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Local and Wide-Area

Network Protection Systems


Improve Power System Reliability
A. Guzman
D. Tziouvaras
E. O. Schweitzer

K. E. Martin
Bonneville Power
Administration

Schweitzer Engineering
Laboratories, Inc.
Copyright SEL 2004

Power System Challenges


l

Load-generation separation

Environmental restrictions (NIMBY)

Limited network growth

Network resource optimization

Separate companies for G,T,D

Main Causes of
Wide-Area System Disruptions
l

Voltage collapse

Rotor angle instability

Voltage Collapse Per Carson Taylor


A power system at a given
operating state and subject to a
given disturbance undergoes voltage
collapse if post-disturbance equilibrium
voltages are below acceptable limits

Power System Voltage Stability, EPRI,


ISBN 0-07-063184-0

Generation Load During


Transient Angle Instability

Generators cannot deliver their total


output power to the system

Voltage Collapse Evolves


Into Angle Instability

Voltage (pu)

0.8
0.4
0
-0.4
-0.8
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Time (s)

0.6

0.7

Slow Fault Clearing Time


Initiates Voltage Collapse
51

Rest
of Power
System

Zone
2

51
Zone
2

Zone
2

Reverse Zone 3 Element Operated


During Low Voltage Conditions
X
R
Overload

Out-of-Step Detection Logic


Avoids Zone 1 Tripping

Transmission Line Tripping


During System Oscillation in Idaho

Wide-Area Protection Systems

Protection systems to minimize risk


of wide-area disruptions and increase
system power transfer capability

Wide-Area Network Undervoltage


Load-Shedding Scheme (BC Hydro)
Load

Area
1
U/V
Rest of
Power
System
Area
2
U/V

U/V
Area 3

Load

Load

U/V Load Shedding Is Enabled


Only if Synchronous Condenser
Output Is Close to Rated Output
Area 1

Area 2

U/V

AND
1

OR
1

AND
3

t1

Shed
Block 1

t2

Shed
Block 2

t3

Shed
Block 3

U/V
AND
2
U/V

Area 3

Area 3
Synch
Cond

MVAR Output Close to Rated

Area 2 Generation Depends on System


Real-Time Transmission Capability (CFE)
Area 3
Light
Load

Area 1
Heavy
Load

Line 1
Line 2
Line 3

Area
2

Real Power and


Open Line Monitor

Scheme Sheds Generation When


Two Lines Open and P > 1100 MW
Line Open
Line 1

MW
Line Open

Line 2

Two
Lines
Open

And

MW
Line Open
Line 3
MW

1100 MW

Trip Excess
Generation
in Area 2

Wide Area Protection Schemes


in the Western United States
Peace River
Kemano

Chief
Joseph

Grand
Coulee

Colstrip
John Day

Captain
Jack

Midpoint

Malin

Jim Bridger

IPP
Tesla

Four Corners

San
Onofre
Palo Verde

Enhance Power Transfer Through


Wide-Area Network Protection (US)
Pacific NW

Area 1

Area 4

North Intertie
Line 8

Line 7

Line 1
Line 2
Line 3

East Intertie

Real Power and


Open Line Monitor

Real Power
Monitor
Area 2

Line 4
Line 5
Line 6

PG&E

Area 3
SCE

South Intertie

Inter-Area Power Flow Determines


Set of Actions to Avoid Disruption
A2 to A3
(MW)

I,
II

I,II
No Actions
in Area 2

900

II
I

I
V

IV

-1500

III
0

3675

A2 to A1
(MW)

Set IV Actions for Three-Line-Open


Condition Between Area 1 and Area 2
l

Area 2 informs Area 1 of line-open


conditions in the intertie

Pacific NW WAPS trips generation

System separates into north and south


networks

System sheds pump load in Area 2

Resistor dynamic brake inserted at Area 1

Model to Study Voltage Stability


(Kundur, Power System Stability and Control)
1

Open

Open

8
Z=Constant
9

P=3844 MW
Q=1194 MVAR

10

Z=Constant

P=1692 MW
Q=485 MVAR

I=Constant

P=207 MW
Q=58 MVAR

11

Voltages for Buses 8 and 9 Drop


Below the 95 Percent Threshold for
Two-Line Loss Between Buses 6 and 7
1

Voltage (pu)

Threshold
0.95

Bus 8

0.9
Bus 9

0.8

10

15

Seconds

20

25

30

Inverse-Time Undervoltage Elements


Shed Low-Voltage Loads First

Seconds

15

10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Voltage (pu)

Voltage (pu)

Bus 8 Voltage Recovers After


the ITUV Element Drops the Bus 9 Load

1.1
Bus 8
1

0.9
Bus 9
0.8
0

10

15

20

Seconds

25

30

Synchronized Phasor Measurements


in the Western United States

Synchronized Phasor
Measurement System at BPA
Analog data
measurement
substations

Data input
and management
control center

Operation monitors
display and alarms

Real-time
system controls

SCADA
PMU
PMU

Phasor Data
Concentrator
(PDC)

Other displays

PMU
StreamReader
display and recording

Direct data
exchange with
other utilities

PDC

Data storage
PDC

Voltage and
reactive
stability
Inter-area
angle limits

StreamReader Application

Wide-Area Protection / Control Using


Synchronized Phasor Measurements
SVC
WAPS Controller
(access to
Generator Trip
trip circuits)
Dynamic Brake
Digital outputs to
WAPS controller
WACS Controller
(calculations,
outputs)

PDC
(data concentrator
that inputs
and correlates
phasor data)

Wideband data output by Ethernet

PMU
PMU
PMU

Voltage Swing for a Double


Palo Verde Outage (2700 MW)
1.2

Voltage (pu)

Coulee
Pearl
1.10
1.00

John
Day
Olinda

0.90
Malin
0.80

Tuesday, June 03 13:56:56 2003


0

10

12

Seconds

14

16

18

20

Frequency Deviation From Nominal - mHz

Response to 750 MW Loss


in Northeast Washington
0

.020 Hz

20
Malin
40

Grand
Coulee

0.9 s
Vincent

60

51

52

53

54

55

56

Seconds - starting at 15:41:44 on 7/7/99

57

Grand Coulee Frequency,


Coulee-Vincent Phase Angle,
Los Angeles Generator Output
90
80

Generator Output
in Los Angeles Area

mHz/Degrees

70
60
Phase Angle From
Coulee to Vincent

50
40
30
20
51

Initial
Fault
Grand Coulee
Frequency
51.5

52

52.5

53

53.5

Seconds - starting at 15:41:44 on 7/7/99

54

1400 MW Dynamic Brake


at Chief Joseph Substation

Conclusions (1)
l

Use breaker failure together with direct


transfer trip instead of Zones 2 and 3 for
backup protection

Timely, appropriate actions are required


to avoid system disruptions

Wide-area protection systems minimize


risk of system disruptions and increase
power transfer capacity

Conclusions (2)
l

Time-synchronized measurements
improve power system dynamics
assessment
t

They can be used for analysis and controls

Inverse-time undervoltage elements


optimize load shedding to prevent system
voltage collapse without communications!