You are on page 1of 4

BARRIERS/PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Causes of miscommunication are the differences in people; emotionally, mentally


and physically.
Cultural, civilizational, reigional, traditional differences.
Differences in filters.
CAUSES OF MISCOMMUNICATION
1. SEMANTIC/LANGUAGE BARRIERS
i.
Faculty transmission
ii.
Incorrectly expressed messages
iii.
Non-clarified assumptions
iv.
Use of technical language
2. EMOTIONAL/PERCEPTIONAL BARRIERS
i.
Premature evaluation
ii.
Emotional attitude
iii.
Poor retention of information
3. PHYSICAL BARRIERS
i.
Noise
ii.
Environment
iii.
Poor facilities
iv.
Distance
4. ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS
i.
Organizational policies
ii.
Organizational rules
iii.
Status relationship
iv.
Complex organizational structure
v.
Less organizational facilities
5. PERSONAL BARRIERS
i.
Attitude of superiors
ii.
Insistence on proper channel
iii.
Fear of challenge to authority
iv.
Shortage of time
v.
Lack of attention
vi.
Unwillingness to communicate
vii.
Lack of motivation
6. PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING MESSAGES
i.
Indecision about message content
ii.
Lack of familiarity with situation or receiver
iii.
Emotional conflicts
iv.
Difficulty in expressing ideas
7. PROBLEMS IN TRANSMITTING MESSAGES
i.
Physical factors
ii.
Conflicting signals
iii.
Too many transmission links
8. PROBLEMS IN RECEIVING MESSAGES
i.
Physical distraction

ii.
Mental distraction
9. PROBLEMS IN UNDERSTANDING MESSAGES
i.
Different backgrounds
ii.
Different interpretations of words
iii.
Different emotional reactions
10.SPECIAL PROBLEMS
i.
Complexity of message
ii.
Difficult conditions for transmission
iii.
Difficult conditions for reception
iv.
Differences between sender and receiver
11.Conventions of meaning (Symbols, signs, signifiers, signified or referents are
different; attribution of meaning can be different)
12.Perception of reality
13.Values, attitudes and opinions
14.Lack of knowledge
15.Lack of interest
16.Personality clash
17.Emotionalism
1. CONVENTIONS OF MEANING
Difference in language
Symbols, signs, signifiers, signified or referents are different.
Attribution of meaning can be different.
Sender and receiver must have same understanding level and approach.
Miscommunication occurs due to:
i.
ii.

Denotation
Connotation

DENOTATION (Denotative meanings of words)


No negative or positive qualities of words
CONNOTATION (Connotative meanings of words)
Negative or positive qualities of words
EUPHAMISM
Art of saying direct, serious or unpleasant things in a pleasant and gentle way.
How to overcome the barrier of conventions of meaning?
Use of simple words keeping in view the mental and educational level of the
receiver.

2. PERCEPTION OF REALITY (Factual presentation of a situation)


We make abstractions, inference and evaluation to comprehend reality.
i.

Abstracting

Process of looking for relevant information omitting the less important things.
Dont be personal or biased.
ii.

Inferring

Process of making conclusions on the basis of assumptions, observations or


available evidences.
iii.

Evaluating

Process of taking an impression of a situation


How to overcome the barrier of perception of reality?
Dont make abstractions and inferences.
3. VALUES, ATTITUDES AND OPINIONS
i.
Closed minds
ii.
Senders credibility
iii.
Slanted statements
How to overcome this barrier?
4.
5.
6.
7.

LACK OF KNOWLEDGE
LACK OF INTEREST
PERSONALITY CLASH
EMOTIONALISM

STEPS TO REDUCE COMMUNICATION BARRIERS


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.

Two-way communication
Strengthening communication network
Promoting participative approach
Appropriate simple language
Credibility in communication
Good and active listening
Effective communication channel
Avoid information overload
Eliminate differences in perception
Emotional state
Flexibility in meeting targets
Give constructive feedback
Proper media selection
Reduction of noise level

xv.

Simple organizational structure