of
cylinders, 4 for a duplex and 3 for a triplex. Generally, the duplex pumps have a longer
stroke (from 10 to 18 in.) and operate at lower rate from 40 to 80-stk/min.

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PUMPS CAPACITY

The general equation for a duplex pump is :

VPump Output

) ]

2
x ID 2 Liner xL + ID 2 Liner OD 2 Rod xL xPEff
4

Where:

IDLiner = Internal diameter liner


VPump Output = Pump rate
ODRod = Rode external diameter
L = Stroke length
PEff = Volumetric efficiency (dimensionless)

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PUMPS CAPACITY

Pump rate bbl/stroke for a duplex pump with ID liner, OD pipe and stroke length are in
inches:

V Pump

Output

2 xID
(bbl / stk ) =

Liner

(in .) OD

Rod

6174

(in . ) xL (in .)xP

Eff

With the metric system:

V Pump

Agip KCO

Output

(l / stk ) = 2 xID

Liner

(in .) OD
38 . 85

Rod

(in . ) xL (in . )xP

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Eff

ANNULAR VELOCITY

The annular velocity (AV) is the average velocity of the fluid which flows in the
annular space. For a correct well cleaning, a minimum velocity is needed. The latter
depends on a certain number of factors such as ROP, cuttings size, hole inclination,
mud density and rheology.

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ANNULAR VELOCITY
Equations for the calculation of the anular velocity based on pumps rate and the
annular volume:

AV

AV (ft/min

)=

AV (m/min ) =

Agip KCO

Output

Pump

Ann

V Pump

Output

(bbl

/ min

V Ann (bbl / ft )

(l / min )
V Ann (l / m )

VPump

Output

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CIRCULATION TIME

The total circulation time is the time (or number of strokes) to make a complete loop,
from the tank, following the path down to the bit, go up from the annular and come
back in the circulating tank.

Total circulatio n time (min) =

Agip KCO

VSystem
VPump Output

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CIRCULATION TIME

Where:
VSystem = Total attive volume (bbl o m3)
V Pump Output = Pumps capacity (bbl/min o m3/min)
Total circulation (strokes) = Total circulation time (min) x pumps velocity (stks/min)

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CIRCULATION TIME

Bottoms-up is the time (or number of strokes) the mud circulates from bottom hole
throught the annular up on the surface.
The bottoms-up is calculated as follows:

Bottom

up time(min)

V Annulus
V Pump

Output

Where:
VAnnulus = Annular volume (bbl or m3)
VPump Output = Pumps capacity (bbl/min or m3/min)

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CIRCULATION TIME

Bottoms-up (strokes) = Bottoms-up (min) x pumps velocity (stk/min)


The total circulation time (or number of strokes) to make a complete circulation, starting
from the tank down to the bit and up to the annular returning back in the tanks. The
circulation total time is calculated as follows:

Hole cycle time(min)=

Agip KCO

VHole VDrillsringDispl
VPump Output

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CIRCULATION TIME

Where:
V Hole = Total well volume (bbl o m3)
V Drillstring Displ = Pipes displacement (bbl o m3)
V Pump Output = Pumps capacity (bbl/min o m3/min)
Complete circulation (strokes) = time for a complete circulation (min) x pumps
velocity(stk/min)

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HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

The hydrostatic pressure (Ph) is the pressure exerted by a column of liquid and
depends on the density of the fluid and the vertical depth or True Vertical Depth (TVD).
In a well, it is the pressure exerted on the wall to avoid cavings and controls the
formation pressure as well.

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HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Hydrostatic pressure is calculated as follows:

P H (bar

)=

Mud Weight

(kg/l )x TVD (m )
10.2

Hydrostatic pressure = Mud density x TVD x conversion factor (0.0981)

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HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Field unit system:

P H (lb/in.2) = Mud density (lb/gal) x TVD (ft) x 0.052

Conversion

Agip KCO

factor 0.052 =

12 in./ft
231 in. 3 /gal

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EXAMPLES
Data:
Surface Casing: 1,600 m - 133/8-in.
48-lb/ft, (323-mm ID)
Bit diameter: 121/4 in
T.D.: 3,400 m
Drillstring:
Drill Pipe: 5-in. 19.50-lb/ft,
(127-mm OD, 108.6-mm ID),
Drill collars 200 m of 71/4-in. x 23/4-in (185-mm OD x72-mm ID)
Surface systems:
2 tanks: depth 4-m, width 3-m, length 10-m. Both tanks have 2.5 m of mud with
pipes in well.
Mud density: SG 1.50 o 1.5 kg/l
Mud pumps: Triplex: 6 in x 12 in
(152.4 mm x 304.8 mm)
110 stk/min, with 90% efficiency

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EXAMPLES

13.3/8 in. casing


1600 m
12.1/4 in. Open Hole
Drill Pipe 5 in. 19.5-lb/ft

DC 71/4-in. x 23/4-in
3400 m
Well Diagram

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EXAMPLES

Part I: Determine the capacity of the surface system in m3, m3/m e m3/cm.
VPit (m3) 1 tank = 4 m x 3 m x 10 m = 120 m3
VPit (m3) 2 tanks = 120 m3 x 2 = 240 m3
VPit (m3/m) 2 tanks = 240 m3 4 = 60 m3/m
VPit (m3/cm) 2 tanks = 60 m3/m 100 cm/m = 0.60 m3/cm
Part II: Determine the total volume of the mud on the surface, in m3.
VSurface (m3)= VMud (m3) 2 tanks = 60 m3/m x 2.5 m = 150 m3

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EXAMPLES
Part III: Determine the total volume of the well without drill string.
Calculate the volume of the mud in each interval and sum the volumes.

V Well

(m )
3

ID 2 Well
=
1,273,000

( )

VCsgl m

x L (m

323 2 mm 2
=
x 1,600 (m ) = 131.1 m 3
1,273,000

( )

250.82 mm2
VOH m =
x1,800 (m) = 88.9 m3
1,273,000
3

Total without the drill string:


V System = V Csg + V OH = 131.1 m3 + 88.9 m3 = 220 m3

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EXAMPLES

Part IV: Determine the total volume with the string in the well .
Volume in the string:
V Drillstrin

( )

VDP m

(m )
3

)x

L (m )

108.6 2 (mm )
=
x 3200 (m ) = 29.6 m 3
1,273,000

( )

V DC m

ID 2 DS (mm
=
1,273,000

72 2 (mm
=
1,273,000

x 200 (m ) = 0.8 m 3

Total volume in the string:


V Drillstring = V DP + V DC = 29.6 m 3 + 0.8 m 3 = 30.4 m 3

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EXAMPLES
Volume in the annulus:

VAnnulus

ID 2 Well (mm) OD 2 DS (mm)


x L (m )
m =
1,273,000

( )
3

3232 (mm) 1272 (mm)


VAnn(Csg DP) m =
x 1,600 (m) = 0.06927 x 1,600 = 110.8 m 3
1,273,000

( )
3

250.82 (mm) 127 2 (mm)


VAnn(OH DP) m =
x 1,600 (m ) = 0.03673 x 1,600 = 58.8 m 3
1,273,000

( )
3

250.82 (mm) 1852 (mm)


VAnn (OH DC ) m =
x 200 (m ) = 0.02252 x 200 = 4.5 m 3
1,273,000

( )
3

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EXAMPLES

VAnnulus

(m ) = V
3

Total

Ann (Csg DP )

+ VAnn (OH DP ) + VAnn (OH DC )

V Annulus Total = 110.8 + 58.8 + 4.5 = 174.1 m3

Total volume of the hole with a string:

V Well/DS = V Annulus Total + V Drillstring = 174.1 + 30.4 = 204.5 m 3

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EXAMPLES
Part V: Determine the circulation total volume.

V Total = V Well/DS + V Surface = 204.5 m3 + 150 m3 = 354.5 m3

Part VI: Determine the time needed for a complete circulation and bottoms-up.

ID2 Liner (mm) x L (mm) x Eff (decimal)


VP ump Output (l/stk) =
424,333

152.4 2 Liner (mm) x 304.8 (mm) x 0.9 (decimal)


VP ump Output (l/stk ) =
= 15.01 (l/stk )
424,333

VP ump Output (l/min ) = 15.01 (l/stk ) x 110 stk/min = 1,651 (l/min ) = 1.651 m 3 / min

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EXAMPLES

354.5 m 3
Total circulatio n time (min ) =
= 215 min
3
1.651 m /min

Total circulation (stk) = 215 min x 110 stk/min = 23,650 stk

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EXAMPLES

Hole cycle time (min ) =

( )

V Well/DS m 3

V P ump Output m 3 / min

204 .5
= 124 min
1.651

Hole cycle (stk) = 124 min x 110 stk = 13,640 stk

Bottoms - up time (min ) =

V Annulus

(m )
3

Total

V P ump Output m 3 / min

174 . 1
= 106 min
1.651

Bottoms-up (stk) = 106 min x 110 stk = 11,660 stk

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EXAMPLES

Part VII: Determine the velocity in the annular per each single interval.

AV =

V Pump

AV(OH/DC) =

AV(OH/DP) =

AV(Csg/DP) =

Agip KCO

Output
Ann

(
(m

) = 1.651(m / min) = 73 m/min


/ m) 0.02252(m / m)

VPumpOutput m3 / min
VAnn OH/DC

(
(m

) = 1.651 (m / min) = 45 m/min


0.03673 (m / m )
/ m)

VPump Output m 3 / min


VAnn OH/DP

(
(m

) = 1.651 (m / min) = 24 m/min


/ m)
0.06927 (m / m )

VPump Output m 3 / min


VAnn Csg/DP

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EXAMPLES

Part VIII: Determine the hydrostatic pressure at the TD

(bar ) =

P H (bar

Agip KCO

)=

Mud

(kg/l

Weight

)x TVD

(m )

10.2

1.5

(kg/l ) x
10.2

3,400

(m ) =

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41

DENSITY INCREASE THROUGH ADDITIVES

Weight increase (specific weight d = 4.2)

W kg/m

with:

(
d 2 d1 )
) = 4200 (4.2 - d )
2

W = weight of the barite to be added in kg/m3


d1 = mud initial denisty (specific weight)
d2 = desired mud density (specific weight)

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DENSITY INCREASE THROUGH ADDITIVES

Weight increase using Calcium Carbonate

W M kg/m

with:

) = 2650

(d 2 d 1 )
(2.65 - d 2 )

W = weight of the calcium carbonate to be added in kg/m3


d1 = mud initial density (specific weight)
d2 = desired mud density (specific weight)

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DENSITY REDUCTION THROUGH WATER OR OIL

Water needed to reduce density (density H2O d = 1)

VWater liters/m

with:

) = 1000 x

(d1 d 2 )
(d 2 1)

VWater = water volume (litres) to be added at 1 m3 of mud


d1 = mud initial density (specific weight)
d2 = desired mud density (specific weight)

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DENSITY REDUCTION THROUGH WATER OR OIL

Oil needed to reduce the density (oil density d = 0.85)

Voil liters/m

) = 1000 x

(d 1 d 2 )

(d 2 0 .85 )

with: VOil = oil volume (litres) to be added 1 m3 of mud


d1 = mud initial density (specific weight)
d2 = desired mud density (specific weight)

Agip KCO

Well Area Operations


Drilling Muds
ENGINEERING
Drilling Supervisors Training
Course CALCULATIONS-MAP-45

RPW2021A

45

VOLUME INCREASE WITH ADDITIVES

Final volume after the addition of additives

with:

(l ) =

M
d

a
a

VF = final volume (litres)


VI = initial volume of 1,000 l (1 m3)
Ma = additives weight
da = additives specific weight

Agip KCO

Well Area Operations


Drilling Muds
ENGINEERING
Drilling Supervisors Training
Course CALCULATIONS-MAP-46

RPW2021A

46

MIXING OF LIQUIDS WITH DIFFERENT DENSITY


Final volume after mixing

VA + VB = VF
(VA x dA)+ (VB x dB) = (VF x dF)

with: VA = fluid volume A (m3)


VB = fluid volume B (m3)
VF = final volume(m3)
dA = fluid density A (kg/l)
dB = fluid density B (kg/l)
dF = final density of the mixed fluids (kg/l)

Agip KCO

Well Area Operations


Drilling Muds
ENGINEERING
Drilling Supervisors Training
Course CALCULATIONS-MAP-47

RPW2021A

47

MUD REPORT

Agip KCO

Well Area Operations


Drilling Muds
ENGINEERING
Drilling Supervisors Training
Course CALCULATIONS-MAP-48

RPW2021A

48

MUD REPORT

Agip KCO

Well Area Operations


Drilling Muds
ENGINEERING
Drilling Supervisors Training
Course CALCULATIONS-MAP-49

RPW2021A

49

MUD REPORT

Agip KCO

Well Area Operations


Drilling Muds
ENGINEERING
Drilling Supervisors Training
Course CALCULATIONS-MAP-50

RPW2021A

50

Agip KCO

Well Area Operations


Drilling Muds
ENGINEERING
Drilling Supervisors Training
Course CALCULATIONS-MAP-51

RPW2021A

51