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III.

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN


II.
Desired
Performance

Comparison

Error
signals

III.
Controller
Sensor

I.
Input

Plant /
Process

Feedback Loop

Output

III. A Root Locus Design Method


III.A.1 Root Locus Concepts
Definition
R(s)

+
-

G(s)

Y(s)

- Open loop transfer function G(s) (usually given)


- Gain controller: gain K to be designed
- Closed loop transfer function T(s)
KG ( s )
Y (s)
T (s)
R( s)
1 KG ( s )

- Closed loop system poles given by roots of


a(s) )=1+KG(s)
(Characteristic Equation or CE)

- Root locus: trajectories of closed loop poles, i.e., roots of


a(s) on s-plane as K: 0
- Example:

G (s)

1
s ( s 4)

K
s(s 4)
T (s)
K
1
s(s 4)

CE: a( s) 1
roots of a(s) = 0

K
s ( s 4)

s 2 4s K 0

Trajectories of r1, r2
4 16 4 K
as K: 0
r 1, r 2
2
How about root locus for general transfer function?

Phase and Magnitude Requirements:


- Let so be on root locus at K=Ko, i.e.,
( a(s) may have many roots
a(so)=1+KoG(so) = 0
at K=Ko, so is one of them)
so on root locus
at K=Ko

.
Branches of root locus
of closed loop system

- Generally, so complex

G(so) complex
j L G ( so )

- With complex G(so) expressed as G( so) G( so) e


,
then
1
1 j (180 l 360 )
jG ( so )
1 K 0G ( so ) 0 G ( so ) e

e
Ko Ko
- Comparing the phase and magnitude on both sides:
* Phase requirement (PR):
G ( so ) 180 l 360

l = 0,1,2,3,

* Magnitude requirement (MR):


1
1
or
Ko
G ( so )
G ( so )
Ko

Utilization of PR and MR:


C ( s z1 )...( s z M )
- Let G( s )
( s p1 )...( s pn )

(M zeros, n poles)

with ( s zi ) s zi e j( s zi )
j ( s pi )
and ( s pi ) s pi e

C s z1 ... s z M
G (s)
e i 1
s p1 ... s pn

( s zi )

i 1

( s pi )

- Use PR to test if a point is on root locus


Given any test point so, if PR:
G( so )

i 1

( so

zi )

( so

i 1

is satisfied, then so is on root locus!

pi ) 180 l 360

Graphical Interpretation of PR
so+z1

- ( so zi ) is complex
number going from
zi to so

-z1

test point so

L(so+z1)
so+p1

so+p2

L(so+p1)

x-p

- ( so pi ) is complex
number going from
pi to so

so+z2
-z2

L(so+z2)

L(so+p2)

x-p

x denotes poles of G(s)


o denotes zeros of G(s)

If (sum of angles from zeros of G(s) to so


- sum of angles from poles of G(s) to so) = 180 l360,
M

i 1

( so

zi )

(s
i 1

pi )

then so is on root locus !

- If so on root locus, use MR to determine corresponding value


Ko of K at so

1
MR: G ( so )
Ko

so p1 ... so pn
1
Ko

G( so) C so z1 ... so z M
(Note: MR will produce a value of Ko even if so is not on
root locus in that case the value is meaningless)

1
- Example: G ( s )
s ( s 4)
C = 1, M = 0
n = 2, p1 = 0, p2 = 4

-p2

so

2j

-2

-p1

* Is so = -2+2j on root locus?


PR

check - L(so+p1) - L(so+p2) = 180 l360 ?

LHS: -135 -45 = -180 = RHS for l = -1


YES! so is on root locus!
* Corresponding Ko value?
MR

Ko

1
so( so 4) so ( so 4) 8
G ( so )

* Conclusion: so is on root locus at K=Ko = 8

so

- Example:

s
G ( s)
( s 1)( s 2)
C = 1, M = 1, z1 = 0
n = 2, p1 = 1, p2 = 2

-p2
-2

-p1
-1

-z1

* Is so = -1+j on root locus?


PR

check L(so+z1) - L(so+p1) - L(so+p2) = 180 l360 ?

LHS = 135 90 45 0 RHS for any l


Conclusion: so is not on root locus
* Meaningless to apply MR to calculate Ko

III.A.2 General Procedures in Drawing Root Locus


R(s) +

Given Characteristic Equation (CE):

a(s) 1 KP(s) 1

K (s zi )
i 1

(s pi )

i 1

where

C ( s z1 )...( s z M )
P( s )
( s p1 )...( s pn )

- Assume C=1 for P(s) or absorbed C into K


- M zeros of P(s): z1, z 2 ,, z M
- n poles of P(s): p1, p2 ,, pn

P(s)

Y(s)

Starting and ending points of root loci?


- Roots of a(s) = 0
- K 0,

i 1

i 1

( s pi ) K ( s zi ) 0

-pi are roots of a(s) = 0

- K , -zi are roots of a(s) = 0


Step 1: Denote x and o on s-plane as pole and zero of P(s).
Root loci begin at the poles (x-location) of P(s) and end
at the zeros (o-location) of P(s) as K goes from 0 to

Real axis portion of root loci?


- PR

L(so+zi ) - L(so+pi ) = 180 l360

All zeros

All poles

- For so on real axis,


* Contribution from complex pole and zero pair cancel out
* Contribution from pole and zero to the left of so are zero
* PR not satisfied if even number of poles and zeros on the
right of so
* PR satisfied only if odd number of poles and zeros on the
right of so
Step 2: Real axis portion of locus Any point on real axis
having an odd number of real poles and zeros to its
right is on the root locus

Asymptotes going to

- P(s) has n poles and M zeros with n > M


- For large K,
* M loci go from M of the n poles to M zeros (Step 1)
* (n-M) loci from the remaining (n-M) poles will go to
following an asymptotes pattern
- Asymptotes pattern defined by angle and centroid A :
(2k 1)180
k 0,1,2,,(n M 1)
,
A
nM

M
n
pi zi
i 1
i 1

nM
Step 3: Draw asymptotes according to the computed angle A
and centroid A, to be followed by root loci when far
away from origin as K becomes large

Points, if any, where loci cross the imaginary axis?


- Method (a) : Put s=j into a(s) = 0, equate real and
imaginary part to solve for and K values
- Method (b) : Routh-Hurwitz Criterion:
set K to have roots on imaginary axis, and
determine from Axillary Polynomial
Step 4: Compute cross-over points, i.e., where loci cross
imaginary axis

Example:

K
0
2
s ( s 8s 32)

s 3 8s 2 32 s K 0

Method (a)

s = j

j 3 8 2 32 j K 0

Real part
Imaginary part
Crossover:

8 2 K 0

3 32 0

32

at K = 256

Method (b)
s3

32

s2

s1
s0

K = 256

1
( 256 K )
8

K
roots on imaginary axis
(Special Case II)

Axillary polynomial:
AP ( s ) 8s 2 256 0
crossover at s + j 32

Breakaway point, if any, on real axis?

- Breakaway point: where real roots meet and break


away into complex roots
Some function of s
- To determine breakaway point
1
1 KP(s) 0 K
p(s)
P(s)
dK d

p(s ) 0
Breakaway point occurs at
ds ds
1
P
(
s
)

- Example:
s ( s 1)( s 2 )

K s ( s 1)( s 2 )

* Then
dK
ds

s sb

3 s b2 6 s b 2 0 s b 1 . 58 or 0 . 423

* Breakaway point between s=0 and 1: sb 0.423


* s= -1.58 gives rise to K<0 (not of interest)

dK
0 ? Plotting K vs s (real number)
* Why
ds

K3

Kb

x
-2

K2
K1

x
-1

s1( 2 )

s1(1)

s1( 3)

s2( 2 )

s2(1)

s2( 3)

sb( 2 ) , sb( 3)

sb(1)
s3(1)
(1)
(2)
( 3)
-- At K=K1, 3 real roots at s1 , s1 , s1
(1)
(2)
( 3)
-- At K=K2, 3 real roots at s2 , s2 , s2

(1)
-- At K=K3, only 1 real root at s3 , remaining 2 roots complex!

-- Occurrence of complex roots at K=Kb , where 2 real roots


meet at sb sb( 2 ) sb( 3)
dK
0
-- sb occurs at local maximum of K, i.e.,
ds

- Solving sb from

dK
0 analytically possible for simple
ds

transfer function P(s).


- For complicated P(s), use rough estimation method:
(i) Compute K at discrete locations between s=0 and s=-1
(separation depends on desired accuracy for s b )
(ii) Pick maximum K location as approximate s b
K s ( s 1)( s 2 )
s 0 0 .2 0 .4 0 .6 0 .8
K 0 0 . 288 0 . 384 0 . 336 0 . 192
s b 0.4 (to an accuracy of 0.2)

1 .0
0

- Note: Also Breakin point, where complex roots meet and


become real roots.
( s 2 )( s 3 )
Example: P ( s )
s ( s 1)
s ( s 1)
K
( s 2 )( s 3 )

Again, focusing on K 0 :
* Breakaway point occurs between s = 0 and 1
dK
0, corresponding to local max. of K
ds

* Breakin point occurs between s = 2 and 3


dK
0, corresponding to local min. of K
ds

Step 5: Compute/estimate locations of Breakaway and


Breakin points, if any.

Angle of departure from a complex pole / Angle of arrival


to a complex zero
- By PR:

i 1

i 1

( so zi ) ( so pi ) 180 l 360

- For angle of departure from complex pole -pj


Let test point so very close to complex -pj: so = -pj +
complex quantity with small magnitude
- PR becomes:
M

i 1
M

i 1

( p j zi ) ( p j pi ) 180 l 360
n

or ( p j zi ) ( p j pi ) 180 l 360
i 1

i 1
i j

- is angle of departure from pole -pj


M

i 1

i 1
i j

( p j zi ) ( p j pi ) 180 l 360

- Generalize, for any single complex pole

dep i i 180 l 360

all zeros

remaining
poles

* i is angle of vector from zero -zi to the complex pole


* i is angle of vector from pole -pi to the complex pole
* i , i known from given zero and pole locations -zi and pi
* For convenience, select integer l to keep -180 o< dep <180 o

- Similarly, angle of arrival for any single complex zero

arr i i 180 l 360


all poles

remaining
zeros

* i is angle of vector from zero -zi to the complex zero


* i is angle of vector from pole -pi to the complex zero
Step 6: Compute angle of departures dep and angle of arrival
arr, if any.
Finally,
Step 7: Complete root locus sketch with information
obtained in previous steps