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HISTORY

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JOURNALISM

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PEEFACK

With

few

very

periodicals
library,
their

which

the

contains

the

Collection

1660,

to

must

be

the

and
the

The

to,

his

at

and
of

storation
Re-

of

May,

Collection

Bumey

of

death

news

period

dated
covered

the

and
of

in

1817.

He

of

to

library,

newspapers
commences

1603,

and

book.

his
the

which
ment
Parlia-

of

British

this,

this

life

his

was

of

critics

Houses

in the

deposited

part

December,

valuable

by

and

4th

on

years

and

Lincoln

of

classical

later

newsbooks

formed

the

month

December,

large

"13,500

collection

bom

was

the

of

"relation"

the

the

the

from

prebendary

28th

devoted

which

Collection.

and

in

distinguished

purchased

beyond

D.D.,

on

most

accumulation

for

subdivisions,

great

1641,

century,

King,

died

and

day,

the

lection
col-

general

Thomason

II.

in

on.

the

to

of

of

Burney,

chaplain
1767,

end

relied

Charles

Charles

King

unique

seventeenth-century

the
to

up

them
the

two

and

period

of

from

into

Museum

British

the

the

divided

early

seventeenth-century

collections

Museum,

are

of

in

Apart

the

Bumey

For

was

found

completeness.

periodicals

one

be

to

are

at

all the

exceptions

Museum.
referred
with

extends

far

vi

PREFACE

George

bookseller

was

of

the

On

Rose

seeing

who

and
the

from

pouring

who

Thomason,

carried

the press

In

the

that

he could

that

to

every

which

tract, broadside, book


licensed

As

1662.

it with

the

adding manuscript
far

so

scattered

about

which
for

the

has

it contains

literature,much
A

no

for future

his

peared,
ap-

and

would

complete catalogue

result

is

in the

lection
col-

world,

ephemeral

otherwise
of

even

handbills

pamphlets

fugitiveand

of

the

ally
occasion-

his own,

The

have

ished.
perin

collection

his

of

pamphlet

or

of its kind

equal

all

copies
which

book

of

streets.

of which

ages.

copies of

of its appearance,

to

mass

complete

newsbook

each

notes

add

to

as

great

until
surreptitiously,

or

day

of the

collected

or

obtained

he

were

appeared previously

thenceforward

date, and

he dated

went

had

which

that

him

be valuable

would

obtain

whether
year

outbreak

to

sign

Churchyard.

1641, therefore,he secured

year

at the

pamphlets

the

at

1666,

year

business

on

of

number

of these

the

in St. Paul's

Crown

Bebellion, the idea occurred


collection

in

died

order has been recently(1908)printed,


chronological
of Thomason
by
prefaced with an excellent account
Books
Dr. G. K. Fortescue, Keeper of the Printed
at

the British

the

vicissitudes
Thomason

means

until

the

George

collection

adopted
It

Restoration.

the

III.
to

the

for

the

British

died

poor

man.

the

preservation

ultimatelybought by

was

of

sum

Museum
that

story of
and

underwent

for its secret

absurd

generally recognised
Thomason

also relates the

who

Museum,

it

"300

in

1762.

is

in

fact

and
It is

sented
prenow

priceless.

vii

PREFACE

the

and

periodicalswhich

the

For

therefore

Sestoration

is unrivalled.

About

only (and

these

the

periodical

of

"

have
of

half

the

but

not

last number

of

each

with

the

as

marking

in

question.

the

found

in the

Of

the

appendix

the

There

which

they

that

the
is
A

libraries has

date

catalogue

of each

has been
of the

last

adopted

periodical

counterfeits

the

of

appeared, notably Praggood

Collection
are,

con-

March,

of

in the

of extinction
numerous

on

collection

other

the

but

appeared.

Collection

which

Bumey

his

therefore

contain

and

little

difference
the

be
in

not

are

very

the

to

are

many

which

however,

identifyingthese, beyond

matter

secretly

to

come

which
of

to

first numbers

the month

to

latest

Mdanchdicmy

Thomason's.
of

date

Mercuries
and

matkuSy

French

one

therefore

periodicalin

in the Thomason

Soyalist

of

few

has

the contents

in
periodicals

number

periodicals

later, is fairlycomplete, and

this conclusion

out

net.

present writer

of

comparison
borne

dozen

ephemeral nature) seem

most

invariably the

almost

lection
Col-

Thomason

exception

clusioUi that his collection up


1660,

1641

furtivelysold, also escaped him,

and

whole

the

chieflyRoyalist,and

newsbooks,

the

the

Thomason's

escaped

printed

with

"

appeared between

means

of

style

of

the
the

writers.
i
"

The

titles of

November,

1641

320, and

at

task

attempt

to

writers,
seem

to

more

which
periodicals
and

October,

first sight it would


to

ascertain

especiallyas

have valued

their

appeared
number

1655
seem

the

in all but

between

be

to

anonymity

few
;

hopeless
of

names
a

about

but

cases
on

their

they
closer

PBEFACE

viii

analysisit

will be

only

49

once,

and

only

did

not

and

the vast

to

of

for

over

extend

find

for

lasted

for

33

comparatively small
these

writers

information

about

arduous,

owing

examined

account

on

value

of
The

been

or
licensing,

libertyof

the

writers

reduced

to

of

lengthy

and

periodicalsto
has

writer

he could

judge

to

periodicalsat

against

the

the

both

have

be

ably
invari-

not

the

wished,

Much

them

old

their true

depends

of their writers.

defective

to

failed

or

accurate
presented a sufficiently

their

directed

are

of

historical evidence

as

case,

ascertaining
collectingall available

number

his readers

the characters

due

thus

task

thoroughly as

as

and

authors

criticism
was

the

to

enable

to

of

them, has

that he has

he trusts

and

were,

in each

"

in the titles account

importance
The

190

"

suppressed

Changes

and, if the present

succeeded

Their

either

band.

months,

remainder

reduction, and
real

appeared

six

over

nmnbers

few

majority were

yet further

The

year.

beyond

periodicalsof

book

period of

popular support.

who

that of this list,81

seen,

news-

worth.
much

very

of the harsh

by contemporaries

the corrupt system


intjelligence,

even

shameful

more

official press.

with
closelyconnected
libertyin religiousmatters, and it is noteworthy that
in both, toleration
dom
appeared simultaneously. Free-

from
obtained

the
until

press

tutelageof
the

year

of that freedom
The
and

editors

of

the

was

official licenser

1695, and

this book

of the

English

an

Century
Review

given permission to incorporatein


of articles

the

ment
attain-

ends.

Nineteenth
Historical

before

not

was

and

have

this book

recentlyprinted in

those

After

kindly
the substance

reviews.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

I.
FAGS

JinBOJuucnos
"

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OHAFTERn.

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1682

11

1641

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CHAPTER

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CHAPTER

14th

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1643,

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30

1643

IV.

47

1646

Dbgbmbib"

CHAPTER

V.

71

1647

CHAPTER

VI.

90

1648

CHAPTER

Vn.

109

1649

CHAPTER

Vm.

129

1660-16"9
ix

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

IX,

PAOB

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Histobt

of

Advsbtibiho

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CHAPTER

1669

1669

168

X.

1666

172

Apfbhdiz

200

Apfbhdiz

211

Afpbndiz

216

Appendix

218

Index

TO

267

LIST

PoBTR"XT

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CHAPTER

DEFINITIONS.

INTBODnCTION.

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fnends

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when

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ever

at

its

height

and,

as

the

climax

then

home

at

how

letters

had

been

the

events

great

noble

lastly, as

and

posts

in

of

day,

writer

end

as

longer necessary

out

at

with
until

that

once

profession

of

of

of the

of the

might

letters

far

letters
"

author

century

"

necessarily supplementing

as

century
The

as
**

of

"

of

news"

of

in the

**of

and

from

the

to

The
rently
concur-

newspaper

1641

latter

overwhelming

intelligence,"as

an

point

to

case.

or

in

that

come

the

newsbook

the

and

us

supposed

being

in

news.

printed

it is advisable

period

it, and

or

of

intelligence existed

of

roads

among

would

news

from

absolutely supplanting
letters

and

When

established
be

retainer

manuscripts,

story.

well

counts
ac-

churchman,

increased

; therefore

was

the

by
or

historical

firmly

of

such

writer

that

end

the

printing

detailed

by

first of all

their

us

it

of

explain

to

professional writer

the

became

profession
no

is needed,

statesman

of

teU

century,

abroad, and

newspapers.

sent

influential

to

attained

been

first

"

supplemented

its stores

news

seventeenth

the

of the

it is

life is involved,

relatives, in days before


be

abound

periodicals

war

nature.

concerned,

always

imagination

improved, by

is rich

letters

in

English

and

or

hmnan

are

ns

facilities of communication

were

England

of

would

invented,

of the

find

we

of the

friends

from

to

what
in far-

occurrences

in

tragedy has

shall

origin

dear

told

be

to

tragedy of hmnan

that

so

the

"

and

old

of

of

implanted

the

great exercise

No

of

when

day,

the

hear

to

and

near

of war,

time

the

in

and

instinct

an

of

events

doing,

are

countries

off

ihe

to

half

1665

of

the

it.

they

were

HISTORY

ENGLISH

OF

JOURNALISM

uniformly called until the word

complement

of

sources

the word

to

historythan

existed

the

everything that
approved by
before

writer

the

If the

law

as

enforced,
strictly

printingto

2. Restricted

the number

all books

Archbishop
Chief

(the Lord

this the

purpose,

the

press.

value.
books

with

case

enactment
legislative

1. Restricted

the

it to

their

hence

was

was

printed

affectingprinted
is the Star Chamber

to notice

up, this decree

summed

3. Ordered

by

commit

and

June, 1586, codifyingall previousenactments.

of 23rd

Boughly

so

it is necessary

which
periodicals
Decree

more

first great

The

news.

for the

regards the licensingof ordinary


far

pelling
com-

be first of all read

deputed

to

exempt;

were

is,of
licensing-^that

officials

or

reason

throughout the century

printedto

allowed

was

this letters

From

of

as

valuable

more

printed periodicals.The

was

official

an

coined

was

''newspaper/'are

stringentsystem

"

newsletter

in the fact, that

of this is to be found
there

*'

of

and

London

be

universities.

the two

printers,and

of

to

"

perused,before being printed,

Canterbury

of London

Bishop

the

or

Justice,etc., for law books)

"

duty which

performed by deputies.

was

penaltiesfor infringingthese

The
months'

for the

imprisonment

six

regulationswere

printer and

three

months'

for

the vendor.

publicationof printed news

The

those

than

To

publish news

and

matter

was

of

liable to

was

other

the printingof ordinary


affecting
interference

an

books.

the affairs of State

with

royal prerogative,so

strictions
re-

that, apart from

the

licensing regulationsto be complied with, royal permission


had

directly or

could

be

King
"

published.

Henry

certain

of the

indirectlyto

VIII.

books

In the
a

brought
made

in and
on

burned

arms

before

obtained

thirty-sixth
year

proclamation

printedof

King's Ma'ties

be

newes

of the

in Scotland

"within

24

pain of ymprisonm'ent

prosperous
"
"

houres
".

of the

issued

was

any

which
after

news

reign

of

prohibiting
successes
were

to

be

tion
proclama-

in

HISTORY
world

the

OF

number,

matter

during

the years
in

be found
We

anything

has
or

must

appeared
is to

therefore,by ascertainingthe origin

publishersof

^the

"

in

to this book.

commence,

in the stationers

which

newsbooks

of foreignnews.
printedperiodical

of the

either

comparable

inclusive,a list of which

1649

to

Appendix

an

all

at

to the

manner

1643

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

This

their

day

is to be found
trade

to whose

"

printinghad given birth.


A writer

of the year

the

among

London,

and

has

begot

stationer

and

there

scrivener

The

for

that had

taken
of

also

played

humble

great

some

in

occasionallystill

to

the

one

"

roaring

Restraint
*

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"

that

it

of

singer,who

have

we

of
to

was

event

some

death

hanging

the

were

papers
printed news-

our

the song

"

even

or

fortune
mis-

or
a

derer
mur-

be

times, lingered long, and

encountered

to

nonsense

about

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Boies, who

To

heare

in

even

without

who

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met
was

nineteenth

Inquisitionof

doth

trivial

arrant

some

sing
ring

sent

leave Jack-a-Lent

then

the noise,

at 0-hone

Speech

the stationer

battle, or the

legg'dyarlet

Of Prentices

And

(1626),sings of

Persecutors

His

and

up,

involuntarilyas

Holland, in his

Abraham

One

splendid city.

great part in the production

almost

Stuart

or

who

stand

readie

teare,

women

ring forth

Doors," by Edmund

there

Hickeringill,Section

Y.,

of the Press.

Sally
"

despicable

no

"

scriveners."

ballad

'^

in

trade

incorporated into

of Stationers

ballad

be

old

an

seller
trades, the book-

beginning of

man,

The

everywhere

century.

all

but

none

place,whether

Tyburn.

at

are

reckoned

citybefore printingcame

the broadsheet

was

more

date, and it is with

later

two

Company

were

first to deal, for the

Paper

or

but
English periodical,

at

vidth

one

become

now

(or Hall) in this

enough

was

of booksellers

of the

the

Company

mean

is

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stationer,which

the

body poUtick called


nor

says

inventions

new

and

"

1689

descendant

of

the

ancient

but

cruel sport of throw-

INTRODUCTION.
with

direct aUnsion

event

of his

printed pamphlet,

taken

''

term

place.

narration/' and
"

I have

To

in

seen

I have

reckon

Doe

found

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in kitchen

witti'd Loobies

Of these Holland

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is't their fault alone

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made

hugges

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in North

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where
villages

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masse
asse

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only like such Toyes

monsters

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then

load

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things
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line

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is held

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itself insatiate

the world
these

nooks

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world

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requirea

would

bigger then

the blind

books
cobweb

maids, and rich

would

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divine.
a
Plumpton
If o'er the chimney they some
ballads have
Of Chevy Chase or of some
branded
slave
their
Matins
make
at
Hang'd
Tybome, they
And
Vespers too" and for the Bible take it.

at

of

news

in

to them

cocks.

extremely

are

numeroas,

in the Stationers'

entered

"relations"

these

work

it

as

also the

and numbers
contemporary literature,

to be found

When
ing

"

relations

are

of

titles which

the Terie

up

new
pleasethe prentices,

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them

"

pamphlets and the Toys


hands of Y iotoringboys

rail at all the merrie

Which

references

relation

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through

nixme

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**

times
some-

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companying
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day.

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news

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came

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down
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ballad

the
called

DEFINITIONS

Cf. Mercwrnu

became

Fwmigaavu,

Begisters.^

and
periodical,
21st-28th

of

when,

February, 1955,

p.

309:"
There
To

is mirth

With

leaden

Regain
With

their

chapt'Jack-a-Lent
sticks for pins and casters
losses,and disasters

Curses
The

at last

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cockney
the

fool

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blows-

for three

throws

flings
wings
coin is dry
doth fly.

empty coxcombe

touches

the sticks and

reprintof

left hand

all at twopence

venture

then

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merriment

trebble sticks and

To
And

and

flingat thin

the cock's
when
cock

covers
Registers

taile

his
away

the

or

whole

period up

to 1640.

mSTOEY

of

instead

OF
confined

being

continuously

and

Before

to

this

describinghow

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employ

describe

to

instance,has

device

was

no

the

week

fuller

no

growth, and

because

they

and

contents

their

to be the

happened

earlier

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titled

were

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catchword

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day.

books

periodicalswere
the

of

Charles

King
and

fashion of the

vulgarly

"relation".

which
1640

into

word

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of

in the

or

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the

mencing
com-

days of

the

Restoration

the

additions

doned
aban-

were

descriptive

The

of

currant"
^Italian in

comer

It therefore
titles used

"

version

French

no

until the

catchword

"gazet,"

survival)

also Italian

newspapers,

circulated

from

placed at

the bottom

be

to connect

books

in

to connect

used
justifiably
one

number

with

to

about

one

describe

the rest.

in

Venetian

well-known

order

year

employed.

the

the word

of

now

of it, " courant,"

far later date ; and


used and

^is

origin

referringto

of old
may

its

was

running

or

news,

occasionallyemployed (as

reallymeans

right-hand

another.

from

employed.

was
periodicals,

course

Catchword"

**

the

also

these

"

gazetti

"

at

use

earlier term,
describe

*'

expressionwas

other

origin,and
"

This

came
no

until

lengthy

alone

supplanted by

course

to

that

books

before

not

not

was

clearly).

early printed periodicalsof foreign news

"coranto,"

An

11.

the catchword

of the

name

it

Bebellion, and

Great

extreme

(i.e.,
pamphlets), and

phrase of the full title,but


the

the

this very

gradually evolved

was

that fact

and

in

wordy

were

of

news

descriptiveof

were

(the examples given in the Appendix show


All

This

English periodicals

full titles

often

very

Times, for

catchword.

publishedweekly,

were

word"
"catch-

The

to

and all the numbers


title,

earliest

They

; but

termed

common

the

alL

at

frequentlystated

their

and

to

necessary

accustomed

are

newspaper.^

together by this

catchword

had

is

other

no

connected

are

modem

We

conveniently be

most

may

about, it is

the time.

explain the terminology of

into existence.

came

came

on

story of foreign

the

"

newsbook

"

carried

single event, they

regular intervals

at

the first English

news,

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

of

page

the

page
with

the modem

INTRODUCTION.
middle

modem
in

the

in

word

either the

pricepaid for

it read.

each
it

assigned to
ancient

the

was

explanation is
the

the

of

term

the

the written

from

All

from

word

has

However,

book

of

and

of

"

"

books

**

news-sheet

news

refers

only

Parliament

one

of

all

this

; and

early

written
''

quarters ; the
"

ov

volumes,

our

coranti,''

relations," and

printed news

and

in the

together
"

employed
"

sheet

pamphlets

sheet {ue.,eight pages).

of

Later

etymology
satisfactory

seventeenth

tury
cen-

into

folded

unbound.

".

is

with
term

in the

fact,that

The

Oxford

Hence

invariably called ''books,"

were
"

"

the

to

of paper

sheets

more

finally news-books

though
the

previous

yet received

not

news

ever

the

"

pamphlets.

if stitched

"

was

to

Gazette

"gazetti'* were

pamphlet

or

"

and

books

of

Gazette

news

were

pamphlet

pamphlets

these

The

news.

of the

quarto pages

as

treasury and

differentiate the

to

(16th Nov., 1665)

Athenian

printed running

were

Gazette

was

the

signifieda

The

English periodicalsof

elucidation.

clearlyabsurd

general title

one.

introduced

was

meaning

yd^a, a treasury. The

word

''Gkbza

collected

hand,

second

of chatterers.

reverse

the Athenian

true

news

other

the

it for the

entitle them

designingto

on

is

says:

reserve

we

treasuries

which

published called

Mercury,

ing
the fee for hear-

Society,publishedin 1693, referringto

Athenian

periodicalthen

ancient

the

extremely improbable,and
The

the Greek

from

the

farthingsin value,

three

periodical
or

"magpie,"

assigned to

refer to

to

inadequate.

periodicalsare

History of the

therefore

is

case

third is derived

Casuistical

the

conjecturesare

Both

fee in

the

about

coin of that name,

be found

not

England.
been

held

pioneers of

the

would

terms

have

been

takably
points unmis-

were

Northern

as

meanings
It has

''gazzetta".

Venetian

country

alternative

Three

the

term

Italians

the

otherwise

far-off

so

This

century.

fact, that

newspapers,

use

as

sixteenth

of the
to

DEFINITIONS

news
on

regard
often

such

term

to the

news-

the

it

Long

restricted to

sheets

as

employed,

early days of
were

two

No

one

(sixteen pages)

HISTORY

became

The

sheets.
of the

date

the

refer to

letter of

which
periodicals
"

book

ENGLISH

rule,and the early

the

of three
to

OF

'*

or

"

term

also
The

in folio

"

two

"

at

pages

"

names

coranto/'

"pamphlet"

neither

and

with

word

"

written

the

word

"

of

this

"

newsbook,"
"letters

the

into

came

"

of the

tion
the introduc-

appUed

periodical'

word, and the

seventeenth

newsbook

"

was

other

no

therefore,
Oxford Oazeitte,

term

was

being
"

newspaper".

"

terms

intelligence,"sheet

prior to

The

of

being,

the

for which

of

found

".

newspaper

vendor

modem

or

be

can

publisher

to the

the writer

like

news,

"

news

the first English

was

"

or

sheet.

that of "newsletter"

newspaper,

"paper"

"

sheet

nor

expression newsbook,

letter of

"

and

of the

book

"

"paper"

old

the

and

expressionthan
of news"

pamphlet

existing

states, " half

Anthony " Wood

"

appliedto

afterwards

quite a

to

"news-

its continuation, the still

intelligence". From

paper"

not

up

taken

"is

(for journal) and

dubbed

once

by analogy

and

been

have

the

though

and
as

was,

"of

or

The

newspaper,

term, therefore,for the

proper

not, therefore, be called

was

'newes

or

appeared after the "corantos

Gazette

Gazette,

news"

usually consisted

employed.

London

and

"

corantos

news-sheet/'

The

news.

newsbook/'

Oxford

It could

"

Oxford Oazette, would

"intelligence,""diurnal"
were

JOURNALISM

author,"

"

the

to

also is
for

term

century
once

"

Editor

writer

bringing

more

to Henry Muddiman,
privilegedjournalist
Eiamples : Tlios. Swan
date given had
at the
been
of the Restoration,who
supplanted by
of
of news
then privilegedwriter
the IdUn
L'Estrange,and was
only,
and give you many
12th October, 1003 : '' I received your lastjMiper
thanks
of your
and I hope it will continue
and that I shall have
renewal
a
respondence
cor'*
(S. P. Dom., Ohas. IL, 81, No. M).
By this post I
^

"

send

Muddiman

to a

Monday
1670).
*

use

of the

Perrot, second
last past

E.g,j The

gazett and

sheet

correspondent(S. P. Dom., Ghas.

earliest known
Oharles

with

letter franok

"

(i.e.,
written)by

Chas.

of Europe, No.

Pendred.

written

'*

news"

IE.,152, No.

is contained

newspaper

editor of the ChuetU

(8. P. Dom.,

Phoenix

W.

term

of

I wanted

11.,278, No.

38)).

in

your

148, 10th

1, 16th January, 1646.

(H.
The

letter t6

newes

paper

September,
Published

INTRODUCTION.

DEFINITIONS

relief the fact that it

into

newsbook

also

bookseller^s.

The

The
with

An
"

the estabUshment

was

London
IjondoiL

and
the

In

Every

Tuesday

London.

For

the

the

which

made

chiefly through

Harwich.

1647

in 1648

post

for the

states,

second

first number
the

as

into

of A

with
Some
books
vdth

time
"

At

to the

publishedon

marking

of

the

date
the

and
week.

from

country

further

any

day

letters

the

the

as

the

lished
pubhave

to

of the

year

established,

was

(7th April,1649)
that

well

news-

were

end

country

as

''

seems

Narrative

newsbook

the
"

and

it

"by

was

Tuesday

as

of

promising not
published on

was

date, however,

Fridays had

assumed

Mondays,

shall

postalarrangements

the

modem

carried

who

of

an

wished

''news-

date

of the

not

be

the

second

taken

to

immense

postal system
official

the

continued

into effect under

institution
authors

of

they received

fere
inter-

Thursdays.

the

must

introduction

to

equal importance

therefore

Narrative

the

after the Bestoration

the reforms

"

this

of the Modest

this time

Until
''

that

as

published on

development,

from

country

previously to

first number

and

for the

"

foreignnews

those

From

tween
be-

arrived,but it is probable

its appearance,

for

excuse

news-

day for spreading letters by the post,"adding that it

designed

was

what

on

news

Authority provided that Saturday


be

the

Wednesdays

Modest

"

post

one

prevented

war

Continental

arrived
or

of the

specialityof foreign news

Thursdays.

on

only

ihe Continent
on

1648

Continent

the

was

quite certain

country and

in

regular postal services

sent

were

years

It is not

Mabbott

or

separately(Chapter IX.).

there

they usually arrived

that

books"

few

and

development
of

1641

year

the

country, and

the

letters
a

development.
from

in the

factor

stationer's

not

terminology employed

the

to it will be dealt with

important

of

of this.

subjectof advertisingand

regard

books

and

illustration

an

copyright

The

Dillingham

of

case

(detailedlater on) is

book.

author's

the

was

was

post.

improve,
amount

dating entirely

Charles

11.

journals,therefore,

to

obtain

as

"

the

specialcorre-

mSTORT

10

''

spondents

privilege

their

letters

send

for

return

CromweU,

could

carefully

of

the

to

they

by

newsbooks

in

under

published
its

owes

total

the

the

newsbooks

liberty
of

all
fell

circulation

the

origin

to

of

suppression

was

power,
into

to

the

at

exist,

public
disrepute.

the

as

interest

the
to

as

the
in

days
the

journals
the

report
the

ceedings
proday
every-

formed
their

or

when

newsbooks

the

prosperity.

infringement

an

Restoration,
in

official

newspapers,
of

mense
im-

an

intelligence,

been

always

backbone

withdrawn,

of

letters

liberty

and

such

gave

what

have

newsbooks
and

tell
the

which

Parliament,
ceased

to

on

the

of

Finally

English

which

journalism

relied

be

of

itself

and

official

ParUament,

privileges

usurped

glad

too

way.

State,

accompanied

of

this

When

this

was

power

only
his

with

of

in

was

periodicals

Secretaries

suppressed.

fare

staple

is

that

was

this

was

they

in

permission
expresses*

those

author

sent

gain

the

periodicals.

impetus
for

the

and

licensed
It

inteUigence

of

to

(uncensored)

news

journalism,

supervision

subservience

curry

obtain

to

to

or

to

Government

the

newsbook

the

order

news,

with

for

of

any

Official

all

letters

and

supplied,

in

of

letters

bound

were

authority,

their

motive

elsewhere

or

army

own

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

in

seeing

additional

thus

the

those

of

send

An

to

with

with

favour

to

OF

when

of

the

ment
ParliaCromwell

flagged

12

HISTOEY

writers

of

brothers

it

OF

varied), and

and

and

monastery,

church

of St. Paul

to the

and

enjoyed a great vogue.

''

translation

and

discourse

attention
On

18th

Calvert

that

he

thereof

"so

full

"

he had

stayed

that it had

proves

In 1613
married

Frederic

nation

had

and

Germany
with

become

Protestant
tells us,

Howell

request
"

Dutch
in The

"

Schoole

write

one

you

upon

him

and

good

memory

chronicled
The

in

*'

"relations

of these
battle

'*

in

"not

says,

fly between

bullet

from

his

arms

"

in

England.
and

Ehine,

the
in

sympathised

at this

was

the

and

time,

in

great
**

"

Dutch

or

Low

Shirley,

play by giving a

soldier shall lose


shall have

contradiction

have

or

page

but

hour's

an

hair

to

wait
of

want

they

scription
de-

would

book," who
at

as

penniless

were

part of Europe

they escape

the

struggles in

the

England

High

warrant.

Elizabeth, had

quarto, nothing destroys 'em


for if

together,

for the booksellers.

but

his

despicable

*'

by express

captainswithout
any

Secretary

years

Countries

of Complement, opens

of

warning,"

4th

write

and

of

Low

translations

to make

it

Amsterdam

the

the

relations ".

to

what

great staple of news,"

from

called

thirty-fifth
page

Princess

Protestant

''the

English soldiers

the

keenly interested

Germany.

**

wrote

circulation

Palatine

Bohemia.

he

for many

extensive

Prince

thus

been

daughter, the

I.'s

James

which

for

in

publishingof

an

published

indignitiestowards

knew

he

had

further

the

mine

about

falsities and

of

or

Booth

evidentlyattracted
a

as

passage

^'author"

the

This

Keeper Lincoln

that, although

esteem"

This

found

Eobert
number

it

to

October, 1623, Lord

majestic

of

delight'\

Stationers

of 50

occasionallyillustrated,

was

In 1614

abridgment

of the

old

of the

canon

half-yearlyvolumes

in

1635,

year

full of

ral
cathed-

of the

Cologne.

at

pages,

up

Detten,

priests,

two

to

*'coactor"

Henry

100

and

subsequentlyappeared

It

dedicated

was

Detten, vicar

^John

"

JOUENALISM

ENGLISH

may

be

".
''relations"

August, 1621,

soon

John

developed
Chamberlain

into

periodical.On

informed

his patron

CORANTOS.

THE

Carleton, Ambassador

Dudley
had
it

disregarded,and

was

with

all

of

manner

frequentlyas
A few

generM
entry

the

(dated

Stationers'

series

DtUed

May,

books

by

mistake

in

It

23

week

British

the

by

the

Currant

of
this

with

the

No

number

next

entered

in

the

21st), the second


booksellers

same

from

the

"

in the

^isto be found

"

in

occurs

journalism.

the

Bourne

last, and

translated

was

and

Dutch,

Weekdy Newesfrom Italy,Oermanie,

ofMay.

PalaUnate, France,

giving a

were

the very

and

the Low

bore

each

case,

dates

1622):

dated

as

Nicholas

and

nearly every
The

periodical.

presumably

succeeding numbers

the

of

of May

and

published every

Hungaria, Bohemia,
Of

appearing so

were

is in existence, but

of

calls itself : The

eto.

"

relations

''

lith

23rd

Collection.

Bumey

has

history of

pamphlet

week"

every

expression probably only


the

the

the

Archer

Thomcus

State, but

be

Registers (18th May,

newea.

of this

of

later,however, the followingentry

months

commences

copy

tion
proclama-

can

the character

assume

Stationers'

the

of

to

published

however,
periodical,

No

news.

fact that

to the

13

that

Hague,

''oorantos

Chamberlain's

traced, and
reference

at the

1641

againstdiscussingmatters

issued

been

TO

1622

similar

Countries,

title,different

synopsis of its

tents.
con-

conspicuous commencement

of the titles.
The

credit
is due

therefore

alone,

no

either

of the

had

at

the

commenced
all his

1603, when

he

letter

Umehing

of February 1603

English periodical

and

Nicholas

until

period,or

Pope's

of

comer

Bourne
his

Head

career

as

ccncermng

of

newes

the

sent

was

against

over

Alley and

Head

from

as

books

Thomaa

taking

19th
A

Amsterdam

fightof five Duohe

with

Cottington.

newsmonger,

far back

of the

associated

Exchange.

Stationers'

in the

relacion

Pope's

Bourne

the end

Palace

the

at

contemporaries,so

entered
a

licenser

of the

name

Nicholas

priorityof

Archer

this

lived in

Shoe,

Comhill, and
Archer

The

Archer

Horse

Thomas

first

the

following September, being

of them"

Thomas
the

to

else before

one

first week

publishing

of

March,

copie of
the 21

shipsin

the

HISTORY

14

Eckste

Indies

become

bore

and

this

from

in turn

names

of October, 1622.
there

It

was

with

By

deoaied

some

hungry

betwixt

terms

such

see

Bufc to behold

other

and

Sheff-

Bourne

the

second

that

even

at

walls

and

posts.

the walls
in Pauls

oomposed
those

Rooks

compile prodigiousbooks

everie

stand.

and

thus

besmeare

week

door

church

lies would

shameful

make

satirist and

and

torment

impostors that

Are

A.RO.D.".F.a.

both

paper,

these

trumperies do

and

in it had

Only occasionallydoes

(.

''corantos," and

once

competitor
the

Butter

with

address

whom
of

one

men

and

presse,

pen

utter

.)
news

was

thus

interest from

appear

to have

booksellers

who

there

is to
he

in existence,

attached, though

financial

various

the

spight

write

periodicalof weekly

competition between

in

man

varying publishers'names

mentioned

to heare

againstthese shamelesse

lines

Th'

nameless

Sometimes

the

preparationsand
him and th' Emperor

Batter

publike post

Who,

that

"

Revenging

time.

from

each

system of advertisingthese periodicals

Captaine^ or

Of nature, turn

with

perfectlyclear

brains

How

These

those

of

and

seems

weekly Newes

(HboT*s

Each

with

Archer

numbered

Ot Bethlem

To

news

"

Butter'd

weekly

Whose

adds

with

lowed.
fol-

otherwise

contents

week

to

displayed on

And

the

were

bills

contents

writes

Holland

week

that

would

that the

great

Tartailo

others

which

Andrew

Butter, Newbery, Downes

their

early date

Don

of many

descriptiveof

'^corantos"

the

by

Admiral

stated
briefly

varied

associated
that

week

be

Nathaniel

"

tvae

account

an

title

which

stationers
"

curtail

tedious,it may

number,

JOURNALISM

title is illastrative

to

issued

now

gallies
whereof

order

In

aid

22

The

Mendoxa.

ENGLISH

against the PortingaU flete oonsistinge


of

and

gcdUons

OF

be

found

afterwards

bookseller

time
been

all
to

any

published

remonstrating
joined forces.

will be found

on

C0EANT08.

THE

of

periodicalwhen

the

publishers, and

occasionallythe

in the

origin,as
1623,

which

Gazet.

Nu.

Mercwrhu
title,

consisted

have

been

than

the later

sold at

; there

to

necessary

in

newsbooks, which

is

evidence

no

that he

who

the

ever

the

that

supposed
did not

after

attached

to

Chamberlain
times.

He

Cambridge,
on

his

the

called

in

whole

of

news.

as

the

and

of the

to be

Horace

periodicals.

embassy
His

man.

just before

his death
bom

to

Venice, and

letters of

news

was

extend

over

scriveners,but
patron.

Walpole

accompanied his patron, Dudley

at

John

it cannot

had

1554, educated

play

posted all

or

their

who

were

bom

first

was

been

staple

".
it is

Jonson,

left

of clerks
man

two

newswriters

was

observant

Pory

great

Ben

Locke,

news

"

corantos

"

writers

to

newswriter

of the times

"

manner

some

has

the

were

letters of

"

write

country

were

they

"

has

Thomas

and

Pory

appear

higher rate

London

'*

newswriters

''

these

of

buy

only their publisher

was

works

to

comes

consistingof

was

subjectand

leadingLondon

pamphlets

much

when

or

in

the first running

they would

the known
consider,firstly,

to

sole

as

became

who

who

each,

wrote

the

Gate,

publisher,

left

carried

Butter

penny.

decide

to

Chamberlain, John

They

''Ital.

were

woman

even

market
ridiculinga supposititious

be

marked

twenty-four pages, and,

groat or fourpence

continuallyrecurs
The

August,

early news

of Newes,"

day, and, secondly,

the

29th

chief

Archer,

These

sheets

Staple

at

order

Bourne

of the old

sold

were

In

and

periodicalwhich

the remark
"

the

however,

Britannicus.

in Jonson's

sheets

is also

Thomas

usually of three

judging from
news

dated

as

their

periodicalsbetray
46

was,

compete with

to

publisherof

the

1625

appear

Butter, of the Pyde Bull, St. Austin's

eventually, in 1624, he

pubhshers

15

prio."
Churchyard,

Paul's

and

of

numbered

1641

booksellers

other

''coranto"

of the

though

Nathaniel
St.

names

case

TO

1622

of his

TrinityCollege,

Carleton,

cultured

from

1598

and
until

in 1627.

about

1570,

was

educated

at Gonville

and

16

mSTOEY

Cains

College,and

been

had

Africa, and

letters of

news

days in England

in

His
his

spent the balk

1624

to

attainments.

written

Parliament, had

Enrope, towards

travellingover
end

of

down

J0UBNALI8M

possessed of eqnal

was

member

ENGLISH

OP

the end

of his

with

1624, and

book

in

tinople.
Constan-

his retnm
to the

extend

on

time

residingat

commence

He

to

date

of

his death.
Of
he

his

written

only

only to Carleton,

well educated.

and
intelligent
the

his

absence
hid

that he

was

is therefore

actually written

have

may

that

Locke

Thomas

of the three who

one

reveal

that

"coranto".

When

Ben

Jonson

Countries

Low
combat
As

for

described

he

the

Jonson's

was

"

"

tell the truth


be true.

research

of the

about

his

says,

longer

"

story of

benefit of
'"

Tyburn

T ".

He

Middlesex

the

"

ated
culmin-

Poetaster,"Dekker

with
"

Satiro-Mastix

"

though

short

he

his
on

his repentance

tion
accusa-

his return

from

latter's sword
detail.

Modem
a

seriously against

life

by claiming

the thumb

period

not

pleaded guiltyto

militates

branded

was

Dekker's

the

improbable

fact,that

".

^isrepresentedas

"

player on

and

most

the

spent

he showed

When

king".

and
exploits,

duel, escaped with

clergy,"and

during which
^

this,the story is probably

sword

charge of felony for this, which


his

single

of Hawthomden.

dramatist, Dekker,

killed

had

he

that

grounds for statingthat he did

are

established

has

rival

in the

army

had

"tavern

followingyear,

man

He

duel

inches

ten

the

There

Holland, in

to

production of

the

vnth

coward.

may

witness

the

he

There

Drummond

to

only

quarrel with

this Jonson

always

him

by

revenged himself, in
rank

time.

short

joined the

he

young

pot-valiant tale of

in 1601

Li

was

is the

himself

but

"

during

embassies, apparently being his steward, and

letters of news,
both

fact

the

beyond

affairs

Carleton's

Dudley

managed

on

little is known,

Locke

Thomas

of time

by being

with
in

the
the

prison,

converted

County Records,yol. ii.,by J. 0. Jeaffireson.

C0RANT08.

THE
to

Catholicism, and he
for twelve

constant

It

be

may

cowardice

from

the

about

truth

his
"

savage

f^

Dekker

Jonson's

epigram

To

the

suggestionthat

Captain

embraced.

idea

the Low

Countries, who

there, and

single combat.
"

of

Jonson's

who

If

knew
credited
dis-

had

Jonson's

so,

its

newswriter, with

spy, is

was

been

have

the

Captain Hungry,

''

17

received

conduct

story of the
"

faith he then

to the

soldier from

1641

subsequentlyprofessedto

years

that

TO

1622

explained.

what

Do

That's sit and

eat" do not my

Tell the gross


Tell them
What

them

Dutch
.

those

His

lies

your

Tour

etc
Villeroysand Silleries,

epigram

"

he

did

the

''

epigram

arrival

of

Ambassador

''

The
upon

given by

to be

not

"

the

may

have

true

nay

in

1613

declaration

of

aoeompaniedhim)

the United

John

sent

by

Captain ".

fact, that

others that

Turk, etc}

the

he

Turkey, and the date of

by

of

than

for the

angry

entitled

Haga (with

Soldiers,and

more

any

"

to

settled

True

Netherlands, at
the

Pory

entertainment

first went

the account

from

to

which

taken.
next

Vulcan

reference

his beloved

to the

*'

in 1623, after the


Jonson's

devoted

actions

my

relation

To

great profession,"and say

''

generalStates

the

"

cityof Constantinople. Together with

them

was

by

of the

are
itself,

Turkey in 1613, and


this

of the reference

Cornelius

for

the great
unto

it

publisheda

Archer
the

to write

meaning
"

is addressed

he desires them

pen," and
The

"

shame

not

statesmen

young

finds it necessary
**

Sweden, pompous
Poland, Turkey too

and

in pay

yet keepsycu

embassies

services,and

Give

next

tales of yours

grosser

your

Hungary

In Ireland, Holland,
In

news

your

abuse

ears

you've gulled,and which

states

Oiye

for, oaptain,with

oome

you

books,

Ubrary
he

writes

Captain
weekly

had
that

been

"

''

is in An
corantos

burned, and

he would

rather

flames

to the
^

Reprinted

in the Harleian

MiaeeUanies,

Execration
"

had

menced.
com-

instead
have

of

seen

18

HISTORY

OF

ENGLISH

JOURNALISM

Captain Pamphlets hone and foot that aally


Upon the Exchange, out of Pope's Head Alley
The weekly Ooirants
with Paul's seal and all.

cigainthe

Here

Archer

with
Printers
Newes

of

for

anything
".

newes

death.

comes

to

'

Do,

good

Jonson

copy

'

the

some

have

Fob.

It

"

mark

patience,it

as

hand,

the

ghost

some

is told

when

Maid

Inn,

think

to

resison

the

the

of

the passage

occurs

"

Ijdng stationer, a spiritshall

of some

melt

not

is

there

play

is not

period
woman

staple,she

which
had

the

old

the

Fair

it be

false,so

or

Captain

in Fletcher's

And

would

if butter

it true

''give

to

in the office of the

have

shall be

''

to the

Alley.

at in the masque,

being ready

as

tion
connec-

Head

Pope's

glanced

be

now,

in

in

now

"

Staple of Newes, when

news

lived ".

lived

the Moon,

references

woman,

may

as

good

writing of

the

look

in

In

bay

Captain

in

World

More

of his

**

is mentioned

already been

had

the

"

for Archer

"

news

from

Captain

''

in his mouth,

Mercwriiu

new

Oallo-

Btlgicus.
Cox

The

O, there

Captain

''

type, and

that

letters

there

Excluding
been

have
In

at

1598

Francis

Gainsford

my

yery

and

gazets ".

Gainsford

Thomas

known

in

time
Dom.,
Times

to

Jas.

clearlyGkiinsford

in the

One

of John

you

No.

as

of

to

who

Her

misspellthe
original

tioning
men-

our

Earl

the

Both
name

was

the
as

likelyto
Gainsford.

of Essex

have

Majesty

not

was

Francis

that

one

6.

in

Gainsford

author, who

Captain

was

service

of James

Staple of

the

wrote

L^ 172,

the

previous week,

the

Captain

"

grudge.

September, 1624, and,


them

gazet-maker

spent

Court

of

when

not

to his identification.

plague during

the

myself

S. P.

4th

on

had

written.

were

gives the key

now

among

was

Jonson

by 1625,

Inn

and

person

all, the only Captain Gainsford

make

the

from

maker

or

newsmonger

soldier

of

deaths

the
states

actual

an

dead

was

to Carleton

wrote

at it,etc.

rare

was

"

Maid

Fair

Chamberlain's
He

therefore

Captain

*'

and

Newes

"

oaptainwcu

ol4 soldier against whom

an

this

And

ufM

"

continually
in

Calendar

the
and

'^Gkdnford".

Low
Birch's
It

is

HISTORY

20

little

modest
would

Jonson's

attack

Gainsford
the

Sir

Richard

same

of

why

reason

become

Ulster

was

to his

explained. According
have

to

in

land

no

driven

by

addressed

to

Francis
"

found

should'

have

attacked

"factor"

of

"

keep

is

must

1612, which

would

quite

war

in the Low

puritan news,

my

Then

that

he adds

said

of

wrote

equally in accordance
that

Jonson,

had

thousand

"a

hundred,"

and

he

hopes

writer

"

to erect

play which

later.

Here

it is

writer

of

printed periodical.

Gainsford

died.

The

of letters who

fact

that

Before

Newea

described

who

week

goes

to

on

for which
religions,
I have

I
my

pontificalnews".

my
a

actually

letters

and

all

he

with

his masque,

In

protestant news,

of the

all that is known

of all ranks, and

forecastingthe

long, thus

"

in

helper in his work

answering catalogue of dispatch wherein

an

possibly

".

it is

twelve

friends

I have

living,the

him

to

relation

Jonson

Chamberlain.

who

news

ordinary, sometimes
say,

for

Worlds produced in 1620, he

New

the

from

was

London

account, Ben

confirm

And

been

already

has

what

Dunstans,

settlingin

given

grant

of St.

wars

patron and

of the latter.

character

1612

"

Chamberlain, it would

John

in

and

Gainsford, and the resulting epigram

Captain Hungry

If Gainsford

of

Margaret

of his stories of the

explaina possibleexposure
Countries

own

Gray

John

and

Gainsford

the

about

Protestant

as

his

he

was

received

Gainsford

described

nor

"recusancy"

the

reason

John

then

been

had

theirs,and

Francis

1601

Idbury, Oxford,

writing the "corantos," Francis

and
of

of

of

secondary

Dekker.

In

family.

probable from

seems

newspapers

Surrey Gainsfords"

for the

both

Gainsford, widow,

If, as

quarrel with

benefits

the

Wigmore

London.

having

the

parts of the land

of two

explained as

Gainsford

John

Margaret and

of

of

grant

to them.

of the

one

English

of chimeras

his

from

branch

Essex

received

be

may

not

was

JOURNALISM

into the modem

the wildest

quite apart

cause

of

pamphlets

been

have

ENGLISH

OF

staplefor

"

ere

newes

appeared five
is satirised
the

Chamberlain

"

years

not

the

play appeared
is attacked

in

CORANTOS.

THE

is

therefore

play

the

rendered

newswriters, for it would

be

Before
tune's

the

1626.

In the

humbler

for Chamberlain

It

dialoguebetween

the

of the

says

his

"

olla

to

pick

up

after newes,"

and

gender, hees

and

(Chamberlain

been

and

the

"

poet,"

personifieddishes;
quest of enquiry

''on

are

"And

of the

Epicene

Archy

is the

chief".

adds

son,

unmarried.

had

of

it

until

performed
"

cook

shees, Amphibian

died

fool,who

they

boy, his

the

*'

Nep-

written, and

not

was

of

masque

was

podrida"

that

persons

the

of Albion

Chamberlain.

describes

the cook

BePwm

the

Triumph for

Court

the

to

''emissary"

an

as

play appeared, however,

clearlyattacked

he

him

of

sort

some

argues

by

21

Change.

on

news

1641

only natural

employ Captain Gainsford

to

TO

noticeable, and

assistance

patronage and

1622

Archy

to

Spain

with

Good

boy.

The

Have

you

Armstrong
Prince

the

was

Charles

and

Buckingham.)
cook

The
but

note

garlic?

Boy
his

for

bread

The

in

"one

the

Grave

to

Giblets

and
his

"

"

Ambler

is

now

that

is, has

taken

"They

are

was

contemporary

"kitchen"
at

coat/' that

kitchen

and
that

"giblets"

time

in

is clothed
A

Britannicus.

pression
ex-

nership.
part-

with

lines

few

of the

contents

"

Ambler,

and

play upon

is Buz,

he,

as

Master

writer

the

"

Bourne,

MerouHm

Supplies your oapon


emissary,under
Both

Cook:

cook, again referringto the

podrida,"says

strong

seasoning".

therefore

Butter

refers

pseudonym,
on

"

contempt;
to

him".

as

too ;

pot for

the

expressionfor seasoning,and

an

butter.

was

into

shall stink

with

of the

child is learned

put him

in his coat

Giblets

was

evidentlyrefer

oUa

One

"

of

"

"

friend

Kitchen

farther

give a part

that
"

on

kitchen.

the

"

sir, and
two

"

goes

who

master

newes

and

age

oaptain,Buz,
Turkey.

grown

writes for

the

justifythe

Chamberlain's
has

Gainsford's

o' Pauls

"grown"
place.

name.

to

that

statement

be

Master

His

"

sary"
emis-

"captain"
Ambler

"

is

22

once

more

the

HISTORY
introduced

same

middle

aisle

easilyidentified
of the

one

who

buttering"

old

news.

who

is

fifth

scene

what

Pontifical

"

Fellows

all that

now

Merourius

of the

that

Among
attributed

Wilson,
1621;

"

the State

(in

him.

with

to't.

same

question is asked,

For

in

him

the

.''But

"

he

where

wont

was

to

get

dark

and

room

eat

sausage

the former

of the

or

in the

is

"raft memorandum

of

1619-1623)

in

the

addressed

to

handwriting of

probably sent

or

shown

numbered
to

Sir

to

point

Thomas
the

to

have

we

any

one,

or

and

out

most

Wilson,

internal,to
has

first
It is

seen.

Sir Thomas

year

the

following year

clearlya draft,which
are

"

letter,

or

assigned

arisen, as

evidence, either external


It is

Britannicus

it will be best to

"

Becords, and

to have

known

publishing a periodical

was

name

employer

periodical.

papers

paragraphs of which
was

the

Protestant

news,

describingMeretmue

apparently because

is not

it with

the

Staph of Newes

the

time

Calendar

the

Keeper

any

rascal

Finally,in

writer.

to this ?

with

at the

signed, dated,

is there

as

statesmen

Before

name.

periodicalis
not

is

Britannicm, therefore, was

possibleoriginof

duced
is intro-

Butter

charge is saved.

the first "newsbook


out

and

stand

to drink

Captain, and

under

")

O, air,he gaina by't half in half-

Nay more, 111


hungry Oaptaines,obscure
:

of

Koster

"

or

simply

"Reformed

Britannicus

Cymbal

be

can

titles his seven-year-

new

of the

news,"

principal character. Cymbal,

to

recurs

"

Foreign Posts.

the

first act

the

says M"rcurius

FiTTON

in

of

printing,and

to

Buz,

Buz

Hans

Coester

"

names

sellingunder

is not

reference

''my froy Hans

Quester (an anglicisedform

de

Master

and

up

of

Cymbal

also

play,but quite openly,and

opposed

and

news,

and

in the

walks

who

paced gentleman

Dutch

or

He

sneering

Staple of Newts, produced in

the

Mathew

as

at the time

was

JOURNALISM

emissary Exchange".

German

into the
"

fine

Pauls/'

at

he's

Dutchman,

into

''

year

ENGLISH

OF

been

of their

suredly
asnor

connect

altered,the
order, and

Secretary of State Calvert

or

CORANTOS.

THE
for

Conway

When
liocke

in

for Carleton
document

and

with

all to

occurrents

which

without

for "20

patent of this

to

writer

The
advices

much

as

from

winds

that I should

means

to

coincided

of

Overseers
will

he

for

pains

our

weekly

for this

none

will

we

for

give us
we

give

seeing
over-

have

may

he

historical

in the world

"procuring
is ''a

proposes
memorial

".

The

the time

at about

with

that

chargeableand nothing

course

shall pass

Pory fixes the date of this

in 1624, which

ship
lord-

your

parts, that

that

so

me

the

always be

ready of whatsoever

other

he shall

as

is to

that

states

The

King that Mr

us

by pointing out

foreignparts

profitable,"and

peer.

assigns."

our

up

lord,"

print the gazetts or

more,

year

and

us

of

licence, and

rent

each

get from
our

printed,that

to

leave to

yet

to be the

patent

not

suitor to the

shall be

shall

we

give his Majesty


books

to be

annum

per

my

and

My

**

as

suit is that

"

end,

that

give us

print them

though

receive

may

fee of "20

us

the

humanity

unto

addressing ihim

of

leave

give me

of

23

Chamberlain

Carleton,

ambassador

towards

Pory and myself

may

habit

an

says

all books

Dudley

to

the

was

would

1641

Locka

writing

were

TO

handwriting strongly resembles

The

approval.

of Thomas

that

1622

always
reference

of his

the date of Francis

return

Gainsford's

death.

Previously

making

to

out

for the

settingup

to settle

some

the

of

such

reports

never

would
times

gazetts as
to

as

best make

may

have

such

been

drawn

afford many
from

the

all parts

out

of

the

revolt

It

was

sliding
back-

or

(which commonly
in

them

by

by speeding amongst them

for that matter


".

of

newsbook.

vulgar) to draw

to which

Of this he continues,

precedents

centre

inducements

and

shall be any

obedience

the

among

lines that drew

same

there

religionor

rumours

upon

official British

an

that when

way

in matter
grows

of

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28

HISTORY

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1643

31

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called

volumes

similar titles.

with

aboUshing the Star

In
a

barrister,and

or

also to

1643

JUNE.

mortgage broker,the conveyancing

the

circulated in the country.

were

14TH

terms, appliednot

synonymous

filled the

TO

PABLIAMBNT

LONG

Parliament

Chamber,

had

thought of freeingthe press, and

moment

from

conferringfreedom
their

and

bishops

licensing
;

journalsof

the House

have

at

of Lords

still less

object.

sole

show, that

of

abolition of the

for the
their

was
jurisdiction

for

not

committee

The

must
^-

been

Chamber,
Of

appointed on

once

consider

to

its actual

appointment

unlicensed

books".
was

November

men's

tidingsof

to the flames

The

The

Clark

shows

good-aizedmanual
is the

of all kinds

and

very

by

the

laid at

of

the seventeenth

century.
3

condition.
added

door

the

of

month

excited

fuel

of

the

(July,1666),printed by
precedenta in oonveyano-

were

entrusted

to

son

veners.

of the

City Guilds,
Letter," and inoorpor*

rank

the ** Writers of the Court


known
as
originally
to low circumstances," it
Being "reduced
of Coachmakers
Noble Street, Cheapside, to the Company
was

Eing

the

in Ireland

forty-fourthin

ated in 1616.

again on

meet

between

Serivener^i Guide

that indentures

Company

were

20th

and

massacre

atrocities

and

press.

on

printing pamphlets

day, and

in

were

rebellion and

; awful

CompUai

Scriveners'

breach

The

minds

T. R. for H. Twif ord, is a

ing,which

of

to

''

Star

the

record, but

no

ordered

was

widening day by

Parliament

The

is

there

complaints made

of the

abolition of

question of regulatingthe

the

October, 1641, the committee


account

the

sold its hall in


at

the

end

of

native

Irish,and

On

about

Parliament, and

in

too

was

scriveners

alluded

permission to

it

have

clerks, or

Printing was
but

in

himself
the

delighted in.

worth

by

then

came

This

was

the

all other

things

first step to

the

to live

the

of

year

of

being

15/-

the

proceedings

true

which
of

and

gentlemen

of

gain

to

more

the

printed

the

of the

supposed, who

in hope

true

stead
in-

unquestionable, and

were

was

of

fttU of

Presse

last remarkable

others, put

that

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first inventors

same,

But
of

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of A

it is

printing

concerning

passages

good

author

contented

be

not

till

and

Parliament

other

the

the

obtained

had

he

might gain by writing

he

week, which

clerk, as

could

singleman

too

opportunity, and

copied
The

"

in

Printing Pamphlets

of

The

printed.

Pamphlets (April,1642) writes


Art

his

news

month

appeared.

news

seen

letter of

of the

end

the

at

had

to

his

having

of

story

no

them.

first printed periodicalof domestic


the

and

gross

1641, letters concerning the outrages

November,

11th
read

were

believed

to be

improbable

falsehood

no

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OP

HISTORY

34

first copy

to

false

ruinating

printer,and

the

to

of

of

the

presse.
tribe

of

clerka"

published
The

This

Severail

of

pamphlet

according to
title

its contents, and

Nathaniel

Dvu/maU

the

20th

on

Butter

10th

and

February;

True

DtumaU,

as

written
but

it

by William

was

dependent
periodical,

an

for

WWH

inside
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for J. T. and

publisheron

3rd

another

Cooke.

with

Irish

Bladen,

intermittent

it9

became

appeared

January

dealing

of its title
the

printed

was

title.

Parliament,

December

joined Thomas
on

Present

outside, and

pamphlet

outside

as

variations

Occurrences,printed for William

IrdanSs

printed

the

to

1641-42, and

January,

the

appeared weekly, with

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T. B.

Proceedings in

transferred

was

1641, 1. T. (John Thomas)

eight-page pamphlet, having

an

Heads

November,

29th

Accordingly,on

on

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PARLIAMENT

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about

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of the

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John
(".e.,

catchword,

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as

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time

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to

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John

success

DiumaU,

also

clerke," also appeared

averred

The

35

the

catchword,"

B. P.

"

been

have

must

issued

was

publishedby

was

1643

began

for William

by

averred

*'

"

printed

mentioned).

PerfectDiumaU,

appeared

January,

Parliament, with

in

also

JUNE,

Occurrences

February being

hereafter

Continuation

31st

attempt

an

DiufnaU

on

Diwmal

last, on

at

14TH

TO

and
itself,

publisher'sname

no

attached.
Both

immediately counterfeited, and

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which

less

no

different

eight

than

the

"Now

wheeles

writes A Presse

varieties,published by

different

be counted

booksellers,can

during

brains

men's

of

full of Pamphlets and

"

wandering
by

subsistence

to the

in

some

right nature

or

tobacco

be

never

lesse
so

or

well

The
what

perceiving their
of former

for want

rusty, they conceived


with

them

scour

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done

of honest

liveUhood, they betook

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it

think
and

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uncapable

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no

read

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Irish
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news

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pan

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much

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at

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fluent

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was

petitionedthat

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thing

prove

wits, and

good action, betook

of

invention, their wits


Bladen,

their

were

wine, beer, and

tavern, and

or

stamp of Englishmen, who

enough

Irish gentry
his

honest

round,"

of their wits

means

last

same

liquor that they drown'd

them

^W.

to

way

at

1642.

year

hurtful,they, in scouring their braines, fill'dthe

full of

fabulous

fearing the

the eyes

find

to

of their

means

somewhat

grown

safest

more

earth

industry, and

and

same,

practicewere
the

their

be the chief

wits must
them

the

over

the

turned

were

were

of

of A PerfectDiumaU,

that
appropriated,particularly

were

titles

their

the

time.

published

(HistoricalMS8,

but

Com-

36

HISTORY

moisture
.

beyond

go

for

sea

find
I

England.
And

"

hope

these

of

proceedings

in very

issued

the

to

the fact that

public on
Tuesday

ruinatingof

"

refers.

All

of
other

''diumals"
the

licensingat
whose

also

"

at

".
were

being

for this

well understand

which

to

clerks

author

our

through

went

frequentlyappear

names

so

can

this time

at

can

of the

hands

again to

petition
consequently com-

we

fession
pro-

they have

reason

post day

tribe of clerks

the

these

House,

the

refuge.

"come

time

produced
the

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or

weeks) they

fifteen at

"

intense,and

been

have

must

but I

invented

new

which

(some

Mondays,

was

of

gaspe," they

Diumals

diumals

"

Ireland, France,

Amsterdam

kind

Parliament, the

various

''they begin

for their last

reserve

prodigiousbirth bring forth


All the

the

they

to its last

the

multiplyed,that
one

bin at

have

to conclude, this
lastly,

being growne

from

with

Portugal and part of Holland,

of them

any

Then

Newes

new

countries

City and

taplush inventions".

Spain, Italy,Denmarke,
cannot

JOURNALISM

filled the

they have

the fruits of their


to

ENGLISH

OF

some

of

one

at

the

cess
prothe

or

end

or

beginning.
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the

"

diurnals

"

of

persons

them, and

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or

"

repute.
we

side

reputationfor
for

accounted

was

Hutchinson

the

on

write
deliberately

unjust, and
of

many

been

have

to

up

Nevertheless, a good deal of

money.

was

great

Mrs.

they would

of

writers

ordinarilyappliedto

term

testimony of

that

the

never

seem

"

Liar

of

"

newsbooks

the

hostile criticism

the

majority

Restoration, the

the

the

defective

intelligence
laid at their

falsehoods

door.
A

Royalist

almoner

of

figurethat

may

stile him

the
a

he

becomes

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Diurnal

Mab's

They

author.

an

the

epithet like

"

title as much

as

another
most

of

merchant,

little negro

modem

by

whom

call him

blot rampant.
our

is the

maker

register,one

country pedlar is

north

such
elephant ^just

good

says

history.Queen

same

but

writer

noblemen

the
you

Mercury,

mounted
He

sub

on

defames
"

those

THE

LONG

wens

of

PAELIAMENT

Lords."
lords

call him

To

view

to

14TH

title

"

historian

an

him

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through

conferred

knight

hyperbole to givethe reputationof


historian

mouse-traps.

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with

stationer in

Scotch

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.

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word

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that is troubled veith the


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history.

sum

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diurnal

rather

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The

it in the

'Holder

entitled

September, 1647, and


by Okes,

January, 1642,

These

Mondays.

first of the
Samuel

of the

by

day

Berkenhead

was

Character
I have
and

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part due

as

or

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a

scrivener

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to

only the

not

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Paesagee Informed

August, 1642,

Coles, and

to

17th

Cooke, and

others, from
and

to

31st

published on

the

year

newsbooks, and

they became

to

ent
the differ-

Fridays),and

1648,
the

were

somewhat

shadowed
over-

ance
Perfect Occurrences, the importto the "EK^t that

Maker,
of a Diwrnal
adopted this spellingof

Nedham,

an

thing
some-

claim

first by William

all the

in 1648

of

patriarchsof

etc.,but also

periodicals,
up

rival entitled

of which

Oleiveland.

but

he vnrote

September, 1655,

latter

His

Bemarkable

and

veith

Pecke,

Hall.

published on

24th

of

gibberish)as

indicated

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important of

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to

'

man

this

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pennyworths

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solemn

gravity,like

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printed at

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acks.
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is the antimask

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of Parliament

Hausee

afterwards

the

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Certain

of

maker

forth '."i

journalismwas

patriarchlies in

tinuaUon

Times

probability. The

than

newsbooks

were

as

makes

little stall in Westminster

title of

him

maker

first in the field

domestic

English

both

from

author

more

with

have

glass

squealing scribe

rickets and

historian,he differs from


had

such

^not

"

that

hardly

Historian

presbyter

by

sieve full of ballads and

author, one

you

would

'tis

mandrake,

engineer to

an

monwealths"
"Com-

Bradshaw.)

upon

perspective and

37

peccant humours

allusion to the

an

is to

1643

JUNE,

most
greatness,the body politics

blistered into

"

TO

being that nsed

28th

November,

hia name,

by

Saturday

as

1063,

also the

the writers

had

J.

speUing

themaelves.

S8

HISTORY

been

constituted

therefore,every

pamphlets

consistingultimatelyof
of

hke

one

Up
as

to

it is

pamphlet
and

the

give

to

idea

an

out

November,

from

mentioned, and, from


of the

as
periodicals,

which

is entitled A

Kingdoms

continues

sure

rid himselfe

with

God

hath

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the

attend

abed

do

on

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his

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agen

morals

that which

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one

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hath
were

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confess

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fell to
find him

then

from

at

do
how

at home

be

should

you
if he

the

sports

had

over

when

Army,

tion."
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follows, coupled with

should

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rose

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largevolumes

puffing as

out of the

This

and

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where

of it, and

hardly ever

morning,

Stationer,

industrious, and

very

against his

Sunday.

or

''petty-

Hall

sweetness

panting and

not been

''

was

he
intelligence

should

his worke, whereof

it should

Lyers;

once

was

in Westminster

the

riding too

accusation

charge that

must

you

his

till Saturday

to find him

hee

He

''

as
intelligence

found

by

come

pastimes, for

wot

write he

he

when

all the weeke,

Scandalous

I must

labour for the best

first

pamphlet,

The

stile of the Diurnall-writer.

easilyhe could
and

title in the

of this

framing

to

rences
Occur-

or SqtMtellers
of
Pamphliteers,

Eminent

his trade of

industry

1641, ahready

of that also.

little hole

the

beginning

but
testifie,

November,

aU

solitary

of Diumal

of the volume
to

have

we

pamphlet speaks,

inditingor

began

at last to the

this

of which

peer

(9th September, 1647), calls him

tillhe crept into

would

The

Whip for

Two

fogging scrivener," and

first

character.

adoption

Fresh

this

his

of his

the writer

Descriptionof the

he

only

1640,

the

True

indeed

him, and

the writer

as

that

to

"large volumes,"

point hJTn

without

was

therefore,
regrettable,

allusions

Royalist

Pecke

Samuel

1647, however,

few

(ie.,sixteen pages) instead

sheets

the rest.

newsmonger;

but

appeared every

twice the size of the others,

were

two

appeared,

It

Tuesday.

as

the Perfect Diurnal

Friday,as

Both

Monday.

well

post-day as

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OF

do
hath

man,

on

two

that

Saturday he

printersto
rather

diligentenough

than

for his

THE

LONG

his

for

newes

Sermon,
do

psalme,

prayers,

them

pipe

good

service.

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tearm

it

should

be suffered."

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bald

with

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; the

nose,

last

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On

and

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thereof

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had

clemency

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Speaker
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of the

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censure

night,he commonly
walks

seldom

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"

by

intended

was

It is ordered

and

neither

to

the
the

the Lords

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who

clerk

both

print nor
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printer and

by order

the

King
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of the
to the

the

of Maroh

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on

House

King

like

"

to

of

look

justseverity".

of Sir Edward

Declaration

".

ing
recit-

21st March,

Littleton,the

Lords, having written

9th

of the House,

if

on

should

expect

of

required

of the

name

the

at

the Master

that

shall be

printersdo

protect

to

aimed

portion was

printedas

the

House

tvhen

long series,levelled

to be certified to this House

names

as

found

of Commons

of Stationers

those

but

Happened

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runna-

with

first in

the

order
been

this time

the

long

indentures

made

once

proceeded against as

France, eta, warned


for

fellow,

ing"
drink-

the consent

letters counterfeited

and

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wenching lying and

mutton-time, and

that

be

minatory
news

of God

faced

and

late in the

of the company

especialorder

second

''he

follows

as

reprintanything without

but

material

the most

runs

wardens

author

tall thin

of the order

Fart

press.

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to take

nothing

order, the

an

copyright,but
diumal"

"

January, 1642, the House

pass

againstthe

and

countenance

him

(I can

she-intelligencer".

29th
to

Conventicle

done

hath

he

Boyalistbiographerssay

"

about

frequents Py-comer

think

sing

to the dishonour

tends

his

meet

may

and

sit down

such

shame

meagre

in

wiU

tobacco, and

of

adding, that

hands, you

time

if it

buzzard

headed

gate legs,constant
his

lecture, and

personal appearance
'*

was

piece of Thursdays

first

otherwise) which

no

39

1643

Fridays intelligencefor the

long, he

over

take

or

with

JUNE,

Saturdays for the afternoon

and
hold

not

God

himself

he will content

master,

14TH

TO

PARLIAMENT

was

29th

between

the

Some

King

Delivered,came

March,

Pas-

John

and

under

Bond,

40

mSTOEY

scholar

"

poor

the

Broome,

printer,he
In the

letter from

meantime

Act

an

On

and

the

the

Committee

meet

again

his

Majesty ".

2nd

the

May

difficulty,
by giving the Lords

reappointed on

been

they had

'*

they could

Majesty
shall

will be

judges cleared

their

ready

to

directions from

have

opinion

"

ceived
re-

Hereupon

yet

as

had

legal

away

printing

that

publication".

was

The

the
any

on

led up

which

events

happened

October, 1642)

23rd

continued; but
were

as

dishonest and

can

well

be

imagined.
in trouble

barber, was

friend in Ireland

title of A
North

True

White

their
to

three

for

Belation

printer,he
note,

(he

cause

and

and

Coles

English
his

as

Strand

received

published

had

to

royal

he had

Scots

sent

publications,

Sedgwick, a

letter which

Leach
was

of the

Tobias

Pike, and
of

With

of Ireland.

abusive

as

proceed

output of diur-

creditable

not

were

In June

called

for the moment

legislation.The

they

and

of
sufficient explanation

are

did not

further veith its press

Edgehill (which

to the battle of

why Parliament

reasons

nals

Committee

Lords'

further, but

no

kingdome

the
On

his

from

under

repliedthat ''they

latter had

proceeded

when

been

had

information

what

Alsop,

April.

request) reported that


to hear

instructions

no

15th

on

have

to

the Commons'

give them,"

Bernard

of Parliament

(it seems

King's Counsel

the

Plot, and

the

with Bichard

and

queen,

April,1642,

25th

already mentioned
met

the

committed, hut released

was

April at

else to live on/' confessed

of the Dwnes

author

consideration.

5th

JOURNALISM

having nothing

having forged

to

ENGLISH

OF

from

under

Faroes

in

the
the

publishers,and

prison. White,

it is interesting

paid eighteen shillingsfor printing

was

reams.

Up

to

January, 1643,

had

appeared,for

and

the diumals

of

had

not

solitaryBoyalist periodical

they stood

course

no

chance

been able to hoodvrink

the

in

London,

people to

the

top of their bent.

By
had

the end

become

of the

quite aware

year

1642

of the

the

King's party

danger

the

diumals

at

Oxford
were

to

42

HISTOBY

nably.
a

He

sweet

of

was

is also

Berkenhead
"

being by professiona
learned

schoUer, hath
scholler

but also in the

point of
That

the Law

in

even

His

covereth

know

last

and

law

like unto

are

them.

for that
sold

was

Malignants

The

"

that

18

is,

publish

to
cause.

for

as
a

pence

that
do

Malignants

psalm

We

peece.

is

writeth

Aulicus

what

main

flowers

the

pamphlet

for

and

theorie

do teach

their

of

apt

good

the

Doctors

lies they can,

as

very

as

in

tility.
hos-

pen

greatest,and

the

advancing

the

is become

Oxford

new

what

deare

as

the

say

true."

the

to devise

of the

one

For

serpent lying under

hostile

of

quite

Aubrey's

professorsnot only

print for

sometimes

book,

The

last sentence

London

well

as

of
if

which

of

by

well, and

rhetoricall words

fine

pay

and

to be

appear

cause

in the

student

practicall
part.

it is lawful

them

the

not

described

very

his Tutors

as

does

character

like to know

would

we

JOUENALISM

middling stature,great gogglieies,not

This

aspect."

fair,and

ENGLISH

OF

news

in

as

can

Oxford, and

but

was

we
possible)

reveals the fact that Aulicus

as

the

priceof

(though the

penny

all the pamphlets

hawker

got

more

incurred in

idea of the risk then

gather an

sold in

was

sellingit.
Lords, in the

The

dragooning

the

meantime,
On

press.

Leach, the printersof Pecke's


and

Remarkable

Passages, and

and

two

Alsop
Fleet.

Fawcett,

On

the 12th

his

"

April,when

time

for their freedom.

simply to

seems

he and

have

been

freelyon

the

King, presented by
^

The

True

to be

the

his

of

Certain

printers,were

brought to
in

the

of this

fessed
con-

prison until

after

Character

lost,is in the

apprenticesof

Avlicus, 1646.
of MercuHue
Burney Ck"lleotion.

commented

had
a

London
This

the second

punishment

severe

fact that he

the

to

the bar and

presentationof petitionsfor
the

sent

printerspetitionedfor
cause

Special

himself, together with

remained

He

The

too

Pecke

was

authorship".

24th

Contitmation

other

Pecke

and

January, 1643, Coles

7th

in

busily engaged

were

peace

with

and

their

pamphlet^supposed

THE
masters

2nd

on

their

his booksellers

he and

pamphlet

Fetter

Majesty'sOracious

At the start it

as
as

; but

any

initials

with the army

he

rather

Bichard

publisherof

who

nevertheless

it.

He

his

freedom

the

been

also alludes to his

scholar, and
On
1

The

21st

his

probable that

than

more
name

by

the

as

appears

(presumably

one

some

Parliamentary side,but

the

the Bichard

calls him

was

"

an

honest

honesty in

the

SOth

on
'*

says

he

sold

took

up

January,

brother

of him

of

wealth
Common-

Collins who

Company

another

the

that

means

this,

attitude

preciselythe

was

Stationers'

he

"

espoused with

intelligence,"
qualifyingthe

by adding that
who

soldier who

Weekly InteUigeneerof

and
a
liar),
(t.0.,

in his

halted

with

known

Concerningthe King (23rd November,

Boyalistopponent
"

whetstone

It is

shown,

The

also have
in

was

had

printedfor B.C., which

was

may

One

1628.

be

CoUings.
also

be

loyalto the King personally; and

was

will afterwards

Bichard

he

cause

evidentlyon

was

it

Commonwealth)

the side of the Parliament

is written

1648, E, 473, 17), which

the

he

Ceilings whose

A Declaration

Ceilings)who

the

was

(beingafterwards

not

C, and
on

his sword.

than

the

B.

at Windsor

he says he served

was

as

are

rest, and

evidentlyperfectly

until 1655

should

name

the

was

Weekly InteUigeneerof

certainty. His

pen

the writer

the

his

sage
Mes-

periodicalappeared

than

lasted
periodical

that

where

better

his

is unfortunate

to the

Kingdomes Weekly Intelligenoer,

much

not

as

The

one

ConcerningPeace.

little

important

an

was

abusive

honest, and

was

tinue
con-

12th, for

the

Answer

City of London

reply to AvUcus^ entitled

continued

to

author,

also fell victims, on

the Honourable

In the meantime

his

and

Heme,

Lane,

entitled His

from

quite as

not

were

allowed

were

48

1643

JUNE,

however,
periodicals,

printer,Bichard

Glapthome of

in

14TH

publication.

Another

Sent

His

January.

suppressed,and

TO

PARLIAMENT

LONG

of the

that

"

he

mark
depreciatoryre-

Trojan ".

Sheppard,

Weepers,^ says he

was

writes of his poverty with regret.

February, 1643,

Wenpers or

ike Bed

the Lords

of Snakes

brokm

committed

his

printer

by 8.8., 13th September,16e2"

mSTOBY

44

patting

for

writer's

his

on

but

Arms/'

OF

On

11th

book, entitled Meroariua

published on

was

features

contained

9th March,

provided
of

four

that

pamphlets
committed

That

pains

of this house

reputed

Parliament

and

been

licensed

those

On

and

under

the

that

diurnal

although there

been

had

house

of the

the
the

had

order

no

Act
or

or

wise
otherbe

shall

of
privileges

From

diumals

the

search

to

sell any

punished accordingly".

so

; those

Parliament," and

this

breaker

and

selling

or

is false and

Wood

print or
of

to

from

Diurnal

of

any

March

28th

the

names

or

Houses

employed

the

"that

shall

justifiedin concluding

are

the

or

charges.

contemner

was

persons

vending

one

particularlicense

the

high

and

soever

person

without

until

King's Majesty

to the

It

passed,which

appoint

to

printed by Bob.

21

it.

was

Majesty

resolved

the

what

passages

His

to

sionally
occa-

worse
infinitely

Examinations,"

prison any

to

to be released

to

scandalous

power

Commons

March

14

have

to

scandalous
not

of

House

"ordinance"

an

for

commit

to

which

periodical.

"Committee

were

satisfied for

were

"

the

them,

search, and

1643,

of

novel

two

invariablyornamented

the first regularlyillustrated


On

had

the

other

teresting
in-

an

was

great deal

city, and

the

the
title-page,

portraitswhich

wood-cut

news-

InUMgeneerf and

exceedinglybad rhymes

the

its

adorned

second

CifviGua

Mercwrius

about

being

one

the

(the Kingdomes Weekly InieUigeneer

Tuesdays).

information

of

give

not
a

; or, London's

Civiotu

little periodical,
which

valuable

"Cessation

he commenced

May

Thursdays

on

headline

the

pamphlet

journals,unfortunately,do

the

name.

published

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

or

this
all

we

along

ordinance

for the purpose.


In

Stationers

the

having

Star

been

orders

made

not

successful

so

Humble

Bemomtranoe

(written by Henry

recited, that
Court

the

April

until

a
as

new

Parker)

Chamber

removed

and
and

bill could

could be

of
was

the

the

Company

of

presented.

It

High Commission

sundry good temporary


be

passed,the

expected,and

that

orders
as

this

were
was

Mercurius

Civicus*

LOS^'DOS^S

INTELLIGENCERTrumimpartialiy
to

the

Kingdome,

whole
mif

ptevcnt

from

related

to

infomution.

fnoilb^^^i^.torkirfil^Jaltvo^
a

Mmll

it litbt

"ence

1643.

wmeftttloii

noft

uddeflrecf

pkiob"liifannadoCiMtnMftu*QftlHAiBijiiDthe

comimiidoC

dOcwraUiIt
plan
".Adiaic"s

(o

bb

vlll

not

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wUdi

tltt Pi^imeiiu

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dkrcfen
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bemdfit

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hwiwtilHwBot

waBlnCnMdbvUttmlrriB

THE
to be

impTitedto

for the

the

spite,and

his

and

stated

past four

years

the

was

of

of

is made

the

The

address

also

and

tices,
appren-

printing done

during

this,the preparation

On

establish

the

family
of presses

enormous.

this ordinance

require notice.

One

of licensers

body

appeared

numbers

only

are

which

lasted

was

he is

Stationers'

20th

on

sacking of

Wardour

churches

and

written

then
On

later

became

in

the
and
a

Puritan

Dr.

whom

shall

we

survived

Byves

the

ordinance

the

King,
to

was

This

occasion

have

and

have

to

Bestoration, and

Star

a
establishing

Chamber

"Conmiittee

for

Examinations"

in

ordinance, dated

in this list Henry

the

desecration

soldiers.

Yintry (he

the

number

chieflyof

of the

For

was

Buatious, appeared

chronicle

the

names

writer). The

Merowrim

castles,and

the

June, 1643, the

of licensers

other

their

of Windsor.

Dean

14th

of

on).

is the

Byves, D.D., chaplainto

Bruno

only because

that

entered

by

cathedrals

in this benefice

successor

describe

other

Martin's

St.

of

rector

by

was

This

scrivener, of

who

entitled

was

and

and

and

two

Office),and

following year.

Ingler, probably

Begister (Pecke
May,

Becord

the

of the

solitarywriters

which
periodical,

other

in

the

(the first

January

but his name,

is known

of the two

one

in the

February

periodicals

more

InformationSfof which

found

by William

nothing

whom

two

for 16th-23rd

be

to

until

written

was

is described

is Oertaine

first number

names

confounded;

in hand.

Before

was

and

amount

to

priety
Pro-

"

reprinted out

forwardness".

and

ordinance

formal

taken

of

his copy

of himself

that

and

away

for the restriction of the number

asked

of

zeal

pertinently:

very

45

itself asked

Company

taken

have

to

sure

ruin

the

so

of

be

1643

complaint against another,

prefer any

complainantshall
reward

almost

JUNE,

14TH

prosecators, the

copiesbeing now

Stationer

one

the

TO

right to prosecute, adding


of

if

PARLIAMENT

LONG

passed.

second

of licensers

Walley, clerk

were

to the

was

of the
20th

board

stituted
subliament,
Par-

June, the

promulgated. Although
Company

of

Stationers,

46

HISTOKY

authority
virtue

that

of

license

he

acted

special

"

for

person

Faithful

With

again

his

newsbook

years

by

and
to

order

we

great

any

shall

imprisoned
a

were

was

restored
find

until

"relation"

victims

of
in

for

The

Cowles

his

some

and

Irish
hands

time

news

to

and

come.

suitable

Fletcher's

Queens

".

crowd

of

the

with

interfering
House

of

Thomas

(8th
these

of

family

of

among

Parliament

1646.

was

Maske

aminations
Ex-

for

published
"

in

but

Committee
He

this

on

pubhshing

himself

Jonson's

Francis

placed

of

came

had

''

record).

no

not

was

newsbooks,

the

the

and

not

extent

of

by
is

he

gone

advent,

publishing
matters

for

Shepherdess"

diumals,
them

appointment
there

it

pamphlets,

licenser

as

office,

in

JOUBNALISM

small

(of which

the

and

repute,
**

to

appointed

was

ENGLISH

OF

Conmions
Bates

before

June)
were

for

the

last

mSTOBY

48

Council

passed

was

ordered

OP

the

unlicensed

hawkers

October, which

9th

on

into

putting

as

consider

we

of the year
be

could

as

In

opponents of
the

licensed

be

to

there

was

higher

social and

Act

new

Dillingham, who,

ParliamsfU

Scout

(until it

holden

of

"

this and

than
and

to

in 1643, and
1644.^

whose

to

not

Yet

He

was

actually written by

as

the writer first of the

of the

then

in

space
in his

the

Orectt

house

Dr.

say much

more

periodicalswhich

the
is the

information

he

Dillingham

John

againstArchbishop
Brownrigg

was

of his newsbooks

authorisation

The

ing
secur-

first periodical

the

possibleto

describe

their vicissitudes.
gave

one

calls him
by ApoUo, sarcastically

Ptmuusus

Whitefriars, who

in

necessityof

George Wither,

Scout," but it is

learned

him

wrote

in

complete

prodmsed

suppressed)and

was

Bebellion.

the

as

Aulious.

occupies a considerable
Intelligeneer,

journalism of
the

and

intellectual stamp than

of scriveners.
the

apparent

to the middle

had

attention to the

under

and

Boyalist competition

no

drawn

John

Moderate

quent
subse-

the

be

up

secretlysold

one
tailor,^

Aseizes

as

Oxford Aulicus

the

little band

mean

will not

successful

as

that of the

than

effect ; it had

good

these

Bridewell

at

of 1648,
periodicals

meantime

the

Correction

of

repressionwas

other

against

Under

incorporatedin

were

House

hoped for, and

in London

vagabonds.

and

caught sellingBoyalist pamphlets

the

1647

revived

city statutes

full effect of this Act

The

whipped.
until

the

to

the

and

rogues

ordinances, women
taken

of

force

Acts, the provisionsof which

were

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

of

Laud

committed
was

the

ward
re-

for services of this kind.


1

"A
*'

The

Prick

loose

that

yermin

botching
being by his own
'

of Nedham,

"

and

livingin
'

CaL

Moderate
f eare
'

He

Dillingham, such
numerous

Scout

Parliament

Moon

the

in

Man

".

is
a

and
The
very

continuous.

Papers.

October, 1649) calls him

Taylor ". Hine iUa Lachryma (1648)calls him


Intelligencer/as nowadays he terms himself e,
shame
Second

whipt

The

out

of

his

former

Character

of Mercwrwu
Intelligencer,
now

Moderate

taylour of News

Whitefriars.
State

(No. 26, 17Ui-24th

".
Man

The
in

references
ihe

Moon

title the

PoUHcua
grown
to

also

says

such

his trade
alludes

to

a
are

his

1643, TO

JUNE,

14TH

is the

Coontryman's

Muse

as

and

him

deities.

He

is the

you

of

him

he tells lies by the gross,

yet he would

turners

of this isle believe that

he

and

DiumdU

he

perfumed breath,

but

shall be

"

Lillie and

Booker

the

will lose

sunne

and

with

led

by

and

in the afternoon

the

is

It

nose

probably

worried

are

diurnal

exported by

noticed,was

in

feature

the McM

in the Moan

another

of

them.

jutors
coad-

'

Erra

Pater/
that

eclipsed,

the beares

as

in

the

are

morning,

stake."

that

of

what

as

he is

idea

the

of

is due

importance

some

for the benefit

in French

to be

and

of

but

in harvest, and

them

at the

Dillingham

to

The

(t.6., astrologers)

kingdome

bagpipes before

development
journalistic
a

of this

and

nothing

them

part of his lightwhen

some

led the Conmions

have

narration

of
disciples

those two
.

the book-

have

"

in

"

With

predictionof fair weather

make

can

no

Empirique astronomers

two

that

make

to

hear

through

resolve to utter

the close committee.

pleasingto

jointhe

and

harbinger

moderation.

useth

confederates,and

are

to his

eldergun

an

though

He

contracted

so

draw

may

'

'change to

is

and

pelletout

as

the

on

49
**

lo Paeans

citizens'

is the

walking

that

him

shoot

loophole or

of

sings

he

follows

as
'

epitome of Wit,

circumference

small

so

later date

and

the labour

He

newes.

at

1646

DECEMBER,

chronicler

to the Bustic

saveth

the

of him

writes

Cleiveland

818T

new

that of

"

foreignersin England,

French,

will hereafter

as

be

and,
Dillingham's periodicals,

in 1649

that

states

he

**

was

as

coupled

to
""'

and

French
that

the

son

Dictionary) was

called

be

may

Moderate

of these

on

with

Cotgrave, author

the writer

of Le

the

same

and
InteUigenoer,
two

identified

of Bandle

in
little four-pageperiodical

Thursday,

that

Codgrave

was

John

as

at

of

Cotgrave,
the

appeared

Dillingham's
first

French

Anglois, This

Mercwe

French, which

day

ready

can

fairlycertain

foreignnews," it appears

translate

Codgrave (who

probably

breed

same

printed by

Scout

the

was

every

and

printer

journals.White.

Trial numbers

of this

13tb June^ 1644, and

on

periodical
appeared on
lOtb

July,before

the

7th June

and

of
publication

mSTOBY

60

OP

the third number


"

These

desirous

are

weekely

of affiEdrshere
it

shall have

Bourne's
Le

and

weeks

three

during these

be continued

certain

dition
con-

the

they

war,

the

French
in

clocke

the

thing is

since

and

begun

was

finding it

tinued
con-

desired

much

it

publishing of

the

discontinued, it shall for the


the

according to

of affaires here

relations
partiall

that

^the title of the

"

past, that

occasions) was

(through some
future

while

others

in

of the

issued

(ifhe please)at Master

weekes, and

three

or

them

Exchange

Anglois,which

for two

nine

at

have

may

at the Old

shop

Mercure

the

seas

proceedingsof

of the

Thursday

every

the Beader

morning

impart beyond

to

and

weekely published in print and

And

tongue.

all merchants

that
signifie,

to

are

July, the followingbill was

11th

on

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

to

out at the

come

and

im-

time

and

certaine

most

place aforesaid."
is the

This
been

have

its

history was

read

theory. In

translations

John

Gotgrave

and

Parnassus,

Sure

or

Compleat

which

writings of

books

Language
Cfuide

and

the

sets bears

two

with

throughout

the
the

was

in 1665, The

English

the English
Interpreter,

Wits

those

to

Admirable

Aoeomplishments

collections

compilations of

authors, and

other

copy

periodicals.

English Gentry, both

ofwr

to

suppliedDillingham

he

Gotgrave published two

Treasury of Wit

allowed

was

inspectionof

an

return

of his

followed Bushworth,

cals
appearing in Dillingham's periodi-

foreignnews,

of the

specialfeature

that

That

the matter

who

those

rate

probable,and

seems

out this

any

French.

condense

and

posts in London.^

street

quite uneventful.

licensers,at

not

must

Angloislasted until the end of the year 1648, and

Meroure

could

and

the walls

posted upon

Le

The

newsagent's bill,and

earliest known

the

from
more

than

ordinaryimportanca
'

The

that Le
sheet

the
name
expreflsion
Mercwre
Angloiswas not
'*

of four

bill did not

Collection.

pages,

know

and

what

"

of the
a

therefore

to call it.

thing
pamphlet or
a

*'

has

reference

newabook.

newspaper".

copy

The

to

It

was

writer

the

fact

half

of the

of the bill is in the Thomaspn

14TH

1643, TO

JUNE,

the

Henry Wailey,
called
periodicals

31ST

DECEMBEB,

lioenser,appears

the

True

Passages"'' Collected
Clerk). In

November,

PerfectDtu/maU
Samuel
''

by

the

wrote

be

can

and

in order

tells us

that

The

he

"100

sheet

marriage

in 1640

he

licensed

Wailey

Saturdays,until

on

chosen

for

of

day

profitsof

others.

it is not

course

22nd

nothing. Henry

to be

Walker

from

(infrap. 117). As

year
year

them

1662, asked

for

fee of

that

one

written

was

is known

of

described

was

by

D.

him
as

each

on

periodical.

Border, another

except that
Daniel

at

his

Border, gent.,
**

he

press,

for his

that

later

describes

appears

the Kingperiodical,

himself

to

published a book

Border,

D.

as

have

practised as

entitled

''

iroXv^dpiia"

English UnparalleVdPhysitian (16S1).

knowledge

S. P.

on

scrivener). After the first suppression

or

to have

the worst

the

this

for

everything he licensed,^this probably

icaXXvidtrrri^
; or. The
reason

that

Fields,widower, aged 28 (Chester's London

clerk
(t.e.,

physician and

King-

Mabbott, and

Faithfull Scout, he

the

the

responsible

was

salary,but of

Marriage Licenses "),and


"

; the

the licenser

the

on

Nothing

of St. Giles in the

cleric

"

paid to

Account

Weekly

scrivener.

domes

found

customary fee paid to the licenser

the

Post

periodical,and,

be

to interfere with

Boger I'Estrange,in

was

(t.^.,

C."

by

to

have

must

fixed

no

of the fees

shillingper

Weekly

B. D."; and

wrote

he

they did their work

latter made

the

he

not

licensers had

supposed

The

by

Informer appeared

True

February, 1645,
The

Pecke's

Border, Gentleman)

succession

for, that

accounted

the week

Wailey

S. P. G."

by

Kingdoms

direct statement

no

Henry

Informer,it is to be inferred, as all the others

True

The

one.

is

there

though

Ko^

the

Collected

in

licenser

Each

of

Collected

Weekly InteUigeneer"''Collected

domes

of Chiefe

January, 1648,

(i.e.Daniel

D. B. G.

Perfect Weekly Aocount""

"

"

Gentleman);

Pecke,

Collected

marked"

was

Heads

of

(ie.. By

1647, and

the

of Chiefe Passages

AoeowU

HWC."

B.

61

written

have

to

Informer, Heads

(in 1648), and the Kingdoms Weekly

1646

of Greek

Dom., Charles

n"

will appear
39, No.

94,

afterwards,

62

mSTOBY
in the

Sheppard

stable/' and
informed

''

the

The

"

Perfect

but

"

from

during
The

5th

Border's

known.

Border

by

initials,''B.

in

changes

on

through

could

or

wrote

and

''

B.

There

start
a

was

Spy'* (thisis
The

Man

PerfectWeekly
bis

name.

should
these

merry

in

who
is

nothing
his

adversary

(on No.

of the

evidently ordered
he initialled his

to

cals
periodi-

was

wonder

who

called

Twice

(No. 26, 17th-24Ui


then written

hj

Seriously I

seven

fellows

and

down

did betake

at least

"

can

Sheppard

and

vanish.

faced

often

flurting in,

come

moment

be bound
brazen

that

they flie up

of 1652).
periodical

Account

No

that whosoever

gentleman

the Moon

of the writers

names

names,

in

continuous,

periodicalsare

of

fellows

new

enacted

as

D."

was

printers.

then

lyingtrade

not

by

wish it were

to this

writer

countermine

to

the

These

and

two

the
"

style themselves
week

by

D.," of whom

to

titles

requireattention,and

later

June, 1647,

D. B. G."

be traced

Border

adjective

the

28th

to

as

was

Alsop.

written

was

endeavoured

Perfeot

licensed.

not

was

on

to drive him

adopting

also

(wo 3), 1647,

May

the

Acooimt, moreover,

desist,for in the succeeding numbers

and

licenser,for

trick intended

Kingdomes Weekly Post) ; but he

The

later

printer,Bernard

same

by reversinghis initials also

"

days (Wednesdays)

same

mean

Perfect Weekly Account

reversed

with

the

rival

this time

Border, who

opponent of the strict

an

Perfect WeMy

his

combat

that

periodical,entitled

on

"

actuallyprintedby the
to

it is evident

new

Account

field.

ill-

and

days of the

allot the

to

was

find favour

not

1647,

Weekly

Angean

inaccurate

most

Anabaptist and

an

Weekly Account, appeared


Border's

**

an

jonmalistsof his day.

did
Presbyterians,

tried

the

journalist
; and

March,

J0UENALI8M

calls his newsbook

of the licenser's duties

apparentlywas

from

"

certainlywas

he

to each

29th

ENGLISH

Weepers

of all the

Part
week

OP

himself

years

to

it,

perpetuallydo.

himself
or

the Dutch

thrice

October, 1649)

B, D., without

says

saw

the

meationing

14TH

him.

that

stady had

he

was

might

passed for

have

Dutch

having

first formal

the

been

made

in

in the

persistedin throughout
; and

career

book
which

the

appeared

whole

serves

to

lived in

in

Wit
Wit

'

aim

which

whatsoever

thou

got M.

White's

Black

is thine

with

blanks

''Thou

eye

which

captured

was

his

are
*

and

".

As

he

bespatteredthe

own

Merowrim

the

from
and

an

M(jMx,

four

example

have

so

"

set

Street

lye, and

to

though
hast

thou

man

no

can

say

of the shameful
Court

be

".

(1st August,

corrantos

it

on

Geffery,

patent

Boyalists,may

and,

hoods
falseto

quoted

left,he states,for oaths.


No. 1, 20tb-27Ui

in

five,

or

Queen herself,a letter,which

the
are

are

play

alone

not

palpably false,after
to

What

the

was

Nemesia
a

"

of Wood

curre

hast

hand
(the printer's)
'

cries

this
.

Sacra

considered

was

Britaniem

motley

conspiratorsin wit

printestin thy weekly

lastingdishonour, even
avers

called
this

grosslyabsurd

so

of

disperser

title of

There

great

writer,with

of AttUcus, and

Audley:

to

'

destruction

Featly, in his

1644), says

never

Quaternion

or

'*

the

near

he

the

as

CSaptain

noted

"

Audley, however,

giand engine

Daniel

Dr.

"

''

news-

Briiannioua
was

scurrilous

monstrous

writes
ajpie

the

Giles and Jack

James

Cinque

at the

this

wheels

'

Constable

least

at

author

Boyalist opponent

As

for
editorship,

his
or

Puritan?

in

astonished

an

periodical's

Merouriua

previouslya
a

the mistake

the

Bloomsbury,

was

at the

this
distinguish

suggestion.Nevertheless

mean

witty,and

He

the Latin

of

The

Britanicus.

obstinacythat

dates.

later

at

pamphlets ".

genius for

all the

opponent

open

spellingof

the

cherry garden," and had been


of Scotch

pamphlet

over

say

and

entitled
periodicals

Audley, who

Thomas

his

as

Merournu

"

''

dropped

the other

from

fat

by long

If his bulk

I dare

spy

start,it is characteristic of Puritan


was

and

gross

appeared

Avlious

Merowrius

mistake

fellow

September, 1648,

In

I believe that

as

58

1646

Elixir of Nonsense.

veiy

been but

had

Netherlands."

of

the

DECEMBEE,

31ST

lad I

tnm

gained

behaviour

and

1648, TO

JUNE,

August, 1058.

"

his
he
the

mSTOEY

64

''Jack

We
.

Lady
honest

to

have
.

Bobert

traduced,

well

as

Frenchwomen

till

leave

to

was

as

Earl

Dormer,

first battle

vile libel (at the

von*"
Carnar-

thus

Carnarvon,

Thine

owne.

and

have

we

gallant soldier

meanly
who

was

day following the publication of this

the

on

our

of

honourable

an

actually killed

not

other

or

all nations

with

and

"

intend

Woman

one

...

Lish

some

We
.

maid

Wayting

"

OS

left

not

We
.

sinned

have

JOUENALISM

Gentlewoman

"

come

ENGLISH

OP

of

20th

Newbury,

September,

1643V
A

attack

contemporary

coloured

swarthy chest-nut

short
hath

not

been

have

less

life abroad

arm,

like other

run

in

towns

thin

kept

the

knew

how

it

the

Unless

weekly

intelligencefrom

metheglin

make

knew

never

gazets his

is

oes,

and

The
few
^

army

of the
the

from
'

Vindicated^

an

should

or

aU

his

plead at

in

in less than
chief

parts
but

methinks

For

for

Mercury, is

call himself

should

with

usually

draught

the

to call himself

illustration of
was

as

Mars, and

weekly pasquil currantthe Bar

in

long white

seem

to

M88"
have

October, 1643.

in
a

with

dove

published with

(Essex). Historical
newsbooks

second

and
wrote

professed swordsman

commenced

was

Briianicus

Lords

Mercwrvua

soldier

onsets

Alley, who

ran

storm

heretofore

who

his

limbs

'

Dove

numbers,

MercufiuB

of the
Most

buff."

Scotish

leg,an

to

was

in

engaged

living.

of

it

Swedes, and

any

trade

the press

vex

if the other

as

feather

to

one

the

left

preserved his

Head

after

being a lawyer

SerjeantWild

for the

be

Pope's

in with

commission

others

safer

Captain

Cyder, and

Captain Audley being


if

much

operation ordinarilyover

Germany,

this

were

stillstruck

houres

two
of

in

townes

Whilst

to

is that

employments (wary gentleman)

City, and

quarto than

sieges.
took

his

mens,

''This

runs:

captainewhose

dangerous.

he

weU

He

at home.

Audley

on

its olive branch

license from

Commisnorij Qth
held

similar

After

the

general
Report, p. 74.

licenses,or

licenses

Commons.

Anti-Britanicus

; or. The

Second

Part

of the King'sCabinet

(^)

/ImAi,

SeWifi'uSeifents.fmucentaiDovet.
THE

DOVE

SCOTISH
Sent

out"

and

Retumiag;

from
Bdaginghitdli^eace
makes
of

fbme

and

obfenrablePaffitges

and InftmJUoa
bothKJpgdom^fitfJiifijniution

AdHciu,

FramFiidiy

maion

other

Relauoasof

thifnfiwnl i^aautimirfMexaubaM

AnmJb^i"*9"f/dKp

FOR

ilie Annies,

Mdtbf

rfathirmtB^imtn.

tFrmri

dieu.iifDeeeinth(odieaj).ofthefiuii"

aiuliiilbr.
atHBcfaMfliyDovebfoicoacfbriiiftniftiDii,
bri^iii[dligenee"^
of meni
JBCgementsamrell n\a

ial^ootrhu

NemtSbettthuttmeiiPoaoccafioa.
fetfixtfUtoKlace

iwnemingto

prdenc

nftmediejiulgaiieiittofdie
of

the

tnddifireoE
opinions
Ignonot^concerning the concroveifi^
todfiitable
^i"Qlllft
"3"niUc,
ob"iring tJK Fcift ofChnftoui 1 1
tothctimb

I.

But

and

1643, TO

JUNE,

14TH

is blessed"

legend ''holy inocency

the

its frontispiece.Its

as

being driven

diall affections

from

my

At

Borals

and

service

the

to

"

1646

name

George

was

beginning

the

conntrey for

of the
cor-

my

Parliament

of the

55

invariablyappeared

"

author's

'*

he writes of himself

Smith, and
war,

DEOEMBEB,

31ST

was

...

forced
time
.

to take

in

up

by

end

my

then
.

the

deficient

was

Three

covenant'.

But
.

in

being
I sent
and

preparationof

out

Scotland

when

for

Dove

my

an

explanation

to

come

did

Brutus
to

cure

of

land
Scotance,
assist-

our

England
Madenna

from

the

intelligenceto

carry

camp".

After
of the

to

'

and

cause

brethren

our

that

to

Informer,'

between
intelligencer

an

besieged by Antonius,

Consuls

army

Decemus

once

as

the

Healing plaisteror

Kingdomes

solemn

the Protestant

'

to make

sword, and

in my

at that

I intended

as

arms

endeavoured

Misery with

Britain's

The

'

unprofitableI

treatise entitul'd

Qxeat

'

and
of

what

pen

I first writ
.

live

great city,not being

publick in

the

serve

impatient to

bnt
.

capacity to

in this

Sanctuary

"

this

axe

we

innocent

words

while

They
Scotish

found

Dove

"

drest

did expect

sermon

was

writing

find Wither

brevity detest

his readers
a

to

"

he little matter

did laoonibk

But

The

Dove

Sootoh

In many
And

quite prepared

some

newes

its spite-

and
littleperiodical,
spiteful

fulness,coupled with the writer's oilyhypocrisy,eventuallyled


to its

suppression.

callingthem

God's

to

be

attached

1646.
of 23rd

He

insulted

by
did

the
not

his

book

himself

to

House

on

matters

in

September, by adopting

"

was

ordered

apologiseto

lying, and

to be

burnt

Monsieur

of

consequence

of Lords

improve

repeatedly,

so

complaint to Parliament,

indistinguishablefrom
"

the French

enemies, that, in

Ambassador's

French

Dove

Smith

by

process
on

the

24th

he

was

22nd
the

of

the
dered
or-

tember,
SepScotish

tion
equivoca-

September

hangman

BaJeure, the French

and

he
Am-

56

mSTOBY

he

ENGLISH

did not

George Smith

bassador.
but

OF

Besolver

gencer and

in Two

Busticus

October

26th

on

Mercuries

having

Nativities

cannot

possiblyuntruthful

but retaine

states, by Durant

Parliamentary

Oompleate

Governor

all

'*

at their

predominant

note

of Sir John

son

it

on

the

Hotham,

have

we

30th

appeared on

Thomason's

Hull,

of

:
intelligence

of which

fifth

Hotham,

the

twang of lying".

written, as

was

meanly

makes

he

really witty

superior to Briianious^ and

periodical,far

IntelU-

Merofirius

note), rather

planet Mercurie

the

January, 1644, and

the

humour

rueful

Spie, the first number

the

In

and

poet, commenced

With

for

preliminaryapology

Uses, the

Christian

(Thomason's

titla

taking Dr. Byves'

journalist,^

Parts,

the Pnritan

George Wither,

of Nmo

Besoloer

and
Compleate Intelligencer

again as

appear

writer

the

probably

was

JOUBNALISM

worthier

ponent
op-

of Auliaus.
Hotham

Durant

Jacob

their

to

Spie came

it with

and

the

the

was

was

January, 1645,

King

about

Parliament.

and

an

The
account

Hotham

Durant

object of attacking Aviicms, and

scene

much

very

was

of the

cause

bring

to

family troubles.

avowed

on

John

June, 1644, probably on

25th

on

the

appearance

Audley

first

resented

by

controversy between

rival editors.

two

On
where

19th
to

February Audley

begin. Whether
checke

expected a

ever
a

end

the

negotiationsand

of these

his

an

1st

partly tending

and

between

accommodation

brother

on

of

writings

the

January, for negotiationspartly on

2nd

on

account

own

started

His

by order of the Parliament

his father

and

of

translator

mystia

the German

Boehme,

beheaded

the

was

checke

so

near

Lords

Joumalfl

1646).

The

me

Hie

aeatUh

B. 866

(6),and the passage

B. 863

(19),p

81.

"

^but this is

Dove

Dove, Ko.

complained

rage

**

1 know

London.

or

but I

Oxford

SeoHsh

Oxford

at

from

in

wrote

never

ordinary in

tent

out

the

182, 16th-23rd
of in No.

Uut

not

For

thought

of

of

game

time

ber,
(DecemSeptember, 1646,

160, 2nd-9th

September,

14TH

1643, TO

JUNE,

chesse

long

so

...

City

the

as

lay it out for their honour


destruction

of

legsof Britanicus, for

at the

bite,but

give

to

him

selfe,and he rides
he will

namesakes

spiesand

Old

the

at

St. Maries

to the

Exchange,
This

good fangs

so

be

London

and

to

as

calls him-

so

preferment

to

the

barks

and

snarls

Oxford

before

or

I shall

Gouncellors.

8pie,and

same

done

have

at Oxford.

Evill

not

weekly between

so

length

at

come

is

he

67

publicke service,and

the

he hath

his due

of inke

drop

little beagle that

away

...

hath

Prelacy and

and

Popery

kicke

I must

and

1646

DECEMBER,

318T

that

his brother

as

him, either

be

to

alted
ex-

against

gibbetted over

Spie is naturally a malignant by

constitution,"etc.
which

To

the

"BritaniouB
of sheets

and

Spie replied:
"

wrapped

was

the

printersneither

asithey were
and

his

to vent

him

pay

This

wont.

spleen in

thinking he

to my

cracker

guilty of

was

lose his

Diana, hee is
fears

and

This

street

againstthe Spie

am

Britanicus'

thy snarling,or
mastix, and

mean) impudence.
Briianiciu
''

laune

sheet.

have

parted

afiGeure of

stakes

gain
wit

much

so

baule

loud

so

hereafter

out

of

whip

like to
merly
for-

as

in the

place :
leave

shall be

shall be

squib

to carry

as

Sirrah
.

line of conceits

thy (wits,I would

Britanicoand

have

bell

said but

Farewell."

returned

The

much

is Bntameue*.

page

to the

is this week

Aulicm

this

cry himself up in the market

and

ginglethee

to lash and

will say

man

Ephesian is

so

him

is it makes

every

if any

dull

like to have

'Here

"

every

the

Spie

immeasurable

greater jestthan

Oh

cordially

so

against our

rage

which

Spie vcdll have

the money.

not

our

away

'I

utters
.

feast him

in

most
al-

was

shops, which

language with

angry

he

that

so

Tobacco

nor

puts him

bug-bear threateningimpudence,
is wit

sale

Grocery and

to

in abundance

the last weeke

stiffed in the

unawares

quite condemned
made

up

truth

but

charge with
in

and

commxmicating

divide

"

singleTifGftnyor Cobweb-

one

is he and

the

young

man

in the

taske, and the

iniquitieto

the

towne

supreame

kingdome.

And

58

HISTOEY

writes in

Auiicm

this

designe

by

door

where

cucumbers

the

conceits

Devill

shop

and

and

halfe

of the

Oxford

in the

followingweek

then

stifled the

controversy ;

that their business

jug-beereand

chieflyby Simeon

victuallinghouse

doubt

and

Aidiatis

the

increasingimportance,

on

11th

April,1644,
been

1612, had

for
qualified
his Historioal

not

other
had

been

post, was

are

been

sent

elsewhere, and

fortunatelyhe
of Examinations

to

to know

appointed.

was

acted

The

times

of

exactly what

the

who

not

was

bom

in every

was

to

superseded

was

in
way
of

bulky volumes

entirelyof clippings
and

history. Eushworth
of Commons

its messenger

completely in

to

its confidence.

permissionfrom

perform his

wish

to the House
as

assume

written by himself

diumals
source

to

of

would

consist almost

assistant

many

Bruno

Company

the

to

Oxford, and

obtained

soon

clerk

at

and

appointed clerk

Some

Barwick's

began

army

Eushworth,

valuable

written

was

to have

seem

John

educated

another.

with

up

to

to both

chaplain.

not

Parliament

Collections,which

authors,

in 1640, had
and

his

and

Spie

usual, and

one

Army

Consequently Walley

the newsbooks

from

the

and

of the

in the diumals.

appear

at

Universityof Cambridge.

scarcely the person

authorities

mihtary

does

a"Gftirsof the

the

the

in Dr. John

found

Busticua). He

was

be

pointingout

Manchester's

will be

worthy

this time

Stationers

that makes

forced

of Manohe$ter*8

the Earl

part towards

About

with

muse

day later than

no

Ashe, Lord

Merouriua

amiable

his
and

Querela Cantabrigiensis(frequently bound

an

completed

usually wit should

to attack

was

IfUelUgenoe
from

Eyves'

(an ill

Newgate

neere

licenser

the

out

of this

designe, a

yeare."

come

account

communicating

loine of mutton,

Now

another.

sometimes, and pampers

little greasierthan

'

of St. Dunstanes,

result of this tirade

Quoth

into for it is

lookt

of Eaisins

Spie resorts

this time

'

and

chandlers

help

the

two

As

at

to the

the

be

JOUENALISM

intelligencingdesigne, an

designe begun
Omen)

ENGLISH

sheet

one

would

designe, an

next

OP

York
Un*

the Committee

duties of perusingthe

printers'

14TH

copy of each
of

pamphlet of
he

on

John

Bushworth

again from

December, 1646,

publicationwith

of the

month

same

is probably a

shall

be

never

infamy,"

was

had

been

an

time

he

for the

"

usher

But

If he

of that

his

sure

people

(besideswhat

he

The

while

but

got

he

to his

able

was

then

back
Man

to

with

this

his

the

to

so

some

"

not

to be

much

with

until

man.
gentle-

the rout

wrote

peace,

clerke

under

an

to

his pen
room

of which

Out

his tester

with

furnished

country

in decent

with

Moon, No. 26, 17th-24th October,

to the

ate
moder-

his

in his ear, return

good

himself

master) by eight faire lines


club

he

weekly sport by

groats a week

large dash.

ham
Ned-

perhaps

member

them

of

At

also describes

heretofore

was

and

shame

legal profession,

become

side

lasts

College,Oxford, and

him

in times

his little

in the

not

his ten

earned

world

the

to

Audley

make

to
He

trick of the

the

And

equipage

incorrigible

with

never

as

who

One

hand,

friend.

and

writingsshow

he would

were,

legibleCourt

gains

impudent

Taylors' school.

(He did

".

house

House.

sheet, and

30th

52, but

Souls'

All

describes

all that's noble.

at
railing

the

on

No.

any,

Merchant

at

which

of the

scum

51

say

Journals

by

graduate of

be of that

1652.)

of Marcha-

gentleman of Grayes Inne," adding,

"

tinction
ex-

be allowed

to

No.

ployment
em-

The

dated.

not

was

calls him, ''who

mentioned

pamphlet

as

be

must

it with

apparently connected

was

Captain Audley's

that

''that

Nedham,

Cleiveland

as

it is

number, and

for it in the person

(the Lords

arily
tempor-

mistake).

Marchamont
reviler"

1645, and

Britanunts

its fiftieth

recommenced

Post, ^ which

March,

Mercurvus

deputy

found

was

who

Nedham,

of the

deputy

February, 1647.

to

reason

ment
commence-

this

was

69

Mabbott.

4th

to

however,
periodical,

author

new

mont

and

for this

Bushworth'

as

may

August, 1644,

this date and

1646

the writer of the London

September, 1644,

9th

Audley

his clerk Gilbert

was

6th

Slst

ceased

and

DECEMBER,

by deputy. At the

news

employed

appeared from

from

318T

September Captain Thomas

but later

On

1643, TO

JUNE,

no

1649.

other

60

HISTORY

OF

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

stuff,but only his industrious

household

sometimes

tools,a bottle of checquer ink, and

chancery bill,which

voluminous

the aforesaid

by

of his masters
fast between

he made

of his pen,

swoop

clients,who

the hands

self,desk, writing

of the

for

stillmore

seeing sheets

transcriber

times
to

which

of paper,

ream

forgivehis adversary

At

the time

pamphlets, and

him.

His

earn

against any

or

in

one

"

of low

man

writer;

emblem

"

legs and

this

to

k Wood,

many

is

gals and
lacessit".

of all the

ctLSf which

in

of

aqua

the

this

kind

to

was

write

to

of the
like

was

pen

writer

"

haired

because

that he had

(there

life. He

of his

black

"

states

hair is

"

of

house

his

the

dressed
style,adin

successor

not

me

paper

to

my

they

proceed what

would

one

ences
refer-

Bay salt

side, "Nemo

no

trapstick

"

several

are

fortis and

its former

long scoldingwrangle with

the

life

others, and the remark

let them
at

for

say

immediately destroys all

abandoned

only terminated

periodicalat

"whose

AcademicWy

now

note

to

impune

fail to

"sell

diurnals.

Atdicus

upon

ink

My

And

writer

Merourius

entered

**

be I'll add

Coperas.

please,"adding
best"

of Menmrius

number

"great Goliah

descriptionof

own

must

ready

lived at the

he

; and

fact). His

word

was

bald

was

Court, Temple

if need

and

the

that he

stomach

of AvUcm,

with

third states

to the writer

worms,

TEstrange,

adds

in Devereux

"idder

1646

"

to

the way

as

subjectof

good

the

was

comparison

; and

huge

has

stature, full set,and

another

of wit

is the

of this he

He

one.

repeatedby Anthony

was

him

leading principlein

sake

Roger

"

beam

weaver's

is

client)

described, Nedham

He

side

and

for the

and

Philistines,"says
a

so

transformed

he owed

thus

was

neither

motive

one

money,

for

he

when

fallen in the social scale.

have

multiply

thought verilyhe

(i.e.,the

the debt

ous
volumin-

charges."

save

of

him"

made

ment
great astonish-

the

to

wrought miracles,a singleskin of parchment


a

hanging

end

with

of the

the

year

dignity and
Mercurvus

extinction

1645, and

now

Britani-

of the

former

which

is very

62

mSTOEY

ordinances

sufficient

books

considered

he

will be the timeliest and

one

wonder

known

of Milton

advance

allowed

for

tedious
insufferably

he

the

he did not

saw

day

"

left behind
raised

and
^possible,

"

in his

unlicensed

clear up

in

of the

it

here

in

was

ous
spuri-

perhaps

old standards
he

cism
of Catholibeen

had

that

behind

was

farther

even

toleration

the

be

must

standard

the

book.

own

libertyof
motive

and

January, 1649, the Levellers

19th

On

those

Episcopalianism

and

of its

disciplinefrom

and

dogma

think

to

only

advance

day that scope

to

of

on

the

views
plainlythat religious

very

from

seem

be

contending for

was

Presbyterianism to Independency
still; but

read, and

equal certainty that


He

moving

'\

to

Areopagitieashould

Assuredly in

chievous
mis-

executioner

remedy

are

with

much

alteringso

were

effectual

were

For

the

most

himself.

because
toleration,

fire and

the

nowadaya

said

be

can

writers.

the

the

"

the

that

read

and

times, it

works

prose

it is small

that of June, 1643,

capture of

the

ensure

orders

thought that the

existingpreviouslyto

to

Milton's

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

publication,and

after

ptmishment
and

OF

very

and
printing,^
remarkable

the

the

beginning of this Parliament,

say

real

A short

"

solicitation

at the

the

they make

statements

manner

Areopagitiea.They

petitionedfor

underlpng

time

after the

of the

pany
Com-

committed
to the custody of
Stationers,the press was
licencers,when though scandalous books from or in behalf of
of

the

Enemy

then

Oxford

at

the first that suffered


without

license

book

long after Mr. John


Bichard

Overton

Mr.

was

intitled Oods

others

about

approaching tyrannie" (".e.,of


and

you

The

your
'*

army

Petition

Commonwealth

shall be

of firm and

Presenters

Sanders

Laurence

Lilburn, Mr.

and

pretended occasion, yet

the

was

Love

William
books

Mankind,

printing
and

not

and

Mr.

discoveringthe

then

Lamer,

if

Presbyterians). "And

the

pleased
constant

to

for

to

friends
of

back

look

to

the

late

little upon

Parliament

and

large petitionof
(19th January, 1648-49, 669, f 13, (75)). The petition
Sept 11, 1648
of 11th September was
of Lilbume's
draftsmanship.
and

promoters

the

"

14TH
afhirs

1643, TO

JUNE,

find you

mil

you

along by unlicensed
''And

whole

the

to

without

Political

or

libertywhereof

nation

what

may

bondmen

or

of the

all orders
This

minds

of this

them
to the

only for

One

(1649), was

of the

settingof masters,

for that

and

by Fairfax's
Like

main

the

the

with

arena,

puny

end

revoke

to

against

warrant

Areopagitieait

was

ately
immedi-

the self-created
first year

Levellers

the

suppress

Cleiveland

in

Cha/racter

The

chronicle,"

Maccabees
reckon

attack

an

wings of Time.

Iliads

to

objectsof
during the

January, 1645, John

entitled
a

in that

as

"

and

ence
of its exist-

the

men

very

presented this petition.

In

is

to

end

supream

things so

disgracefully
repressivestatutes

most

*'

the

flicted
in-

contrary ".

January, 1649.

self-styled Commonwealth,"

that

the

at

petitionran

the

to

in other

occasioned

by the

known.

done

whipping

utterlydisregarded,but unlike the Areopagitioait was

ever

be

they said, "fit

freelywithout

over

petitionwas

followed

being

part of speaking, writing,printing

ordinances

press of 9th

the

from
not

of

that

as

write, but

or

yourself

as

"

Controulers
and

Freedom,

punishment
was,

people

essential

and

and

The

preciselyhold

publishingtheir

tutors

speak

not

may

part of the conclusion

will

you

For

the

press,

".

second

necessary

and

bondage.

"Mercuries"

the

^the freedom

"

of

Licensers?"

on

That

the

over

all

over

Divine, Moral,

any

pleasureof

**

in

put

it,it's impossibleto preserve


people who

The

things, as

so

printing,as

licensers be

unto

that

slaves

of

course

essential

appears

liable to the worst


to

63

strengthened all

discourses

publickeor privateteaching and


Civil,

much

1646

printing.

apprehensions may

our

Natural,

DECEMBEE,

bin very

have

generally, as

justly in

31ST

of

how

It is

an

descended

journalism

*'

pin

scarce

into

of the

"A

Diumcd.

day

Diurnal

feathered

with

History in sippets,the EngUsh

Apocryphal

single sheets.
many

the

London

writes,

he

nutshell, the
in

on

also

It would

'ap's' tis

book

Parliaments
tire

removed

Welch

from

an

of

pedigree
annual.

64

HISTORY

OF

it is of that

For

shrimp

to

"

Dutch

"

but

moderne

mercuries

''In

frontispieceof
of the

contents

usually with

the

was

Royall
a

^like the

"

of Conmions,
reference

is

judging
cut
wood-

to the

PerfectDiumall).

older

It

''

begins

law, still born, dropt

assent.

is

diurnal

voted

stages were

(this is

ingredientof

next

since the
.

**

Diumall

House

ordinance, which

an

(unborn children).

beldam

old

^sitsthe

the

quickened by
The

**

the

"

on

like

"

in this kind

"

Hans-en-Eelders

chapter

of the House

house

the Protoplast and the


OdlliobelgiotLs

tribes of Israel

the twelve

before

originalsinner

The

German)
{i.e.,

the

JOURNALISM

extract, only of the younger

lobster.

ENGLISH

"

the

down

horrible

plots

plots

only playhouse is

at Westminster.

Suitable

''

to their

Taylours,Spaniels both
conscionable

church

while

intends

that

goose

In

third

^
.

Stemhold
One

Rebels

chimes

'

all in

You

up

objectto

his

^One
neoeaaary

chapter
the
who

and
the

begins

Regiment.

first

was

the

Selden

taylours

an

mAintains

to salvation.

to

through
of Our

With

that

faith

of

of the

strikes
of

Cromwell
the

Old

other

without

face

works

of
that

Testament.

uses

what

the

arm

one

by the

no

and

as

the
"

same.

up

Saviour

foreigners,when

alone

belief of

Hopkins

another

muster-master

King bringing in

larger size

as

is weary

Hosanna

Matthew.

over

other

the

Diurnal

Genealogy
of

and

with

then

of

strangle the

to

over

man

clean

drums

The

heads
adventures, the RoundStories

learn the

may

in his
the

now

their

Psalmes

'

But
.

beat

it

of

and

plot that

in

cut

guerpo

maintain

sect, able

the

Saints-bell.

hath

botcher

outlying ears,

such

romance.

they kill a

murder

flesh and

Good

water.

zealous

his

help of

place march

of their

ears

Solifidian

the

preservedthe Capitol.

the

the

the

antiquityand

legend,the
than

Thus
.

Spiritdiscovered

of the

combat

to

and

Skippers and

contriving some

was

by

government

otacousticon

"

he

land

for the

intelligence.

Moorfields

their informers.

plotsare

names

list but
can

they

themselves
is all that

is

14TH
entertain
never

1643, TO

JUNE,
such

an

association,which
with

his neck

Mahomets

tiy

But

all is not

gold

of his

most

hater

him,

show

of

him.

in

His

images

nose

him

more

that

he

should

be

is able

to

lawfully begotten.
"

at in the

wonder

we

church

expected

He

kill without

to

ominously,

if he

as

glisters.What

to

is

speeches for the

ear

be

she

trophies are

looking glass would


perfecta

his

65

Cromwell

somewhat

prompt

whether

that

making

bloody beak.

his

is natural

rest of them

the

by

Eagle

young

and

come

1646

This

he doth

holding np

pigeon to
too

is

he

nevertheless

awry,

bird of prey

when

as

DECEMBER,

Hebrews?

of

army

valoorous

so

31ST

bloodshed, for
when

window,

is

superstition.He

so

in his

God

defaced

hath

countenance."

own

Cleiveland

was

shall encounter
On

30th

Lords

bitter enemy

ever

him, like Milton, later

in his Parliament

wrote, ''the

of

Church

House

of

'

which

power

be

which
we

'

'

to

sometimes

are

it

'Indeed

wiser

and

that

set

true
'

was
a

upon

'civil

the

mented
com-

dayes in

had

we

'

jure divino

but

of Church

form

was

disciplineshould

if

sad

(i.e.,

on) which

so

and
affirmative,'

'

the

business

the

subject to

jure divino,'its

this then

growne

and

were

to

'jure divino'

was

in the

answered

was

strecht

it

we

(23rd January),

debated

Commons

'negative,'whether

this:

on
once

the

umbrage
"

day

and

journalist.

gave

This

of Classes

Presbyterian method
in

whether

government

answered

**

Scout

as

on

January, 1645, Dillingham

he

the

of Cromwell,

now

ment
govern-

that is alterable ".


From
but
have

this it will be

to

arrested

add, that for

On

discharge;

1645, he

so

trivial

by order of the Lords

suppressed.
his

It is

Presbyterian.

staunch

22nd

and

commenced

ScofU^ which

Dillingham

that

seen

matter

and

February

amazing

he

fresh

Captain Audley's career

as

days

petitionedthe

Lords

it,for

to

immediately

was

Scout

periodicalin

he entitled the Moderate

in these

the Parliament

apparentlyobtained
a

he

anything

was

on

the

6th

was

for

March,

place of

the

Intelligencer,

licenser

now

came

to

an

end.

mSTOBY

66

In

Merourius

OF

Nedham

best to send
If any

which

hath

with

and

Hue

bring any

give notice
paines.
Bos

So

in

God

linguawas

insult been

people to

to

attached

Prison.

the
and

being

later,Audley

Parliament,

sufficient

not

lingua

^note

know

him.

"

well

the

at

Then

paid for

your

suffered.
of

had

have

had

such

before ; and

had

outraged

an

**

had

to

the bar of the

directions from

however,

guilty. On

".

ordered
Gatehouse

escaped scot-free,
August,

15th

forbidden

and

Captain

was

the

to

sent

House

Bushworth

Mr.

Captain Audley

Nedham,
held

Never

England

afterwards

was

in his

slightimpediment

authorityfrom

had

liberated

was

King,

full of broken

be

be

shall

brought

Fleet, and

Marchamont

licenser

the

soon

would

he stated that he

to

it

day after this appeared, White,

The

he conceived

sent

will

to

King

printerof Britanicus, was

was

marks

wilful

heart

in

King Charles

with.

of Lords, where

of him?

his

from

(Bos

you

ignored it they

reckon

Audley who

you

reference

offered

the Parliament

be

become

the Parliament."

save

which

and
and

to Britanicus

speech from

He

"

yeares

"

mouth

speak

Augast,

tidingof

or

these

protestations.If

"

the

tale

astray these four

in the

to 4th

after him.

cry

gone

is another

July

What's

can

side), for bid him

to

Charles?

man

and

vowes

an

follows

as

guiltyconscience, bloody hands,

there

wrote

King

"Where's

"

JOURNALISM

No. 92, for 28th


Britanictts,

Marchamont

were

ENGLISH

days

ten

license "books

to

"

again.
this date

From
the

was

his awl
had

and

of

son

and

found

sub-author
^

90Ui
On

The

Man

employment
to write

"

on

in the

the
Mwm,

as

No.

licenser.

He

who, from

working

with

shop, had
John

diurnal

London

as

acted

cobbler

Nottingham

last in his father's

he learnt how
"

Mabbott

Gilbert

come

from

Post,^

services to the house

".

to

London,

clerk,when

Bushworth's

acting as Bushworth's
He

other

possessed no

26, 17th.24th

October, 1649 ; Und., 2lMt44, 10th-17th September, 1648.

May, 1649 ; MerGurius EUncUcus, No.


voted
of Commons
14th July, 1646, the House
him
the propositions"(i.e.,
to the Soots Commissioners*

other

up

"20

for

'^and

"

sing
engrosfor divers

14TH

1643, TO

JUNE,

for
qualifications
distinct

his

was

He

qualification.Later
headed

December, 1645

succeeded

the

to

come

This, from

of

personal attacks

he
this

and

the

on

King

"

Abingdon,

Little,

Pembroke

of

graduate

been

to have

seems

Little,possiblyBichard

named

of

Mayor

Oxford

ber).
preceding 7th Septem-

the

on

21st

on

printedat

was

in DiuUnus,

statements

clergyman

end

an

Aidiatu

Mercurius

apparentlyit also

; and

{Aidious having

son

conspicuous as

became

he

was

which

to

agent for the army,


on

all the

Academicus

MercurvM

by

faction

67

he desired.

death

written

appointment

the

Independent

Fairfax's

was

Leveller, who
whose

for the

trimnph

belonged.

o"Sce, and

the

1646

DECEMBEB,

31ST

College.
On

March, 1646, Bushworth's

9th

revoked, and he

was

himself up to the Scots, and, had

Independents
have

then

to be written

and

his life and

the

in Mercurius

King

number
the

Scots

know

"

Be

dear

for your

smarted

you

whole

camp

ye

Commons

much

is

their

the two
4ms.

and
of the

ipso facto

heretofore

to

revile

attempted

by the

more

An

or

"Will
Ye

shall

House

what

received," adding

the
.

have

you

paid

Scots

have

of that

power

little reason

brood
to

make

end, therefore,was

mischief

put

of

make

attacking the King,


less to

that endeavoured

was

tyrant

Besides

Upper

kingdom,
he

in the

wrote:
not ?

or

how

they have

court."

Houses.

he

in the

and whosoever
liberties,

number

King

being reached

to his Parliament

King

Vipers" (the kings) "that


their

the

proceeded

now

1646, when

May,

'tis determined

of them

so

ever,
agree, how-

partiescost

two

Britanicus

he shall be demanded

resolved

to rob

the

when

more

the

before, the climax

llth-18th

send

do, how

to

than

more

for

did not

people of England their liberties.

the

Nedham

history would

deal of later

differently.They

strugglebetween

the

delivered

only the Presbyteriansand the

agreed,a good
very

to
^hither-

"

May, 1646, King Charles

5th

On

licenser

as

formally replacedby Mabbott

was

only his deputy.

appointment

the
tween
be-

to JBrttoni-

68

A
On

mSTOKY
the 2l8t of

later Nedham

brought

and

He

to the bar.

stated

by Audley
then

was

No.

that

Britanieus

was

committed

deputy
the

to

from

wrote

May, begging him


and

read

the House

in

to

have

seems

being John
in "100

spite of

each,

without

Mercurius

13th

denied
Whether

attacks

on

for he does
in

White, his

the 28th of

on

release

presented

in

Denbigh

Lord

4th

June

on

ham
Ned-

his securities

"200,
William

Lipthorpe,

write any

not

more

Audley, who

not

was

to

it

or

not, it

Mabbott

can

the

was

the

King.

He

have

not

appear

either to have

must

On

end

an

in London,

even

licensed BriUuncus, and

that he had

Gilbert

permanently

came

released.

was

be

thus

cluded
fairly con-

instigatorof

had
been

peared,
ap-

these

powerful friends,
punished

called

or

question.
On

the 15th

of his

one

of October

and

Commissioners,

printer,with

Scots

Conmiissioners'

The

he was,

author
now

also

revealed

the papers

3rd of November
and

the Lords

Mabbott,
for

of their

of Ciioicm
turned

himself

the

the

Scots

Walker,

licenser
some

self,
him-

of

the

Conunissioners

publication.

and

the

Kingdomes Weekly

round, and, staunch


as

of the

Henry

pubUshing

originalletters;

Blaicklocke,
of Conmions

the House

printingof

the

on

before

having complained

genoer

the

Westrop

one

called

was

to

as

Pecke, with

Samuel

called before

was
printers,

examined

and

true.
un-

protestinghis loyalty to

that he should

thus

he admitted

that

was

leave.

Britanicm

of June

which

"

successfully,for

condition

on

to

and

perused

Denbigh

bail,himself

on

confessed

52, a period of

of his pen.

errors

days

two

to appear.

petitionfor

day, and

the

interceded

Lord

Partridge,the stationer, and

pamphlets
the

that

Uberated

was

his

to have

Lords

to the

prisonto

and

Fleet, and

ordered

the

ordered

then

of all from

printer,togetherwith Audley, was


Nedham

He

and

Bushworth's

as

of Lords

Captain Andley,

and

of this number

eighty weeks,

JOURNALISM

May, 1646, the House

was

making

licensed

ENGLISH

of Nedham

attachment

the

OF

the

champion

ItUelli-

Presbyterian as
of his

King.

In

70

the

title

mSTOKY

"

following
remark.

revived

(not

Britcmcua)

10th

February

On
his

OF

31st
London

ENGLISH

*\

JOUKNALISM

This
does

and

December,
Post

for

periodical

1646,
two

call

not

months.

John

until

lasted
for

any

Bushworth

the

special
also

LONDOM

pn";T

ConimuDicating the High


oients

in

RcmaTkable
bit

Englandand
paflage^

Wttltl;

TrBvdls

Couofds

of both

Sattland, and
both

Civill

(fanwgh

ihc

and

thref

Pai

all

other

Marriil]

Kingdonu

lia-

la

Fomignc
King*
THEgT"ibnfii"flet*tioweoncluded,tndwh
datGnbiTefo
attOKledt
and

long

Itold, ifait

weckduthbnnigbi

to

foSi,

ftfmoflftood

wbifib
D

an

dproe

to

m"

is.tfaeKing tcfteredJo-

CHAPTER

V.

1647.

The

Walker

Henry

apprentice

as

to

failed, and

proceeded

he

degree,

of

Archbishop
from

and
liftin,

ecclesiastical
After

and

short

as

as

March,

four

as

many

1641,

V"rses

very

also
book

sent

entitled

it

of

thousand

of

committed

Lords

On

him,

Terrible

as

set

against

ditious
se-

Taylor,

to

On

12th

the

Fleet

Pride

days

and

later

he

"

the

the

and

man

House

for
the

poor

in

up

and

John

him

being

1641,

Outcry

fell under

Prelates

delinquent,

by

Five

Finch.

December,

he

chap-

copies.

The

petition, as

own

20th
for

the

wards
after-

Laud's

Walker

said

was

any

of fitness

puritanical

hundred

and

his

on

".

sorry

writer

and

libels, entitled

Wren

the

on

House

two

released

was

the

writing

for

five

or

Lincoln,

to

suspended.

was

experience

circulating,

pamphlets,

taking

Subsequently

ecclesiastical

period

certificate

in

himself,

brief

Archbishop

from

apparently

bookseller

for

of

with

life

Holland,

without

Williams

deacon.

censure

his

business

another

ordained

was

for

Thence,

ment.
Parlia-

the

commenced

business

went

armed

York,

college and

the

1639,

Bishop

to

had

share

to

to

called

in

up

Cambridge.^

College,

Queens'

set

October,

28th

on

and

ironmonger

then

he

Market;

Newgate

Derby

at

London

henceforth

was

principal journalist

born

was

who

one

of

position

Pecke's

Samnel

in

ushered

1647

year

of

mons
Com-

making

Loytering

of

Exalted

Prelate.
^

Information

College.

Walker's

kindly

famished

university

by

W.

M.

must

oareer

description.
71

Coates, Esq.,
have

been

of

Bursar
the

of Queens'
briefest

sible
pos-

72

mSTOBY

A
He

employed
and

and

"

his successive

which

was

though he

left

thus

the streets,

business

he

into newsbooks

the

originator,and,

he
field,

first realised the

was

the first in the

capacity,

journalistof

successful

of advertisements

establishingadvertisingoflSces.

of

enduring

an

curious
most

which

of

not

was

curies,
MertatterdemialionBy

pamphlets about

the

introduction

practicaladvantages
has

him

him

innovation

an

of

seller
experiencesas ironmonger, preacher, book-

printer gave
The

his

to vend

actuaUy made

day.

JOUBNALISM

ENGLISH

"ragged regiment

hawkers

and

his

OF

mark

side of

important

an

upon

He

English journalism.
his

For
which

early history
with

he had

John

''Water-Poet"

and

Taylor

Churchman.

and
loyalist

for

of the encounter,

Puritans.

An

Answer

by Walker,

the

charges he made

most

exhortation

be

could

to

pointed

out

from

Eeply

Impudent, Unsoder'd
the

that

Fenner,

Walker
the

an

*'

the

as

True

'

in

contained

Heavenly

with

Walker's

Bible

attached

B,"
one

new

"

to

Knav,

Taylor'sPhysicke

has

'

for

and

several

an

worse
infinitely

of

pages
M

'

Beviler

with

in
an

which

and

woodcut

and

To

this

In

this

he

stolen

was

told

Lately

was

story of

quart of metheglin

at

pamphlet
Y.

"

B.

Answer, Taylor suggested

Hel

".

Divel

the

Purged

of Sectaries

foul

for the anagram

Walker

(the

rest

replied
of the

of his pamphlet
frontispiece
than

he accused
scurrility

Suami

led to

Steele.

Answer

Walker's

the
titleis unquotable),illustrating
with

as

to
frontispiece

The

disgustingwoodcut,
"

his

Kings Street.

K.

1641

Ironmonger.

riming poet,"

dead

having pawned

Owl

in

verse

the

"

approved canting manner.

most

with

him

worst

against the

language, and

in

Busty, Bayling, Bidictd"yus,Lying Libell,


by

the

against his opponent, coupled

repent in the

Taylor answered

Written

used

pamphlet published by Taylor in


scurrilous

devoted

ridicule

was

weapon

effective that

and

Royal Watermen,

decidedly

had

Taylor's one

controversy

call himself,

to

Walker

deadliest

to the

of the

one

"

loved

he

as

indebted

are

we

after

Taylor's, and

Taylor

of

being

Schismaiiques, etc.

thief

and
his

TO

YOUR

predicteda

sudden

death

of

this in verse,

in

The

son

an

without

Footman's

Irish

Hibernian

of

this he

In

Pedestrian,

Bichard

Walker

travel about
On

5th

King

the sheriff Sir


his coach

to

George

the

King

arrived

title To

your

the

an

Justice

open
sent

was

there could

treacherous
him
asserted

^Mercwrius

Walker,

so

the

was

who

son

of

used

to

ape.

the

As

in

the

the

city,and

the

King

dined

drove

seized

of

the

opportunity to

coach, and

into

Whitehall

the

at

the

which

rebellion.

to

day, and

the

throw

Song's

read
The

found

Lord

Chief

issued for

printer.

references

that,

to Walker's

will be

as

personal appearance

easilyunderstood,

identifyinghim.

He

"

Judas

throw

Britanious, His

had

hair, which, coupled with

red

of

face.

and

warrant

one

pamphlet, which

Tents, 0 Israel, was

the nickname

of the

yard,
Church-

noise

part he played against the King later

Journalist

in

home

St. Paul's

amount

the

be little difficulty
in

Nineteenih

with

"Privilege of Parliament,"

and

not

of

House

cries of

numerous

that he did

Article in

familyof

through

for the next

yellow "ce, and

round

Walker

of Essex

uncomplimentary
are

visited

solicitation

of Walker

the arrest
The

Riohard-

Walker, probably fancying that he

King.

pamphlets into

be

he

members

considerable

be undiscovered,

the

trained

Garrett.

raised

was

''troubled"

bore

Charles

crowd

there

When

to be of the ancient

five

the

arrest

with the Earl

the

his

George

level,

January, 1642, the day after he had unsuccessfully

Commons,

of

Walker's

Cherry Lickam,"

the country with

to

would

"

Taylor

lampooned

averring that

nicknamed

attempted

and

Author

the

"

of

said he possessed,

he

descending to

Poetry

Bredsall, and

also boasted

He

farre inferior ".

''

his claim
unmercifully,ridiculing
Walker

73

which

arms

assertingthat Taylor's was


repliedto

ISRAEL

for him.

the coat

^'pedegree" and

TENTS,

the

Weleome
and

".^

When

pamphlet
to HeU,

See

the
cured
pro-

captured, he
into the

also the

Centwry
After, Maioh, 1908,
Commonwealth," for an account of

his anagrams.

on,

on

King^s
writer's
^^

Henry

Walker

and

74

coach

and

HISTORY

This

denied

it from

bought

that

he

examined,

previous

to the

by Walker

and

ENGLISH

in

that his wife's Bible

and

Sing's

While

mob

Newgate

at

week

boat

12th

the Thames,

anxious

was

personal insult
him

upon
treason

in life

King's pardon,
and
in

for

punishment

by

again

of St.

the result.

as

Mary

At

captured

last
in

him

Bailey on

the Parliament
at this time

it

againstthe King personally

up

have

punishment
and

then

of

in vogue
The

for

ever,
King, howto suffer

not

was

high

meanour.
only tried for misde-

was

writing,publishing,and
had

he

condemned

was

the

tion
led to the inflic-

quartering.
that Walker

what

coupled with

arms,

sale of his libel ; he

retracted

rescued

were

of the world

take

to

convicted

for the

money

for trial at the

thing that

one

Parliament

was

to the

Consequently it is fairlycertain

of the cruel

He

find

to

committed

the Church

riot

limb, and consequently he

or

spent

afterwards, Walker

sovereign,would

to the

to the

wrote

night

been

tried at the Old

eyes

Changing,drawing

"

Thames

to rebel

incitement

that Walker's

the

was

was

against his advisers.

but

of the

in order

of the Tower,
he

and

about

not

then

twice

in the

to prove

that it was

was,

were

causing a

If there

July, 1642.

borrowed

later, they

Conyers, Lieutenant

on

city had

preached in

he

Magdalen, Bermondsey,

the

across

Taken

Once

escaped.

Sir John

into

Both

at Blackfriars.

twice

whole

been

had

being removed

sessions

the

in Southwark

Prison

Bench

captured

writingand printingthe pamphlet,

for its headline.

the text

for 2s. 6d.

then

that

King's journey

he had

that

Hall

printer was

The

confessed

himself

it,adding

in Westminster

signed.

and

JOURNALISM

written

he had

schoolboy

statement

and

OF

then

written
to

stand

begged

ceiving
re-

the

with

tears,"^

in the

pillory

**

Cheapside.
Taylor seized the opportunityto publish a biography of

Walker,^ and
A

secuandble

lectwe
.

Borne
,

The

by Henry

Whole

this up

followed

Life

as
.

Walker.
and

by

it

burlesquesermon

might

Taken

be

delivered

in short

Progressof Henry

Walker

entitled
in

writingby
the

Hatcham^
'*

Hiomi^

Ironmonger,

76

HISTOEY

OF

the

probably by
that

Lords

On

of

papers

the

*'

from

year

him
iron and

''He

is

he

thereof.

framing

when

our

long

title for

that

he

shot

had

down

to

one

into the

of

in the

most

stand

in the

writingand

Hill

is he

against

he came,

the

ever

chiefest

of the

lent
excel-

of Ordnance

peece

than

pillory.

very

done, for London

execution

City

lye. This

new

dischargea

one

for

scribes
Lyers de-

side of Shotover

he had

greater report and

them

brought

to

old, or

an

one

to

the

by

brasse,his body of

of

unknown

not

against the City. When

Mathew

tenpenny nayles/' and adds

as

in this way

and

all Soandalam

face is made

lay of

men

thus

was

whose

Oxford, he got the "vour

with

He

Whip far

great merchant

he

gratiated
far in-

so

ordered

were

Fresh

as

he

printingof

the sole

youth

volume,"

have

are

before

had

that

of

House

Oocurrences

Walker

place is

great charges in printing all the

great preferment he had

for the
that

one

his teeth

the

is

in

to

and

as

I think

since

at

the date

public view,

He

''

of Lords

House

been

army

his

read

the Parliament,

with

having

"

petitionedthe

September

27th

his

took

then

Walker

should

one

himself

"

this time

some

printed them.
Sinmions,

JOUBNALISM

Presbyterians. Who

clear,for aboat

not

ENGLISH

piecedid,

colleges in the

University and that he could perceivethe very battlements

to

fall.

And

be

taken

notice

of, he

place

where

he

after this great

lives, as

(sio)"Walker

balcony as

you

fitter"

more

doth
"

in

house

in

take

turne

without

running

up

of the

'Who

about

the

for

example

living at

roofe

and

down.

from
goes

States

the Post
there?'

the

very

printed

London

great brick house

turning up

to

for

and

may

well

all houres

house.
"

service, pray

And

'My
do

name

not

confesse

must

"

it doth

together,and

He

Padington

the other

pains than

his relations

down

set

gallows), "I

more

he would

James's, when^indeed the three

to St.

City,for he is up

agen

with

printer to

(t.0.,Tyburn

compacting

too and

up

great deale

his

causes

Thomas"

cornered

victory of his,because

be

in the

were

he

(Pecke),

chieflylye

called

man
the Bell-

night,running
he is questioned

when

is Walker,

stop

me'

"

when

am

he

hath

been

DE8TB0YING

FOUBE

"THE
at

laying his

printinghouse

WORMS"

lingsand scandalisingsagainst honest


with

met

neyer

of

his damnable

Gompacting

else

lyes,and

believe

his

(patent) "for
in the

kingdome,
Fairefaxes

Thomas

referred

Westminster,

in which

roughly defined

of

the

Lilbume.

caused

his skill in

mutinies
and

partiesin

writer

They

"'

the

worm,

be alluded

and

State

Bebellion
which

of the two

did eat up
of

scaling the
left.

worm

Hugh

Walker

in what

harpies.

brethren
and

to

be

part of

Presbytery
walls

Thirdly

Peters'

our

1650

letter

of
the

and
in

had
ing
amaz-

noticed

sums

with

here.
the

up

of God's

the

great

Palmer

the

the

Palmer

these
Caterpillar,
furies

is that

worm

united

King

against our

Secondly the

ing
covenant-

which

swarmed

Locust

what

up

Cankerworm,

reportingthe taking

vengeance

Westminster

our

loyalty eate

25th
(Mercwrius Profftnalieus,

of the

"

fruits.
as

be

the Levellers'

than

more

of Parliament

Houses

may

minimum,

destroying worms,

the

of

is foul

First

that

was

pamphlets, coupled

Locust, the Cankerworm

may

favourite

Lilburne's

1645.

year

foure

like the

devoure

and

the

close

Bepublicans,and

to

part like the armie

their

act

of

The

They

quibbles,render

and

strikingsimile

very

since

complicated to

too

BoyaUst

and

in the hands

all power

voluminous

legalresources

controversy

of pure

that of Parliament

disputesand

contentiousness

political
party

as

to reduce

people and

hved;

Independent party

opinions,tending to place

their

did."

ever
artillery

Sir

or

be inferred.

thus

Levellers, led chieflyby John

the

mischief

more

of Essex's

Cromwell

street

and

Fountain, Kings Street,

the

was

his

that

done

Lord

traine of

Patten"

large

think

do

all my

Peters,^may

subdivision

One

granted him

ever

to

he

favourer

ever

Henry Walker, through CromweU's

with

chaplainHugh

was

pamphlets, have

whole

privatehouse
connection

hath

"

than

or

men,

"

profession.

scurrilous

other

many

reverend

lyes together I wonder

Divell,but indeed he

the

of ray-

leven

sower

and

77

the

to

2nd

Palmer

levellingbias-

of Drogheda

September

the

in

1649

was

to

October, 1649).

78

mSTOBY

OP

fruits of

loyaltywhich

lastly,the

and

of all others, hath

and

workmen

have

his inheritance."

King

made

the

Presbyterian,the

Independent

Their

possessions into

lords and

rulers

and

over

Parliament

to

over

the

arbiter of

the

'

bonum

dea

moneta,'
How

"...

army.

fed

warres

old

on

scraps

and

for the

by

between

Leveller, the

the

nation's

is their
"

poor

and

would

attended,

men

thick

fate.

and

the

To

their

to

learned

many

divines

company

and

been

have

old

what

"

grave
of

(the honour

Church)

for

bravely

set forth

creep

these

miles

satins,now

and

crouch

our

of the

before

dozen

all.

over

Orthodox

glory of

goddess they

scorn
deliciously,

peasants. How

other

and

run

were

the army.

Boyalist writer

have

fare

compelled to

skulled

bishops
nation

are

the

hirelingswho

benefactors, insult and domineer


learned

profitand

remarks

many

disbanding of

doe ru"9e it in silks and

jerkin,now

mounted

and

King,

summum

is

adore

of

all his

Independent

became

for their

longing

an

troyed
fruits, des-

our

people, citizen and Presbyterian alike,by this time

The

"

the

army

B^gicide,the

triangularconflict proceeding

Scots

and

Fourthly

Vineyard, scattered

our

handed

"

the

"

of

those

ap

left.

up

themselves

prisoner

eaten

taken

servants,

their hands, and

The

had

Locust

vines, killed the Lord

our

his

the

eate

the Independent
Caterpillar,

devouring

most

JOUBNALISM

atheist,poysoned peoples hearts and

phemous
small

ENGLISH

our

degraded,

persecuted,despised,
ejected,
reproached,imprisoned,banished,
fools, brainless

destroyed; and

encouraged, rewarded,
gods.

the

That

of manners,
a

"

the

of

army

is it ?

newes

nursery

of

giddiness,the
as

Merewrius

1649-60, p. 2.

and

is become

'domicilium

and

hypocrisy
school

kingdom

and

worshipped
a

villainy,the

not

all

men

PrcigmcUiciufor King
The

text

is

from

the

of

so

many

confusion

the

"

scene

theatre

of

babbling,the

of Vice.

If I declare
...

Seditious,schismaticall, and
Know

as

very chaos,

infamorum'

academy

livers preferred,

scandalous

that
Charles

cruel

they

are

as

ever,

the

IL, 8th-15th

prophet Joel,

i. 4.

scum

what
of

January,

MERCURIES"

"ROYALIST

kingdom,

the
'

an

of poor

vitae '.

and

described

later

his neck,

Geneva

his

After

to all this

crime

"

abduction

the

as

in his

the charter

of the

from

King

and

canvas

Holdenby,

him

murder

to

ruff about

Change

the

velvet sleeves

of the

odious

as

ing
Temporis-

in the Butcher

dogs

old

as

intended

army

"

as

tripsalong

He

led the

now

his canonicall

equivocationof

the

the

added

was

the Boundhead

equallyto

as

to

Cavalier.

the

No
as

other
Boyalistperiodicals

was

exempt

from

the militia

to be

now

the

all

suppress
and

vending

this

deluged with

and

AtUums

dispersing of
the

was

in

so

Academious

diumals

them.

and
The

foot

exposing
intended

nominally

was

committee
On

the

of

like, and

series of

the rebels and

the

Boyal-

Boyalist

the leaders

them

render

to

power

of the

answer

for

the following

this committee

gave

settingon

manner

It

September.

2nd

pamphlets,

them.

army,

of Commons

Mercuries, attackingand
of the army

of the

power

appointed on

was

day the House

ists to

than

yet appeared ; but, with thehearty good-will of the people,

London

the

of.

came

Presbyterian

the

"

all the

his satin doublet

hose, and

the fear that

to

same

disappointedin

Nedham

to set

bones.

raw

army

with

John,

snarlingenough

upon

back."

the

were

Kette

creed, that

own

Marchamont

by

on

City pinkt'with

had

of his

dislike of the

universal

Adoniram,

trunk

fellows

other

no

however, the Presbyterian parson,

in the

Bow

bad

he rebelled in Borne, of the

when

hoped-forsupremacy

way

79

and

lineage that Cade, Straw, and

and

It was,
the

Sach

PEOPLE

^
desperateand deadly principles/'

of

Men

ac

of Gataline

extraction

THE

aggregate body

profligataefamae

followers

AND

odious

to

people.
The

historyof

made

now

and

the press

has

by the Parliament

suppress
^Merewrius

the

nothing to parallelthe
to

stamp

Boyalistwriters, nor

ElencUcus, Ko.

U,

23rd

out

has

February

this hostile press


it any
to

lat

such

Mercwritu

Britannicu$t No.

2, 26th July

to 2nd

abject

Maroh, 1648,

p. 102.
*

efforts

August,

1662.

80

HISTOBY

failure to record.

and ballad

bent

cobblers

enemies'

and
failings
firstof the

The

the first

plainestspeech

very

MercuHtis

Hackluyt, D.D., who

their

objects.

by

terian
Presbybeen

have

must

appeared

name,

a
on

following

the

will be noticed

as
constituting

rogues

as

MdancholiotM

its title-page
were

on

men
trades-

the

and

other Parts, started

and

treated

to describe

their aims

on

Boyalist Mercuries,

1647, and

September,

"1647

who

and

army

great geographer of that

of the

descendant

"

of scriveners

in Parliament

to comment

minister,John

verses

band

of ofiBcers,clergymen

the
officering

Westminster

Newesfrom

4th

number

enriching themselves

on

thieves,using the

and

or,

but

longer a

no

was

writers,both Boyalistand Boundhead,

tailors and

the

There
nation

addressing the

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OP

chronogram

:"

BeX

CaroLe

te VaLeat

eVangeLiyM
per te Vlgeat

lU

sOoila
Hlbemla

y t In te fLoreat

In

AngLIA

Legls, " paCIs gratia


Eheu

Perditos
Woe

quid feci miflero mihi ? Floribus Austarum


" UquidiB immisi fontibua apros

is me,

The

undone, with blasta the flowers doe fade

chrystallspringsby Swine,

paddle

are

made.
I. H.

first number

This
those

for Dr.

*'

The

by

his

King

throne

shall be

mortall

Diety

"

home, there's

kingdomes
and

further
".

Hackluyt

opening

now

shall

arraied

he

sentences

enjoy his
with

the

trivial

thing called

is first to be
then

instructions

lost the

herein

not

culated
cal-

the army,

and

fortunately
un-

mortally offended

againeand

owne

the

gloriouspresence
beare

his

field,theil

the

few

had

of that

charge him
blood

more

can,

better

Boyall

charge, for 'tis

now

the innocent

enjoy it if he
you

was

"

requiredand

let him

of

"

having

of mind

the state

or

also

(sic), but firstlet him

said, his armies

matters

picture of

please either the Parliament

to

Cavaliers

fought against the King, which

had

who

gave

ask

such
but
the

of three

sleight
for your
ment
Parlia-

ENJOY

SHALL

KING

"THE

such

Langaage

his

to

promptly challenged by

the

he

had

chieflyknown
his

enjoy

Martin

quoted,
to

us

write

Melancholiem

author

of the

Parker, the
the writer

as

of

"

''When

and

again,"

own

AGAIN"

Boyalist,as this Puritan

claim

and

did,

now

OWN

81

this could not be tolerated from

as

call himself

professingto

HIS

one

any

preacher
all

at

famous

was

old

song

ballad

writer, who

When

the

the

King

is

shall

winds

stormy

do

blow".i
beat

Eventually Parker
numbers

of his Mercurius

declares

be

to

generally be

only

also

Hackluyt

which

on

the

Swallow

as

it is not
He

said

clear) was

was

printer

counterfeits,and

either

and

Grouch,

the

probably

His

been

to have

of

be

to

is

name

Irishman.

an

number

large

given

(which,

Hackluyt

or

writer
is

counterfeit

day (Friday)preceding

he

by Parker

and

persistently

style. Another

issued

promptly

first appeared.

others

he

dilSferent

the

MdanehoUcusy carefullychoosing the


that

which

and the
field,

originalMelanoholiousy can

and

true

of the

out

Melancholums,

distinguishedby

to

opponent

the

Hackluyt

identified

with

of
John

Crouch.*

Hackluyt
licuSfand

frequently in prison for writing Mdanoho-

was

after

one

from

escape

prison he

had

menced
again recom-

writing in opposition to Parker, and,

did

he

warning
Martin

attention

Parker's

exertions

as

''

tracts

Nose-gay

thus

House

Tears

"

"

"

received
"

the

easily

are

Commons

of

Labours

due

him:

denounces

have not
royal cause
''by Melancholicus

the

for

of their Seven

StinokingFlowers

but the baUads

in the

Prose

deaerre.

they

identified,such
the

desist,Parker

not

after

as

made

of

up

(16th August, 16i8),

not be Burnt
Troy-Novant
(8th May, 1648), ''Pratle your Pleasure (under the Rose)," "'I Thanke
probably his.
you Twice," and the like are
to
the
Stationers'
'According
Register there were two John Crouches

who

require

printers.

were

that

John

John

Crouch

not

third John

to

the

three

20th"27th
12th.l9th

who

more

It may,

Crouch
wrote

Crouch

writers

care.

of

the
''

however, be said with


journalistand ballad

Mixt

must

be

Poem,"

p.

etc.

left to experts.

Mdancholicus

September, 1647,
September, 164S.

Must

see

something

like

tainty
cer-

writer

not

the

Whether
For

Mercfwrius

7 ; also Merewniw

"

the

was

this last
statements

ifor"ictw. No.

Afdi-Mereunua^

No.

was
as

4,

1,

82

''

Gentlemen,
''AH

of

been

beasts

with

both

abuse

The

is

one

priest,least

say

has

he

''

of Gloucestershire"
was

long time

Catholic

and

Covenant
as

religiousas

blows,
the

here

treacherous

so

will

of sack, and

his

'

friend

for

that

hath

If Martin

Parker
than

Melancholicus

found.

Although
I

My pipe
Cannot

Or

Dance

my

prison

for

other

is

The

get

(should
many

as

earlier

an

number

described, it has
with

yet

of
to be

"

away

hands

of

man

where

Tytan plays
Shepherds keep their Holy days
sheep hook will I it defend
hangs

him

dares

Iffldvius with
before

cry

to Pan

by the rude
it

him,

and

play with

Whilst

32.

be broke

with

run

saored, dedicate

yonder
Nymphs

There

Mercwrim

is

were

of Arcadia

flook and

oake

When

shepherd

left my

never

On

wind

trading."

this denunciation

terminates

He

I have

one

'.

to

gypsie,and

really produced

the

kisse

the
he is

the

cunning enough

lately by her

hath

she

time

Thanks

turn

to

taken

(a

his crucifiers at Westminster.

to

up

"

also, that

would

he

6 pence

he

Winter

way

courteous

at any

panphleting be put down)


as

which

betray himself

'mercury'

hundreds

and

issimo
General-

''where

hath

"

tinues
con-

againsthis Eong,

turns

deliver him

I and

He

blackmore

rebellion

disguised,for

Hayle Master

pint

in actual

windmill, and

person

King

Queen's secretary). "He

been

He

Massey

of Sir John

of the estate

wives

more

(for the Parliament),

fed out

the

and

Ned

chaplain to

not

self
him-

than

back."

his

suits to

hath

sometime

was

holy function

that

feits.
counter-

Hackleite, I will

incontinency,having

he

as

many

as

patience by

my

scoundrel

abuse

more

his vile

by

done

thrice

nay

and

Buffoon

notice

to take

(afterfair warning) stilldo

that

purses

your

in whose

King Charles,

shall desire you

acceptable. I

couple of unclean

and

love God

that

you

I have

eyes

JOUBNALISM

ENGLISH

OF

HISTOEY

Sin.

against Plm

loose and
I

sing to

Melaneholicut,No. 62,

contend

jiggingrimes
cure

the times.^

14th-2l8t

August,

1648.

Bumey,

84

HISTORY

His

motto

The

Shepheard

primo genitorof
being

of the
brat

the

number

this accursed
in

called

of the

his

Pragmatious
the

all the

monies
cere-

(i.e.,
surplice)''christn'd

Pragmaticus

name

".

first

The

that I. C.

(6th July, 1649) the writer

then

nity
greater solem-

with
pontificalibus
smock"

his

for the

spawne,

John

of Elenoticus, and

that

of

* also
clearlystates
periodical

same

(ie.,Gleiveland)was

Sheppard

writes

also

blasphemous clergy spot, being

Babylonish

and

lacessit"; Sheppard's

lacessit ".

Nuncio

that

invested

JOURNALISM

impune

me

impune

me

Metropolitan

Sam

"

Quis

was

ENGLISH

''Nemo

was
'*

motto

OF

of it,

Taylor the writer of

MeUmohoUcus,
Mercurius

17th

"Nay

never

struggle).

' *

time

from

this

the

and

ham,
not

PrcigmaUcus
that

say

with

the

it

recanted.
ticus

1649.

Nedham's

wishes

an

Nor

is

with

21st

September

*No.

Thomason
**

I broke

'The
30th
taris),

3,

him

it to

his

In

in

26th

6th-13th

June,

At

it

to
over

myself and

the

that writ Britanious


"

loyalreaders
more

once

as

ing
Knowwell

he

that

to

of

of the

still

"

Nedham

does

connection

Pali-

started
of

his

CammUtee
is shown

the side of the

on

Ned-

imprisoned and

Nedham

found

the date

of

story
Man's

by

the

rebels,and

Pragmaticus appeared.
This

1649.

be

was

as

the

to enter

Nedham's

case

any

August, 1647

; it is also the last.

heart, and

another

Nedham).
(ie.,

saying

been

have

the first number

Collection

"

some

pen

and

June, 1649, when

the King.

to

my

bold
hand

confirmation

any

"

on

the

up

universallyattributed to Marchamont
" Wood
to point out that Anthony

totallywrong

is

Complaint (?by Cleiveland)


in

give

since I gave

resolved

before

end

interview

references

"

But

all the

originatedit.

Nedham

Wood

in

sulSered

more

to

am

been

has

writer

to

came

impious

an

redounded

reputation,I

but

Cry againstthe King)

damage

own

my

intelligenceand

become

to

refrained

that I have

first began.

piece I

wronged by

Hue

is

cudgels" (that

I confess

(findingimpudence
piecemuch

follows

as

writing

the

commences

the

cross

Gentlemen

imitate

and

also

September, 1649,

1, 10th-

IL, No.

Charles

Pragmaiieus for King

is

the

only number

Sheppard

remarks

in

the

at this date

he his printer *\

MetropolitanNundOf
May to 6th June,

No.
1649.

2
(i.e.,

Bumey,

No.
34.

was

Mercwius

MUi-

THE

MEECUBIE8

AND

lists against these

give them

never

Goliah's

monstrous

tillI make

over

PARLIAMENT

THE

their

86

Westminster, and

at
own

swords

their

adviser

or

own

executioners."
Cleiveland's
and

part

but

also of

is clear that the


to

to the

own

ably commenced.

we

down

On

goes

would

But

Let

For,

none

Fairfax

ordinance

and

for
40
the

the

was

have

time

peace

again

fear be vezt
the

Nemo

King

these

they goe
impune

me

next

lacessit."

Speaker of the

the

to

reign

began

now

On

passed,which

28th

of

ment
reappoint-

days' imprisonment

the

; on
or

10

to issue

against both

September, therefore,

an

prescribedthe followingpenalties

On
periodicals.

10s.

House

desiringfresh legislation
against the

army.

unlicensed

bookseller

reign'da

downe.

which

pamphlets

Parliament

had

blue

Kirke.

the Jookies

wrote

licenser, and
of

stream

"

too

September, requesting Mabbott's

2l8t

sold the Crown

heigh down
"

and

climbe

if without

Then

Bishop

up

with

follows

us

the Brethren

must

we

as

invari*

wirke

sort
religious

now

and

the Crown

crush

they

willing
un-

us.

King

kirk and

more

And

as

must

and

are

been

all

hire the Soot

that these

Bobb'd

which

for

(God wot)

content

holy

them

when

But

on

not

went

T'adyance

well have

It

in order

model

may

with

li^'d in peace

the

concealed

the firstnumber

all-be-Parliament

Then

Mercuries.

other

as

editor,

only of Prajg-

not

was

Gleiveland

forsooth

Betwixt

Peers

the

the writers

on

we

King

To

General

of

rough rhymes

as

But

writer

and

Those
When

working

Pragma%icu% served

subsequent Mercuries,
to

that

number

of

probably

identityof

arrest.

escape

of

that

Sheppard's

moAicuA

was

the

''author"

printer 20s.

days.

These

or

20

40s.

dajrs;

or
on

penalties were

HISTOBY

86

OF

J0UBNALI8M

ENGLISH

cumalatiye, and^ in addition,

the

and

to

singerwas
his stock
30th

on

be

to

confiscated.

Mabbott

September.

All

will become

"What
the

of Lords, who

House

of St.

design he

to hunt

my

bottle

friends

though (ifI

perishin

the

5th

On

since

Nemo

Mercuries," entitled

Lilbum's

John

lordshipand

language)I

Mercurius

third

the

appeared

owing

written

ElencUeiu.

of the

do

"grand

Communicating
Head

the

Quarters, and
their

Crimes,

Sir

George

is much

to the

will be

the
the

detailed

the rebels and

aid of

and

counterfeits.

it aims
later

Wharton

the

was

astrologeron
of his

the

was

inveterate
the

who

He
were

in

sums

writer

officers in

denying Ordinance,
of money

side.

He

and

of A
the

gives

they had

as

in

voted

this
to

astrologer

for the

Members

List

and

chief

spent the whole

contrary

army

no

sojourner

Lilly, the

of horse

of

a
an

was

had

List

ancient

an

of William

raisinga troop

the

was

of

Educated

enemy

of

had

Elencticus

on).

Boyalist who

Parliament's

patrimony

service.

sole

the three

giving (an example

at

came

wealthy family in Westmorland.


Oxford, he

of
periodical

in

was

biographicalinformation

exact

corroborated

Captain

he

when

Sheppard

valuable

most

regicideswhich

quoted and

afterwards

by Captain,

Bart., with

prison,and

the

his

Discoveringtheir Designs, Reproving

was

Wharton,

and

ing.
Elingcatch-

Advisingthe Kingdome,
This

at

his

sent

dangerous

of

upon

d Proceedingsat Westminster, the


Uwpa/rdLleLV

and

and

the time

the

attempt."
November

other Places,

of

and truly
impune lacessit,'

me

use

may

For

of his fellowship

out

is the most

of ink to bestow

two

or

'

"

warrant

out, which

upon

is

motto

out

complishing
ac-

(Speaker

Gleiveland

issued

me

in

^poor PrtLgmaticus ?

"

turned

ventured

ever

For
I have

had

succeeded

Act

Manchester"

of

John's) "hath

beaglesabroad

me

or

reappointedlicenser

also

the

her

of

whole

the

followingcomment

of

Earl

vertuous

have

was

that

to elicit the

was

hear

whipped

ballad

pedlar or

hawker,

of
to

King's
ment,
Parlia-

the

Self-

particularsof

themselves, and of

HACKLUYT,

WALKEB,
List

Second

called

constitute

which

Walker's

Henry

which

John

he

had

he

so

titled Mercvrius

that

came

his necke, in

cloth

was

"

being

as

The

castiga-

at the hands

of

another

matter,

Mediom

Mercv/riiM

"

procured the writing of another


this,with

In

is described

descended

as

"

in

en*
dacity,
men-

being Hacket,

and

family,whereof

(William Hacket)

who

*'

Gheapside,with

Elizabeth's

Queen

characteristic

of the ancient

the Qibbet

upon

back

years

own

hereticke

reverent

God
about

'*

did their

specialobjectof

Hackluyt,

periodical

name

as

some

of his

Morbictts.

himself

ments
docu-

two

with Pragmatioua
chary of interfering

and

Hackluyt's

the

Independent.

turn

received

one

against Hackluyt,

Hackluyt

not

commenced

even

John

was

him

the rest ; but

The

87

newsbooks

began, and

now

would

Taylor made

and

PARKER

G"nturie.

licensed

of the

rancour

Presbyterianwho
tion

also the Second

writers

hunt

MARTIN

scathingexposure.^

Naturally the
best in the

AND

days,"and

phemed
blas-

the halter
frenzie

''

priest".
Parker, however,
wrote

promptly

up

the

and

challenge

"

The

"

Right

that

in the Tower

be

well

as

as

priest,or

had

trade

it from

you

your

pected
sus-

sermon

shortly if he

fallen

bishops

in his last week's

told you

^rogue, who

"

is

as

the learned

he did Melaneholicus

you

same

preached before the twelve

he

when

intelligence.Sirrah
a

Barne

Hatcham

at

dogs tayle) would

his text

handled

ironmonger (the

Reverend

preacht

Tobies

upon

was

took

father

Melcmoholicris

the

everlasting

lyar?"
And

"

'These
and

669,

important

f. 13

(10,22). An
for

FredieUon
Agl/rological
are

not

states.

Nor

Walker
Ueus

from

taken

in view

that he wrote

any

of
it.

'*

have

Walker's

press
was

etc.

Wharton's

669,

f. 12

published by LiUy
The

the first document

counterfeit

in Merewrius
of the Second

(106)
in

his

former

two

History of Independency as

distinct statements

is also

marks

(E. 462 (I)\

to attribute

reason

There

as

Answer"

1648, 1649,

Clement

is there

(E. 458 (12)).

documents

Wood

ent
to ClemElenC'
Centwrie

HISTORY

88

Luke

called

it

Parker

Martin

"

OF

ENGLISH

JOUBNALISM

hath

seems

penned

Harroney's confession

and

of the

of Essex

gallowes,to the

tune

'

Earle

Walker's

Finally he gave

hangs

Walker

That

Judas

like did hate

in

Except
From

henoe

Old

The

ordinance

lumber
to

of

loyal
wings to
chief Mercury.

appeared

September, 1647,
the

year

their story,the appearance,

and

BdUcuSf

Mercurius

"

This

notice.

October

16th

Mdancholicus

written

was

Alarum

by

Before

of

to ail

John

of

ing
tellfourth

BebelU,

quires
re-

Berkenhead, the

printerof Pragmatious was

the

On

Newgate.

to

sent

An

or

form

or

of Aidicus}

author

On

warrant

November,

27th

on

the

simply committed

they escaped (as they invariablydid).

until

silenced.

was

consigned to

were

without

1648

^he

"

soon

was

prison during

former

"

be

more

no

Boyalist writers

Mercury

gallows :

ever

the

law

".

never

and

room,

'

good-night

King

h'as taken

Beelzebub's

Mercuries

Walker's

the

his

was

lies,but

last

the

at

string

Faithless,fruitless he
in

lamentation

epitaph at

Here

dolefdl ballad

very

fined.

was

had

Wharton
of

at the commencement

October

19th

the

printer of

contracted

August,' and

so

was

captured

the

not

plague

suspected

captured until the followingyear.

or

On

27th

November,

failure of their

the
went

on,

1647, the House

ordinance
committee

appointed a

and
to

of Commons,
the

that

seeing

Mercuries

inquireafter

still

the authors,

printersand publishersof Mdancholiousy Pragmaticus,Elencticus


BeUictu, which

and
^

'*

Mercurius

Oxford

by

this time

were

making

direct

AnU-MercuriuSy 4th April,1648 (writtenby John


**Make

for

Mars

personal
Harris

"

his

of
pettytoe one
simamed
Whiflers
Bellonaes
Bellions, whose
might lyes in his muzzle,
for the Cavaliers,and
is the sole engine to crowne
Crackers
makes
au.
thorityinto an atom, he looks like a Kentish pippin oodled in the sinciput
".
Then
follows an
Summers
of Tom
unquotable verse with a reference

Jack")"

8*yBf

"

goggle-eyes which
descriptionrecalls Aubrey's
'
Ashmole's
Life,
to

his

'*

room

"Durst
remark

neer

about

see

sword

Berkenhead's

in wrath".
eyes.

The

attacks
the

lampooning

army,

their

be

henceforth

concerning

as

to

against

his

to

the

standing

abroad

For

what

they

be

The

memoranda

anno

entries
out

read,

parish

are

reprehendus
Olivems
have

of

the

(Information

tampered
kindly

side

John's,

with,

given

and

by

the

country

or

less
value-

correspondents.
by

day
their

and
side

Hantingdon,
and

of

which

an

1628

respectiyely

day
ments
com-

they

of

made
All

following'
"Oliyerus
and

ecdesia".

tota

attempt

factis,"

pro

coram

Rector

the

contain

Eodesia

penitentiam

fecit

the

illuminating.

tQta

coram

beyond

said.^

London

by

as

tributed
at-

almost

importance,

quite

1021

years
erat

Cromwell
been

St.

in

life

but

are

them

highest

times

at

in

regular

nor

newsbooks,

registen

under

Cromwell

the

licensed

the

offices

are

blemishes

is

Mercuries

life

frequent

so

treachery,

happening

around

of

are

else

jeant
Ser-

debauched

The

little

nose

was

neither

Ely,

and

Boyalist

the

had

however,

on

what

happening

was

are,

should

of
of

they

his

his

to

truth.

lying

are

against

pages

since

notorious

and

licentious

ailtisions

at

Mercuries

Mildmay

leading

brewer

character

joke

the

was

of

intelligence

For

he

conviction

carry

of

though

Cromwell,
when

youth,

accusations

No

posing
ex-

acandaleme

Boyalist

Corbet,

and
and

way,

chromqvs
the

Scot,

89

Houses

two

possible

every

from

Weaver,

the

veritable

obtained

Marten,

Wilde.
made

lives.

private

of

in

them

REBELS

THE

members

ruling

the

all

npon

can

EXPOSE

MEBCUBIES

THE

to

Saints.)

scratch

"Hoc
Both
them

CHAPTEE

VL

1648.

On

6th

for

the

daily
"

and

that

the

the

9th

"

scandalous
Wharton

and
how

the

jailerof

the

they

spent

and

(Miles

and
that

he

without
the
it

On
the

on

11th

as

resolution

the

for

to

pamphlets

"

to

House

Wild

"

lay

in

employ

''honest

undeceive

Is

it

'tis

Indeed

its absolute
of
"

the
90

pitied

that

but

"

have

pittifulthing."

truth.

Commons

gave

Pamphlets

men

be

buildings)

like

fit to prosecute,
able

cannot

lamentable

the

the

cudgelled
to

new

not

do

cannot

both

Martin

their
to

Corbet

be

(in his

it ?

House

think

Miles
he

hard

to

yet

dishonourable

that

mistresses
of

kicked

pressed

were

Harry

not

scandalous

who

and

unless

Scandalous

should

and

of the

about

how

thing

Is

told

the

January

they

Housetop

of all this

Committee

persons

be

been

side

his

Justice

sting

On

preventing

gal'd hackneys

and

sad

pleasure

world

proclaimed

for

especially)

had

water

enjoy

cannot

Beverend

The

the

to

of his

the

was

ordered

was

proceedings

some

king)

the

Is it not

etc.

robbed

escaped.

minutes

Ugly

prejudiciall they

harlot

had

ordinance

idle

some

pamphlets

(of murthering

disoovered

Prison

CSommons

the

on

...

hand

who

Peterhouse

prisoners

sit

should

"

flung unluckily

nation,

those

to

effectual

comments
:

unlicensed

affiiirs

Committee

the

pamphlets.

January)

much

paid

of

that

Pamphlets

because

more

thus

''Then
and

; and

committee

consider

(on 9th

be

reproved

fresh

should

presses
time

sit, and
"

sums

issued

was

"Scandalous"

of

"

same

order

an

Suppression

malignant

at

1648,

January,

to

people

to

employ

etc., and

answer

therein

the
".

to

power

such

passed
ous
scandalOn

15th

HISTOBY

92

OF

kill

the

are

When

Commonwealth.

Here's

the

"

in Sanctum

touch

them.

With
With

the

to

People,
'

'

hke

cap-a-pe

in full meridian."
On

writers

the

Come

of

ordinance

for it too !

set in

Lilly and

when

"

caught,

divulged

the

^Mercwrius

clearlyby

John

for the rest

are

Grace,

Martin

and

Mdancholietis

Mr.

on

yield

Selden

the

"

of his minde

more

made

now

"

the writers

John
as

the

hunt

"

an

The

of

names

and

"

rake-

Cleiveland

and

must

the inveterate
"

and

taken

had

very

as

his
ticularly
par-

enemy

Booker,
his

*'

lub-

hawkers, who,

women

given

April, 1649.

be

is of
periodical

with

pubUsher, was

imprisoned

who

those

1, 24th

of

"crew

necromancers

and

Na

Mercury

his

"

againstthe

suivants
pur-

pany
Com-

City Marshall

MUitaHs,

the

Partridge, also,

State

the

suppress

the Stationers'

almanac

an

lashed

were

to

innumerable) and

are

printer, with

others.

of the

capture of

^he will

"

Come

capturing Wharton

and

for

more

periodicals.In

the rest of the

joined in

"20

bids

pursuit of

nose," who,
on

Fisk, Lathom

they

in State of

are

Pragmatieus,

''But

were

leader.

the

keen

bards

and

shall tell you

sold their

red

"pumpion

Here

offered for the

were

who

efforts

was

all.

fiance
they give de-

"

Hunscot,

shames,"

of

and

Spies (their names

one

can

of War

Council

rewards

he

then

utmost

who

women

of the wicked

the

this in Turkic.

and

were

High

Parliament

exclaiming:

other "20

Mercuries.

the

they cry 'Justice


they cry a figfor the

MeUmchoUcus

price than

The

hke

of State

Parliament

along customers,

better

at Newcastle-

is found

Parker

Council

son"
preciousHarri-

are

none

lobsters,here they

February

25th

and

butcher

where

with

the

of the

surgeons

capacity, they

the

of State, but

Council

armed

the

of

son

Sanctorum

people'.

for the

in this

are

Priest

help at Maw,

that
Emperique politicians

father, son,

(an attorney'sclerk and

under-Lyme)

the

minerall, the barberous

the

by

cure

or

feet,these

to the

JOUBNALISM

of Princa

he is in full stature

Pigeons

ENGLISH

inferior

The

until
them

passage

they
the
is

ship,
sample of his editorliterarystamp.

NEDHAM

pamphlets

BECOMES

sell.

to

The

EOYALIST

inducement

(which they carried

while

licensed

selling the

them

to

Boyalist Mercuries

93

in their

newsbooks

sell the

to

''plackets/*

openly)

greater popularity,and the fact that these Mercuries


double

to remember

important point

; an

ordinary/'or,

'*

an

sold

for

price of the others, namely, twopence instead of

the

penny

their

was

as

should

we

when

price of

the

table d' hdte

say,

dinner,

was

only threepence.
"

Melancholicus

''

writes

generation called Peepers,

like the Devil

beginning,who
heads

into every

their

traiterous

man

abhorres

Parhament
How

base

and

of

I feare

"

"

Elencticus
loud

too

am

adds

are

since

listen and

so

"52

lOs.

that's

week"

Marchamont
counterfeit

Pragmatictts, had
to

3rd

who

February, 1648,

god

art

from

started

this

has

thee

thou

and

its illustrious hew

Boyalist was

paid best.

by
0
".

simply
From

periodicalappears

finding out
Hacklet

the

as

February
the

"

day
But

"

me.

Houses

allow

them

in

middle

the

another

The
his

Thou

devill art
which

wert

whole

know

until
once

Eangdom

gold

thou

led Nedham

of

to

what

worship
to turn

discovery that Boyalistjournalism

this time
to have

reason

"

that, the

name

what

man

Anti-

opposition

Nedham

to

of November,

entitled

first in

the

it remarks

when

written

first to have

allusion

no

temper Pragmaticus^ and

read

in

parliamentarian Mercury,

Pragmaticus, and

another

at

appears

been

innocent.

the

members

The

Pragmatieus commencing
A

Honourable

appointed by

are

honest

"2,756 per annum."

Nedham

1647.

of

their

whisperers attend

many

city.

the

eavesdrop

now

any

innocent

as

the 2nd

Thirty couple (a goodly pack)


to

betray

to vent

Shepheard, Mr.

Mr.

as

on

sure

abused

they

others, yet the gentlemen

(!); and

am

'em, only the

have

men

Pragmaticus and Melanoholicus,


and

stipends to

them

honest

many

objectswhereon

designs.

thought

allows

Committees

(theirchief Lord) thrust

to finde out

comer

the

of the

creatures

is

''There

January:

22nd

on

to

been

nearly the
abandoned

end

of the year

to him

the

(Sheppard

HISTORY

94

was

writing other

and

tiresome

Roundhead

JOURNALISM

Mercuries), and

style familiar

it

of Britanicus

readers

to

Royalist Mercuries, although they

the

had sometimes
stafiGs,

nor

and

good

information, is perfectlyclear from


in

Aug. 18.

Friday.

play this day


"

Ashe

was

ful
truth-

followinganecdote

the

of

from
intelligence

Mr.

Speaker

tellinghim

in his

abroad

relates all passages

truly except
out

him

some

his

or

and

freedom

Speaker

and

IntelligencerI

privacy of

I know

whom

not

clerks,a drunken

our

own

and

I conceive
examine

the naile
zealous

the head

face

jot as wise

"

the Man

woodcock

as

his

dumps,

and

very
The

numerous

debauched

an

Calendars

of

arrests

and

currences

the

but

the

as

Ashe

State

on

in

packed
red

Mr.

"

face

Papers give

Walker
each

hast

hit

the red

clarret,every

self

house

committee

to

Speaker

laughter, it
examine

the

lives like

that

himself."

escapes

Henry

capture

whole

of

one

red face,

Thou

sweet

own

with

with

that drinks

committee

fellow

Antinomian

during 1648,

thine

suspect

It is he with

thee.

the

part Mr.

appoint a

Ashe!

in the Moon

easilycarried, and

drunken-"

well to

I warrant

fellow

said, Ned

Well

for my

but

accuse

do very

might

him.

on

being in

we

And

quite lose

ahcUl

we

And

debauched

"

did,and

ever

prevent this,by finding

to

conceive

to

he

say in the house.

we

debates.

our

what

Speaker, which

Mr.

perfect than

be taken

course

him

ous
he, is that scurril-

said

Fellow,

whatever

and

tion,
timely admoni-

present unto

pocket,which,

exact

more

fit to

thought

duit
con-

therefore

And

with

morrow

Prctgmatictu. A

pamphlet
comes

that he

brought

Westminster.

good

Pragmatums,

by cuttingoff his

it seems,
spoil,

to

in

came

Ned
deadly spitfire

of that

^*

he gave

he had

that

(a city linen-draper) against Merourku

pipe

as

neither

had

unwelcomely

first business

The

deep designe

he is resolved

whom

was

his old

"

Pragmaiictu.
*'

to

scolding

the

assumes

journal.

That
offices

ENGLISH

OF

that

no

account

continually took

chronicles
occasion

of

in
Dr.

of the

place

Perfect

Oc-

Hackluyt.

ESCAPES

THE
On

11th

1648, he

March,
been

(he had
date

in

and

both

and

on

well

as

sent

were

all his wives

and

but

printer, Edward

Crouch,

Hackluyt again escaped, and


also

were

engaged

in

instructions for the

pamphlets
Dr.

Hackluyt

Walker's

There

is

".

taken

and

'*he

of the

record

Crouch, but the former

on

appears

others
fresh

escaping,

"

so

".

the House

July, and

20th

on

ous
scandal-

wrote

minister

in

wives

many

of Martin

occasion

one

Lane

and

passed in

imprisonments

away

prison.)

to

Parker

before he had

for the Parliament


no

sent

formerly

was

ran

(On 4th April his

who

captured

more

runs:

"

who

Grayes Line

and

of those

(16th June)

once

was

(as the foole calls

Sheppard,

as

being imprisoned

now"

conmient

Gloucester

left him

punishment

were

Dr.

"

in

was

uncertain

some

promptly escaped again,

He

day taken

have

one

at

of Melancholietis

this

was

time

printer of PragmcUunUf

new

writes

writer

the

the Committee

from

the

Walker

himself) Hacklet

escaped

Newgate.

to

March

had

96

for the second

captured

was

as

HACKLUTT

JOHN

and

captured

1647),

25th

OP

".

Parker

or

been

to have

placed in the pillory.^


Hackluyt

by the band

reason,
to

associate

liked

neither

was

with

of Cavaliers

himself.

which

third

his

On

with

trusted, and

nor

he had

escape,

was

I have

previouslyquoted),he suspected Sheppard

writer

of

would

**

what

break

he
his

also

that

(and alludingto the number

termed

pipe for

chosen

finding

Parker

writing MdanchoUous

good

counterfeits,and

"

him

though

he

was

be

the

said

he

to

"

Shepherd

of Arcadia".

Sheppard happened
the

time, and

heretofore

replied in

*'

third

time

Melanoholious

studies

be
it

writing
:

that

at

pretends

provoked by
with

the Lamentations

the

''I have

abused, yet winked

myself againstone

being a

to

tluree heads

it
to

as

that

Janus

whereof

Boyal

been

once

Diumall
or

willingto

not

at

twice
show

cause

I honour,

faced

scribbler

two

are

but
.

oonnterfeitB,the

latelypeep'd through
the third lies Crouching in every oomer
for fear of a catch poll
a pillory,
Na
12th-19th
A'nii-Mercwrviu^
(Menwriw
1,
September, 16i8).
one

in

cage,

the

second

*'

HISTORY

96

by

Hacklet

name

which

profitof

him

his knaves

break

''

to

On

8th

"

honourable

me

of

my

loyalty to

to

prosecute my

so

therefore

and

negligentof

lest I

fail them

I will not

once

weeke

Before

Sheppard

writes

in

''

Do

not

The

imprison

affairs,that

Again

on

Elencticus
when

he

we

poor

23rd

March

''

enjoy

transmigration of
time

spitin

his face and


did not

Wharton
where
and

means

with
on
was

the

he
was

was

his

the

tell him

he

lose his

his

the next

thou

year".
knowest

him
the

word

gorean
Pytha-

specialkeeper, and

was

art
a

'

Jewe

Elencticus

Elencticus

discovered,and, warned

have

with
of

months.

^Ashmole's

contrived

the aid
a

"

of

"

gate,
to NewHe

had

parole^

still to carry

Sheppard.

design his grand

Life,

'

".

committed

nearly six

must

for

dost

lost his little wit with

Thou

but
life,

by

Alchemists

have
"

him,

astrologicall

send

lyes like

for

catch

can

nativityand
State

mittee
com-

is taken," and

till you

glory which

evident

kept in the precinctsof the prison on

writingof

fully

in maintaining

the

if thou

will still say

detained

to hoodwink

Wharton

''

religionand

be

in

March,

almanack

new

usurp," adding, If Gorbett

his less

me,

captured,^and

was

go about

Honest

that

he

Elencticus

Wharton

pritheecalculate
shall

hoping

Elencticus

have

may

or

from

heare

kingdome

15th

is that poore

entreaty let honest

at my

from

assurance

life be sacrificed

on

life,and

news

careless

accounted

to let them

appeared

Elenctiom

for his friend's

alarm

''

number

the next

me

soveraigne."

of my

cause

for

me

it at their

deserve

till the deluded

give over

made

have

''

The

encouraged

to

this

take

or
possessed of their villainies,
my

the

be

might

''

hanging

much

very

resolved

am

of

that

as

duty, let them

my

that I will not


me.

work.

nounce
to de-

he says

as

in Elencticus

Committee)

hath

his

".

House

King,

my

and

done

wrote

reward

supplanterof

had

pate for him

(the Derby

as

guilty/'proceeded

Parker

as

1648, Wharton

March,

promise they

hands

much

me

least

the

not

am

very

of

exclaims

who
I

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OP

This

enemies

STARVATION
had

to

23rd

September
*'

Occurrences,

at

for him.

with

again escaped, and

He

(No. 1, 31st

Elencticus

London

numerous

Lord

Petrels

in

house

July, 1648, the committee


it

dangerous

to

examination,

on

was

for
and

it

that

London.

The

Symball, a

safe

this

and

bound
as

26th

him

to pay

to maintain

having got

his

where

June,

villain

murdering

"

money

springe

he

''neere

starved

food

the

receipt of

permitted to
food
the

from

to

be

very
^

placed

broken

sources

to starve

Bumey,
Appendix A,

32.

This

p. 200.

friends
the

"

more

for want

number

of himself

by

death

to

bag

with

of

and

basket

bag.

pleasing to
to

".

be

God

were

men

supply of

if such

lost)is set

prison for

to the

necessaries.

common

(supposed

with

supply them

intervals
a

rest *\

makes

lie in Peterhouse,

that

that
to

gentlemen that

The

"

on

commendations

to

at

not

was

and Sheppard
precarious,

in Elencticus

well

he

at Peterhouse

at the entrance

the town
was

acceptableand

"

The

Newes.

Harrison, and the

victuals, and

Windsor, and many

ready

even

no

rely on

to

was

followingappeal

sent

had

who

collect round

these

sends his

Shepheard, John

had

prisoner'sbasket

"

or

is reminiscent

Pcirker writes

of the

Symball," and

Cymball,

committal, and

on

foot out
was

prisoners to

Staple of

Martin

Cavaliers
or

fees

that

occurred,

that

name

them.

his friends there, Mr.


Those

in Jonson's

12th

On

Derby House

to

Henry

gaoler,"whose

cruel

Peterhouse

more

any

; so

Parliament

to

prison was

ruary)
Feb-

King.^

Street.

tumults

bring

to

of the chief character

prisonershad

of the

account

keeper of
hard

"

report

7th

to

was

prisonersthence

remove

not

was

to

Charles

overcrowded

now

Aldersgate

had

offered

King

of the

prisonswere

other

was

January

murder

of the

account

an

; but

some

"30

trial of

of the so-called

on

in Perfect

with

Street

usually selected for the Royalist writers

the

"

in Gracious

the time

At

he recommenced

that

inn

an

in Durham

Brandspeth

at

recaptured,says Walker

was

officers ".

malignant

The

he

97

way," he effected his escape

of the

out

August, taking refuge

26th
on

him

remove

PRISON

PETERHOUSE

IN

out

were
are

It will
as

love

in full in

the

will

King

their relief.
And

piety.

those
be

will

way

examples given of this

Bome

question but

no

little for

that

have

shall extend

or

rewarded

undoubtedly

by
of

cause

Occasionallythe prisoners overpowered

their

guards

they

were

misery."

escaped
and

than

master

en

provost-marshals
unless

On

event.

brought before
the

one

the

that his

occasions

when

then

had

had

himself

Cavalier, and

that, when

he

complain (an

severe

appeared
"honest

of the

be

may

in

the

story),he

years.

his

resumed
under

new

When

writer

and

the

^MercwriuB
was

EkneUcus,

pardoned

Dom., 1663-64, pp.


*Mercwriu$

as

or

on

182

27th
and

new

to

giving

43, ldth-20th
for

keep the

to

and

break

prison,he
a

Elene-

new

this
for

either

periodical

someti^les marked

name

June, 1663,

Hence

Samuel

Shep-

Dogmaticus until the


September,

164a

Robert

shooting Symball (Cal. S.

P.

418).

ElencUeus, No.

Perfect Occurrences,No.

the fact

prison,and

without

started

writing Mercu/rius
Na

; and

in

was

in

were

exceedingly exasperated temper.

pard first appears

Friars

cane

Walker

escaped from

''editorial chair"
name,

of

enveloped in bandages.*

was

successfully accomplished almost

Ledy

some

days later

some

says

their writers

while

tieus, going,even

two

Black

grand Mercuries, Melanoholicust Pragmaticus

three

was

by

gathered from

great objectof the Royalist writers

The

in

beginning

with

House

godly man,"

be questioned,

to

at

publiclythrashed

was

prisonerswere

the

caught

was

"

afterwards
At

to

friendly

was

undergo, ended

to

escaped.

dare

positioneither

itself

being publicly beaten

punishment

his version

in

were

and

free,

not

for Examinations

Committee

October, 1648, Corbet

by

two

did

soldiers

crowd

the

or

or

loyalistwho

enraged

streets

the

or

badgering they

committee-man

the

themselves

they

the crowd,

to overpower

stairs

in

Once

masse.

them

rare

are

the

touch

who

those

their

the

better

an

been

hath

charity this

their

contribute
their abilitiee,

according to
There

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OP

HISTORY

98

46, 27th

September

92, 29th September

to 6th

to 4th

October,

October, 1648.

1648

100

mSTOBY

he

says

with

afraid.^

was

Bethen

OP

within

5s.

twenty
and

with

have

been

marshals

and

"

of

the

his

under

commissioned

be

''

should

writingsof

of the
'

of

the

"

honest

able

rightof

Mercurius

Noll committed
the

Moon,

Wood,

Athena

famous

Eleanor
to

betray

one

the

1648

year

the band

and

of

the

to the

and

the Next

of

historical

people

his

and

of that

12, 27th June

the

be

would

to

4th

Oxonienses,vol. iL, c.

July, 1649,
71-73).

Judas
p.

disposed
in favour

EUs

object

1648.

277, 12th-19th

bearded

to the

consisted

book, which

Speeches,etc.) "was

safiron

donym
pseu-

Sucoession

September,

to

Persons.

to alter the succession.

IrUelligenceTfNo.

discovered

were

legal argument

43, 13th-20th

had

case

Bobert

people nowadays

conclusions

publish

to

King.'

sort of

these

also

was

published,under

Conference about

Few

care

writer)
of the

to answer

who

Walker,

some

had

Papers.
of villainy" (SeverM

No.

to follow

employed

Jesuit, Father

in 1594

Weekly

crop

find

we

Henry

murder

Elencticus,No.

Cal. State

'"This

provost-

woman,

in Peterhouse

men

the
justify

learned

^Kingdomes
1648

seem

prominent

most

licenser Mabbott

says

of England.

mainly

in

press,

Cromwell

Persons

question

to

do not

in order
Boyalist periodicals,

contemplated murder

of Doleman,
Crown

He

supervision.

(by

Father

was

day, and

of the

rest

Mercury

kept

prepared and precedents found,

in the

the

poor

Boyalist pamphleteers was

the

**

foot); his

and

for the

first of the

For

their writers

plays. He

rakeshames

on

licensed

the

equallynoteworthy

which

and

to seize

there.'

fortunes

book

London

for their allowance.

than

being a

lashed

was

from

the

and

successful

time

some

Turning

The

Parliament,

ballads, and

day each

spies(also kept

the Cavaliers

writers

cityof

of interludes

shakerags

more

Passenger, who

the

Is. 6d.

of

crew

capture for

and

the

to

the

Francis

September

day for himself, a deputy with 8" 4d.

men

his

books

all actors

and
printers,

allowed

13th

on

twenty miles of

all "scandalous"

and

to

Therefore

JOUBNALISM

appointed Provost-Marshal

was

power

upon

ENGLISH

September,
by perjur*d
(Man
Anthony "

Walker

90, and

"

of

England

of

English

tltere is

it caused

doubt

no

in

The

the

to

also

used

to

be

the title of SeveraU

taken.

name

of the

One

and
Princes

oaths

by

do binde

their

or

at

the famous

which

King

"

it
to

as

on

Wood

his

gratitudeto

his

shaw

may

Tyrawnos

on

for the times

and

25th
".

wealths,
Common-

proceeding against
by subjects".
months

"-meeting at Windsor,
officers to

army

bring

the

return.

sum

Walker

of "80.

received,
therefore

He

sovereign for preservinghis life,


resulted
was

in that

sovereign's

largelyquoted by

of Junius

{Perfect

Vindicia

Brutus'

Occurrences), *^a

pamphlet published

at

peeoe

iiiis time

Buckingham of poisoning his father King


repeated by Milton). The Thomason
Oatalogue shows
tracts designed to throw
obloquy on the King.
King

kings had

and

be broken

prayer

the

translation

February

Another

was

Brad-

trial.^

so-called

advertised

Walker

of

it

which
how

out

Mis-

this,and, of

to

from

source

*'

later,and his book

year

at the

ConferenceConcerning

appended

by taking the initiatory


step which
death

3rd

appeared

appeared nearly three

their

says,

book

Parliaments

by the

"

people

accordingly,on

piece of literaryforgery Henry

Anthony

showed

days'

decided

account

an

this

For

was

three

the

against the King for

was

It is to be noted, that this book


before

little

very

Catholic, and Jesuit

; so

lawfulnesse

The

**

another^

how

"

skilfully

so

right of

subheadings pointed

lawfully chastised

been

had

Persons*

of the

acknowledgment

no

course,

Father

Proceed

to

author's

No

government.

hated

Speeches at

Parliament

of

of

acknowledged

piracy of

the

prove

arguments

never

for

house.

the

and

suffering

treason

might, with

But

Power

high

alter the succession

February, 1648,

the

it

made

rightto

boot, could

under

dismay,

which

punish.

majority

additional

much

even

with

historical instances

manipulation,be
to

them

the throne

vast

and

reasons

proved

By the

received

was

Parliament

to be found

copy

the book

CathoUcs

101

Spain to

of

of Elizabeth.

the death

on

persecution;

and

PIRATE

support the claim of the Infanta

to

was

LITERAEY

AS

WALKEE

James
a

number

eonJbra

suitable

accused

the

(a falsehood
of similar

HISTORY

102
On

April, 1648,

7th

absurd

in

anagrams

publishinghis
for

his

was

about

No.

1648), and

8 of

had

for

confederate.

or

in Greek

His

by

authenticall

Puritan

cult

of

articles

This

bade

to

New

God

and

in all ages

the

cause

beat

the

was

lows:
fol-

as

the

pure

field,and

of

great

Walker

of

anagram

June,

even

the

weekly Hebrew

was

ran

and

decree

fair

astrologyfrom

his readers

London

religion (on 20th

providence kept
*\

which

study of Hebrew

gave

and

that

us

at

being immediately inspired by

singular care

therefore

are

studying

tells

in Hebrew

Testament

"Luke

Parliament

of these

Chapter I

of

Hebrew

the

still

was

been

Testament

He

Royalist journals

articles of

new

Old

"The

the

series of

pseudonym

apparently

teacher

decree

to

the

pott lecturer

''Rabby Bungy
House"

under

and

of

commenced

Perfeot Occurrences.

newsbook

one

JOURNALISM

Walker

his

Cleric";

Harruney
Hebrew,

ENGLISH

OF

now

leader's

some

name.

been

had

He

articles which

for

of real

of

butt

2nd

this

had

imitate

the

formed

claptrap device

was

the

April,1647)

appeared

second
also

were

now

in

be

to

of

instance

it made

imitators.

had

Royalists,soon

the

leading

feature

an

enterprisewhich, although
journalistic
(of which

on

to

long time past

newsbooks,^ and

other

the

hopelessly unable

him

ments
Advertise-

Perfect Occurrences
in

habituallyfound

his newsbooks.
On

31st March
in John

writer

new

No.

Occwrrencee

The

Pyramus
Walker
have

Eumeeus

House

March,
been

declare

and

so

of

1648:
been

are

Peers

received

''Mistakes

found

oft

rightlyinformed
live in

starts

attractive

very

guests

swineheard)

foolishlyslain ".
did not

May, 1647,
to

but

be

to

of

(All this

the

joyne
And

letters," etc.

produce

are

Oorivals

will

effects

sad

his dear
is apropos

in
of

man

young

attempts of Walker's

his wives

the

at last succeeded

clever

19, 7tb-14th

eminent

wits, great and


mention

Hall,

absurd
particalarly

^Two

retume

Parliament

"

twenty-one,
follows:

as

Actions

(not
to

as

them

drive

to

out.

66, 24th-31st
friends.
had

Bottom

subtle

much

so

No.
to

of

fect
Per-

If Ulisses

people.

Thisby they
of nothing).

Shakespeare's days, for


companion.

findinga

the

It is

weaver

Had
both

not

pity
might

JOHN
had

who

had

He

age.

CROMWELL'S

brilliant

career

educated

was

it is to

and

HALL,

be

of him

St. John's

Cleiveland.

the

under

of

name

him, do little honour

Cambridge
in

should

"

weekly gazet by the

had

Hall, however,
reduced
*^

"

lewdness

of

this.^

to

and

John's

had

he

time

wits.

of the

says,

at

his

probably to

other

books

Jane
pages
even

; No.

he

College

for

trained

had

from

St.

back

and

as

result

Bloomsbury.

the

at

of

The

Elendieus, No.
June,

year

Nonstioh

"

are

; and

to

for the

cides
regi-

his Oha/racter
"

in/' he

Registers by

May
No.

of

biography in the last). Hall repliesin


to
dates,but makes no attempt whatever
OaL

"

it

and

ity
author-

due.

27, 24th^lst
1648

kennelled
"un-

May, 1649, and

Charles

Stationers'

they

"Brought

14th

on

and

quarters

appointed writer

was

in the

againsthis character.

then

Lovelace

to

shift his

him

made

of State

29, 7th-Uth

He

Uving

was

publicly appealed

that

entered

father.

by Lilly,chieflyby the exercise

Hall

him

of the Council

^Mercwriua

was

expulsion

he

salary of "100

before

just epithetsof ''Viper"

Gray's Inn, where

repute in

by Cromwell,
at

of

Hall

in the first number

her

employment

bad

gustedly
dis-

rebels

John's

to

Wharton

of

by

justifythe

College that

the

her

sent

the vermine
house

written

Jack

indeed

St.

living in Gray's Inn, and,

others

Brit-

married, and, having spent his wife's fortune

himself

of his

his

of

from

Wharton

dissipation,he

entered

to

journal

Berkenhead
that

as

low

very

''apostate hireling". After

and

is

I wonder

debauchery, he attacked

him, earning from

in

sunk

Fellows

at

"

of BriUMicua,^*

name

Expelled

the

Brittanicus

Hall

also

genius,and
"

graphy
bio-

Mercwrius

Oemorms,

his

tacked
bitterlyat-

^to write

"

far lose himself

so

had

Brittamous.

to Hall's

in BMicw

remarks

obtained

Wharton

Merowrius

early

College,Cambridge,

Wharton

says

at that

Lilly employed

Merourius

1648, and

of

tanicus

week,

103

even

Wharton

that

Lilly in Elencticus, and


a

writer

as

at

presumed
from

salary of SOs.

WRITER

S. P. Dom.,

No.

28, 31flt May-7th

34, 12th-19th
BriUanicus
refute

1664,

or

and

deny

p. 163.

July (four
Cenaarius
the

tions
allega-

HISTORY

104

to the middle

Up

of Gilbert Mabbott

personal attack
It

book.

Presbyterian to
the

on

of French

scrap

from

Rois

de vie

what

this meant

; and

nous

donne

After

under

refusingto
aid

the

the

name

June), prefacing it with


laid down

by another, viz.,the

Dillingham

then

writer

of the

Dillingham
Robert

should
the

as

it

and

his proper

title of the

been

done

with

of the

cause

that

however,

"

The

Hist, MSS.

ModeraU

do go

and
Intelligencer^

House

of Lords

for

relief,

danger of his life as the supposed


Mabbott

petitioned that

also

under

the

'*

interest

of

Act

right and

1647.
that

of

alone

1647.) The

Dillingham

the

No.
Intelligencer,

Report,

and
to

the

appear

164, 4th-llth
p. 33

to

in

his

quence
conse-

to have

seems

of the

was

the

The

days

same

May, 1648,

; ibid,,p. 53 6.

the

growing

Commons.
on

the

pamphlet

phrase which

indication

an

Lords

continued

Commission, 7th

French

this is

had

Nothing

by Leyboum.
to the

White

only

House

entitled

was

books

the

was
Intelligencer

the ordinance

as

title in the

Stationers'

the

of which
Intelligencer,

quarrel,and

Moderate,

the Moderate

".

Dillingham

regard

between

he

falsehood, ''I have

printing,and

difference

Dillingham'scopy,

deliberate

(The Moderate

the future

printed for

discovered

had

continued

registeredin

was

Moderate

lost the

brief e

printer,petitionedas well, asking

copy.

decided

Parlyaments

the

punished

periodical
registeredsince
of Lords

news-

(No. 171, 23rd-29th

always possessed the

pamphlet,"

his

Intelligencermight be pronounced his

the title of Moderate


he had

any

obtained

it in

Mabbott

license

of

Dillingham's printer,Robert

and

be

idea

the

Moderate

in

Moderate,

White,

les

petitionedthe
was

dently
evi-

of the

Moderate

he

complaining that

whom

and

John

and
Intelligencer,

title of Moderate

former

my

of

colours.

true

inserted

time

title to himself

with
Intelligencer

of his real

none

abhorrent, had

was

Gotgrave and

longue ".^

appropriatedthe
White,

King

''Dieu

was

in his

indication

no

was

views, and

of the Moderate

author

moderate

there

1648

himself

showed

Dillingham, the
a

of the year

JOURNALISM

the licenser's

then

He

nature.

ENGLISH

OF

p.

1314

MABBOTT

FOUNDS

(Thursdays) as

the ModeraJLe

the remark
Mabbott

then

seems

day and

not

the

llth-18th
I

Beader.

Thursday

This

July.

desired

am

sheet
satisfactory

severall

parts thereof," etc.


it is clear

statement

the

the remark

writer

hath

untruthful

unjust and
desired

attack

to

there

Tuesdays,

his

up

cry

last week

this,by which

down

To

proceeded.
it is double
The

do

became

he dared

death,^he exhibits himself

record

See

It appears
when

the

"

for reward

of

Charles

by

curious

this

30th
number

so

at

success

that

he

Levellers'

most

infamous

not

oured
only clam-

and

foul

the

time

of his

an

ignoble

liar and

shameless

more

strangelynamed

the ModeraU,
from

the cruel

ultimate

cowardly wretch, whose

the crowd

book

as

the

as

the

was

bring againstthe King

to

September

on

yet appeared. Mabbott

had

King's death, but, in

for the

to

later

known

of this year

end

the

at

periodicalthat

singledout

to increase

detraction

to add

spiritit

what

from

to

discourtesie."

and

pleasant

Intelligencer

it his businesse

made

discern

may

you

injuryand

an

Moderate

organ,

fender
de-

At his first entrance, the better

this.

he
intelligence,

own

Moderate

supernumerary

with

extant

was

In

staunch

The

King.

the

was

which

and

seen,

the

*'

far to

cry

been

has

as

was,

much

temperate reply of its author goes


Beader,
justifythe estimate of him already given :
of his

to

which

of

day from

my

also published on
Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer,
the

original

day by post into the

that

Mabbott

his

1 for Tuesdays,

Kingdom

this

From

that

with

change

to

to send

wanted

of the
No.

commenced

by many

change

to

numbered

Tuesday, because

to

ordered

numbering

was

he

same

Intelligencer''.

been

the

issue

next

the

July, containingat the end

Moderate

to have

counterfeit

to

for
periodical,

"

is the true

This

"

105

with

and
Intelligencer^

173 for 6th-13th

numeration. No.

MODERATE

THE

tions
accusa-

in life it is not

(of all men)

was

II.

little periodical
appeared amongst

BoyalistMercuries

January

to 6th

that Dr.

ministering to the King.


8

February, 1649,

Juxon

was

pp.

deprived of

Catholic
289, 290.
a

prayer-

106

HISTORY

OF

ENGLISH

priestevidently attempted
Mercurius
Learned

as

Catholious,Communicating his Intelligence


from

the most

he

the

Father

was

in

True

It was,

testantes.

(probablythe
On

of the

players'boy

poor

Mercurius

and

Company

Education

the

Harris

and

town,

was

carried

MUitaris

Mercurius
at the time

of the

who

on

stood

his views

share

was

Harris, having been


to

easy

which

obtain

the

rank

Impartialis^No.

ZHwrnallfor King
in the Moon,

No.

Charles

48, 13th-20th

see

under

and

Hills

army,

and

had

and

of those

one

apparently

not

her

death,

on

memory.'

naturally found

commissioned

of

November,

after her

the army,

1, 25th
View

native

He

elegy to

an

would

have
1648

February, 1650

accepted
; the

and

Boycd

the Man

p. 374.

the

"

Actions

of H.

HiUa, etc,

1684.
'"In

Loyalty

Memory
Mrs.

Susanna

of

that
Harris

Lively Pattern
the Vertuous

it

officer,a rank

December,

March, 1650,
A

in his

was

did

wife

1, 5th-12th

IL, No.

Hilifl' character

2l8t

Harris

wrote

of

printer,

pamphlets

the

on

probably few English gentlemen

^Mercurius

*For

His

printerto

Oxford,^

Pennifarthing

obtain

Royalist,and

for the

it.^

John

scaffold.

October, 1649, Wharton

31st

Hills in

end

to an

came

; but

with

with

King's death

the

become

to

organ

originally

was

"

of Sirrahniho.

about

printingpress

an

"

at

easy

in the

appeared

of the Revels

Henry

ingratiatedthemselves

then

who

this kind.

'*

Jack

plays,had

anagrammatic pseudonym

had

found

argument

clamouring

subsequently written

had

be

Eglises Pro-

MUitaris

also

Oxford

**
"

enteringinto partnership with


Street, Oxford.

writer

and

of

des

writer

new

abolition of stage

the

on

line

of
periodical

army

Harris

John

King's death.

His

Variations

more

of the

The

is to

who

know

may

difficult to capture the vendor

not

Harris, with

behalf

on

Bossuet's

one

they

followingyear,

years.

himself) of

October

of John

written

four

the

how

BeUgion,

Budd,

in

of course,

writer

10th

person

who,

for

anticipationof

an

Christian

Thomas

prison

Simple People

to

prisoner in Newgate

remained

Writers

needs

probably
a

in

word

with

must

was

put in

to

season

Protestant

which

JOURNALISM

of True
Wife

of

Piet^ and
Oapt. John

Unstained
Harris."

108

mSTOBY

besides

issuing,
of

Packets

of

of

supplements
Letters,
and

Diarie,

given
Parliament.

and
the

of

Kings
his

Tryail.

printer,

utilising

He
These

Ibbitson.

his

to

additional

an

him

JOUENALISM

ENGLISH

OF

by

to

the

are

periodical,

called

of

attack

to

in

full

the

published

also

Oceurrenees

be

shape
Heads

journalistic

the
the

the

army

Collections

identified

the

on

of

by

portunities
op-

King

Notes

the

at

name

CHAPTER

VII.

1649.

It

might
of

been

total

however

though
his

City

directing

but

printed

and

of

the

the

of

such

Merowrius

Occurrences,
933.

issued

No.

and

act

for

honest

all

the

proclamation
people

the

6th

the

No.

Maich

to

6th

without

On

his

warrants

soldiers

(669,
109

by
13th

warrant

was

with

left,^ and
that
in

Walker

the

following

he
his
not

"

1649;

February,
pp.

soldiers

February,

demanding
f. 13

printing,

Laurence

April, 1649,

committed

newsbooks.

against

13th-20th

45,

petition

and

Henry

fact

and

sometimes

right

makes

April

1648,

their

this

houses,

longer.

Act

execution.

unlicensed

Captain

on

outrages

all into

stealing

any

comment

118, 90th
to

into

upon

Pta^imatieus,

in

seizing

broke

of

the

and

them

of

out

House

1648,

result

issued

he

Bichard

the

October,

of

to

was

setting

Army,

presented

The

robbing

to

put

did

9ih

favour

made.

opprobrium

References

continuous

in

soldiers

Occurrences

particularly

to

January

and

refused

eventually
Perfect

19th

was

the

to

defiance,"

Captain

June,

dated

pillar

1649,

1647,

14th

provost-marshal

warrants,

brought

of

of

flag

to

September,

have

Such,

from

January,

of

Council

warrant

bands

forged

9th

would

Fairfax

published,

Order

on

their

out

tion
occupa-

Mercuries.

beaten

General

On

28th

Common

concession

no

that

and

them.

Levellers

against

hang

things

first

Licensing

The

"

to

the

1648,

Boyalist

Obviously

to

Ordinance

the

December,

the

of

result

one

Provost-Marshal-General

Commons
of

of

case.

the

attention

Laurence,

in

army

the

of

warrant,

the

the

still contrived

one

that

probable

suppression
not

was

post, they

by

London

the

turn

seemed

have

(88)).

922,

923,

numerous

are

1648/9,
money

by

Perfect
931

and
and

Fairfax
threats

HISTORY

110

OP

Genezall

Marshall

"The

him

imployed by

interests

the

acquainted

Lord

Excellency that
about
to

but

not

The

generaU
in

Marshall

wiser

and

aimed

thus

slow
its

in

him

to do it."

blow

to

some

lifermriiM
.

protest before

the

against

army

licensed
un-

catch

to
some

and

cut-throat

desired

pretend

under

thinking thereby

passing of

are

scelestic

have

the managing

such

new

the

''

"

the

and

Boyalists

if any

"

vms

course

"

Treason
of 17th

person

authorityof

the Act

should

terms,
which

it set

openly

the nation," he should

all

and

for the

iciously
mal-

assembled

and

be

quartering

Boyalist writers, who


One

July,

uturped,
tyrannieal,

Hanging, drawing
the

"

*'

Act

curies.
Boyalist Mer-

in Parliament

the Commons

"

set

crime

"

not

were

copied and parodied

express
up, and

purpose
that

of

mitting
com-

in the most

'
possible.

manner

if any

by the CJoining Act


the

threatened

the

the

treason.

provisionsin

*"I

relationa

man's

that

the

will take

was

supreme

replyingto

o"fensive

"

tends

last interest he is able

so

to

Commonwealth

"

that

or

guilty of high
were

order

provided that

the

"

the

not

bnsinesse

the

yet." ^

Act

that

uniawffd

were

of

authority from

no

of his

desired

advisedly publish by writing^printing or

or

or

desire

hath

and

directlyat

"

and

for any

scarlet

I hear

confirmed

This

deelarmg

the

taken

May,

pubhqne good

concerning printing as

That

taken

course

to

rather

gallant,that what

so

ingage the

have

bnsinesse

never

I4th

than

were

tended

things as

Pragmaiieus,but "hould

says

Bradshaw

The

is

who

some

discharged

suspended,

was

some.

of that
was

will

he

that

therewith

be

man

time

same

than

B^cide

on

the

generallthey

authors,"

as

might

business

books
the

rather

granted his

hath

the

the

At

snch

prejudicethe publique

to

act

to

he

good,

common

seeing

General!

printing,for

JOUBNALISM

put npon

were

private men's

to

ENGLISH

PragmaUeuM,

adTiaedlyand

No.

49, Skd-lOth

smcerely

from

my

April, 1649.
heart
openly

declare

and

angela that the present government (l^ the power


of the aword) is tyiannioal usorped and unlawful.
And
that the present
of
and
TraytorB
jimcto
RegioidB who falselycall themselves a Pluliament
men

and

NEW
At

and

the

PE0V0ST-MARSHAL8
time

same

of
Man

meantime,

the

16th

increased,

of Pragmatictisand

April,one

made

had

Moon^ Ditcovering

the writer

Sunne,

counterfeits

on

importance

in

Mercuries

of

Boyalist periodical

new

its appearance,
World

of which, John

called

Crouch,

the

Moon

and

coarse

periodical,and

the

English

occasionally archaic

were

those

written, and

took

May

Merewriue

new

an

return

but

Munk

Marshal
for

one

if he

year, and

poeed
that

'

therefore
I

means

and
one

can

of those

...

pence

He

authority

but

'

and
the very

for

Elencticus

which

itely
definOn

4th

by Gilbert Mabbott,
month.^

system of civil Provost-

Bishop, appointed on
Thames

(Provost-

the South), had

day each

was

It catered

of the year.

side of the

allowed

was

witty

"100

he

; and

his

men

year

sion
commis-

twelve

and
to have

was

popular ;

not

were

ofbl of the Nation

more

the

and

being com-

dreggs thereof.

I wiU

the CounceU

anothers

North

and

And
gentia of
very drosse
and
in
bound
Qod
the
of
as
duty
by aU
help
by
possibleraise forces for the speedy and effectual destruction
land
tyrants who call themselves the keepers of the libertyof Eng-

ooUuvie

ex

the

Zachary

requiredthem.'

the supream

not

middle

appointed for

was

assistants at twelve

are

to

in the

Pragmaticus and

only lasted for

made

6th June, 1649, for the

men

the

Provost-Marshal

Marshals.

times.

Man

written

was

place of Mdamholicue,

the

then

was

it

Britannicus, written

its appearance,

made

for whom

about

end

to

amusing

an

in which

for those

even

class than

came

vulgar but

the

was
printer,^

caught and suppressed. The

was

The

under

of Knavery

the last of all to be

lower

Elene-

into existence.

ticus sprang

In the

nmnber

the

qoitea quantity of

111

throats

and

of State

(to save

us

to make

the

'

Saints

'

of the

Army

out

the trouble),"etc. (Mercwriua Elencticua^

Uth.21st

May, 1649).
Thomas
Wilson
^Crouch
as
was
ultimately in partnership with
his
Lane.
the
in
As
Three
Fox
to
Court,
see
Long
authorship,
printers
Mercwriua
No.
lst-8th
1662 ; also the
3,
June,
Prcigmaiicus,
YFeepers
;
FaithfuU Scout, No. 65, 9th-16th April,1652.
*Mercwrius
PragnuUicua for King Charles II. No. 4, 8th-15th May,
^

1649.

PerfectOecwrrences, No. 126, 25th May to 1st June, p. 1051 ; and ibid.,
in the Moon, No. 9, 5th-13th
June,
127, lst-8th June, p. 1050 ; Man

'

Na

1649.

HISTOKY

112

when

the

bered

OF

soldiers

the

'^

women

Atkins
the

not

were

beagles/'the

Mercuries
poor

haying given

''

At

itself

Discovery

the

rescued

^put the

"

the

provost-

alderman,

with

opprobrious epithets.^
also set up at the begip-

"

was

the

of 1649

commencement

recaptured and imprisoned in


succeed

in

making

comradeship

existed

Prison, share

and

in the the

help they

and

been

had

he did

time

of

amount

great

in Peterhouse

being the rule,and Hackluyt, as


King,

new

which
periodical

title

was

think,

too

admitted

was

received.

offer his services to the

commenced

This

Cavaliers

the

After

tired of

he

Hackluyt

escape.

for the

however,
recant

his

alike

share

Dr.

Peterhouse.

amongst

written

that had

one

suspicion of selling

flight,hustled

to

the

custody of

the

assembled, and

assailed him

of

into

Exchange

and

rested
ar-

of June.

ning

not

oatnam-

that, Alderman

record

on

woman

crowd

in the

raff,"and

Committee

''

people

cudgelled if they

assistants,on

his assistants

and

the

often

were

It is

his

and

^this was

his

tore

latter

Mercury

Boyalist newsbooks,

marshal

hand, and

at

rescued.

were

"

JOUENALISM

caught sellingBoyalist newsbooks,

city marshal

woman

ENGLISH

pate
partici-

to

fifteen weeks*

prisonment
im-

determined

this, and

to

Begicides. Accordingly he
he entitled the

Metropolitan

Nuncio.

The
would

remarkable

suggestiveof

written
periodical,

to

changed

John

and

Sheppard

sell it

the

in

before

had

so

prison to

The

short

1, 4th

June,

repeated.

His

1649.
name

Charles

became

was
an

the

to

to the

to 1st

June

he

woman

title,that

of two

June,

she

politan
Metro-

numbers

1649

ployed
em-

MUitaris

Mercuriiis

; and

with

Cleiveland,

printer. The

career

11,, 5th-12th

Atkins

the

to

one

This

favoor

curry

Mercury

PerfectOccurrences,No. 126, 25th May

Pragmaticus for King

choose, and,

betray

to

much

taking it
a

to

to be successful.

popery

first number

of the

then

Nuncio

Taylor.

objected

name

(22nd-29th May)

be

for him

one

Begicides, actually attempted

the

No.

strange

Mercwrius

; it

Mercwriua

Verax,

subject of jestswhich can


for street boys.
exclamation

not

HACKLUYT

quotes with
Divorce"
In

to be

of Heathenish

crew

with

their horrid

and
of

the

bag

behind

John

is

He

supply.

*'

basket

and

Unfortunately for him

his

his

heard

never

the

see

full by John

became

by Hackluyt

came
definitely

to

August
a

half

On

the

arrested

at his famous

he had

to

He

Nothing

in the
is known

have

died

Bradshaw,
and,

end

at the

as

Martin

and

thing
no-

lame

15th

on

"

the

*'

^hisown

"

Ship,"

released; died
was

buried

St^ Martin's-in-theafter

he was,

was

"

King's Head

Head

(now

Parker

as

of the Council
forms

Poet's

1653, and
of

was

in
at

5th

on

Fields.
he

this date, and

prison.

of law,
appear

MelanchoUciu

June, 1649

Acre

churchyard

Boyalists now

^Mercwnuu

"

"

the

afterwards

was

unscrupulous
head

to the

of the year

of

in

for the
of

change

"

ten, with

London,

tavern

Alley, Long

Court).

in

Melcmoholicm

Story *\

of the

back

was

his

on

wards
he after-

journey

and

score

end

an

was

December

to 7th

He

he

his house

arrest

is

which

West,"

says

writer

2l8t June

on

the

of three

there

source

the then

as

Merou/rius

August

Hanover

may

and

"

in Phoenix

"

end.

an

Taylor,^

his sole

this time

4th

sign which

head

to

being a youth

me

leg and

of

about, and from

wrote

by his fellow-

bed, read

again.

of

Wonders

"

to inform

aire

of Melancholicus, prudently left London


to

by

very

henceforth

Taylor, denounced

journey

insulted

dayly infect the

prisoners,and subsequentlypublishedin
"

and

creeping

the Parliament

spiesent by

blasphemies ".

discovered

petitionwas

of State.

slavish

most

"daily abused

was

themselves

whilst

against them,

''

Council

Mr.

Cavaliers, though prisoners,representing

petitioneras

your

Disciplineof

petitionto

the

to

in

pardon

stated that he

113

and

up

him

presented by
for

Doctrine

drew

Hackluyt

begged

style/'and

''

SIDES

tenents".

"having good

the meantime

this he

Milton's

approval

as

Whitaker,
In

CHANGES

Mercurius

so

of State,
a

number

in the State

for King

Charles

Elencticus,No.

nevertheless

yer,
law-

naturallyhad

dilection
pre-

for the

of warrants

Papers.
11,^ No.

9, 18th.25th

About

the

31st.

May

3,

June,

1649.

114

12th

HISTOBY

of March

Newgate.

OF

Wharton

He

had

had
'^

been

Quis
On

the

escaped, and,

to

directed

lacessit

of June,

to obtain

1649,

of

once

shaw

him

treated

crony," it

'*

his

opinions, took

the

had

chronicle
with

his

to be

enlisted

On

the 16th
of

of EUnetious

warrant

He

owed

once

engagement

to

be

released

his

April,1649,
author

seems

as

for his arrest

conmiencement

organ

the

licensed

under

of

14th

and

no

if
was

issued

on

1650)

Nedham,

ready

ever

He

even

for the

issued

printer

as

escaped,for

the
to

to

personage

29th

of

other
an-

May.

Thurloe,

John

Secretary of State.

newsbooks,
1649

Begicides

bidder.

also

the

to

November,

Wright

Sheppard

as

changed

very

was

William

and

Cromwell's

of the year

the Moderate

were

became

Marchamont

warrant

(in May,

final release

has

highest

Leaving the Boyalist Mercuries

turning to

sulted
re-

Brad-

faithful

convictions
political

in later years.

but it

of State

more

for the

History

H.

as

the

on

write

to

his

and

ultimately became

who

he

side of the

Sheppard

August,

tells us,

Wood

the

of

of

mitted
com-

warrant,

safely in hold.

before

long

himself

for Charles

wrote

arrest

on

another

the Council

as

for the

authority,afterwards

same

and, when

powerful pen

than

his motto

issued

the 14th

on

shamelessly cynical as

so

August,

captured and

was

Nedham

bitterlyreviled.

so

at

them, there could be but littledoubt

not

definitelyengaged
he

who

fairly,Anthony

Commonwealth,

passing
com-

in the interval

was

his escape, and

they had

was

of

attached

warrant

capture. Eager

Milton, according to the


his

of

periodical.

Newgate,

writers to defend

of the result

the

to

made

He

Keeper

in his final

"

Nedham,

Newgate.
to the

to

truculent

more

by Sheppard, who

on

of Marchamont

arrest

the 12th

writing of Elenctieusywhich

impune

the 15th

On

to death.

put

more

carried

me

his intention

openly annomiced

been

once

resumed

ever,

committed

and

death, that it might be expected that he

have

however, he

JOUKNALISM

again captured

was

so

Bradshaw's
least would

ENGLISH

an

for the
we

moment,

and

re*

find Mabbott

at

the

with

his

avowed

suspicion.

On

Leveller

the 19th

of

January

116

mSTOBY
effort

An

this time
since it

OP

become

had

conscientious

the house

desired

"

that

he

thousands

of scandalous

published with

he

though

of the nation.

to

stop the presse

in

that
the

of the bodies

licensingis

this nation

in that all men's

sheet, book,

any

within

come

is not

to

4.

sheet

receive

subscribe

to

answer

then
cases

to be

punished by
these

and

the
licensing,
upon

such

which

the

House

other

party

to

viz,,

might

the

cover
disof

time

keep the people


Traitorous

destruction

both

as

in

was

etc.,are

reasons

to

ever

to be

if the author

of

please the fancie and

judgment,

then

he

of.
authority for publishingthere-

in his

provided. A committee

satisfied with

not

judgment

laws

that

as

of the

ordered

are

printany
and

they

or

book

printers
be liable

may

they offend

therein,

shall be for those

Councell
of Mr.

of State
this

so

if

reasons

Council

to

authors

the

as

thereof, and

contents

in

monopoly

thereunto

names

the

he conceives

that

Licensing) for

so
licensing,

their
the

of

been

people of this nation.

of the licensers

it is lawful

etc.,without

free

judgments

stamp

any

Because

do

great

(as to

the compass

many

honest

Popish, Factious,

treatise write

or

for

he conceives

as

enslavingand

the

as

up in the licensers

move

hcensed

the

State

and

of all the

souls

to

of its first institution

end

their

on

3. Because

bound

as

tyranny, the better

and

carry

and

purpose

employment

church

Tyrannical designsfor

and

on

publishing anything

corruption of

bers
mem-

Because

had

reputation among

from

ignorance and

of State

if he

as

to

Kingdames FaithfuU

long desired severall

them,

to

owing

malignant pamphlets have

saw

as
illegal

Episcopacy

the

thereunto

name

mistake,

discharged of Ucensing books

2. Because

unjust and

of his office

following viz., 1.

in his

is

the

be

and

never

prejudicehim

in

hath

reasons

his

relieved

by

views, by pretending

own

lately the Counsell

might

for the

licensingwas

his

Border

and

House

the future

Po^ry

that

be

to

Mabbott

Mr.

of the

to

conciliate Mabbott, who

to

conyinced

scruplea

writes

same,

JOURNALISM

stopped the publication of

that he

Seaut

made

now

was

had

ENGLISH

of

State, being

Mabbott's

report

to

cerning
con-

the House

day that the said

Mr.

SCOUT

THE
Mabbott
futnxe."

to be

been

hailed

to

note

of what

and

set

advocate

to

his

called

the

to

be

to the

Councell

the

of State

rubbed

On
Walker:

ashamed
gave
"

Ist

advocate

who

said

Scout

to subscribe

badge

or

p.

143.

and

in the

of

to

that
own

my
and

me

it is the

my

custome

much

so

as

complaint
"

amusingly remarks,
candlestick

to

succeeded
Scout's

in

inducing

appearance.

with

an

he

his

that

knavery

was

thereof
collected

"

26th

all this

127, Ist-Sth June, 1649,

with

up

formerly

ImpartiallScout, No. 16,


noticed

of

exposure

stuft

are

etc., and

cover

stantly
con-

justify

to

thereunto, but instead

It will be

AreopagiUca.
^PerfectOccurrences,No.

For

made

Occurrences

name

Cloak

Kingdomes FaithfM

June, 1649,

hath

appeared

passages

his

imprimatur

never

brasse

Walkers

in the

seas

of State

"100

were

prohibit the

the

printed to

monopoly, and

the like.

actions," then
to

Judge

'

Grouch
with

desired

am

of his

and
licensing,

it"

last week

had

things

of fallacious

it this

Hie

his

June

"the

abundance

own

Mabbott

Whaley

Council

the

those

about

''

Mr.

Licensing is

hath

last for

his face

Jennings
15th

State's

beyond the

he list and

John

as

unjustest of

Theodore

press.

propositiontherein

to

Mabbott

judge

Walker, who,

the

of

of both

ScotU, but

delivered

Mr.

say

of

from

that

as

countries, and

showed

might

his face,"

save

replied:

was

absurd

print what

may

name

newes

vaine

acquaintancefirst and
all

to

the enemy

behalf

Weekly

Mabbott

judgment

part I dare

of

in

whose

Army

the

ridiculous

everyone

had

the

''

is the Cooncil

of the Scout,

author

something

of Mr.

name

libertyof

invented

Walker,

only malignant lyes of

some

of the

clearlywere

Henry

the

here

pamphlet
to

the

reallytook place.

Border,

not

for

previously,he

two

or

year

champion

as

later

week

insert

against this there

and

to

views

it is,his theories

licensing books

after the event, and, if Mabbott

wise

these

enunciated

As

of

discharged

117

It is easy

have

be

shonld

SUPPEES8ED

p. 1061.

May

is from

to

the

118

by

Luke

bnt

HISTORY

written

Walker

the

by Wood,

the

authorityto

any

because
it

the

at

after Mr.

for 22nd

Street

to adde

it

the
and

takes

'

shadow

ewes

my

of

That

open

anything

and

out

although I
such

an

and
did it

who

to write

more

publish it I

it that the

it

desire

people may

therein

cannot

and

stand

thy present habitation

"

to

of State

or

Henry

by ends)

his

design with

under

this notion

on

carry

its derivation

the sin-

from

whereof

I here

make

judiciallmen

freelylaying myself

construction

there

destructive

near

and

unsavoury

self interests and

own

will not

nor

alias

Harruney

not

to
prejudiciall

the

Sirrah

lye by thee, yet I

thee

poysoned
going

or

being

Therefore

authority.

or

Jennings."

Presbyterian,replyingon

consideration

In

Theo.

"

takes

favourable

contained

to Uve

advocate

Licenser

Counsell

all rational! and

present Government
that

as

this sheete

their

to

impudence

malignancy '.

appeal to

Judges

still to

apostate Luke

the

President

the Lord
or

Walker

(to accomplish his


him

upon

been

have

must

invective
who

Walker;

news

as

the

the author

to suppress

concerns

false inventions

he fancies

it,refusingany
as

Scout

extremely abused

it and

write

impudent

so

give

to

by it.

who

"That

following

contrives

who

abused

disclaim

so

to it what

hath

he hath

June, addressed

26th

the

Kingdomes Weekly

"Imprimatur,
Wood,

was

having

I denie

that

been

hath

the author

if he be

be cheated

not

called the

of Grub

now

whom

all those

contained

notice

the Commonwealth,

and

This

the SootU, Border

June

to take

Pamphlet

thus

formerly doth
for him

Border

selfe and

my

people

ale house

perused it,and

cleric,

of the field.

Wood

an

Walker

ironmonger".

quondam

Commonwealth

by Rob.

H.

"

I desire all

''

by

is not

he

publisherof

Perfect Ocowrrences
at the end

JOURNALISM

...

frightenedout

note

ENGLISH

cleric

Harruney

Henry

been

OF

and

instead

fountain

to Hell

and

at

of

know
am

solved
re-

draining

Westmin.

"

purgatory (thy

Humk

j?(/,i,

rmprimatur.

^^4^

Tucfdaics

Journal!

PARLIAMENTTncu^ngtoftht

INTELIICENCE.

MODERATE
_

HbExceUcnn

Rao

the

Jndetbtr

Sttu:

ConaUcf
Lord

ndoiAclpaa;

GenenUiWMtAimr.

nJTVi
of Ac

TUimipta
fnxeoftt.
"0.

An

"

"Jn"
"j,

i"e

i
uco

AftpiflultooAniK

'^""^

ddaipdoa

of tbOtnkaof

dteMoDiet

""

TlKT"tBnainiIiioiot.and5*.

Md

Covna
Cma

"Gold,
ptccetorGold,

of E N

0 ", .^NIX

tnfn
I

n^

mv

Odc

,_w.,dtlMAiLTheOomiiiommIth
^^^

afEN6iANDiMni|Kaqier(I"M0t(tCtaft^Mt|LtDt"4'ftf"aM
WlitiBiBtt"|tiK"ana|(RsatX]MBc|"BCMi0fiauarftraK^
3ittri|idm, flt^
A(finK"lhtM,
ampdottf

ttUnc

HHnsOtBBirCNancPiMflanru

nMitBCf,BM"ntinif,
A

snc

meiitoriouB

and

future

speedilydesist

object of

an

thee of Dick
hast

thou
upon

him

with

shares

Villain.

of

thou

Hast

that

thou

been

hast

have

dayes of his execution.

in

interest

solicited for to bestow

and

Is it not

more

one

impudent lying

most

againstState
defrauded

and

the

the time

But

of

thy threedbare

turned

and

deceitful

hundred

many

when

but

and

I should

that

before

weeks
He
and

catch

once

thou

in

then

lie under

I should
sets out

spiteof

thou

me,

thou

hast

pounds

and

hast

shalt pay

his

desire ; but Walker

newsbook

on

for all notwithstanding


if

thy beagles
bite me,

and

on

fortnight or

Bradshaw.

three

Friday's newsbook

In the result,

issued

allowed

was

Tuesdays, entitled

his

to

satins.

hearing."

having been

gained his

fasten

restraint

petitionto

warrant

wouldst

to

come

both

means

thy late impudency in saying,That


could

conventicler,

garments of silk and

to

coat

come

may

thou

apparent

newsmonger

by which

Commonwealth,

people

Pure

decayed ironmonger, a petty fogging

bookseller, a fantasticall Hackler, a schismatical


and

half

enough already,but

trades

prive
de-

which

mayst

had

not

dost not

Hang-man

provided thou

own,

most

repentance and

late

place,the

in all the

still claim

must

thy

and

terrour

earnestlyimportuned

so

friend

Brandon's

if thou

that

to

base actions I shall present

thy selfish and

from

thee

unto

know

apply myself

proceeds the

whence

and
intelligence,

certain

and

true

from

army,

119

shall

sanctuary) I

of the

members

such

WALKER

DENOUNCES

WOOD

to

Tuesdaies

which

for his arrest,he

was

publishanother
dition
JotMmaU, in adreduced

to half

its size.
The
in

great desire of Henry Walker's

August,

recognisedby
at the
sermon,

his services

and

his

to

the

being beneficed.

King's Chapel, Whitehall,


the
and

of which

printed copy

chose
text

"

with
Beware

his usual
of

heart

Independent
On

what

15th
was

gratified

was

cause

were

July he preached
evidentlya

is full of Hebrew

trial

tions,
quota-

the admirably apinfelicity


propriate
false prophets". He was
given a
9

HISTORY

120

OP

livingat Uxbridge, within

convenient

By the end of September, 1649, the


been

had

Levellers

the

decided

Parliament

books

and

against

An

books

Commons

for the

better

it gave

May

ous
scandal-

and

regulation of

and

September,

directed

was

pamphlets, papers

definition). The

no

of

Act

22nd

on

seditious and libellous

also affected

were

and

20th

pictures" (of which

and

the

against

the

againstunlicensed

Act

dated

was

Scandalous

''

by

pamphlets

It

Printing".

"

taken

measures

far successful, that

so

upon

passed,entitled

was

distance of London,

stop the publicationof his newsbooks.^

did not

and

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

by it,though they were

news-

its main

not

object.
this the

In

Levellers'

liberty of unlicensed

petitionof

answered

printing was

for the

January
"

By the order that all existingActs and ordinances

1.

were

put into execution.

to be

2.

of all the

the increase

By

seditious

imposed

w^re

(a) On

the author

(b) On

the

printer"5

(c) On

the

bookseller "2

(d) On

the

buyer

such

"10

"

or

days'imprisonment.

20

days' imprisonment.

or

10

days' imprisonment.

did

to the mayor

document

the

pamphlets;

"

if he

"1

and

Scandalous

40

or

^for "

penalties

libellous,"etc., books

and

followingfines

any

19th

within 24 hours

not

or

justiceof

bring
and

the peace

disclose the vendor.


3. These
^

Crouch's

also to

penaltieswere
'*

ia

oomment

Th"fc

unlicensed

apply to

pilloryearwigge

Walker

news-

ia benefio'd

Be it known
to the parish where
he
Uxbridge.
(some say) about
teaoheth, That he is a ravening wolfe an impudent lyar and a cheat,
...

"

and

be

liker to
not

have

if ye

out

in the

Ab

parish.
streets

He

mores

than

Judas, the
If upon

converts.
next

will send

I O

tempus

of the

boys

the

pastor

Sunday after or
his blessinginto
orthodox

preach and

rogues

1649.)
out

than

in the Moon

such

food.

no

cuckolds

of the church

the Man
Must

better

"

(Man

learned
in the

result of this he
appears

to

have

Spie, Na
{Colchester

whole

parishare

sight hereof
the

you

more

kick him

Wednesday

following
the whole parish. What
I
divines perish for want
of

Moon^

SOth

August

to 5th

to have been
really seems
been occasionally
mobbed

tember,
Sep-

driven

by

2, 10th-17th August, 16i8).

the

122

Act

HISTOEY

of Parliament

and

down

would

have

The

The

suppressed
For

journals;

until

and

of the sword

"

press

Thursday), 2nd

Esquire secretaryto

the direction
On

9th

''Licensed

October

by

on

the Council

appeared

the

The

but

the licensed
of which

S. P.

*The
are

subsequent

every

ing
appeared,bearsecond

The

by

Gualter

according to

of State

second

of the

first three

fourth

stated

Parliament,"
numbers

indicating some

the

periodical,entitled

and

that

at

this

of

it

that

confusion

also
in

succeeding numbers

was

time
peared
apthe
peared
ap-

Fridays.

on

more

Clerk

Tuesdays,

arrangements;
For

self
fact in it-

of the late Act ".

Scobell.

Henry

power

gence
publish intelli-

''Licensed

marked

the

authority".

Proceedingsin Parliament^ which

SeveraU

was

by

to

Brief Belation

by

official

journalsthey published.

October, and

"Published

(9th October)

Frost

"

1650.

"

two

newsmongers,

authorised

of A

cision,
de-

remained

following year

the

of existence.

substituted

justify
suspicionof
been

such

abolished,and

the

turned

person

for the purpose,


out

swept

were

press

October, and by

oligarchyrulingEngland

themselves

mark

number

been

newsbooks

Tuesday, the first number


the

had

of

he

licenser.

specialorder
thus

to

that

one

to

come

the 1st of

on

was

Tuesday (Frost had


every

employed

licensingthe

any

middle

the

the

sufficient to
On

into force

came

licensed

the

spy-master

"

appoint any

to

appointed

not

was

licensed

whole

also

not, however,

of the newsbooks

one

every

was

for

to spare

October, without

of

the 12th

did

They

Act

new

tary
the Secre-

he

as

decided

of State

Frost

and

was

conunittee-hackneys

little time

had

licenser.

"

Frost

Boyalists, it is qnite evident

the Council

had

State,and,

of
the

the

hunt

as

of

manager

"}

for that pnrpoBe

the Council

to

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OP

newsbooks, therefore,one

had

appeared

every

and

day,^ were

sometimes
substituted

Dom., Interregnum, I. 63, p. 95.


last dates of appearance
as

follows

the

of the newsbooks

ImparUall

in the Thomason

19th
InteUigencer,

September

lection
Col; the

LICENSED

NEWSBOOKS

official periodicals.Of

two

daring

this year

written

noticed; the

these,

one,

it

as

123
concerned

was

parliamentaryproceedings and

chieflywith

its

by

SUPPEESSED

"licenser"

Scobell, need

other, giving all the

Ireland

from

news

London,

was

State's

direction

shows, by its secretary Frost.

periodical
appeared
after,and

John

to the

Bashworth,

not

who

be noticed

the

as

third

Monday

every

Passages

some

Armies, and

Secretary

as

of this
that the title,

that of Pecke's

and

licensed

was

described himself

then

same

of

of

odical
peri-

PerfectDivmaU

of

Passages of Parliament
licensed press,

The

antil the end

of

Mercuries

appeared daring the interval.


become

now

confirming this
No

"

bat

for the

light they

Affaires and

Moderate

no

FaithfuilScout, no
of Jack

Bradshaw

Oivill

And

Coancill

of

(No. 25, for 15th-22nd

NarraUve,
; and

therefore, as

the

4th

gencer,

Weekly
;

more

or

the

by

away

of

by Long
writes

no

some

and

Gaalter,
Mercurius

October, 1649) in sarprise,

the

lees in the

(which

Act

the

October, 1649)

the writers.

October.

Levellers'
came

1st October

PerfeetDvwmdXX,
October

dth

interests.

into
;

the

October

The

operation
ModercUe
;

the

on

mainder
re-

Ist

InteUi-

KingdameB

tober
Perfect Weekly Account, 10th Octhe Kingdomee FaithfuU and Imfar-

; the

and
PerfectOcevrrences,

Scout, 12th

Occurrences,

Military,Forraigne

licensed

strain apon

Perfeet Summary,

9th
IntdLigeneer,
and

caase.

September ; the Moderaite Messenger, 24th September


all
These
be
25tih
ModeraU,
taken,
September.
may

survived

October

its

as

21hid

written

which

October) were

similar

only

no
Weekly InteUigencer,

(No. 26, for 17th-24th

in the Moon

in

apon

Coxcombs,"

Elencticus

comments

and

that

to

the Man

Boyalist

only A Briefe Relation

secretary

Modest

throw

IntelUgeneer,no

and

Transactions

the

The

Narrative, all wafted

Modest

Domestique tolerated.

and

sappressed

exceedingly valaable, not

PerfectDiuimall, no Moderate,no

Weekly Account,
breath

alreadystated,remained

as

Jane, 1650, and nothing bat the three periodicals

mentioned

tiM

ths

to

It shoald

Army.
was

the

in Relation

and

the

as

and

December,

entitled A PerfeetDiumall

was

Proceedingsof

by

17th

on

written,

coarse

and

Coancil

oatside

of

be

farther

not

124

OP

mSTOEY

he will find oat the writer

declaxes

Elenctioua

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

portant
of the all-im-

A BriefBelation,evidently suspecting Nedperiodical

ham, and in No. 27" for 29th October


''

I have

at

of the
our

party, but

author

and

is not

of St. John's

manciple

deceived) who

almanacks

every

the

anagramatiz'd

same

the

pounds yeerly from


that

employment

'Stroff'

as

he

service of the rebels which

the

beginningof

to London

coming
before

which

two

four

had

hee

in

other

the

Stationers

but

left of

in
profitable

more

since the

enjoyed ever

in this account

at Enmianuel

servant

was

for

he hath

if I bee

esquire,wrote
name

found

Frost

the first warre."

only mistake

The

Gualter

by

owne

of

Company

soon

so

in his

one

is both

who

Cambridge

he writ himselfe

before
yeare,

in

of

told) one

was

himself

puts it licensed

for he

the scribbler

out

(as once
Gualter

Long

even

licenser

(the quondam
not

diligent
inquiryfound

lengthupon

Brief SeUUion^ who

owne

November, tells ns,

to 5th

had

been

sword-bearer

entries

numerous

Walter

Frost
after

John's,^and

St.

College,not

rebels' service.

entering the

Papers contain

is,that

to the Lord

Calendars

The
which

Mayor
of State

that

show

he

had

1
"

been
in

engaged,in

looking

Mercuries

after

aU

capacityor another, since

one

or
spies.
intelligencers

the

along furnish
and

people he employed,
coiners
others

like
with

Thomas
an

house

like

Walter

chronicle

the

sinceritywhich

the

on

fates of thieves

Mathews,

Bud,

1643,

Boyalist

The

running commentary

Vemey,

evident

absolute accuracy

the year

leaves

no

and
and

Holt
doubt

(a typicalexample is the scion of

of its
noble

Vemey).
Frost, ex-menial

Latinised

Christian

posing as

licenser of

name
a

masquerading

servant,
and

the

journal which
in his

title of

with

"Esquire,"

he himself

and

wrote, does
and

not

inspireconfidence

the

and its suppleextremely sinister fact that this periodical


ments
are

^Geoi^
W.

Strof and

the

only official accounts

Atwell,
W.

A Brief Relation
periodical

The

Frost

are

of the

Faithfid Surveyor, 1662,


in ezifitenoe for 1626

and

admittedly appalp.

81.

1627.

Almanaos

by

MA88ACEE

THE

lingslaughtercommitted
months

and

Drogheda

and

suppressionof

October, 1649,

enhances

Wexford,

the towns

deliberate

by

the

stmctive

of the favourable

which

be

can

made

laborious

with

such

sudden

total

suppressionof

adequate

Frost's
of

defenceless

Secretary

as

the Council
that
if he
the

"

".^

Army

PerfectDiv/rnaU
used

at

governor

was

windmill

on

the

This

Yet

all other

which

8th October

surrender

of

top of the
it could

been

not

Gkneral

of War

anything but

May 22, 1649.


evidentlyCromwell's

of Pecke's

that

treachery
the

''to go into

the

and

and
as

the

printed and
Hatter

an

of the

more

disarmed

account

is unarmed

of the
folk,
towns-

previousSunday.

Deolaration

Fairfax," etc.

many

they were

the church, that

nominee.

of

those

Drogheda, assertingthat

It also contains

Richard

and

nevertheless,

was,

states
distinctly

said there

to be

stating

to the army

the last number

mount

''A

October,

WoUaston,

contain, where

Cf,

oorreot

2nd

on

secretary

to licence

This

had

mass

wa8

to be

power

people in

the

his Counoell

order
was

on

as

Ezoellenoythe Lord
and

him

afterwards aU slain'*.

for

slaughter

all the newsbooks

"persuaded''to surrender

slaughterof

the

concealed,

were

which

Sir John

to

appeared.
the

chiefest of them
and

in

up

strongly

press

stories of

days after this letter he

stilllicensing,
and

was

drawn

Furthermore,

men

Army.

wrote

no

Six

the

know

he hath

were

unarmed

September,

to

of State

did not

they

entirelyde-

licensed,priorto their suppression,


by Bichard

appeared were
Hatter

took

exception,recount.

of 20th

the Act

the question

tween
sharp discrepancybe-

terrible

the

and

women

authorities,without
After

and

accounts

been

facts

for the

reason

of

the total

If he

be

licensed

the

material

that

statement

has

efforts.

later years

givesan

taking

children,the only

must

which

one

the

indiscriminately

also
and

women

men,

of him

and

extended.

massacres

estimate

the
justifies

the

at

importance of

treachery,and

slaughtered defenceless

and

during

the licensed press in its bearingupon

far Cromwell's

of bow

125

in Ireland

Cromwell

by

September

of

DEOGHEDA

OP

of the

Prooeedingg of his
Appointed by his Excellency
published and signed by their
''

Seer.*' (". 666

(1)). Rushworth

126

mSTOEY
Pecke

Samuel
book

of his

was

of the
the

on

revival

news-

sub-

licensed

to revive his

for the rest of his

suppressed,and

PerfBctDiufnal

of the

Passages in Parliament, it appears

of some

have

Boshworth's

as

latter's

attempted also

in 1650, he

books

only employed

was

When,

the Armies.

JOURNALISM

again permitted to

never

; and

own

ENGLISH

the institution

author, on
of

OF

he

news-

PerfectDiumaU
been

to have

career

at

onoe

Bushworth's

was

deputy.
January, 1650, the Council

8th

On

the

Waring

old tale of 1641

it is evident

On

of the

Deolaration

Elenoticus

Wharton

this

book

of the

of
retelling

the

necessityof justifying

October, 1649, they published

Parliament

of England in vindication

only

can

be

described

as

rageous
out-

the circxmistances.

under

appeared,and
and

committed

had

been

21st November

on

the

to

Gatehouse

rogue

and

of Merourius

Wharton
at

was

captured
re-

Westminster.

consistent

thorough-goingand

so

callinghim

of Bradshaw,

last number

1649, the

November,

5th

paid Thomas

compiling a
from

8rd

of their Proceedings^etc., which

On

"

felt the

they

butcheries.

own

for

in Ireland," ^ and

bloody massacres
their

of "100

largesum

of State

an

enemy

thief,exposing his

perjuryin taking the Serjeants'oath (on 12th October, 1648),


intention of killing
him on sightand
and announcing his own
to do the same,

urging others
to

Act.

Treason
enemy

locke

It

he

is

the latter

easilycould

pleasant

to

the

the

antiquary,he
of

means

Bradshaw's

being

happiness to

obtaining

EQs

of 1650.

autumn

became

own

President

procure

have

record

that, on
Lilly,the astrologer,

Ashmole,

my

which

hang him;

that

determined

was

done

under

of Wharton's

Wharton's

of the

old

the solicitation of Ehas

with Sir Bulstrode

account

the

freedom

of it

Council

Captain Wharton

Whitein

"During

was:

of State

his

the

it

was

hberty,which

Waring publiahed A Brief Narrative,etc., on IQth March,


of
he states that a largeTolume
1660,
depositions was getting
^*
old
of
the
son
cash-keeperWaring
ready. Major Waring,
; brothersheriff in Shropshire,was
in-law to ^jor Salway, and Cromwell's
mitted
comin
Rod
1660 (Mercwim
to Black
Fublicus,July 12-19).
^Thomas

in which

**

"

"

Lilly,if ever

Committee

the

for

spoke
deliverywho
humble

his

Lillyin his
until the

baronet

At

Charles

after

been

be

the

mitted
com-

bailed

and

of his

morning

him, especiallySir

Lincolnshire, but

his

antagonist

my

upon

enlarged

was

he

in the

Man

in

in

Ashmole
and

Moon

continued
created

was

Enfield, in August,

of the Tower

Merourius

the

He

verse), and

chapel

1649

by

to

appointed treasurer

was

died at his home

year

the

befriended

was

Boyal Ordnanca
bad

(and

buried

and

public acknowledgments

for 1651, and

He

of the

IL

had

well

civil to

continued

made

almanacs

was

the end

might

committee

''of

to the office of the

in 1677.

1681, and

Whitelocke

liberty."
almanac

publish

he

so

Bestoration, when

paymaster
to

long

Wharton

George

were

(Armine)

request my

had

said

to

enemy

Capt. Wharton,

his offence

to the

thereupon

of

127

an

Sir Bolstrode

behalf

whom

spoken

'I will be

'.

me

on

onto

Ermin"

William

all

him, and

I had

enlarged.

and

before

come

the ice first of

broke
him

he

LIBEETY

said

tmderstood

Bradshaw

when

WHAETON'S

OBTAINS

LILLY

of London.

for King

Pragmaticm

only Boyalist

the

were

in existenca
periodicals

In addition
to the doonof Drogheda ani Wwfcrd,
mentB
in Gilbert's
set out
History of Ireland^ voL ii.,
Cc^n^tefnuporairy
life
in Anthony " Wood's
the Appendix to Lingftrd,and the aooount
Ma$9aeru

The

"

**

in

the

Athena

valuable

as

Oxonienses

showing

(vol. L,

p.

zx.),

the

the

are
Royalist Mercuries
privateletters. Elendieu$

stepstaken to suppress
letters from a ooirespondent in

Dublin.
printstwo or three
of the taking of Drogheda
Hugh Peters, who sent the first account
to Henry Walker
(note to p. 77),was Colonel of a regiment of foot at the
time (Ifan in the Moon^ Na
26, 10th to 17th Oct
1649, and John Endeoote
to John
of the Maeiaekiuette
Winthrop, 28th April,1660, in the CoUeeHoM
,

Historical
his mind
mad

out of
vL, p. 153). Earlier in the year Peters was
No. 9, ISth to 26th June, 1649). He was
{MercuriusElencticuSf

Society

vol.

again in 1666 (ClarkePapers, vol. iiL,p. 66).


shows
The followingletter from
Mr. Buck
to Ralph Yemey
in the worst
conduct
possiblelight:
and my
brother
deare friend, Sir Edmund
Your
Vamy,

well's
Crom-

"

"

himself

with

the greatest gallentrythat

could

Drahoda, three dayes after quarter was

given him^

One

Ropier, who

Orumwell

by

way

of

protection.

as

be
he

"

he
was

is brother

was

who

haved
be-

slaine at

walkinge w^
to the

Lord

128

Ropier,
of

HISTOBY

him

oaled

and

aoquaintanoe,
from

expect
confident
L^.

Crumwell's

one

of

him

he

lady

aske

who

noe

steped

sooner

cruelties

are

stand

War,

CwU
**

"

the
where
of

Carried

three

whale
rage

Would

nothing

Whose

streets

Where

piles

Which

cool

To

preacher

troversy
was

truthful

at

against
neither
witness

shov'd

"

piles

Heylin.

to

silence

dead,

priest *)

meroie
the

dwring

Crouch

not

the

the

note

These
nor

took

back

pack

shoals

by

whose

pride

slain

complain

wide

breaches
wild

did

storm

fill'd
kill'd

fury

passe

was.**

the

at

side).

chaplain^

facts

grave

world

her
to

Cromwell's

what

like

Souls

and

Sacrificer

impartial,
as

of

its

sex,

of

butcher'd,

Lm,

These

deth.

it, abide.

number

only

the

no

opposed

(Crouch's

Gray's

an

degree,

the

the

dye,'

to

Family

strong

o'th

out

men

no

blood

kind

how

Bernard

Dr.

of

on

table,

brave
a

whose

murtherer

(he

person
tdl

now

Camel

that

had

the

was

and

worth

for

that

finde

tell

to

eare,

the

to

(who

gay

treasure

Tredah

poor

so

not

nations

spar'd

Towne,

344-345).

Crouch

once

prodigious

that

one

dinner

"

kingdoms,

Whose

Ask

Cromwell,

Crocodile,

The

**

three

John

the

shott

Vemey

the

ii., pp.

toL

by

(1600)

will

of

afier^

'Madam

was

doubt

noe

{Memoirs

Vemey,

is

that

That

who

hee

am

same

from

answered,

but

at

was

the

in

him

risinge

he

roome

"

it

following

Where's

One

of

who

goeinge,
the

of

P.

"

But

Thief

F.

has

journalist)

was

deth,

to

traitors,

Poem

Mizt

he

neede

in

Lady

by

put

out

those

of

they

when

whither

him

be

in

might

but

day

he

as

Ed.

tuck,

next

him,

whispred

Sir

Sunderland,

of

and

came

w^
The

given

Earle

ir^

office

throw

f onnerly

beinge

him,

revenged.

likewise

the

to

souldiers

presently

must

him

lann

quarter

sister

frendly

some

highly

once

had

More,

Lady

my

act

who

Boyle,

of

w^

speak

to

pretenoe

barberously

this

see

in

insteade

he

him,

to

Col.

w^

was

aside

JOUENALISM

ENGLISH

OF

render

(as the

place

and

line

of

Drogheda.

Nicholas

took
that

it dear

last
at

Dr.

the

sides
this

Bernard
in

Lish

quotation

con-

tant
Protes-

hints)

130

HISTOBY

OF

ENGLISH

JOURNALISM

petitionedagainsthis ministrations,he
for

The

the Moon's

in

Man

and

captured

imprisoned

indignantly in
I

as

women,

to old

Edward
in

Man

did the

He

as

and

Moon

imprisoned all means

them.

Another

almost

whipt

poore

is this the

is

cryes

deliver them

and

this

are

we

thee

Chap. 8,

little comfort
our

the

in the

flee away,
'.

they

are

if

cannot

prayers
^Man

the

in

Our

cold

is

sun

help him
never

the

be

they

have

and

persecutors?

bread,

as

but

rate

bread

earn

plaints
com-

London

'

full of lies and

Yet

in

the

of

complaint

art

our

God

Good

sightof their parents,

unto

say

17

unto

arisingto
our

as

to

before

locusts

riseth

in

they

place

is not

known

where

chase

away

these

vermin,

purses

wanting,

sun

the

let this

are

the

the

robbery

verse

crowned

Woe

great grasshoppers that camp


their

in

year

their dumb

sad

the

up

903 ; Hiit, M88.


sermon

from

that excessible

make

in the

even

Moon, 3l8fc October

of Walker's

away

poore

best

days, yet when

with

the

to

the

and

ravening wolves

these

infants

though

etc., and

Jftnuary,1660, p.
cover

That

us

captaines as

hedges

shall

and

'

etc.

at

can

citie that

departeth not,'

and

from

God

prisoners,and

the

eating up

take

now

bloody

ing
printhe

goe.

the like

and

poore

and

or

ever

dying island

to death

even

Nahum

thou

prey

16th

the

tradesman

famish

may

prophet

our

Was

himselfe, whilst his poore

that

to stand

racking all commodities

handicraft

and

we

of

devouring us

now

excising and
a

able

her

unless

starve

kept this quarter of

libertypromised ?
the

about

Batcliffe

named

and

scarce

heare

hath

livelyhoodis taken

of

woman

death

till she

Newgate

there

must

prisoners

close

of which

one

''Two

January:

committed
.

writes

prophet Elijah,for being both

his wife

to

brother

lying in Newgate

Crouch

the

his

16th

the last weeke

been

Cronch, had

1649, and

informed, Bradshaw

am

Mr.

feed him

for

in

the

that

Edward
printer,

periodicalon

that

Bridewell

husband

that

their pastor

time.^

some

Lord

remained

let

nor

our

7th November,

Commianon,

Oromwell

on

evil and

from

turn

us

hands, O let

4th

1649

ibid,,9th-

Report, p.

27th June, 1660.

188 h,

PABLIAMENT

"

and

humble

ourselves

ariseth

suddenly.

pitthey

This

is

chief

The

of

tone

agent

Boyalistswas
nickname

vein

snare

ous
righte-

more

for John

of his later

some

''

Grouch, and

periodicalsis

not

was

Alkin

"

because

she

did

Boyalist writers,but by

she

had

been

thus

the

Commons

died

Alkeen

maintenance

By

for

been

done

clamorous

spieand

woman)
she

Harrington

Joan"
^

the
soon

The

whose

in

she had
"

(a member)
".^

entrapping
took

the

and

Which
of

the

of

records

in

be

provided

husband
"

some

for

had
tent
compe-

her

and

"

that

to be

ordered

meant

her

until relieved ".

"

had

Jone

one

at Oxford

taken

great incivilities

Mercury

lead, and

She

(a
for

finding out the presses

ordered

was

royal

June, 1649,

hangd

was

imployed

showed

2nd

that

the

Oxford.

at

her

as

had

July nothing,however,

husband

"

husband

Her

condition

then

pamphlets," was

in which

should

house

to do

ment
Parlia-

"

Boyalists

manner

On

low

very

Pecke

sometimes

of correction

In

of

out

hanged

considered

first week

for her, and

because

house

in

are

of the

of scandalous

and

be

had

service within

widdow,"

should

they

end

the

relief.

parliament'sservice,"and

in the

children

"

of the

for

that
"

the

ill-mannered

any

peeper

maintenance.

ordered

"Elizabeth

"

reason

detected

left without

was

bore

the title of

earn

Parliament's

the
been

had

lines, and

for

in

spy

House

pestered the

not

was

and

to

who
scullery-maid,

or

woman,

dirtywork, Elizabeth
Joan

Alkin, who

given

name

capture the

to

spy

".

Joan

"

Joan

as

called EUzabeth

woman

ill-kemptrustic

or

employed

now

Parliament

"

of

Though

those

own

praiseworthy.

so

"

in their

caught

serious

unusually

an

pity the

that their destruction

see

digged for

have

131

themselves."

than

it is

soon

will be

They

fall into that

and

shall

we

"

JOAN

it is

into

tody
cus-

to Sir James.

to be sent

to the

whipping

writers

Parliament.

quite

Kin^dofnea FaithfuU ScatU, Ist-Sih June,


PerfectDiwrnall, No. 310, 2iid-9th July, p. 2635.

*'

clear

1649^

that
p.

147

she
;

132

mSTOEY

became

became

soon

and

and

say

and

female

and

then

Towzer

of the

by

the

"

She

in order

''Bradshaw's
"

the Ice

I believe

me

"

budget
with

world

in her

he
the
in

have

'

been

take

make

Frost's
the

Man

his

in the Moon

recognising
"

The

question
slaughter

dwelling of

Man

him

christened
the

in

Moon

week

to

them

to

warning,
^Ihave

break
his

poach

the next

that in my

infamous

more

marks
re-

persistsin

Queans

"

of

Bradshaw,

once

if he

fair

and

itself.

his littleicicles shall thaw

the

of

name

almanacs.
on

4th

Parliament

in the

Moon,

idea that
of

streets

anagrammatic pseudonym
written

'

ha^a^

at

and
a

me,

them
to

the

himself".

about

should

had

the

from

next

boot

to

Bogues

and

and

Walker

errands

woman

betray

Whitehall

Man

the

give him

more)

any

vengeance

It must

againsthim

both

than

hire

to

"

in

been

the

near

go

his head

for this week

(ifI hear

week

the

me

Frost

I shall

him, and

design against
after

male

the Council

near

instructions

her

Of

doxy".

for

yourselves

the

other

actuallygiven lodgings

was

through Frost, the Secretary,and had

if any

regained her

either

''

might be

she

that

always received

had

had

some

or

'

Joan

".^

up ;

king

"

both

to

moneys

Joan"

taken

fifty ^her

some

are

authorities,and

of the

late

about

Jtfoofi,

being first suggested. Eventually, however,

presumably
State, she

the

in the

^look to

"

warrant

same

again

was

belonging to

equal value

receive

Man

chapt' knave,

there

1650, ''Parliament

dwelUng

house

many

search

to

She

purpose.

Parliament

'

tall thin

that

place in the good graces


of her

by

warning,

you

gang,

rob others

the

aged

woman

pretending
gave

March,

By

printer

come

persons

fat

is called

she

"

Smith

one

such

not

for

Gentlemen/' cries the

of

care

I know

name

''

JOURNALISM

herself

woman

known

have

"pray

"

Mercuiy

ENGLISH

OF

"

July, 1649,

No.

"

we

as

Strof

which
the

In

Joan's

London

Mrs.

under

Parliament

"

or

a
''

in years

Mercury
Stroffe,"
gone

by

following stoiy from


little difficulty

have

identity:

i3, 18th-20th

"

"

Joan

"

A hot combat

February, 1650.

ME8.

"

of

seized

Commonwealth's

the

on

books

disarmed

forgivenessand

ask her
a

health

beat

puppies

two

This

story shows

ing,and

her

the arrest
Her

captures

Frost

usuallyamounted

and

therefore

"

own

name

her

obtained

of

; for

it

All

it

Boyal

Dmmall

was

had

Fragmatious and

respectively
; the
been

with

for

of work*

paid

first

was

sent

ceased

silence

John

to the Gatehouse
more.

the

of the unlicensed

Modem

The

"

Border's

May

end.

an

her.
The

and

Merourius

and

3rd

June

indicating that they had

rather

press.

easily

printedfor

to

28th

Moon

sweep

also

her

of course,

of

April,1650,

than

himself

Prison, and

clean

with

address

numbers

came

on

Crouch

ment
Parlia-

of State, she

were

now

30th

where

"

to

matter

Walker's

in 1650,

in

of arrest

Anglicua and

Henry

reissued

Papers,

Mercury,"

newsbook
a

Council

The

Man

As

Merourim

at

''

her,

to

in the State

sellinga

the

her

Elentieus

June, however,

the whole

can

method

naturallyoccurred

stopped on

5th

no

"

posing as

Street.

frightened into

appeared

what

see
woman

sums

noted

From

Eoyalist Mercuries

the

one

the

protection.

as

influence

Kings

Scout, when

by

they are

idea

the

IntdUgencer, published
Fountain,

20,000 such

of the soldiers indicates that

traced

publishing and

license

when

the Ee-

may

necessarily
running into danger

upon

through

be

^you

"

pledge

masters

0 for

Joan's

to "10.

known,

not

Joan

be

can

and

was

them.

and

to

mistake.

always through

she

to their

''ParUament

pretended conquest

was

to their eyes

pepper

mary-bones

rogues

kings

the

of them."

three

or

the

new

your

their

dismissed

pepper

in

Man

swords) forced them

own

on

had

Stroffeupon

sellingthe

confusion

honourably

so

gallant spiritsto
valiant

down

king, and

to the

and
gicides,

their

(and with

where

sonldiers

Mrs.

by applying beaten

but she

them

called

called

and

loyaUst

133

in Holbom

Tavern

virago

WOMAN

vermin

Amazonian

an

suspition of being
Moon's

Salutation

at the

latelyhappened
some

MERCUET

STEOF,"

had

captured.
fell

the Man
at

After

victim, and
in

last been

the

Moon

made

of

134

HI8T0EY

meantime,

In the

book

publisheda
ike

of

24th

by

Mr.

of all the

principlesfor

by

of

way

he returned

vouring
endeafor

end

newsbooks

break

fourth officialnews-

its appearance

until

13th

June, 1650, and

therefore

periodicalof importance, the conceptionof

be attributed
from

end

the

of the

suddenly alters)until
A

little to do with

the rdle
to

"

to

the

writing of

MefTGuriue
some

is dated

three

Milton

had

Politious

and

are

the

succeeded

pam^lets
^

to

little to

only

for

Hall

or

three

ones

when

by

sional
occa-

an

periodicals

entered

Matthew

Thomas

in

the

Politums

Simmons,

Newcombe,

PoUticus

the

Nedham.

official

now

gard
re-

the

with

the first entry of Mercurius

called Merctmus

Cal. State

by

energy

with

do

aa

designate

and
leadingarticle,

the other

September, 1650,
was

for

written

was

Begisters,and

19th

printer,who
''

whole

reason

Stationers'

correctlyemployed

indication

an

has

but this term,


periodical,

periodical,
reserving his
or

his

and
largestaff,

it

1652.

Milton, Scobell and Bushworth

newsbooks.

the

as

be

author," may

passage

for

writingof

filled by

now

pamphlet

the

ably
prob-

style of

the

beginning of March,
generalof

which

its editor

was

is

It

April, 1660.

(when

1650

year

editor is but the

modem

opposed

the

12th

Milton, who

John

to

was

Be"

to reappear.

Politioue made

MerGwrvue

It

without

must

one

long come

May, 1650.

of

carried out,however,

was

had

continuing
a

"100

him

this to be done

Thursday, conmiencing with

every

to him

paid
while

subsist

may

this,that

to pay

in Ireland

at the

the licensed

to allow

commenced.

was

he

series of butcheries

fore this decision


book

also instructed

was

be

to

tended.
con-

probation".^

end, and
decided

then

of "50

commonwealth,

the

serve

patrons with

simi

''

Cromwell's
an

the

version
contro-

he had

heretofore

new

pension, whereby

to

to

ordered

Frost, and Frost


as

his

delightedwere

May they

which

Coie

The

absolutelyshameless

an

had

Nedham

entitled
Begicides,

of the

Stated

year

year

behalf

on

JOURNALISM

May, Marchamont

8th

on

CommoMveaith

So
on

ENGLISH

OF

the

entered

by permission of

Papers Dom., 1660, pi 174.

LICENSER

MILTON,

the
anthority" (".6.,

Council

1650-51, six copieswere


entries

the

mnning

of

THE

"by

order

continuouslyin
the

fairlycertain,however,

PRESS

State). On

entered

when

January, 1651-52,

OP

this

135

17th

March,

of Mr.

Milton,"
until

manner

29th

authorityis

not

stated.

Milton

the

acknowledged

that

editor of this

until
periodical,

Thurloe, who

was

it

was

taken

was

by

over

appointed Secretary on

It is

Walter

John

Frost's

death.
Proof

of the fact that Marchamont

originalauthor

to be the

reputed

in Samuel

dishonest

late

September, 1652),

Royalists who

under

money

in distress.

the times

govern

annually,"and

"

and

"

My

gratitudehere
libertywas
Charus

erit Yerri

To

The

on

29th

shows
is

even

controvert

John

March,

with

Mercurius

to Saturday

the

of the

is alluded

plainest

newsbooks

to

writing

as

BrUannicus

(to be

appeared

on

"

Roman

historians

tended
in-

never

owe

live to retaliate his favours

his

industry.

qui Verrem

hugs and
his

to

ooarts

tempore

whom

1652, after

that

in

an

him

liberieeach

Thurloe, who

his character

quiteevident

for the

were

quo

vult

potest"

only person

paid was

of their

out

Monday

writers

to

Snakes

certain

on

gentleman's Aphorisms
by

won

of

tained
con-

feet of the six daemons,

from

follows

of the

I wish

"

attack

PoUticus, which

as

this

as

once

Aoousare

Yerres

writes

the rest

their annals
much

of

hereafter); and

Tacitus

an

Bed

Weepers terminates

Nedham

day.

Thursdays, Sheppard

The

given them

turns

Mondays, entitled

on
periodical

or^

cloven

terms, the

appeared each

described

by

even

Politicus,is

Sheppard describes,in

here

unmistakable

most

which
a

the

clapt to
cupping glasses,
who

and

The

not

was

cheating people

were

pretence that funds

the

King's servants

"six

of Mercurius

Sheppard's Weepers ;

(dated 13th

Broken

Nedham

such
had
Walter

that has power

hour."

compliment

been

be

appointed Secretary

Frost's

death; and

unexpectedly amiable

throughout Sheppard
10

could

took

it

light,for
no

oaths

it

and

136

HISTORY

surrendered

OF

principlein

no

writes

in his

''My

imprisonment

El"noticus

ENGLISH

JOURNALISM

order

obtain

to

liberty. He

his

Epigrams (Book 6, No. 16), under


in

for

Whittington

heading

the

writing

Mermmus

""

Moat

stcmnge it aeoiiu

That, that which

the

unto

throat

ynlgar roat
guard me
olog'dbat thua

in, ahould

me

out

My aoule with no engagementa


My gaining life,atrook dead Elenctieus.
Politicus is entered

Merourius

Thurloe, commencing

with

ordinary newsbooks,

the

Secretary of the Army.

the agent for the army

the

Rushworth,

of 20th
of 7th

it

fact that

the

as

to do

this is the clearest indication

September,

January, 1653,

found

was

necessaiy

that the bulk of the work

and
representative,

the army

in the

substituted for the seoretafy of the

army

fell on

Act

the

of

and

entered

are

John

was

of John

hand

1652-53

January,

PrintingAct

the

was

licenser ; and

the

of which

none

When

by

re-enacted

was

12th

Registers,the licenser

Stationers'

1649,

under

not

clerk

the

on

of the

Parliament.

Frost,

its

origin to

numbered

William

owes
was

Taylors'School.
been

pro

Carolo
at

becoming
printed a
"

himself

translation
this is

for

petitionof Sir
the

printer to

version

in French
Du-Gard

Guill.

of which

has

Froat'a

Papers
name

show.

doee

not

J.

Master

of

du

ascribed

translated

in the

doubtedly
un-

whose

of Merchant

had

been

leased
re-

Harrington, subsequently

Imprimeur

However

1650

year

printingthe Defensioregia

Council

been

licenser.^

privateprintingpress,

of Milton's

appear

the

Saumaise, and

de

doubtful, for Milton

State

the

in

Du-Gard,

Newgate

to

never

was

Milton, amongst

had

primo of Claude
the

John

Du-Gard, who

committed

had

shown,

journalistic
development

Another

friends

already been

has

as

Stata

In

he

1651

EikonocUutes, styhng
conseil
John

to

French

this may
Stationers'

d'etat,"the
but

Dury;

documents,
be, towards

^Begiaten

except in the case of the Brief BeUUionf while Bushworth's


names
frequentlyare to be seen.
date) Mabbott's

and

aa

as

the

licenser

(ata

later

188

beth

Alkin".

HISTORY

printed by
the

OF

ENGLISH

Perfect Passages of Every

John

Clowes,

Walker,

Walker, therefore,wrote
successiye

Severail

days.

and

started

Clowes

6th

printersof

it is evident

printer of

his older

that

July.

published

were

Ibbitson, the

and

the

Perfect Ocou/rrences,and

IfUeUigence,

on

which
periodicals

two

Proceedings,were

Dates

written, so Sheppard tells us in

was

TFeepers,by Heniy

on

JOURNALISM

newsbook

they had

parted

company.
Of Walker
hath

Sheppard

found

happy

so

Ironmonger

to

think

heard

(ifyou

from

excellent

in

and

here

commonly

His

auditors

Like

somniant

to touch

be

to

Melancton

Weekly InteMgencer of
salient

most

their

not

were

in every

however,
respectability,

style,came
drilled
to

Diumail

of

imitate

R. C. ," which

most

But

CoUings

that R

and

Hall.

and

28rd

on

about

all the

but,

in their size ;

With

the

increase

they

of

1050,

but

Pecke

tempted
at-

his old Perfect


this revival

is marked

and

ously
obvi-

were

abject subjection.

bookseller

pearance
ap-

improved typography

interest,and

foule

too

revived

noticed

with

December,
was

have

Commonwealth.

the

in Parliament,

0.

what

large as formerly, their

so

already mentioned.

the

as

I leave him.'*

so

by recommencing

Walker

for 24th-3lBt

ahowB

stall in Westminster

the

Passages

some

number

the Richard

into

Scripturist.

sententious,fluent

shrinkage

in

decrease

0, he's

fingersare

improved.

way

his text

canonicall

'.

be

to

is the

now

pages

was

feature

taken

would

speaks of, 'Quic quid

is very

He

You

than

as

Fames

man.

Hebrew

an

meeting houses,

Enthusiast

more

and
weekly intelligence,

the

as

though

^The

and

sermons,

chronicler

curranto.

spiritum sanctum

esse

licensed newsbooks

and

of

had

was
Kingiomes Weekly Intelligencer

The

their

he is

holy rites.

in his

The

Parlour

this venerable
such

sublime

much

so

those

volunt

to do with

July^

heard

from

as

preach) that he

believe his dreams

Revelation.

red-bearded

paradoxical diyine.

him

privateat

This

'*

metamorphosis

become

Oazet, you

writes

**

indicates

Possibly,like

was

Printed
him

Pecke,

he

to

had

for

be
a

WALKEE
limited

"

so

should

he

him

to

in order

justifythe

June, 1650,

Fairfax

that

and

accepted

Cromwell

alone

went,

intrigueexcluded

some

Persons'

inevitable,and it
but

end

Ireland.

to

the

as

go

in the

went

from

leadershipis

of his relations

before

untruthfullyput

was

both

should

alone

Fairfax

ployed
em-

Charles.

was

he

Moon's

the

of Father

of his refusal to go and

clear ; that the account


Cromwell

in

commands;

also

as

service which

who

Cromwell

their

already

Cromwell

King

Scotland

has

Man

was

of

murder

with

war

Both

with

of the

truth

the

generals.
That

only Rush-

was

for

employed

publish the piratedversion


to

decided

he

139

Cromwell

(4th July, 1649), that it

accusation

In

with

now

was

manifest

render

until 1655

connexion

and

CROMWELL

".

Walker's

noticed

was

numbers, and

author

Henry

book

BEFORE

to two

worth's

been

PREACHES

public

the

is

clearer

still from

(the day before

June

in

preached by Henry

Walker.

author
weU

of

for his

smiled

Fairfax

compare
from

himself

to

"

Those

veithout

that
"

are

the Divine

be

of affairsby the Parliament,


or

actingsof

sound

but

men,

vnth

God."

with

Cromwell

manifestoes.

authority to

and

Walker,
have

sentiments

his

and, swollen
of

with

Independency

the

separating
being

course

at

by the Army,
their

could

hearts

not

the

or

the

tions
transac-

persons,
are

not

but find approval

styleof his
the

own

customary

printed.

sermon

sense

and

of

therefore, received

Unfortunately for Walker

have

newsmonger

startled

quitein

were

Crom-

said
professors,"

this is because

Such

the

promises being applied

often
or

was

must

Lot

and

only outward

they may

he

Cromwell

"

that

Divel

and

Abraham

the

blessingof

red-haired

the

to

House,

the

the

Purged

anger

and

preacher,

with

was

heard

he

to Abraham

compared

reverend

has

himself

and

another

one

to him.

It

27th

on

Scotland),at

for

victory at Dunbar,

as

sermon

chapel of Somerset

the

Taylor'sPhysio

started

started

Cromwell

valedictoryservice

farewell

the

fact that

the

he

of his

own

was

not

with this,

content

importance as

inspiredteacher

of

an

an

army

apostle
which

140

OF

to conquer

was
a

HISTORY

his

nation

dedication

long

ENGLISH

Generall

".

This

''Gentlemen

writer then

The
there

contrived

have

should

been

ever

attributed

He

persuasion.

be not

with

you/' wrote
with

signedthe engagement

Spouse

hath

persuaded

his

his falsehoods

retirement

to

old Lord

your

hath

he

ful
to be faith-

promised

though his

stillin the camp,

wearyed body

his

Generall

against you,

hath

and

you,

Fairfax, by

altered form.

an

is not

he

"

his heart

have

you

you,

in

though

he,

the fact that

and

Fairfax's

of

cause

menced:
com-

Aimes, ye

your

surprisingthat

it

What

''

to

Cromwell

repeated,even

the

wife's

to

between

to render

lyingso clumsily as

exhortation

thoroughly expose

to

army

gloriousinducements."

and

good God,

difference

was

Stand

the

prosperous

supplementary

To

"

to the Honourable

and

souldiers.

good Cause,

addressing it

the rest of the officers of the

and

for the Parliament

have

faith,he added

another

printedsermon,

Excellency the Lord

GoUonels

snbdne

and

to his

JOURNALISM

take rest in her

to

boBome."
to
referring

Next,
you

have

who

was

his

himself,he continued

Cromwell

Excellency still with

before, under

the

God,

motions, and is stillthe myrrour


of

Religion,and

your

former

Ease

to

not

''

tion of the

And,

and

doubt

murder

would

terrible Irish
in the
in your

and

firme

more

Irish

and

and

by adding :

"

If

writ of

sake, yet do
union

own

desire the

similar

propoga-

''The

much

they had

they

"

of

scenes

treachery

alluded

he

Lord

to the

been

hath

manifested

tents," and then urged them


as

ment,"
lives,the Parlia-

place in Scotland,

Scotland

take

though

Jesus."

that
anticipating

Mount

to

And

**

in your

own

your

English Nation,

take

(!)

of your

Metropolitan

friends

her

love

of the Lord

English

"

persuaded

campaign by saying:

Presbyteriansof
of Ireland

the

Gospel

no

the

Gk"d, as you

upon

of Hoasts, the

been

his wife

divide,but stand

ye

(!)

seen

for

mobile

primum

Glory of this Nation

general hath

himself

grounded

and

the

Generall,

Lord

now

you,

And

"

His

ence
pres-

to treat

the

treated

the

Catholics

"

love

blood, let

(the Scots)

CROMWELL
them

it in their

have

Cockatrice

in the

SERMON

WALKER'S

BURNS

It is better

land.

own

to let him

Egge then

swell to

141
the

crush

to

troublesome

monster."

preface to

As
Fairfax

the

sermon

of his command

Cromwell
when

was

copy
him

reached

at

his

for

it burnt

abusing

"both

Excellency that then


Li

June,

lists,
as
The

title

numbers,

number
The

kind

conmienced,
mind

of
1

in

so

impertinence

in Northumberland,

town

the hands

of the

late Lord

Generall

he

"

common

his

and

the

entered

more

those
and

with

the

No.

after two

entitled

the

or

next

suppressed altogether.

older

interestingas
trying to

PerfectDiwrnM,

he

temper

periodicalsare

which

are

Gavaher

like result

then

was

these

relates; consequently he

the

fit of

It

prefixedto

than

fool, and

with MercuriusPrctgrnatictuBevived,
journalist,

Scommatuyus.

verses

market

Sheppeurd once

disallowed, as

was

not

was

follyand
a

depriving

".^

was

it to Elenetimta, with

changed
three

by
the

1651, Samuel

licensed

of

compoxmd

Act

the

oat.

he

headquarters in

he had
officer"

set

things,but

this

of

copy

next

was

many

of

of

Royalist

showing

make

the

33, 22nd-29th

best

better

much

Mercuries

the
of

thinga'
Peoke's

p. 391.
Presbyterianbut

July, 1660^

Fairfax's wife was


not a
delightis manifeBi.
No. 1, 5th-12th December,
(MerewriuBImpartialiif
shown
that Hatter
and not Bushworth
has already been

of

state

1048,
was

an

p.

baptist
Ana-

6). It

Fairfax's

secretary.
'The

following may

be

nuUicus, No. 3, l8t-8th June,


Sorrow's

quoted
1652

from

Sheppard's

:"

serious madness.

Mirth

The

darlingof an hour
conception and the birth
But in the partingsour.
Riches are preciousin the giowth
And
relish in the spending
Till such time as they find the moth
Sweet

in

And
Then
To

customary ending
SaJt tears

widows, and

If there
Tis

to usury.

care

be

opprest
happiness in fears

better

n'er be blest

Merewriua

Prog-

142
In

month

the

The

woman.

September,

resmned

King

Charles

authorities

consider

in London?
letters in

IL, who,

that

They

cypher, and

Did

certainly occurred

Charles

; and

remembered,

ture
capwas

Gonmionwealth

the

of the

self
him-

conceal

himself

to

kind.

reading
idea

The
his way

make

in

Royalistssucceeded

many

3rd

on

for the

likelyto

was

intention

some

foot to London

offered

lost

intercepteda communication

have

of
giving intelligence
to

of

experts in opening and

were

may

Mercury

will be

as

King

the

r61e

was

days in England.

many

Joan"

fought and

was

of "1,000

reward

''Parliament

remarkable

her

battle of Worcester

and

fugitivefor

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

September, 1651,

of

have

to

appears

of

OF

HISTORY

on

reaching it

safely.
Act

The

the

and

Day,

been

having
more

; so

MerouriuB

Mercury

Parliament

Sootious
the

and

Scotland

the Countess

it at

No.

to

was

the Armies

printed by

''

catchword,"
which

one

the Straits
the

Merourius

would

land
Irethe

from

be

for Elizabeth

Clowes

John

Its contents
and

manner,

Give

Whose

To

melt

day

spiritsno

And
For

they

anything

consist

yet be

'tis a
meet

meny

in

sad

mainly

and

full

and

title,

Seoticus

likelyto

sell

but

control

eyes

crying

their obsequies
though they mourned
Before thoy were
a dying.

tember,
Sep-

Royalist

of fulsome

after

cronies

Alkin, and

28rd-30th

soul

laughter
thoughts

prison to mine
my

dated

was

are

the freer heart

me

Can

As

printed,

Englamd,

ooowrrenoes

of Man, etc.,was

in the Isle

that the

in

Rupert's fleetin

(possiblythe only number)

or

once

Royalist.

1651.
matter

ply their trade

fresh newsbook

remarkable

other

at sea, Prince

of Derby

to

municating
Boyai Messenger, impartially com-

Boyal Messenger,was

once

It

The

and

it will be noted

or. The

or,

had

daily proceedingsof

parliament'snavy
and

allowed
"

Joan

newsbooks

all unlicensed

women,

suppressed,were

''

Michaelmas

September, 1649, expired on

of 20th

in

praise

"PABLIAMENT
of

in

Cromwell,

acrostic
''Mrs.

by

whose

noted

utiUse

afterwards
the

unlucky Boyalist,thus
hide

once

had

in his

the

gained by

had

from
fugitive

than

in

Boyalist,was
"

"

peeper

him, instead

whisperer

revival of

The
led to

"

his

of
for

sketch

"0

of

the

feare

hawkers

come

singers of
looks

as

Bartholomew

blew

there be any
at

againe Lane.
his lanthom
nose

under

breakfast

and

by

the

the

soule

(the Lawyers

gillsas

pass

liament
Par^in

"

Exchange)

'.
out

Street
well

very

The

high

and

to hear
was

Then
comes

the

citizen
tillhe

whether
eaten

up

in Turn

Covenant

shrinks

pitifulrivelingup
traversingFleet
a

rehgious

the bulk

he
expectation,

his

when

crown*d

over

eelskin

an

What

like the

streets

League

againe, with
Hem

the streets

paper.

Publique Faith, which

failingof
'

and

his neck

Solemn

Synodical

might

inck

the

cranes

of the

But

"

"

Fayre.

and

newes

Joan"

Uttle

about

the soule of the Universe

possesses

eares

dishonest

of the result in the Fleet

roaring along

his

pricksup

and

woman

peculiarone

that matters

of State.

newsbooks

the

times

own

mysterie of

pannique

poor

and

{mtUatis mutandis)

our

were

fat old

the

to the Council
"

and

that he

"Parliament

place

versation
con-

publishers.

hawking

day, which

think

not

being a

of

pictureby Sheppard

he discover

that

he

reaching home

would

he might
fight,

history of London

which

if he
then, particularly

Joan," therefore,has
the

"

at

whispered

until

not

realitythe notorious
"

and

them, and

his confidence

; and

hold

they seemed, and

sold it to

had

Even

Worcester

worse

who

title would

hawker, and

swindled.

proach
ap-

gained. Naturally

elsewhere

or

his little " newsbook

out

been

were

the

from

they knew
thus

to

Boyalists, get

of this newsbook

copy

tavern

able

as

stealthilyapproached, would

attractive

with

drawing

pocket

in

purchased

all

Joan,"

thus

strangers and

as

information

the

doggerel Latin

was

woman,

into conversation, extract

them

is

143

''Parliament

Nelson.

Stroffe," "Mercury"
persons

NEWSBOOK

there

honour

Francis

one

any

"

JOAN'S"

in

of the
Street

Pettyfogger of

the

144

HISTORY
his

with

Threes

OF

in

hold

be not

with

Away

the

him

he

No

pouch

is never

bellowing

downe

the

the

up the

run

rubs

his elbows, and

show

it to his

Sunday collation.
of the

censure

"

No

please

day

in

their

of their money,

by

writingthree

Stationer, the
on

everybody.

their times
a
as

third

if they

shames

were

man

piece

no

of

company
aver

sense

Stationer
the

"

press

To

men

see

upon

and

so

States

have

whole

ment
regi-

and

gulled

of them

the Printer

playing at leapfrog.

t'other

they take
Tuesday,

would

much

...

with
and

laughter to consider
patch

up

that

above

backs

anothers

one

It

on

how
said

or

Hawker

the

jest is, how

over

guilty

ever

was

and

Hawker

Munday,

out

snakes, of whom

impudent

They prey upon

come

pillars.
cater-

grosslyabused

deceived

of the

cream

cursed

If the

doubt

none

the

on

rises,one

Wednesday,

on

and

ping
trip-

goes

bespeak him

to

these

his dam.

Nation

whole

lines of

But

and

they may

(one only excepted) I dare


of

of the newsbooks

with

...

him

Occurrenoes, Scout, Spye,

vermina

beliefs,the

he

displease,
according

writes

night

or

PoUtious, Diumal, the Devil

of these paper

And

to convey
so

was

Court.'*

rest

for soldiers

or

never

that

and

sequestered.

Mercury

last

breeches

Domine,' who

worshipfulpatron

Perfect Passages, Weekly


occasion

At

lace like the old

hawking bagg, and

we

his

lunges are

Hall.

statute

was

periodicalSheppard

In another
themselves

Thus

his

his Canonicall

nos

the

at

of wit into his

along,to
to the

winks

he

Act's

detract?

to

in his life time

once

gizzard

gentleman,

Westminster

bag

What

"

longer than

Libera

'

good

with

day, for which

Wake

pennyworth

of

deceive

^to

"

big as

as

Books

figureof

preach above

to

at his

Stem-

If his clerical

Alas,

Parson

with the

seames

attempted
the

demnrr

sides

Country

looking

Sirrah

at peace

Letany interloyned with

at

'

noisemongerT

bnckeram

by

and

twelves.

calls out
to

his tarbox

and

ear

pocket like Hopkins and

long

gingle

yon

comes

his

Psalmes,

of the

farmer

foot?

on

with

marrying

pudding

his

professionin

side, keeping touch

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

these
account

fresh
re-

Rakewhich

146

HISTORY

had

been

the

ENGLISH

OF

of

crowding

JOURNALISM
outskirts of

the

the

city with

brothels.^
London

Charles

in his
of

IL, whatever

days, and John

the

Wandering
in

Newgate"

nary
city for ordi-

sweeter

Cromwell's

army

was

the life of the Court

may

and

Crouch

Wliore,

1660, when

literature of the kind

and

cleaner

in when

folk to dwell

by

least

at

was

John

they then

writer
in

''clapt up

attempted

they had issued under

been

have

Garfield, the

promptly

were

disbanded

circulate

to

the rule of Crom-

well."
The
death

fact that
the

as

months

which

to conflict with

abolition

pxmished

this

Act

in

considered

what

No

to

times

of ribald

the
been
and

ballads

and

idea

sung

of

Names

observer
"

or

and

the

Act

from

62, 26th June

66, llth-25th

'

WKort;*

is

Hut

ballad writer

at

Independent
23rd

on

day

to

had

the

; No.

ject
the sub-

been

once

Crouch

the

They had

country-folkto
upholders of

stem

No.

March,

day by the

oontinuallymentioiied.
periodicalsconsist only

July

was

47, 2nd-9th

65, 20tli-27th

The
of

the

casual
*'

horse

March, 1653,

July, 1653

dispelthis idea. I
possessedgreat skill

and

refer chiefly
and

some

of

charming.
and

1662.

43, No.

to 6th

May, 1653, will

As

verse.

verse

are

as

might think that Crouch's


indecency. Mercwrius VemocrUuSf

p. 272 ; No.

to the

these

plaooB of

year, it

the

the streets.

hoodwink, by exhibitingthemselves
^

mencing
Com-

until 1648, when

1647

privatelives

about

of

of March.

exposed
their

Courts

1644.

in that

rigid Presbyterians to conciliate,and

vol.

aboye,

other

of

animated

publicmorals

revived

RoyalistMercuries,

in 1645

in the month

drop

1649, for they had

his

said

the

the introduction

caused

of December

month

for the

who

and

PresbjrterianParliament

at various

zeal

leaders

No.

been

has

High Commission

of the kind

cases

the

allowed

was

of the

the

with

wit

for three

requiresexplanation.
The

it

1650, prescribed

May,

simple incontinence,on

for

punishment

face of it appears
and

10th

dated

penalty for adultery,and imprisonment


the

as

Act

an

Cry after "


A list of the

24.)

Mercurius

Demoeriiua

prisonersin Newgate.

**

and

the

**

(S.P. Dom.,

Wandering
Chas.

11.,

INDEPENDENT
Divine

moral

law.

remarks, with

Moreover,

Consequently the

there

House

committed

five members

"

The

Bolls

Only

for
The

and

1651,
three

for

were

instances

guilt.
1

In

and

always

14th

all

Journals

Commons

misdeeds

the

put

but

cases

one

under

being

of Commons,

and

with

trial with

dates

of

Act

an

acquittal.

of persons
11th
Of

only in

Not

raigned
ar-

November,
these

their

''

For

cited.

this

an

1658.

verdict

Sessions

of the trial of persons

offence,and

on

Mercwrius

see

could

dated

November,

of
repetitions
men

action

twenty-eight cases
first

one.^

cases

eleven

partners in

Guilty
of

account

"

Wearer's

for King Charles

PragmaUcus

was

11.,

Marten's
February to 5th March, 1649, and 9th-16th April,1060.
described
with
house
are
buildings" and Weaver's
perhaps wilful

aeth
"new

the Man

exaggerationin
that

appears
also

as

third

regards one

show

it would

Mercuriua

of Marten's

Hi$t,

M88,

Whore

at

the

to

14, 5th-12th
at the

NuUua

mistresses

same

the end
of

an

of 1660

and

March,

1654.

See

rank

high

given her by
The disgustReport,
gives long cataloguesof names
p. 192.

of moral

astonishingamount

deny required years


debauched

proclamations against "vicious


May and 13th August, 1660, acquire a

September, 1649,
time reallyexisted

of 13th
the

Comfnissionj5th

existence

be absurd

No.

mentioned

establishment

ambassador,

which

in the Moont

the abominable

from

ing Wandering
as

last

the

were

Marten's

and

an

offence

April,

was

tried xmder

recorded

the

of the

12th

on

Middlesex

are

adultery,the
the

The

cases

Bolls,however, contain

that

; and

No

of the House

list of all persons

few

promoting

members,

all laws.

this Act,

under

minor

the

for

but

member

notorious

Weaver

March, 1650

of all the

what

regards whose

took the lead in

"

above

were

give a complete

in London.

"

were

again remitted

was

"

taken

was

^those who

22nd

notorious

most

againstany

ever

Boyalist

generations

as

licentious

the

on

it

EitlingKings

be taken
none

the Act

men

very

"

punish
of

care

to whom

Marten,

Henry

doubt

no

to

was

the

to

was

be

can

for the sins the Act


It

future

the

the

they might be thought other than

that

they reallywere.

it.

parliamentarianMercury

president for

''

was

set,in order

privatelives

as

147

engaging frankness, in alludingto

attacks, there
to

IMMORALITY

and
very

to build

up.

profane

definite

evil,such

Charles
"

persons

meaning

of

in this

II. 's

30th
nection.
con-

148

mSTOEY

recorded

OF

obviously because

"

It is reasonable
tried

offences

to conclude

is
periodicals

naturally Mabbott

'*

solitarycase

80th

August, 1662
is

that

Banter,"

her.^

for
justification

the

inflicted in her

case.

the

at

that of Ursula

"

opinion

that

by

of the

one

time.

condition

of her

account

of

20th

at

Beligious rancour

being

moral
strangelyim-

time

death

the

"

Powell

her

Although
the

ruary,
Feb-

Mabbott

probably occasioned

springing up

respitedon

licensingof inmioral

arraigned with

member

their

therefore, which

case,

Gilbert

was

thus

because

adulterywith

conviction

"

cessive.
ex-

were

Griffin,acquitted on

not

of

veho

selected

the

on

of

was

The

sects

she

is

there

penalty

was
no

not

was

be certain

would

to

to that.*

see

MercuritLs

immorality,but
the
*'

vnrote:

was

also the

woman

some

the

of

rare

Catholic
was

conyiction.

for

are

language by

of

Crouch

Enightsbridge

to the

him

Taunton
**

on

priestwho

his scandalous

had

life"

been

fore
heretoIntel-

{WeMy

July, 1650,

p.

7).

It is

IfUerregrvum(p.34) should haye thought


ever,
by the word
priest (the account, how-

from

another

''trapan".

Palliana, alias Trap-Tonians

"

"

source) and

not

Memorials, which

misconstruction.
"

1, 16th-23rd

Whitelocke's

same

word

At

religiousanimosity
19th July, 1050, a

in his
meant

priestwas

one

August, 1662,

chappel

adultery with

Inderwick

furnished

open

to

Henry Walker, only

in the country

Rectorship for

his

Presbyterian minister.
case,

pandering

ill.,
by J. C. Jeafl"eson.

viotims

ligenoerof the Conwwniwealih^ No.

for

that

jargon referringto her m a aeotary in the


22, 26th August to 8th September, 1652, p. 170.

equaUy

displacedfrom

that

26th

On

lately by the

No.

cause

strange that Mr.

like

sion
suppres-

and
periodicals,

suppressed,not

worse.

sentenced

was

occasional

oonfoaed

Laughing Merewry,
of

licensed

other

CcwnJby Reccrda, voL

ib

escape

a rascal
vilifying

for

matter

^Middlesex

case

not

been

have

Walking

*There

In the

the

than

actuallyshould

makes

did

Democritus

more

any

it

been

had

that of Hester

1656, of the crime

on

that all those

pertinent comment,

considered

penalty was

peculiarlyflagrant.

were

affords

the

reallyguilty,and

were

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

''The

The

Act

clergyman

also mention

enriched

Trap-Pannians,

(2nd August, 1653).

the

or

this

English

alias

Trap-

AND

WALKER

to

'

there

came

Hue

This

".

and

of Gk"d'8

others
will

probablybe

and

others

beware

Eeles,

Acton,
man

poor

compelled

was

and
the

style. His
those

to

carried

been
but

was

This

periodicalcan

did

was

favour

not

be noted

as

of

one

those

advocate

of

advocate

SeveraU

were

of

in the

moreover

be

attack

29th

Weepers ; the
identified

whom

it,and

Anabaptist may
October, 1652.

be

Border

Anabaptism,

seen

from

he

it

had

is

After
then

was

October,

of

attacked,

altered

by

by
He

FaithfM Scoui, by

whole

September, 1952, p.

S419

were

of his

pages

the Scout.

the manifesto

cooper

excisemen.'

in the
and

was

of the Hertfordshire

Proceedings,2nd.9ih

by

Presl)yterians

of

Cromwell,

The etoriee againstPeters


September, p. 2467.
and oontinuallyrepeated from 1643 downwards.
" The
Korember,
FaUhfuU Scout, 19th-2Sth
was

the

new

printer,Cottrell.

same

copied and

pressed,
sup-

commenced

religiousorthodoxy

one

was

Laughing Mereury.

Presbyterians he

very

the

printedby

Britannicus

also

thorough-going partisan.

immediately opposed by
an

imprisoned,
of the stories

states

to

future

printer Robert

times

to the

July, 1652, Nedham

trade, and had been

now

his

Demooritue

name

Peters

for the

retractation

made.^

and

pamphlet against

several

no

"

tacks
at-

^yet some

"

though probably not before the month

on,

1652, by

was

of the

numbers, however, he discontinued

few

and

had

object now

who

henceforth
a

of the

others

an

New

reviled Mr.

have

make

writer

change its

of

end

authorship
and

who

ever

to

who

on

the two

abused

"thus

Britannicus, as Sheppard

Mercurius

its

to

went

September

reply to

abscond, and

had

was

had

to

apologise;

to

against Peters
At

exemplary

result, the

the

In

one

made

Crouch

6th

in

he

ever

friend,appeared in

been

had

people"

before

Proeeedingsthat Peters

SeveraU

by lying scandals

".

Peters,

in

wrote

On

Maesey, and

Ghneral

sheep replyed

hanged

probably true, but

immorality.

of

Cry after

Walker

been

had

Peters, Walker's

Hugh

on

if he

was

Walker

accuse

attack

well

been

it had

That

149

of his

their pastor did, one

enquiring how

and

ATTACKED

PETERS

As
;

old,

and

16th.88id

denied,

never

1652.

That

set out

in No.

result

the

Scout

9S| 22nd-

150

mSTOEY

of their

both

were
periodicals

in trouble.

also

was

but the Stationers'


The

suppression.
but

dealt

number

of

fit,and

also

not

of State

printershould
2. The

decide

one

how

of Britanni-

two

or

Act
the

made

passed

was

Act

of 1649

vived,
re-

such

on

manent,
perit

By

inquireinto

to

to suppress

the

they thought

as

apprenticeseach

many

at

only

not

printingitseU.

ordered

was

attempts

was

Printers

at

After

subjected to practical

was

only

released.^

was

of 1649

Act

Company

printingpresses,
to

of

heavy blow

Council

The

master

have.

printersand printingwas

of

government
from

removed

author

to the Gatehouse

Gottrell

Printing and

January, 1653, and

1.

The

opinions,

temporarilysuppressed.

of this and

consequence

Presbyterianinsurrection,the

7th

too heterodox

and

days'imprisonment

three

In

orthodox

soon

FaithfvllScout

or

JOURNALISM

flee,his printerbeing committed

to

and the
two

ENGLISH

too
respectiyely

had

cm

OF

Stationers'

the

Company

Council

the

to

entirely
of

State.
3. No

one

Council

the

or

for

seven

callingin

to be

was

of

State) who
And

years.

their

printer (unless licensed by

houses

own

been

hsid not

printerswere
only, under

to
a

an

ment
Parliatice
appren-

exercise

their

of "40

penalty

month.

to license

instead

appointed with

power

affaires of the

army,"

intelligence
concerning the

''

of the

Secretary for the Army

CaL

under

the rules of the

more

licenser of the press.

This

thus

appoint-

"

p.

461).

AhndqmMd
Hughes'
(1st July, 1657), p. 470.

of

June, 1653,

Ist
"

EoBodt

W.

Cromwell's
upon

Mabbott, who

Papers Dom., 1651-62, pp. 444, 464 ; CaL of 1652-53, pp.


Demothat latelyfled for his religion (Mercwnus
Briianicus

No. 67
cri"ti",

1656

Gilbert

was

State
*'

88.

Army

for the third time

became

'

for the

Agent

The

was

of 1649."

Act

78,

''agent for the army"

The

4.

himself
open

conversation
to be

King

with
?

"

attempt to obtain

Acts

It is noticeable

Whitelooke
The

and

ordinance

the title.

about
of

Ordinances
that
"What
1665

from 1640

this

Act
if

to

followed
man

also followed

took
upon

AND

CROMWELL
ment

is

when

he

and

was

Leveller

The

that faction.

Scotland

in

"

Cromwell's

ever

of
married
to his

Charles

King

Mabbott

in

strong waters"

Charles

of the

I.

So

which

took
before

him, but

nothing

place at
since.

or

the

the

filled

ence
influ-

Monck's

through

have

not

At

kingdoms.

in the three

this fellow"

"

Wine

afterwards

he

rendered
sur-

of the enemies

one

by

been

that

of

monarch's
of the tenor

aware

on

20th

for

on

27th

London

August

and Robert

Royston, Edward

Within

consigned

Dod

in

1649

to

Streater

Austin

on

and

17th

Richard

on

ever

been

England,

to

about

months

two

the

or

The
there

Richard

; John

printers

to

that

year.

into

objectwas

Newgate

shows

that

S. P. Dom.,
;

has

printingpamphlets against CromwelL

Clowes

349

Cromwell's

Act

the

hsid returned

jury acquittedhim.

thirty-fourin

^OaL

1653

year

Lilbume

August.

printersgivingsecurityin
arrested

of the

end

Press

new

persecutionof

like the

John

eighteenprinterswere

203,

and

employed by Fairfax, he

long in putting his

not

was

tried

was

John

had

articles in the Moderate}

operation,and

and

Mabbott

for the sale of licenses for

could

11., who

tion
Restora-

this circumstance

to

actuallyrewarded

^was

"

Cromwell

seen

owing

was

ments.
his instru-

with

Clarke.

trust

not

for it

planning the

in Ireland, which

for "4,800.

ElingCharles

pilotfish

succeeded

obtaininga patent

"

obscure

Cromwell

by

Monck,

on

spy

Armies

of the

Agent

Monck, when

having previouslybeen

Restoration

son,

as

did

IL

him

tary
secre-

as

of

man

pressedon

send

sister and,

Clarke's

the office of

and

act

that

see

is easy to state.

Albemarle, had

Clarke"

been

to

way

shall

We

the

might

he

that

of

William

one

services had

origin,whose
in order

Duke

wrongful,

longerbelonged to

no

of his conversion

afterwards

George Monck,

contention,

licensingwas

in 1649, that

reason

161

Mabbott's

on

conclude, therefore,that he

can

we

eloquent commentary

an

PRESS

THE

were

Moon

12th

on

house
Gatelist of

only
was

September

September

Tomlins

hang

; Richard

30th

Sep-

1660-61, p. 397 ; Oal. 8. P. Irish,1660-62, pp. 92,


and 1663^,
pp. 226, 235, 248, 278 and 409.
11

152

HISTORY
William

tembei;
Robert

Rand

October

; William

George

Horton,

Spring

on

Wood
''

of the
warrant

1654,

October.

and

Grey

the

Huby

Clowes,
Thomas

December,
stract
ab-

merely possessingan
A

".

been

have

Clowes

and

for about

Hannam

5th

on

generalsearch

sergeant-at-arms on 18th January,

for five and

Horton

and

23rd

on

government

must

printingpresses.
six months,

of

instrument

London

and

for

Mrs.

; and

Grey

Finally,

arrested

also

granted to

was

October

Wayte,

Barnes

Henry

Perkins, Isaac

John

was

and

12th

on

James

October;

Locke

Hnby

21st

JOURNALISM

1st

on

Thomas

Hannam,

Robert

ENGLISH

OP

with

strewn

in

kept

were

broken

prison for

half, Streater for five,and

four ; of the others

is

there

no

record-^
the year 1653

During

The

appeared.

Nedham

in

the

tried

to

frequent changes

of

success.

be

noticed

support of Cromwell's
(itwas

Merctmus

Poetums

the chief

objectof

also sprang

into

Post

still more

in 1654.

entitled

which

in

designs, the

to defend

was

marked

During

this

written

by

entitled

one

verse),the other the Observator,


Two

men.

being,compiled by

the maintenance
curious

other

unknown

an

Observations

the

Commentary

on

sandwiched

between

lives of the
classical

the

in

was

news

most

jam,

Politick

CsBsars, in which

learning of

writer, apparently

Polities and

AristotUs

on

of

periodicals

principleof administeringa powder

the

on

not

of 30,000

standing army

and

by

importance

any

ephemeral periodicalsappeared, both

two

year

small

is to

of decadence

and

ScotU

themselves

to

but evidentlywith
title,
process

of
periodicals

new

Anabaptist

attention

attract

no

dubious

kind.
**

Parliament
a

as

and

Most

an

spy

was,

of these
of

aoooiint

Printers,etc,

''

printerswill
nearly all of
H.

those of several writers


the dates

given.

mdtier

however,

1641

between

Society (1907) by

"

Joan's

B.
are

and

Plomer.
shown

was

noteworthy
identified

be
them

will be

1667,"

Her

gone.

as

last appearance
At the end of

one.

printers of newsbooks,

found

in A

publishedfor the

Warrants

DicHonary of

Bibliographioal

for their arrest

in the Oalendars

of State

as

well

Papers

as

under

OF

HISTORY

154
thereof

the

for

satisfyingof

I have

owing.
I

pains.

ENGLISH

been

not

diet

my

used

be

to

and

and

she

again

reckoning
behind

long

so

me

remember

you

pray

JOURNALISM

send

for my

present

me

am

supply."
On

22nd

money,

and

sickness

reminding Blackburn

curious

is

charge. There
in the

be found

cM

Cases

have

of her.

Her

was

are

hid

been

was

his next

work

little book

Olory which

without

probably

was

not

to

their

made

pastor of Dr. Bruno

are

UnvaUed

its

Plaine

Resolves in

DeUcates

to have

book

The

etc.

Eyes^

from

Divine

and

Church

that

Spread
to that

Bight

is dated

that Walker
title-page

Ryves's old

dedicated

meditations
or

many

Believers

their Warrants

Dazels

again

was

of devotional

In which

Beleevers.

it appears

1654, and

it

Sweetmeats

from Doubting

and

beforethem

Abbey

tion
forgiven his injudiciousdedica-

soon

and

It

who

petitioned

She

however, is

name,

he entitled TPArHMATA.

which

spy).^

as

Abbey registers.^

his sermon,

to Cromwell.

of the Commonwealth

but
petition,

to the

date

last illness.

Walker

Henry

infirmities and

cloisters of Westminster

no

during her

to

service

be recorded

fact is to

in the

buried

made

in the

'^

for

asking

wrote

her

that

in her nightlywatchings
(t.6.,

One
be

entailed

been

had

"

to

February, 1654,

June,
then

was

Vin-

of St. Martin's

try.
As

"

God
made

hath

He

hath

Council, and

you

Wine

and

the

S. P. Dom.

in the

life of the
of

aware

too

and
.

of

was

1663-64,

as

and

has

paid

was

about

"

Here

is both

are

come

from

therefore

"

The

summarised
for

her work

Everett

MS8.

ComfMBiion, 4th Report, App., p. 180

Green

was

the

letters in the

and

probably

paid.
^Hiit,

such

given of her
Nightingale

aooount

the Morenoe

justified.Mrs.

not

his

vol. SS, No. 6, etc.

times," is
She

Gideon

as

earlier career,

favourably.

You
.

that

and

Cromwell

to

their souls.
.

but

not

brass, that he

for you.

the Calendar

not

her

before

prepared

in humble

he

wrote

face of

sweet

Intemgnum,

preface to

Calendar

good,"

conquering

Wars
^

was

great, so I doubt

you

added, with

to set that which

Com

made

a, 66.

well

WALKER'S

Banquet

this may

as

you.

am

...

feed

therefore

Friends

ye

abundantly, and
and

shall

you

''Address

The

amazing

more

told that if there


stand

he may

if he does

an

and

to the

me

Such

into Walker's
served

as

part.

The

and

simply,

was

Succession

of the

the author

of

book of
a
PerfectPtoceedings^
dwelling in Smithfield, which
one

who

professethhimself
the

Hon

from
1665). The
1666.
order

It

was

Children

but

of the

to justifythe exclusion

is

ccMed

Father

last time

in

of James

IL

"

He

justlyappropriate
another

Walker's

on

his

beg

may

ness
High-

Concerning the
dbotU

(kst page).

The

that Walker

which

ia called the

Robert
from

lyes

"

Ibbitson

Walker,

{A Deda/ra-

Quakertj etc., 14th

1683, under

the

doubt

comes

it is of

Persons'

to

tion
possibleindica-

Inculcated

which

slipped

whatever

printed for

Teacher, but

of Light
reprint of

reprintedfor

we

in hiei book

date

relation

no

placesthe fact beyond a


this periodical
: ''In that
says

with

followingyear

293|)3rd-10th Biay, 1066

to be

of the fact

of A Treatise

which

that

believer

make

to

is 'the clearest

news

xmder-

concludes

of the

of England.

Crown

PerfectProceedings^No.

at the time

the author

was

followingquaint denunoiation
iraB

hint

I think

"

even

added

true

no

effort
literary

question had

the crown,"

that Walker

to another

in

remark

take

and

is

to

with

meet

Perfect Proceedingsin May

the forerunner

its context
to

the Crown,

Walker."

H.

conmxencing,

about

was

vant
ser-

".

but

not

patronisingly

whole

House

Cromwell

to obtain

The

text, the former

pious loyaltycould

attempt

faithful

for him

is

he

garlands
whither

plain hint is

treatise

Banqueting

hereof

follows

hard

very

bliss.

eternal

reward.

Broken

by, but

Greek

which

too

passage

appreciatethe

obtain

Hebrew

brought

it

pass

not

will not

and

is any

drink

your

the latter is most

this,and

than

Eate

for you.

Beader"

the

to

you

them.

land

promised

of Grace

throne

to the

whilst

Pillar to direct you

travellingwith

are

you

on

and

Cloudy

the

at

to refresh

hope

distribute your

of God

bee the

155

you

avenged

Bridegroom

surely arrive

Orator

and

the

let the peace

but

doubt

cannot

of

of the Lord

the Word

then

will bee

God

shall disturbe

whosoever

delicates

these

on

bee unseasonable.

not

sure

"

SWEETMEATS

"

book
its

is 30th

May,
May,

originaltitle,in

166

HISTORY

three

weeks

book

onoe

later and

dressed

more

in

followed

the press

Henceforth, until the


but

Marchamont

any

sort

with
and

Politicus

the

entitled

the

Chief

Ocowrrenoee

etc.

The

first number

By

ordinance

an

edition

and

Proceedings within
appeared

The

three

to

were

Inquire as

1.

London,

and

was

the then

days

receiptof

2. To

suppress

3. To

find out

with

two

4.

To

take
"

occurrences

the

October, 1655.

and

George

Fozcroft

regulatingof printing.

printing houses,

of

and

and

and

care

each

workmen

certifythe

master

stood
result

afifected t'

twenty-eigl'

prosecute all unlicensed printers.


all printershad
whether

the

entered

conditions

into bonds
been

had

prosecute.
that

whatsoever

"protectoror

and
to

whether

to

Condition

whaly^'
printe:/^

of

''And

Southwark.

or

apprentices

and

workmen

presses,

this order.

sureties,and

broken, and if so

Dominions^

Barkstead, Lieutenant

for the

he his servants

government,"

after

the

8th

on

Dethick

number

to the

Westminster

how

Mereuriue

"

Quality,Conversation

Fame

by

John

and their servants,


printers,

master

of

Protector," with the advice of his

appointed commissioners

were

in

Alderman

one

InteUigencereommimieating

council,dated 28th August, 1655, John


of the Tower,

no

amalgamated

of his

PtMick

"

on

publish news

to

the

of this

real

attack

to power,

Proceedingswere

Monday's

of the

the

finallydisappeared.

Rump

allowed

was

Walker's

whatever.

Nedham

by

of the

Nedham

with

of this book.

licensed press

retnm

Persons'

Father

postscript.Another

the appearance

September, 1655, the

In

Impertinentfor

this time

but

up,

authorship acknowledged

than

other

none

was

Not

Information, This appeared

Oeneral

Compleatingof the

the better

JOURNALISM

EUedbeth.

of the Beign of Queen

End

Latter

ENGLISH

OF

his

"

no

pamphlets,

should
council".

books

of news,

published unLese

be
To

or

lioensed

garding
prosecute those disre-

this order.
5. To

Act

put into speedy execution

againsthawkers.

the

previousActs

and

the

ABOLITION

To

6.

and
7.

pecuniary
break

To

and

warrant

offenders

all

send

locks

general

157

Bridewell

to

undergo

to

"

poral
cor-

".

punishment

open

NEWSB00K8

OF

and

under

doors,

warrant

to

of

arrest,

general

search

widest

the

possible

character.
8.

appoint

To
and

powers
No

license

Cromwell
time

other

the

other,

much,

date

and

he

sixteen

Perfect
not

in

place
be

would

would

week.

newsbook

nearly

Thurloe,

so

much

was

in

thenL
the

W.

There
return

of

Hughes,

Exact

buy

served

in

Each

be

interesting
of

to

to

the

in

one

ceding
pre-

overlapped

the

very

informed

both

size

in

and

days

seven

end

if he

of

only

consisted
Walker's

than

justice

of

though,

periodical

added,

to

Walker,

read.

State,
is

Mercurius

independent

promptly

smaller

it must

Secretary

be

have
well

and

for

they

to

hfe-

Thursday

was

news

Consequently
wished

his

constituted

Each

the

equally

and

during

every

way.

by

granted

ever

periodicals

two

above

the

official

issued

contained

who

all

was

Nedham's

curious

issue.

with

appeared

none

The

very

person

Oecwrenoee,

until

and

InteUigenoerf

each

pages

appeared

of

one

writer

Marchamont

taking

was

purchased

them

council,

and

its

course,

was

newsbook

any

Ptibliok

but

newsbook,

of

to

respectively.

Monday

what

prosecutors.^

than

and

writing)

(in

reward

his

or

PoUtictu

of

to

deputies

was

nothing
Bump

Abridgment^

responsible
further

to

Parliament

eta,

p.

for
record
to

594.

what

power.

of

IX.

CHAPTER

the

offices

advertising

EuBOPBAN

of

father

famous

the

it is undoubtedly
in

advertising

in

the

newsbooks

originators.

The

first

that

advertising

of

King

I., Sir

James

Sir

Arthur

one

of

cousin
the

Sir

Walter

Society
of

the

in

the

October,

10th

two

gentlemen

sailor,

of

of

More's

third
his

mother
he

was

and

Parliament.

house

of

son

invasion,

More's

of

Cope.

Baleigh,

of

Thomas

Court

Walter

Fleet, and

member

date

tion
institu-

the
the

the

was

With

Sir

chapel

of

Spanish

the

in

Sir

and

of the

him

of

distinguished

found

be

Baleigh.

been

had

of
and

earlier

an

more

to

against

brought

and

Chelsea,
on

he

far

are

and

Walter

volunteers

wife

second

Sir

of

at

Gorges

Gk)rges, poet

occasions

four

Arthur

idea

an

beginnings

the

that

had

Gorges, Vice-Admiral

Sir William
was

by

to

ascribed.

and

offices

origin

commences

steps

1659.

essayist, Montaigne,^

be

country

of

than

their

influence

must

this

TO

owe

French

French

to

England

history

Its

ADVEBTIBINa

OF

mSTOBT

THE

on

His

property
he

at

buried

was

1625.

Cope

Antiquaries,

member

became

and
of

Master

Exchequer,

was

the

of

Elizabeth's

Queen

successively
Wards

and

Chamberlain
of

Keeper

Hyde

Park.
He

earUer

the

1614,

Gorges
at

built

the

and

House,

Holland
name

was

he

did

time

of

buried
not

his

Castle.

Cope

was

die

in
a

Kensington,
He

Kensington.
rich

man,

but

in

1607,

died

on

Unlike
was

Euayty

Book
168

lY.,

chap.

zziy.

which

July,

31st

Sir

"27,000

death.

Montaigne's

of

Arthur
in

debt

THE
On

5th

James

Sir Walter

that

eyther in baying

State

for

of

want

that

behalfa

upon

occasion

eighth

year

Patent

to

is

sell

to

meanes

their

that the

endeavours

found

of

Sellers

and

ready

our

said

between

and

disadvantage for

to

of

helpe unto
the

serve

and

exchanging

of lands

True

for an

io
Office

mereey

etc.

better

and

he Erected
at

IStbUcaHon
caXUd

Britain

shop, 16U/'

or

ihe

Buraae

the

ready

administrators

and

place of

of

and

the term
where

towns

resort

Lending

or

of

buying sellingor

hereditaments,
which

leases

they

or

should

Letters PaUent
Majestie's
FiihUthe Registerfor OeneraU
Com"
for John
Budge and are there to

of

hU

as

free license

deputiesfor

Borrowing

whatsoever"

chattels

fall and

or

knowledge

Buyers

minds."

places,cities

tenements

Tranaoriptand

Printed

be sold at hie

or

and

Deputy

and

intelligence,
reciprocall

their executors,

the notice of

for the

goods

absolute

''

generall

tumes

of

and

anothers

one

and

safe easy

most

of

course

gladly

of their carefull

out

Lenders

publiqueoffice roome

repaireof people for

^"A

"

and

as

direct

their

good

(ifthey

would

others

whereby

set up, in any


"

other

granted

to

they thought fit,

any

the

as

devised

and

authority to them

years," to

moneyes

many

patentees had

two

and

of

want

would

Trade

gave

and

goodes

that

to

great advancement

assignesand

of 21

other

intentions

understanding

and

power

of

means

subjects in

interchangeablecorrespondency, for

It then

our

ligence
publique intel-

by plaine and

and

And

poUcie of

the

landes, leases, or

well of Borrowers

and
notice

consisted

commerce

and

as

and

This

give generallnotice

out

to the

and

occasions

privy chamber.^

good tmsty

willinglybuy

as

sell,"and

Commerce

Gorges

means

and

way

Arthur

oftentimes
men
whereof, many
of necessityand sudden
accident, are inforced

whereof)

speedy

reign, E^ing

in

intercourse

of such
knew

of his
Sir

159

1659

daily foxmd

chattels, to great losse and

ready

of his

all trade

some

By

put away

and

TO

or
selling
borrowing and lending.

or

great defect

intelligenceand

to

the

Cope, gentlemen

recited

for that

ADVERTISING

Letters

granted

document
"

in

March,

I.

and

OP

HISTORY

160
'*

think

fit to be

entered

Ealender

more

of
regifltring

of Z%6

and
registered,

and

all and

be

kept

this

privilegethey

half-yearly.No

man

to pay

were

be

to

was

search

in the said office at all

search

or

entry, then

or

the

every

the

by

determine

libertyto
notice

name

office

Exchange,

Charing
that

duly

situate

near

; it

one

no

the Letters

pay

any

please himself

".

Durham

to

Explanation

of the

promoters
''

London
to

for the

into

enter

lending of

and
it

had

but

offices,and
to

thus
the

Strand,

at

tion
restric-

accordingly.
Overture

An

"

Office,"from

succeeded, it

tention
the in-

was

with

it

that

intended

was

up

people

and

kind

of

the

of
not

brokers

banking

London

the

from

over

Citie

the

scriveners

set

all

and

danger

necessityof carrying large sums

they journeyed

Altogetherthe

of

offices of this kind

to

save

kind

to the

of this

Use

correspondence between

country

when

contains

evident

money,

through

money

on

pleasedhimself, and

Patent

competition with

business

robbery,owing

owing

correspondence

It is also very

".

to be at

were

the

terminated

to set up

holde

to

pay
than

Purport

quite clear that,

in

been

to have

seem

and

kingdom

and

Gorges

Burse,

House
not

more

pay

of the Letters

of the

If

or

for such

more

they

pay,

in Britaines

up

printedcopy
it is

not

probably did

was

Patent

set

The

which

to

entry

Treasurer.

was

Cross

make

'*

of "40

rent

patent before Michaelmas, 1612,

their

to the Lord

The

shall

azmual

an

compelled to

nor

office did

the

Cope found that

only

office in

to be called

was

one

Begirters,for

which

singularsuch/'

keepe

to

Publique B"gisterforgenerdU Commeroe.

For

the

J0UENALI8M

Kalenders, Begister or

or

it should

place where

ENGLISH

OP

mSTOBY

to

whole

London

scheme

to
was

make

of
of

their purchases.

far in advance

of

the age.
Matters

remained

then

dormant

until the year

first newsbook

advertisement

noticed, on

February, 1626-26, in

Goranto.

1st
On

18th

granted by King

December,

Charles

I. to

appeared, as

has

Mercurius

1637, Letters

Captain

Bobert

1637.

The

alreadybeen
Britannious's
Patent
Innes

were

for the

162

mSTOBY

OP

General

of Offices

and

be

to

iiave power
to be

SkuA

kept,the

of

snm

that

him

to

'^

the express

the

furniture

thereof".

profitby

other

breach, in the
"There

Monday

next

London

and

France

by

for

other

And

for

"cord his

entry and have


1.

Whether

the

be

xmto

for the
to

attempt

be

to

of

ease

both

may

of

to

ment:
followingannounce-

erected

on

City's

the

of

it is in

people find great benefit

the

notice

he

allotted

parts adjacent, as

person

any

and

successful.

Entries

and

parts,where
4d.

be

or

opportunity,and stepped into

great profit and

Westminster

Gonmotons,

creditable

not

was

office of

an

for

year

consideration

very

his

of

should

1649, with

year

is

and

it.

not

saw

now

most,

Chapters lands," eta,

office in "with
This

registers

the

"200

to

place of profitin Oxford,

and

people'sideas

Henry Walker
the

be allowed

great house"

said

asked
in

extract

or

of the Honse

order

He

threepence at

or

some

of Dean

convenient

keep

of

alreadydescribed,

Addresse''.^

should

out

of the Revenues

that

of

twopence

he

'^

out

of those

model

"Offices

services, either

according to

JOURNALISM

demand, for every entry

to

in addition

rhis

the

on

entitled

ENGLISH

and

search

Chapman

is desired.

what

or

re-

Lands,

sell, let, mortgage.

houses, leases,plate,jewels,chattells,goods, printed tickets


for
such

entertained

Stuards
make

And
known

to

so

the

otherwise

onely and

no

time

the

part they
the

upon

also Gentlewomen

known

repaire to

money

of all sorts

Gentlemen's

as

etc. and

for what

or

disburse

will

as

be

To

merchandise

public debts, and

are

merchants
coaches

of their

bound

and

or

owners

eta

4. In

more

be

The

or

2. To

Chaplaines, Secretaries,
nurses,

servants

settingforth
where

sum,

etc. may

of
for

office is to

tract.
con-

is made

whatsoever
way

ships

and

commerce

8.

etc.

of any

passengers

for

speedily known

charges.

securities.

such

publique by expensive
may

whatsoever,

Bills

posted

the

said

4d.

be

opened

on

is entitled
to be lost,but the second
publicationseems
Fwiher
Discoverie
of the Officeof Publiek Addresse for Accomodatione.
His Cornucopia of later date refers to it.
London, 1648.
^

Hifl first

HISTORY

OF

moming

next,

THE

Munday
80

times ready to make

things

many

be

"may

directed

Divers

them.
and

others

divers

that

would

Enterance

and

seller

that have

lands

that

buy

have

household

doth

tickets for

"free

to sell

that want

in

good

not

was

feet,and he

able way.

(the

for

mortgage

or

daily.

And

others

that

servants

and

pence

bringing the
that

small

had

vanity and

vain

made

buyer
of 4

sum

in

other

137, 10th-17tii August^ 1649, p.

*The

oomment

it known
erected

in

onto

all

benefit

Green

Sir Balthaww

yet

more

no

Hebrew

the

of

moneys) except only


stealinghis jeweLs.
relation

that

of the

fee'd

opening

to

29th

friend

am

is betwixt

his

of Gterbier's
for Gterbier

Henry

of

pretends to
Walker

Sir John

Danyers

whom

of

the

name

Henry

Walker
and

Walker

was

had

welcome

an

of

Bednal

at

Soienoea
is of

(for their
the

tell you
much

of

neare

where

if he

invitation

immensely proud
took place on

jewels which

serve

this for

he suspects for

will

for how

received

is now-

companion

partie because

Lane, and

Bee-

impertinences and

of

be

to

**

to

all arts and

his great
house

and

also, that

all may

them, but

peace."
Academy,

where

inst.

ooane

Theef

and

1216.

lodgings recorded

(that is his store

loath

theft

want

up

satisfyhis

of Entries

house

it known

that

sold in Foster

rings were
hold

Be

man

than

any

the

names

if

amnaing

That

man

and

...

Academy

Wed.

on

if any

State.

G^bier,

master

opens

nonsence)

of the

this is

on

preeenta.

where

find their

there

may

and

these

by

men

Westminster

at

him, hee

the Moon*s

to set

reason,

^FerfectOeewrrenceSjKa
Man

remarks-

attempts

for any

notoriety than

under

grow

in order to

lecturer, apparentiymore
thirst for

to

Office of Entries

pushed his

now

the grass

to allow

man

Previouslyhe

Hebrew

an

ease

the

quarter")

it is but

business

any

much

have

sell, also

to

gentlemen

places for

at

Enterance

stuffe

are

present monies

speedilytogether though with

Walker

not

the

''There

for soldiers"

houses

or

to be at all.

Enterance

and

have

to

to

come

pawn,

and

faith"

and

who

those

Street

are

readers:

the

to

16a

onely."*

pence

some

his

printed tickets

or

where

that want

the

as

All

there

lay jewels to

servants

his

informs

1669

Kings

entries."

and

grievances of "public

old

two

monies

in

the clerks

daily brought

now

faith

publique

searches

Kings Street.

in

Fountain

day, where

later he

weeks

TO

the Fountain

at

after

continuallyday
Three

ADVERTISING

to

it"and

bee
thevertised
ad-

the occasion^.

he

mSTOEY

164

OF

announced

now

nothing
under

Office/'^ and,

Enterance

the

at his

good things to be found


time

include

simoniacal

there is

Collegeof

London

pleasedto give me

this

of the

book

this time

at

of Walker's
renoes,

in

that

man

the thief himself

"

lost

parish with

in alludingto
periodical,
"

mentions
the

to

the

Stationers

John

Lane

where

for half e

made*a shift

pound

^PerfectOccwrrences,
*

"

Not

place,
privatehouse

No.

doore

; and

pawned
was

pudding
'

his

same

maker,"
lets out

he

therein
Tom

and

the

Tumb
to

are

Loggerheads

his bible

beholding to
for his dinner

for
his

in i^

be
in

pint

printer

after he had

".'

143, 21st-2Sth

as

three

the

Diurnal

History of

of the

infect

to

September, 1649,

October, 1648, p. 706.


mistake," (The Owle

some

p. 1324.
The
lecture

1)

"

but at

to it ".

Moon, No. 23, 26th September to 10th October, 1649,


and ibid.,No. 67, 29th May to 6th June, 1650, p. 426.

*Man

200 ;

of

in the taTeme

next

"

sixpenny

his fardle of

to carry

Cook's Dream,

Peck

Perfect Occwrrences, 20th-27th

took
a

sign

Finis

'

to reach

Famous

Walker

heavenly metheglin, and

to pay

the

commonly

most

Mr.

or

at the

Oakes

an

Pudding-Py
of

the Most

of Westminster

Long Meg

PerfectOoam-

Uxbridge

to

writes

Islingtonwhen

at

mare

a news-

Moon

sixpence a piece to place

for
"

in

mortalityand

the Perfect

which

accipimus".'

dextre

in the

of Atheisme

Peck

"

last page

titles of their books

sold

sin

was

company

called

stool her

"

blasphemy

national

the

Man

eyed

tures
lec-

Physitian

advertisement

The

bill of

wall

(Walker)

heresy and

nonsence

nos
legis

catterwaule
a

ing
astound-

an

(forI read the lecture

encouragement

out with

had

He

of these

one

of the whole

tu 9mi$tre

small

occupations.
at

this

fiftymiles

adding

was

the

about

the Universities and

name

Westminster

''

"

Office

him

Hall

particularsof

followingterms,

sixpence.

was

bumbasted

story of

other

charged for insertingan

fee

The

he

given to

nightmyselfe)Quod

every

that

of both

Great

livingswithin

to rent

in 1648, in the

Waideson

"Dr.

the

as

for

''

lectures

in the

Enterance

his many

of commendation

word

"

doubt

no

practiceto

actuallyrecorded

that toant

"many

of London/'

public Hebrew

of

coarse

JOUBNALISM

Fountain, Kings Street

the

at

ENGLISH

p.

HISTOEY

THE

ADVERTISING

in the newsbooks

universal

occasional

an

; but

that the author

of

newsbook

for fear of
The

that

notice,was

"

and

advertiser"

a
*'

in

which
"

Cry

been

have

newsbooks

the

as

bumbasting it

until

rayling and

the

from

the

or

as

their

much

authors

in

mountebank

drains

arch-cheats

filling
up

of his paper

must

have

have

Bill of his

and

cursed

the

people of
how

not

the

in which

Bntanicua

fellow

There

is

he is dead

the nation,

besides

Gharletan,
he
cannot

gives
lye

BrUanicus^ Pta^maiUeuSf
it is said of Kedham
"

Siquis ne'er will be forgotten

Mattix, No.

quaint

to do otherwise)

There

the

of Mercuriua

Against his Prince, when

"

booty, and

authorise

because

"

abroad

another

out

in the News-book.

Cures, and

and

Sheppard.^

knew

feelingto

''

His

he

home

at

in the

share

(which

''Besides

by professingof Chymistry,

from

The DoumfaU
example ;
PolUicuBythat three headed Cerberw"
his Hue and Cry after the King in
For

*MercuriM

one,"

"Hue

the

an

(two grand helps which

Samuel

money

forsooth,by putting him


you

for

subject of derision

found

now

either

who

but these

he

century.

themselves.

breath

one

trading,"writes

other Art

any

vertising
ad-

altogether,

''If any

particularlyof

were

and

praying

device in their
never

"

terms

next

words

or

shall

we

occasionallyemployed

want) they have

never

1660

of this
The

be

special

meant

later date

out ".

it is to

until about

all Iterations, Petitions,Epistles,News

they

tisements
adver-

commenced.^

advertisements

The

of

known

being

announcements,

order

'*

derivative.
are

advertisement, being taken


with

desire too many

advice," and

"

advertiser

to

seems

curious

it is clear

used, and

sense

'^

was

to

For

and
interesting,

modem

our

very

not

"

confined

horses.
-especially

advertisement," which

adopted

term

to describe

Siquis

"

used

not

The

later.

it

is

came
be-

and

of

being accused

the word

165

servants

were

did not

terminology employed

noted

have

stolen"

advertisingoffices

purposes

1659

they were

qiiackmedicine, runaway

and things lost or


apprentices,
other

TO

1649, therefore,advertisementB

after the year

In and

books,

OF

and

rotten.

1, 20th-27th August, 1652,

pw 7.

and

166

HISTORY

OF

ENGLISH

himself, he
sufficiently
be

then

and

fain

are

it passes

snre

to sell

about

being

to

gets

get

for currant,

with

for this ?

them

of their

For

for all stolen

them,

do

they

fittest

the

"

fine cozenage,

when

would

In

hardly fillup

April,1650,

second

of the licensed
his

which
office,

by Addresse,"
within

the

*'

Govent

he called

Garden,"

Discoveries ".

'*

Robinson,

issued

prospectus of

the

merchant

the functions

of

Office

"The

Old

and

all others

"

for

is served.

turn

be

services

kept open

He
he

'

*'

The

Office

Quality niay
Henry Robinson.

and

on

set

King

Streete

elaborate

an

up

tions
Accomoda-

and

in it which

economics

which
office,

and

of the

city,
filled

to have

seems

situated

Encoxmters"
Castle
"the

announces:

promised

done

day (except the


and

Tavern, close

from

the

Lords

in

often

\x"

should

poore"

for them

in

charity,,
8ks

their

said office shall

Day)

2 to 6 in the

from

8 of

evening."'

Th"
by AddreaBe/* 20tli Apri^ 1660.
Thomason's
handwriting on
copy.
of Adresses
where people of each Ranoke
and Enooonters
reoeiye directions," eta, 29th September, 1660, by

Aooomodationa

^''GeneraU
is from

writer

total suppression
He

Generall
in

in

September, 1650, Henry

29th

for this purpose,

the clock till 12 at noone,

address

say

pamphlets,

of the

sixpence a time, or entry, so

And
every

*'

issued

and

againstthe

over

Exchange".

all the

have

Adresses
St.

to

registryoffice for servants, entitled

modem

of

Threadneedle

the

an

stolen

this be not

list of advertisements

On

and

from

"

Fisher's House

att Mr.

bold

that tima

at

office of

an

amusing prospectus ^ with

be

twelve

or

because

newsbooks

called

he

rest

phlets
pam-

being

whether

one

the

advertisingagent appeared

Adolphus Speed, presumably

one

"

in

angry

in these

I dare

judge you

page

be

than

all theirs

that in ten

have

anything

Cryers trade

inserted

them,

then

we

be

who

Smithfield,

we

truer

the

another.

one

And

notes.

taken

those

swear

should

why

must

for

place

filch from

so

they confer
which

goods

or

commonly

they have

Nay

news.

it is

in

horse

will say

they please for sixpence. But

do't for him

to

just like

stolen

or

who

Voucher

of these

one

diseased

JOURNALISM

note

in the author's

HISTORY

THE
After

OP

final

the

suppressionof

1655, Marchamont
fact

he

that

Nedham

could
he

exactly what

from

advertisers

half

his

newsbooks

raised

consequentlyhe
a

in

realised the

have

in

167

newsbooks

licensed

follyto

sixpenceto

1659

TO

the

seems

charge

chose

advertisement

an

ADVEETISINQ

priceof

the

crown,

excessive

an

for the times.^

sum

Complaints
1657

probably frequent;

were

remarkable

development

place,and

it

publish a periodicalconsistingentirelyof

to

On

took

in the

hence

14th

May, 1657,

entitled

''The

Several

Places

Offices
in

broadsheet

of

London

and

newly

cided
de-

was

ments.
advertise-

issued,

prospectus was

Advice

Public

year

set

Westminster.

in

up

thority."
Au-

By

"

This

prospectus,after

cited,announced
all the

be

stationer's

taken
"

of

of the

one

the blinde way

entered

bound

it does not
for space

heretofore

themselves

the

or

the

was

7796, and

and

article

as

of ".

"

in

The

advice

Present

so

Important

Cof^erence

present

1907,

on

"The

in

charge

advices,"

"

between

Affairs of the Naiionf 1660.

writer

to

been

or

given

that is all.

Frivate

in Merewrius

fact is that

promoters

newsmonger

Politietu

the

for

Nineteenth

Barly History of
12

Scot
One

and

Nud-

of his nick-

".

7th-14th

for llth-18th
May.
Intelligencer
18th-25th
IntelUgeneery
May, p.

Publick
the

curious

ipsofactoto have

space,

Politieus,

and

the Pitbliek

by

NoTember,

more

advertised

the

only be

of both

use

at

book," after which

same

of words.

the ''Devil's half-crown

'Also

would

print each

to the

occurred

number

Concerningthe

nameB

morning

not

made

"to

together in

to have

seem

^MerewrvM

from

bargain and

heavy,
distinctly

were

capitalletters

ham

Tuesday

every

by important people,seem

those

at the offices to be instituted

fees in future

that

wherein

to be renewed.

were

fees

The

entered

partiesto

four weekes

the fees

"

of addresses

undertakers"

Intelligencein print

publiclysold

shop, and

already

"

of

occasions
particular

"

should
any

book

"

similar to those

preamble

London

Date
1373.

May, 1667,
of

See

Centwry

p.

prospectus
also

and

Advertising".

an

After^

168

HISTORY

OP

Advertisements

charged
ship was
Those

than

more

JOURNALISM
to be

shipsleavingport or

for at the rate


of

if under

of

ENGLISH

month's

of 6s. per
100 tons

ship'stackling,rigging,and

of
"30

in value, 5s. ; if over,

if the

advices, and

per ton

penny

sold,etc.,were

the

was

furniture

penny

charge.

for sale,
for the

pound

per

overplus.
For

lands

and

houses

be sold, mortgaged,

to

in value

penny

per

pound

penny

per

pound overplus if of

Also

advertisements

charged
penny

in the

pound

per

Those
matters

was

"

6s.

way,

overplus of

for the

charged

were

the fee

as

rent.

to be sold

"30

and

miscellaneous

and

advertisements

"

etc.
calling,

any

68.
.

3s.

Seamen

journeymen,

workmen,

to be

printedor

Professors

of Sciences, teachers

English, French,
and

tutors

to be

intended

10b.

governors

or

better

the

of the

lute

eta,

The

I. In East
one

Arms,

lors
of counsel-

the
for

charge

was

8s. ; to

advertisingrunaway

apprentices,8s.

following eight offices

at

guittare

charged lOs.

were

hackney-coaches, 6s. ; and


and

servants

or

secretaries, gentlemen

manors;

proprietorsof stage-coaches
of

writing

Peace, Attorneys, solicitors,scriveners,

brewers, woodmongers,
To

masters
school-

sort;

ushers; book-keepers,cash-keepers,clerks
; Justices

languages;

gentlemen;

or

of

stewards, bailifiFsof

masters;

Greek, Latin,

other

any

dancing masters, singing masters,

masters,

5s.

printed

for noblemen

schoolmistresses

or

of Hebrew,

Italian,Dutch,

is.

etc.

Physitians ({.",includingquack medicines)


Books

Petti" schoolmasters, nurses,

those

were

in value.

follows, a month's

Ships' Officers,and apprenticesto


Conmion

"30

ordinary fee

the

being

advertising for emplo]rment

being given for

"

than

more

merchandise

of any

same

^ifto be let 6s. and

charged

purchased

or

Smithfield

Mr.
over

Greens

near

were

set up

"

St. Eatherine's

chirurgionat

againstthe signe of

the

by the

Signe

the White

side,
water-

of the Hamburgh
Lion.

170

HISTORY

notices of

No

again until

near

the end

of

of chocolate

and

their

(on 16th June).

importance" (the

In the
held

stillhad

of Parliament
cil

confirmed

Williams, who

Offices
others

to

times

There

was,

patent ; therefore

by

the

their

denied
''

advertisement

formd the claims


waived

"

seems

ISth

from
**

the

He

valid.
legallyin-

declared

about

have

Captain

set

be

to
at

alL

Innes's

broadsheet,

up

any
or

the fees

contrary

were

Offices

gence".
Intelli-

charged

amount

voluntary ; and he also


On

16th

June

another

Adviser,denying

Pvbliok

his

a
own

"

Intelligence :

"

be

to

the office clerks and


issued

law,

to

Williams, but in this the fees

the

and

patent for ship's

also issued

he

was

of his own,

book, the
set

paid

the clients.

prospectus

which
Officeof Intdligence,

Offices of

been

who

were

of Oliver

July appeared

vice"
Ad-

Papers with

State

of

Advice"

exist

to

to have

Oliver

Public

monopoly.

legalstandpoint,that

and
altogether,

then

their

''

the

in the

appeared in the

agreement between

Captain

one

Addresses, Publique Advice

"Public

right

Act

an

'^Coxm-

I.'s grants.

which

doubt

no

May

grant they

own

fees

for

all Persons

the

of

Offices

in his

26th

of

In this he took
the

high

however,

names

patent

since

run,

purchaser for it in

at last to have

to

dormant

in Cromwell's

Charles

mentioned

on

.Prohibition

necessityto

no

Innes's

assignment, that

another
seems

as

King

is

names.

order

an

charging

ballast,which

called

the

were

many

are

reference

own

tisement
adver-

buyer of speculationsof the kind, and

envied

doubt

no

by

all

was

is

there

lengthy period to

widow, therefore,found

Innes's

"A

in their

in 1648, and

of 1653

who

that

An

"

terminology

in

contrast

meantime, Captain Robert

good, and

"

"

occasions

"

of cofiFee

advertisements, that

curious) tells its subscribers


enter

to

century, and it is remarkable

of the

first trade

containing the
May)

houses

publicationof equalimportance appeared

let

(on 26th

and

of London

shipsdepartingthe port

be sold and

for

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OF

up

pro

were

left for
Williams
and

on

Weekly Information
the

following six

THE

HISTORY

St.

1.
the

Eatherines

Hartshorn

from

Mr.

Bentley's

Cross

the

to

in

of

spite

the

PTiblick

undertakings
The

offices.

in

restriction

Adviser,
from

that

of
of

the

the

history

newsbooks

no

number

of

definite

point
of

of

the

was

for

two

for

the

to

to

were

be

success

good
of

be

by
the

view.

advertising
of 1660.

mitted
per-

Intelligence.

fees

acknowledged
to

journalist

Office

fatal

and

collapsed,

eventually

if

monopoly

Information

Weekly

their

be

however,

not,

as

his

been

commercial

would

place, and,

took

was

offices

appeared

have

must

clerks

overruled

of

eventually

p.m.

been

that

to

Inne,

have

must

the

patent,

Talbot

the

"reviving"

his

door

next

that

the

over

p.m.

conclude,

reduction

of

speaks

to

three

now

and

Williams

to

these

He

All

Tavern,

the

near

valid.

book,"

"

at

A.M.

that

to

Inne

6.

to

house,

show

Offices

"

declared

remainder
with

of

gradual

restriction

charged,

from

number.

one

he

Rump,

the

Advice

later, when

years

Hill

reasonable

publish

limited

Skirm's

12

legal proceedings

patent
to

Mr.

working

seem

Public

"

one

attendance

probably

Williams's

The

the

it would

so,

to

8
Sun

Bisakers

Mr.

Margaret's
of

for

Very

of

Sb

hours

sufficient

daily

Tavern

Grayes

from

from

from
at

in

the

to

Holbom,

at

Tavern

daily

next

end

Cross

Southv^ark

against
The

near

a.m.

Ship

Court

house,

house

Lane

Charing

In

6.

Hunts

Chancery

Charing

12

to

171

house,

comer

the

to

Holbom

Rents,
Littons

Mr.

At

5.

dore

1659

6.

At

against

from

daily
next

TO

Streets,

Mr.

one

St.

Nathaniel

4.

ADVERTISING

Brewhouse

to

At

3.

over

at

Thredneedle

2.

one

OF

is

closely

nected
con-

CHAPTER

X.

TO

1659

Thb

death
of

calling

Cromwell

Parliament

the

conld

The

this

and

SeaiU

both

May,

of those

in

of

made

were

diumals.

On

discharged

him

John

and

an

periodical

Thursday,

each

then

it

turned

was

the

in

opposition

attention
172

after
to

"

Lord's

removal

official

the

of

to

lyixkg

people".

his

and

accordingly,

and

us,

in

and

preacher,
tells

Wood

the

by

by his

intelligence,"

own,

written

as

Commons,

printer

Anthony
his

the

weekly

Anabaptist

(one

enemies

author

as

10th

on

Horton

denounced

the

suppressed
his

many

character,

1659,

as

of

Post

the

Intelligencer of the

good

moral

baptist,
Anaof

apparently

of

to

ment
Parlia-

the

^as

premacy
su-

put

once

reappearance

reappear.

"defiamer

that

for

strongly

was

so

policy

at

"

to

now

writing
old

contest

Weekly

position

May,

Nedham,

apparently
he

his

"

was

his

from

Canne.
a

but

13th

place appointed

published

made

on

from

demanded

permitted

the

Weekly

both

the

May

and

his

"

"

the

and

and

Bump

by the

and

1663),

Cromwell,

'*

been

had

was

27th
leaders

army

bookseller, George

same

had

who

end

termed

April,

also

was

in

an

marked

10th

railing Babshakeh"

his

in the

the

On

Nedham,

was

majority

was

by

imprisoned

OcmmonweaUh

Attacks

and

29th

on

issued

partisanship

ensued,

fact

Border.

Daniel

unscathed

pass

the

on

the

Cromwell

contemptuously

now

FaithfM

to

now

monopoly.
was

between
Nedham

of

advocate

an

hope

not

straggle

and

1658,

Richard

son

Marchamont

which
his

the

September,
his

by

Commons.

thorough-going
he

3rd

on

1659, renewed

January,
and

of

1666.

one

menced
com-

Moderate

Informer,

Merctmus

PolUieus,

the

second

recovering

his

number

place

in

LICENSED
the

good

Thomas

newsbooks, and may

"revived"

his

in Comhill,"

Office

and

of

his

dated

were

time

the

of

account

to the

he

the Old

Williams

probably,of

The

contain

June

and

5th

"

and

first numbers

July.

up

long

the

as

Bump

Parliament

remained

title Intersst

wUl

remarked

and

In
the

strong
his

leaders

man

plans.

and

his

was

been

the

the

Bump

periodicals;

taking the

fident,
con-

"

kept
these

lead

so

in power.
It

aimed

was

U., and

Charles

bore

Boyalist pamphleteer

own

confutation,for

restored

to

proceeded

can

was

be

his
his

dispute for

it

true

vertisemen
Ad-

Scot, and

as

George Monck,

lastinghonour

post, and they

appeared.

One
its

"

Williams

Intelligencerbecame

while

in Scotland,
To

it

had

Publiok

meantime,

the

army

the

Lie.

not

that

days previously he
Politious

book

at the

which, like Henry

Thomas

projectof restoringKing

against any
amusingly

with

and

suppress,

lost

articles in

considered

now

August Nedham's

17th

On

attempted to

be

periodicals
may

two

the

correspondence"

constant

tells us,

29th

From

Westminster".

occasionallyquotes Hebrew.

he

Walker,

Exchange

foreignnews

at

amusing leading

some

once

of the two

order

two

to regainhis
ability

his

at

Advioa^etc.,and Ocowrrences

daylie occurrences

Nedham,

to

disgracewas

naturally predominated in these


which

of the

tells us, he

reversing the

advices

"

tary
Secre-

in order

''published by authority",

were

added

as

edition.

30th
respectively

published

biweekly periodical,
entitling

A Particuiar

Tuesday's

July they also


same

*'

their writers

Intelligence''at

commenced

19th

and

the management

salaried

from Foreign Parts, eta, and


titles for

in sup*

Scot,the Begicide,now

opportunity,and,

Friday's newsbook

the

16th

marked

were

place,had

have

from

Boyalist competition. Nedham's

Williams's

Ohver

Post

in Thurloe's

of State

and

ScotU

"

by specialauthority

any

book

by writing a

give satisfaction,and,

the
Jnly respectively,

prevent

173

cause.

did not

Canne

BEVIVED

of the Parliament

graces

port of their

NEW8BOOK8

once

power
on

office

two

and

more.

between

its way,

the

slowly forming
said,that he kept

174

HISTORY

steadilybefore

shedding
plans is
once

was

the

In

steps which

the

married

called

and

Radford,

practised as

for the

it is to

5th

on

when

and
he

states,

been

"

his

by

decided

Monck

that

documents

rights, and
a

baronet,

journalistof
Monck,

the

at

states,

was

but

time

Politums

1659, it had

William

not
to

as

When

that the press should

be

Clarke,

give the Greneral's

date, therefore, the

to restore

Anne

the

to

Clarges
Muddiman

Henry

literary adviser

necessary;
"

Nedham's

King

duchess,

the

juncture,evidently did

and

was

the

to

his
her

privileged

Restoration.

this

nominee,
sort

and

Up

November,

this

was

simple

pensioner

schoolmaster, and,

and

From

which

make

to

of

himself

world.

set in motion

plan was
brother

the

to

be the person

secretary,should

Strand

evidentlywell

of this sort before ".

Muddiman

Henry

fell

Martin's-in-the-

St.

in 1647.

been

the end
and

ParUamerUary ItUeUigeneerand

anything
at

of

son

of

choice

admitted

was

voted
de-

were

selection

thus

was

opposition to

secret

writ

never

utilised,and

some

issue

left Scotland

Monck's

and

IntdUgeneer,he had

Publick

Clarges

to

Both

the

man
trades-

Claires, who

Their

baptised at

was

Publioua, in

Mercurius

and

College,Cambridge,

began

he

also

was

February, 1629,

at St. John's

Strand

confided.

was

who

He

them.

to

Fields

cause

own

trust.

the

that

this,

his

had

Thomas

them

Muddiman,

Edward

tradesman,
known

royal

Muddiman,

Henry

on

of

was

single

efiFect

Monck
he could

sister of

King

to

apothecary in the Strand.

an

Royalists, and
writer

took

General
whom

the

loss of

the

the widow

Anne,

will of the nation

that

he

of

skilfullyconcealed

the

throne, without

his

played its part ; for


written by a writer
periodicals,
had

his

to

prevail,and

to

joumaUsm
Monck

object the avoidance

fact that

astounding

to

life.

his main

as

made

back

JOURNALISM

blood, and

more

more

brought
man's

his eyes

any

due

ENGLISH

OF

Dutch

acquirements, judging

and
from

for

his

".

trust

well's
Crom-

amanuensis

education,

Devonshire
his

and

not

as

of

Clarendon

Clarges'sliterary

unacknowledged pamphlet

also appear

^'Hypocrites Unmasked/'
poorest kind.

it is clear that

adopting

for
also

rogue

Muddiman

for

speaking basely
only been

for the

fact

they advocated

discovered
for the

the

also with

the

known

who

days

he

him.

behind

was

must

have

soon

newsbooks

he wrote

that

the

at

suppressed

been

to have

distinction

after the

of

FaithfullIntdligeneer

in Seotiand, written

the

being
with

down

him

for Muddiman.

writing the newsbooks,


in order

to

first

Wood

as

and

is

Muddiman

leave

Giles

heard

never

news-

Clarges also

Scotland

have

periodical

Scottish

writes,he

he must

Edinburgh,

This

purely

from

Dury

at

Scotland.

printed in

Bestoration,when,

assistant

the

commenced

as

of Monck's

Captain Groodwin, one

Army

well

as

probably brought
assistant

ParUamenta/ry Intelligencer

object of attacking Nedham.

book, written

as

"

though

few

have

the

that

in London,

Pa/rliaments

the

the

time

same

officers,appears

has

him

called

ever,
newsbooks, how-

would

thinking

reason

Bump.^

commenced

from

was

in

Club, though

Bump

Parliament, Pepys

free

his mistake

About
was

it

that

of the

in existence

official,and

not

Pepys

Pepys with his

trust

Muddiman's

'\

of the

Muddiman,

met

since Pepys
journalist,

career

which
were

he

of the Bota

the

had

been

''good scholar," and

did not
of

176

have

to

when

member

as

for them

time,

As

him

was

newsbooks

wrote

but

he

that

proposed by

was

occasion

the

On

remarked

Pepys

JOURNALIST

MONCK'S

GENEEAL

been

"

Dury,

of

again
"

gave

over

employed

as

Monck's

free to edit

documents.
The
first

famous

"

presented

^For

comply No.

to

MaddixBan*8

Bemonstrance
Monck

June,

Na
ParUamentary InteUigencer,
the

newsbooks

letter to Gnmble

were
on

issued
26th

9th

on

anteoedents

103, 22nd-29th

and

1660, and
June

attack
the

to 2nd

1669

(the day of

Army,"

which

in An

former's

Olaiges'sdirection

December,

of the

April,1660, by

^Williams's

"

27, 26th

under

Address

Bxaei

reply
July, 1660.
appears
issue

the

Ac-

in the

from

of the

That
his
first

letter also
MSS., 1899, p. 137).
number) (Leybome-Popham
Claiiges's
refers to Captain (Goodwin.
Muddiman's
Pepys made
acquaintance on
9th January. Pepys was
Downing's derk at the time.
"

176

HISTORY

o"Eicer8

pledged themselves
avoided, bears

was

Monck
that

Mnddiman

Henry

to

Mnddiman

did that of many


his

other

honour

of

command
;

for this

privilegeof

the

State.^

But

free

of the
than

an

his

number

OoBette,until his death

forgotten is

and

in 1692, he

why up

reason

because

he

Joseph Williamson.

Government
the

The

to the

Parliament

M88.

Marquis

of

of Muddiman's

1689, the dates

State

"

con-

Sir

"

practically
^the modem

Oaeette; and

London

the value

permit

to

6th

11., 160, No.

Bath

fore
there-

end

16th

on

March^

Report, App., p.

203.

U9, para. 1, and

139, No.

61.

has in his

library at Longleat a complete oolfrom 29th April,1667, to 12th Ootobeir^


days, contained in fourteen folio volumeSj
Muddiman.
It is impoesibleto overestimate

of

Mrs.

of this collection,and

their

an

newsletters

Being alternate

formerly the property

the extent

the

came

Commissum,

Charlos

"S. P. Dom.

will

entitled

existence

no

the decisive

first editor,and

periodicalstill in

one

in

engaged

ordinary interest.

Hidorical

leotion

the

was

present he

entirelyto

Secretary of

future

those

story of this patriarch of English journalism is of

Long

'The

He

organ

than

more

of

of

little less

was

quarrel he had, and that entailed

lasting discomfiture

writer

ing
the found-

himself

devoted

pamphleteer, and

From

troversiea

the founder, of

granted

(more than

not

and

became

was

journalism,was
One

of

place

reputationas

put together)exists.'

institution,and the

been

has

that

May, 1661, and

7th

kingdom,

immense

an

writers

he

postage for his letters like the officers of

newsletters,of which
of all other

the

chiefly earned

he

given

on

as

reason

also, after the Bestoration, he

reason

privilegedjournalistof

sole

final form,

and

was

Beview

clear

seems

zens
Mayor's ''troop of horse," all citi-

Lord

the

it

As

It is for this

Muddiman,

Coronation

the

at

title-pagefrom

by Clarges,Henry

wording

documents.

William

uncle, Sir

framed

was

settled its

have

must

publish it.

to

''Bemonstrance"

the

its

on

shed
all blood-

to which

owing

direction

forthcoming

the

obey whatever

to

decide, and

should

free Paxliament

JOUBNALISM

ENGLISH

OF

publication.

of the writer's

For

it is to be

hoped

that

Lord

example (chosen in order to


correspondence)see Appendix B., p. 211.
an

Bath
show

in
*'

HISTORY

178

Holland, and
for money

Oxford

in St.

Mary's Church

prison for
physic

He

treason.

his

to

considerable

hale him

to

dying day

among

benefit to him.

quick natural parts, was


had

he would

have

been

beloved

died

He

buried

was

St. Clement

the entrance

chieflyto

be associated

Mercurius

Politious.

Oliver

which
three

He

however,
s

two

"

ism,
patriarchof journal-

no

near

to be

On

PoUtious

decadent
as

hung

up

and

those

from

varied, and

same

in the

from

time

shape of

he
''

some

the

Office of
was

ment
arrange-

announced

tables," or

parts of London

Peffect Divimdl,

"

fact that he

The

in

names,

Williams's

delay points to

in various

the

IntMigencer^

cuhertisements

2ist February, 1660, he had

entitled

appropriating

Publich

Exchanga

the

another

saw

periodicalswas

week's

At

matter.

he

and

an

notice
minster.
West-

also commenced

daily report of the proceedings in the House


he

is

name

greater

Immediately

dated

the Old

advertisinginnovation,

which

his

was

thought that

communicate

were

able to do this without

boards,

of

of the Church

chancel

periodicalswith

new

kingdoms, and

in the

hated

Bar, in 1678, and

Walker

final ruin.

professedto

Intelligence

than

much

retrogressiveand

the

the full title of Nedham's


now

interest rather

prince,was

was

Henry

of Mercurku

commenced

which

being

Nedham.

Williams,

the catchwords
he

to the

with

Even

in Nedham*

chance

his

boon

of all,but

nothing, originatednothing,and

than
journalist

with

endowed

admired
sordid

to

cavaleeringprinciples

Court, Temple

Danes, Strand.

invented

was

to the last."

in Devereux
near

was

person

to

so

faculty of

the

brethren, which

and

him

upon

the

and

by

love
conscience, friendship,
or

by the royalparty

set

and
justice,

exercised

to his

constant

valuing money

and

mercenary

pardon

good humanitian, poet, and

he been

droll,and

He

his

oftentimes, particularly

several

before

afterwards

little later

obtained

his defence

was

in 1661, when

Act

that

states

courtier

hungry

an

great seal, which

at

JOURNALISM

k Wood

Anthony

given to

the

under

ENGLISH

OF

This

of Coromons,
lasted

xmtil

riT

16ih

March

and

the

"

WiUiama's
that there

with

and

BO

his newsbooks

protest from

his claim

the

when

King

to Mnddiman

It

will

in any

case

and

expired,Williams

him, and

under

this

newsbooks,

called

vapulans"

because

mistakes, and

his
he

rival
had

he

alluded

the

pretended King

"

titular Dukes

"

to the

expressed a hope
will want
".

Thurloe

of

Scout, Post,

He

Exact

from

added

apology,to
An

to

of

of York

and

better

these

and

England,"

former
man
Mnddiof his

of

having

Gloucester," and

regulated times

in his

fairlyevident

et

of his

some

also accused

that

unjust

he

tions
usurpa-

Thurloe,

on

being suppressed together with

replied, terming Williams's

foolery,"and

verberans

turning
re-

the

etc

Mnddiman

no

publishing

forget ''his

not

claim

Secretary of State, had prevented Muddi-

as

newsbooks

right

attention

support him

to

this it is

From

to office

man's

'Mn

that

positionto

in the earlier numbers

having styledthe King,

newsbook,

in

sole

could

all,

authority

raised

pedantick whipping occupation".^


of

of State's

"Prisdanus

at

impudence

drawn

that

stated

the

to

patent

very

Captain

Nevertheless,

felt himself

vrith considerable

him

patent^

that

one.

Council

the

competition

newsbooks

to

false

The

his newsbooks

remembered

was

an

Innes's

termed

reference

no

formed

by authority/' which

who

be

the

malcontents.

Captain

PobUshed

Mnddiman,

returned

attack

have

meets

disregarded by

also
of

sospicion

plans than

for

was

**

patent contained

that

his

bocu:ds wonld

assignment

pamphlets".

Innes's

in

moie

Dory,

his

and, referringto

"idle

the

order, prohibitingany

second

Mnddiman

periodical.

news

of communication

of State's

elicited

deal

good

means

he marked

dissohitioii^

PuhamenVs

Long

advertisingnotice

eye, for the

Council

of the

day

ITO

journalisticactivity wamnts

was

excellent

PHEBOOATIVE

fizfltdaily English

the

was

BOYAL

those

''

To

that

that know

those
do

not

"

it will

Aceompt, No. 103, 22nd-29th

Parliamentofy InUttigenoer,26th

June

attack

to 2nd

me,

be

I need

easy

June, 1660,

July, 1660,

''

p.

pittiful
make

enough
1006, and

p. 430.

to
the

HISTOEY

tell them

that I

180

to

it,for

OF

ENGLISH

writ

never

anything of

just vindication

of his

of
give faithful intelligence
time

that

in

then
fiend

what

cautioosness

with

what

relnctancy

entrap

that desir'd
"ver

"o

often foisted in and

fiuch

as

have

cast

shallowness

have
of

yet

never

it,that

he

on

make

Williams
"est

out

".

had

generatioalterius
wonder

in his

naked

books,

to be the

simplicity

men

have

thought

but
to

"

shop

men

man

work

Sir Politick

to

with

would
gave

ous."
meritori-

stall to
"

be

I leave

with

''

made

may

there,

it to himself
whom

corruptiounius

be,might have
him

him, that

most

is to be

Nedham,

to

give

(bottomry

house

to

opinion

my

old matrons

and

his

I confess

may
what

or

bargains are

up

or

in Bomaria

young

wound

"

^I'letell him

keep

where

".

how*

This, though

to Press

his late Patron

to

for.

cut,

irreverent

prying

wrote

godfather for surely he

if he be

ingratitudeto

"

he

in

things he

pretended

not

Finally, comparing him


abused,

his

those

after week

corns

that

this entitles him

"civillerto his
no

his

and

hire maidservants

to

or

side,where

the Bank

l)ut how

'*

to

than

which
disguise,

that

to be laid out

to have

sometimes

patent he continued,

power

ships'mortgage)

"

security venture
let

have

may

and

his power,

seen

of money

information
bonds

Williams's

myself,

instruments

to balance

week

master

judge

thoogh

busie

in

be done

reach, wise

cannot

Referring to

such

which,

may

inquisitionof

suspitionmight

the

upon

phleteers
Pam-

safelyrepresent the numbers

Petition

which

behave

farther

if not

crowded

his Barebones

Watermens,

I then

should

I mast

no

at

pleasedto

man

forced

to

were

to the press,

was

the

free Parliament

necessary

was

mean

imployed

could

How

men.

(I

then

discreet

design

myself I

to

(Scot) ''who

master'*

sober

myself from

free

writing) to

to commit

and

fellow

this very

which

Excellency was

world, any

with

imitate

His

being.

to the

known

when

transactions

falsely represented by the

severall of his papers

me

this sort tillentreated

Excellency and his army,

their

basely and

so

JOURNALISM

his name,

shew'd

so

been
but
much

NEW8BOOK8
This

proceedings,and
with

to the

^Walker's

"

his

other

Votes

of the

all newsbooks

and

Mercwrius

PvhUeus

retained

of the year

autumn

Ordinances

7th

January, 1653,

newsbooks
revised

by

was

acted

to

there

presxmiably

abolition

air.

Cromwell's

of

The

Star

his Act of

and

necessary,

Nedham's,

the

the

State

Dr.

Worthington,

Dr.

John

writer

former

Faculties

2nd

on

were

no

but

which

the
were

of AvUow^

November,

licenser,by analogy with


Chamber.

people

must

Until the
have

considerable

doubt

licensed

Henry

He

under

PMick

Secretaryof

of.the

the

there

effect,and

no

of

the

Inquisition

August, 1665,

licensingwas

the

date

of

his

henceforth

passingof

sing
the Licen-

their

90th

WortMngton^

to their

books

appointment

as

to license

Mere,

Polite

to

have

we

rightto

Muddiman's

diction
juris-

this at

newsbooks,

Master
them

of

year

the

after that

being reyiaed by the


(Hartiibto
oopiee of my letters in them
many
November,
1665, Diary and Correapandmcttof
Chetham
Society,voL xiii.,pp. SO, 61).

and
InieUiffencer
have

as

1660,

the ancient

brought

was

royal prerogative,during the

Faculties,and probably continued


1 ""

whole

The

protect their copyright,though, as

was

Law.

1660, from

the

suppressionof

the

ecclesiastical office,he appears

of 1662,

Common

of

of the
an

as

him, in order
shown,

it until

to hold

the

of 28th
now

were

of the Star
Act

thin

Berkenhead,

this

to have

Muddiman

Henry

free.

now

greater libertythan

appointed Master
as

upon,

Secretary of State.^

Sir John

and,

spite of

since

into

process

had

tioned,
men-

Pa/rliamentaryInteUigrnicer

continued

was

Acts

the order

penalties. Some

the

in

that

melted

of Three, under

reporting their

1663.

and

had

Chamber

attracted

evidentlyacted

suppressed.

newsbooks, the press itself


"

also

as

was

than

were

It is to be noticed

"

JSowes^ had

news

field and

the

ing
spring-

were

V"ridicua,which,

Mercurius

to his

royal prerogative,already

of

other

attention

drawn

of Commons

House

inaccurately. The

and

181

which
periodicals

both

of

in the circulation

alone

had

Oecurrmeea, and

own

the attention
debates

Williams

enough.

was

up^

SUPPRESSED

"

182

HISTORY

is

There

year.
did

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OF

however,
little,

show

to

this, for, although Muddiman's


in the Stationers'

newsbooks

Stationer's
was

But

for

in

his

continue

not

far

the House

enviable

more

House}

do

passed

without

of the century, the

printedin

perU

the

thus

given rise
at the

to

of the
be

to

value

ban

such

no

his lifetime the


be

can

only
"

ban

His

of his

nothing

to

of Secretary Nicholas's

of little
*

had

intelligence
of letters
and

the
years
also

and

the

from

newsletters

free

he held

during
as

nalist
jour-

postage placed

continuing to
forth"

come

retirement

in

in

the

ia his

newsbooks

October, 1662

statement^
on

Register after

the

casion
oc-

(Egerton MSS.,

to say, that statistics of the

Stationers'

the

license them

output

the Restoration

use.

Commons

complained of
Commons

up from

cals
periodi-

hopelessdisadvantaga

2638, ff,186, 189.) It ia hardly necessary


of the press drawn

the

privilegeof

close

newsletters

Commons,

on

the

until two

positionwhich

commanding

evidence

suffered

placed

was

gauged.

of

their

of

Papers

the

were

the House

competitorsat

would-be

The

by

death

of

apparent.

numbers

Not

or

order

of the

is

Clarke

clearlyprove.

them

to

the

votes

circumstances

the

no

mentary
report parlia-

to

H.

similar

; as

among

Muddiman'

placed under
fact that

newsbooks

found

attached

Henry

Charles

that

any

deprived

great development of the written

expense

news

of

granted until

in power

was

resolution

speciallea/ve and

were

reign of King

the

of

print

to

for the valuelessness

reason

Cromwell

When

are

there

any

June, 1660,

general permission

no

as

25th

proceedings in print was

that he

The

Muddiman

the

was

on

his

at

presume

newsbooks

The

mainstay, and,

entry .^

the

quite valueless, as

circumstance

this Home

proceedingsof

after

1660,

year

than
position as journalist

of Commons

whatsoever

person

of

the

circumstance, therefore, Henry

one

predecessors. This

this

their

printers entered

became

Registers now

invariably

necessityto registeranything.

no

was

he

Registersdnring

following years they did

in the

that

Journals.

On

reports of

their

Journals, iL, 91-95).

9th

July, 1662, the Irish Commons


even
in
the
(Irish
proceedings
InteUiffencer

PBIVILEGED
Another

of the

cause

is to be

censure

NEWSLETTERS
of the

exemption
in their

found

their circulation to

the

183

classes and

upper

be

of the

which

whole

of the

been

have

force

came

into

being

renewed

Act

it

the

other

of

them,

or

King

came

by

their

to the

with

the

or

one

the

to

vival
re-

practical

kingdoms

must

years,

afterwards

lengthy and

lenient Act

and

hawkers, who

curious

privilegewas

John

in 1653,

were

bookselling
granted

Streater,stationer,

expresslyexempted

was

newsbooks

Charles

our

appointments ".

own

there

be

It

being,or

that he gave

year

was

old

When

to

Muddiman's

39

his

three

values.

13

Monck's
had

also received

it is

newsbooks
charge

(1670). The

multipliedby

the

Henry
Under-Secretary,

intelligence
; he

Muddiman's

of

one

Cavalier who

this circumstance

from

by

to the latter that

was

himself, and

other

principalSecretaries

two

were

or

"all

licensed

of their

Nicholas, an

11.,275, No.

should

sums

be

shall

for the time

licensed

state

of the realm

of state

in exile.

him, and

pounds

state

that

was,

Morice, appointed at General

King

Williamson

arrive at

posts

1662, and

two

This

of favour

throne

attached

from

These

of

year

for

affairs of

any

Joseph Williamson,

^Five

tion
reorganisa-

regulated printingand

Sir Edward

Muddiman

Dom.,

three

history,concerning the

request,and

that

of the

tical
poli-

provisions.

of State, Sir William

news

Muddiman's

women

One

secretaries
principal

been

Henry

June

victims

concerning

books
the

contributed

provisionaffectingthe

The
books

and

specialmark

as

its

from

now

expired.

mattera

of Cromwell's

one

The

passed in the

was

Mercury

at last left in peace,

by it ;

news

10th

on

as

did npt mention

besides

less

was

exceedinglyprofitable.

Licensing

The

also

newsletters, and

of the

monopoly

them.^

stricted
re-

the coffeehouses

post office and the increase in the number

circumstances

were

from

apprehended

there

from

This

greater expense.

(the clubs of the day), therefore

danger to

newsletters

and

for

half

after the

newsletters

newsbooks
a

probable

or

cost

(S.P.
penny.

four in order

to

184

mSTORT

in

Bequests

his letters of

after

him

arrived

that

of the

bulk

the

privilegewith

in 1666, but

de Londres

of this

mention

to be found

in the

of searcher

carried
for

Exchange,
the

this had

was

"

letters to him

to

CaL

S. P. Dom.

WiUiamson,

French
s

do with

in 1663

; for the

any

3rd

with

first
in

Wheler

the State

the

Old

this office

obtained

the

in 1660, but whether

for

is

there
"

nothing

Intelligence

time.

in the Strand.

These

however,

from

that Williams's
rate

the office

"

^that is advertisement

"

issued

"

Sack-

one

appears,

Mercuries
were

Peacock,

May.'

at Bristol

advertisements

appear

among

of

Nouwlles

Intelligence"at

Inquiry

(Earra Oourt).

Brompton

numerous

Office of

at the

the

He

Charles

One

suppressed,at

was

City
"

If so, it would

His later office was

at

"

"

an

anjrthingto

to show.^

Office

of

him

reason

post

of

gratis

1670.

year

mastership

of the

some

letters

the latter occurred

is dated

Office.'

"Office

distributed

papers
about

his

collecting

out

Williams, with

small

Customs

on

in

letter to Williamson

Papers

granted a

was

to

number
only post-Bestoration

Oliver

following year

ville Greaves,

have

The

the State

among

the

In

in

occurs
periodical

of that year.

September

afresh

started

was

wrote;

Williamson,

positionto furnish

Probably for this

foreign news.

Ordinairss

to

certainlyin

was

send

not

quarrelwith

until his

himself
intelligence

the

did

intelligence.He

hall"
White-

"

he

doubt

No

for his share

paid

like the older licensers,was

which

out

correspondenceaddressed

office.^

Williamson's

this

at

he sent

address,heading them

the

to show

at

Muddiman's

Master

copying clerks

Stars, in the Strand, and

from

time

appointed

was

office for his

Seven

news

in order
but

(Berkenhead

January, 1663.)

at the

was

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

Muddiman's

Henry
time

Act.

of the

passing
of

OF

addresses

His
are

privatehonae

taken

from

the

Papers.

1063-64, p. 276, 21at September, 1663, M. de Baoquoy


of

''Begs news

what

passes

and

the

Oazette

printed

in

".
S. P. Dom., Charles

'S. P. Dom.
in 1667

by

Thomas

JI.,187, No.

965.

17, No.

11. 34, No.


14.

The

Bromhall, whose

Copies of this

110.

first of the

CUy Mercwr%e$

office is described

are
periodical

in S.P.

in the Record

was

issued

Dom., Charlee
Office,News-

186

HISTOBY

by being

sentenced

had

been

not

stillcontinued
sincere

his

convinced

As

form.

placed in

In

his

greater

in 1664

for

amount

of

high
of

just penalty

crime

with

plot for

and

rising

family in 1663, refused


author's
existence

his

save

him

condemn

to

full

Twyn

as

of

the

met

the

press
of

knowledge
the

the

Boyal

by disclosinghis

life

part of the document

and

name,

John

extermination

the

to

having

as

libertyof

the

the

he deserves.

than

for odium

had

He

for

of

Twyn, nevertheless,

which

entirelyunconnected.

was

to toleration

writers

printer named

John

treason.
a

obloquy

also

was

ultimately

was

from

singled out
of

right,he

of the press

hopes.

bitterlyopposed

attracted

condemnation

the

of Divine

and

been

has

particularhe

deserved.

of his

defeat

has

he

he

as

who

pen,

post of journalist,and

the

the control

hands,

school

obtained

theories

High Churchman

in any

Puritan

Nedham's

Boyalist

powerfol

Bestoration

intriguesafter

of the

advocate

the

at

obtain

intrignedto

had

He

rewarded

loyalty,was

prolificand

most

JOUBNALISM

for his

death

to

with

pamphleteer,

ENGLISH

OF

in

printed is yet

he

peculiarlyhypocriticaland

dangerous criminal.^

It,

pamphlet
"

of

Tenure

execution

God

The

hath

execution

King hath
him

shed

to death."

Lord's

people

to avenge

forbid
of

The

there

garments

and

Regicides,for
Twyn,

all the

upon

the blood

were

is to be

buy
the

blood

If the

of

shed

since

which

swords

printing

found

of

all those

season

off the

of this

incumbent
of God

of Ahab

how

centuries

their

in the Thomason

of

way

taken

the

from

much

The

more

reason

people

Speeches

and

printerswere

Collection

(E.

1053

If

to

put

by

the

is there

the government

Lord's

it

people.

avenged

were

taliation
re-

suggested

was

requiresthe people

possessionof

other

Charles

(sic)of righteous souls

required the
which

King

of the

present tyrant.
on

righteous Naboth

it is now."
of

yoke

duty

the law

house

of

are

Milton's

to

royal family,by

sentences

of his

Treatise

''

Begiddes, justifyingwhat

blood

assassination

the

of

following
is

judgment

entitled

was

the

rest

to cut

us

innocent

tyrants have

these
ever

not

the

of the

Scriptural grounds.

on

It

advocated

and

resemblance

faintest

the

not

25 to 32 inolusiTe

76, pages

Magistrates".

and

of York,

for the

"

has

course,

Justice," and

Duke

the

of

Kings

of

Execution

n.,

11.,vol. 88, No.

S. P. Dom., Charles

which
if

...

to seU

their

Prayers

of the

punished
(1)), and

with
is

SURVEYOR

THE
On

24th

OP

their writers.

(one

after the

hunting
a

He

drawn

but

Restoration

in

seditious

out

the

befallen
the

him.

He
of the

drew

certain

the

other

works

""

Minutes

of

tinued
con-

preferment

that

had

writer,and

1662

the

again

which

proposed to bring
keepers.^

These

written

ConsideratwM

and

Press, which

for his

"

was

Proposals in

Order

Letters

his

Patent

he

".

all bills
sheet

per

the

seems

S. P. Dom.,
to have

attacked

Dom.,

the

Charles

Charles

taken

former

up
in

proposals
the

the

cudgels in

his

Cormderaiums

69, and

his

by

his

of

printed
the

EegtUation of

d4, and

'*

Surveyor

of the

of minor

multitude

51, No.

Muddiman's
and

26, No. 97.

In

complied with,

were

office of

Among

II.,39, No.

IL, 70, No.

his

licenses

grosslyfalse and fiotitious aooount, depictingthem as martyrs. These


other documents, either bearing no
publisher'sname, or the names
Oiles and Elizabeth
Calvert, and Livewell
Ohapman^ are all false
of seditious printing.
fraudulent,and part of an oiganised campaign
^

to

means

within

in the

followed
to

By

news

manded
de-

repressivetendencies.

same

for him.

up

for

supplemented by

clause

were

services

set

of

cordingly
ac-

attempt

open

an

further

documents

displayed the

by Royal

was

to

licensing,

and

news,

also the written

insertion

the

coffee-house
two

of all

Ucenser, of Is.

course,

he

asked

remuneration

of

fee, as

He

press.

control

after

requested

was

Projectfor Suppressing Libels

through

Press

warfare
and

he

way

This, of

supplant Muddiman,

and

in

for the

exceptions. By

"

reward

Act

he attracted

pamphlet

famous

and

presses

Bagshawe,

regulationof

and

warrant

advertisements, with

of this he

the lack of

Licensing

and

grasp

his

by

grant of the right to publish the

*'

to himself

books

employed

time

same

proposals, in which

general search

on

the

became

soon

proposals for

up

with

At

warrant

was

generallysurveying the

of
complain bitterly

passing

draw

general search

Presbyterians,notably Edward

to

granted

seize seditious

to

for

187

was

executed), and

not

books.

great deal of attention

with

him

also asked

up

was

PRESS

Febraary, 1662, L'Estrange

general warrant, empowering


and

THE

lOL

and
of
and

Berkenhead

behalf, for I/"stiange

FroposaU.

See

also S. P.

HISTORY

188

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OF

him

things,the patent granted

sheet

He

books, which

on

he

to interfere with

power

had

written

of the

press

whole

clear that

the

he made

them

His

entailed

that

it*no

both.

He

made, and these


trebled

back

his
to

also

their

intelligence,

was

the

him

in

later

originalsize (when

the Dutch

plead

"in

pricewas
that he

on

Before

".

brought

thus

so

by one-half, and

to state

newsbook

1663

purchaser had

the

reduction

No

his

consecutive,

he

his known

he

the

was

newswas

war

size I

the

doubUng

news

declared

and

brought

news,

henceforth

on

him

began

antagonism

ity,
great unpopularto take

iGjrstrank.

for L'Estrange had by


dissatisfaction,

writingcontroversial
made

even

value".

the written

great

ceased

the

of the

could

publicationof

and

it is

man

one

of the year

their size

however,
editorship,

devices, and

These
to the

enabled

value

progress),and

doubled

with

and

one,

eight pages.

means

the

buy

also reduced

they only contained

books

for

together and made

sufficed to

longer

ejectedfrom

ill served

were

the Newes, at the end

paged and numbered

**

L'Estrange's hands,

and
weekly pamphlet, the Intelligencer^

were

had

patent placedthe control

far too much

was

only

he

pay.

Thursday's newsbook,

So

into

of London

Monday's

to obtain

this

privileged

henceforth

end, and

an

As

although his newsbooka

but

in

to

news.

work

Muddiman's

he

had

for, nor

asked

manuscripts.

newsbooks, therefore,came

suppliedthe

also

fee of Is.

given the

not, however,

was

and

publishingnewsbooks

privilegeof writing,printingand
advertisements.^

the sole

his remuneration

as

pamphlets, that

an

overture

now
was

to Nedham.'

S. P. Dom.,

d6, is

directmg the dzawing of the giant, and dated 16th August, 1063.
L'EBtrange was evidently
not allowed
to interfere with Muddiman's
newsletters,for the privilegeof
free postage
denied
him and
he eventuallyobtained
it by favour
was
of Lady Chesterfield,one
of the farmers
of the post office (S. P. Dom.,
^

78, No.

of the warrant

XL, 139, No. 61).

'L'Estrange'sletter
No. 8.

oopy

"

'*

Charles

regret to add

to

Lord

Arlington^S.

that the Calendar

P.

of State

Dom.^
Papers

Charles

11., 135,

for 1665-66

gives

SIB
In
the

meantime

the

Mnddiman

Secretary of State's

Nicholas

WILLIAMSON

JOSEPH

still continued

office.

In

him, Joseph Williamson

his

against

Bennet, subsequently created

Henry

attached

to

October, 1662, Secretary

superseded, somewhat

was

189

Earl

of

will, and

placed
Arlington,re-

remaining Under-Secretary

befora

as

Sir

Joseph Williamson,

who

Arlington as principalSecretary in
of

son

College,Oxford
habit

of

he

left behind

has

kindly

no

anything

with

Evelyn

Arlington
to his

disinterested

hold

him

"

loving ease

Temple.

Williamson

man

insinuation

and

when

poor
of

Muddiman's

the first he had

Hence

merely from

Muddiman,

found

sending

of

means

to

up

letters of

the

the year

or

".

He

the

mately.
legiti-

more

of

Henry

it would

use

of

of view

social

profit,

advancement.

1666, is continually

to

be

Williamsons

"Mr.

intelligenceat

was

opportunity

importance

politicaland

all

subtletydexterity

point

the

Pepys,

remitted

"
"

noted

had

temporaries
con-

that Lord

states

neglectedno

seen

correspondence, and

as

from

principalsecretary
and

and

never

that his

"

by taking bribes

whether

himself, not
also

be

his

by

so

to

got

money,
From

but

he started his career,

making

be to

he

business

and
.

Papers

greedy

know

Evelyn

than

of

his relations with

motive, and
we

the

meiss

him, for he

of

in honour

more

the

mean,

was

recorded

are

Sir William

and

he

with

the State

among

character

acts

did not

him

the

Queen's

man,

; hence

papers

ceeded
suc-

was

of

Fellow

complicated story of

In

; and

1674

able business

very

all letters and

Muddiman.

grasping ;

was

it easy to tell the

Henry
did

He

keeping

documents
renders

and

North-country clergyman

in 1672,

knighted

was

direction".

neither

an

documents

adequate
it

writer^ in
"

Newsbooks

even

professesto

altogetheras
to

nor

are

the

in actual

describe.

EngUah
Letters

at

cases

some

The

conflict with

described

and

in

All

them.

of News

Review
of the

truthful
it must

prefaceto

greater length,

HistoriccU

in

for

an

account

be

disregarded

the documents
article

April,

Restoration

by

of the

the

here

present

1908, entitled

".

ferred
re-

the

mSTOBT

190

OF

ENGLISH

JOUENALISM

L'Estrange'snnpopalaritjas
Williamson

the idea of

his hands,"

and

He

Muddiman.
list of his

in

him,

and

could

obtain

not

Towards
to

have

Arlington

taken

received

strength of

the

probably

He

about

was

subservient

and

It
letters

as

carry
new

out

list of

his

the

over

Hickes,

James

of his creatures, and

During

wished.
in the

years

in his

some

to those

post office

at

"

to

lie

Edgehill,"and
the

then

commit

he

more

King

turned.
re-

invariably
"

when

glory

or

mean

some

in power

on

ment
Govern-

to the

live to God's
or

could

post office,and

post when

the Puritan

was

Hickes'

duties

to

sign

slavish

Muddiman'

Williamson, therefore,determined

in London

Muddiman

Lord

tool.

franked.

desired

the

pears
ap-

in October

sycophantic hypocrite,who

tell

part of

was

also

at the

actually necessary

was

to

Williamson

at Oxford

was

before.

aged father slain

act, and

treacherous

to

was

with

was

gence
deal of his intelli-

good

Court

one

professionsof wishing

made

been

nine

continued

been

had

he

it had

he

because

he

Muddiman

influence

anjrthinghe
"

an

aware

grant of the office of Postmaster

been

had

his mind

up

while

great plague, and

office,
was

to do

Hickes

times

have

Williamson's

letter

be relied upon

man
Muddi-

made

had

1665

year

to

steps

greater than
in the

clerk

; and

Secretary,Morice,

the

of the

had

therefore

privately. The

General, therefore
became

of

end

to him

''for

perfectlywell

was

to

latter

"refused"

was

salary

pay

the

son
; William-

list.

account

on

asked

that he

on

other

the

the

sent

time

times"

to

Arlington'soffice,as,

with

not

his directions

profits,and

asking,and

Lord

to leave

not

"several

related later

of his motive

to

to write both

Muddiman

under

correspondents/'but

himself

suggested

newsmonger

retainingHenry

receive all

to

course

into
getting the publicintelligence

letters of news,

and

newsbooks
of

of

''

correspondents
there

was,

through

of course,

no

him.

on

pretext of

the

Court

get

With

opportunity

design, but by engaging the latter

journalat Oxford,

to

to write

being there,

OXFORD

THE

he

would

attain

of

obtaining

and

his doable

Muddiman's

on

office in London.
in that he himself

Having
Oxford

from

"

his

am

the

composing of

to

you

had

having

the channel

through

In

the

offered

terms

worth

"400

found

it.

as
a

composing

of "100

If

Lord

place it

malice

judge
His

lord

have

were

1 of the

if I do
not

paid
must

you

times

the

salary

shall be
low

that

the

profitinconsiderable."
wrote

newsbook

The

rabble

about

of it

too

the

"200

drawn

the

newsbook

the

press, and

not

deserve

answered,

"teaze

(that is the

have

done

all the

given

doing

to

my

me

to

work

wages".

my

and

"

had

he

head

my
''was

biweekly Oxford Gazette

Secretaryof State, Lord

in

alleged,

to

was

faction

upon

he

which

at

employment
of the

was,

religiousdissenters)''which

letters

1665, No.
the

my

profitof

the

his

service

my

and

Arlington, protestingagainst

quality of

imaginable," and

balance

relinquishto

of

of

I take

series

instead

degree that

the

to

will

several

me

and

inadequate.
year,

useful

very

which

annum,

per

burthensome

to

this matter,

in recompense

for you

persecute the whole

such

by

the

The

politicaland

be

right in

greatest alarm, L'Estrange

letters

lengthy

and

that if you

yourself for having told


very

often

effected in the future

...

duty of it is

been

have

you

hands.

my

for his

have

in

Muddiman

Mr.

in the

better

be

prives
de-

you

directingyou

to

majesty

from

are

we

would

things would

I will procxure

his

"

reputation.

own

L'Estrange

to

into
good luck and opportunityof falling

to propose

newsbook

blame

with

whole

your

from

agree
the

treacherous,

as

despairof seeing this

the freedom
me

your

of these

in

and

you

and

to the letter

more

helping and

publick news

Majesty's service
advised

1665

in which

of

dresses
ad-

L'Estrange's news-collector.

as

distance

of the occasion

me

who

acted

the

copy

sent

were

all the

was

October,

the

sorry

they

as

to

arrangements, he wrote

15th

on

plan

had

made

field for Hickes

letters
The

191

object,of attacking L'Estrange,

clear

GAZETTE

on

16th

November,

appeared ;

Arlington,in

licensed

accordance

with

192
the

HISTORY

OP

Act

Licengdng

ENGLISH

written

JOURNALISM

by the UniversityprinterLeonard
in London

by Thomas
for the

"

gencer,

desired them".

siEbme

(Gazette

size and

designed by
could
the

"half

"

him

"

success

in

pretty,full of

its

in

that

Forgetfulof
imitate

it with

gence.

With

the

give

changed

his

satisfie the

I do

in the

of

with

received

was

ence,
correspond-

written
28th

on

November,

entitled

"

Pvblick

to

ItUeUir

the remarks
that

masters

I shall

in

your

short

were

is both

accompt

leave the

not

myself than

there

you

This

if I

reasons

prudence

assure

case.

wise, and

Its

telligence
in-

his form, and his day, for which


title,
shrewd

twenty

you

ingenious

in his Dta/ry,"Very

no

perceive my

may

in others, and

modesty

had

of his own,

obligedto gratifya point


and

an

it ".

follyin
he

was

Privilege,"
introducingit with

you

has
I could

"

paper

that

news

origin the printed

Oazette

attempted,

even

"

sole

this time

no

the fact that

L'Estrange

clearly

^was

"

the

the newsletters.

auxiliaryto

and

newes,

exactly

The

It

writing.

fact

but

and

parliamentaryproceedings and

as

inmiediate, and

was

By

InUUi-

Oxford, within

at

them.

"general applause/' Pepys remarking

"

the

gentlemen who

newsletters

by post with

to send

was

news

raise

folio"

Muddiman's

as

betrays the

of

paper

in

sheet

to send

like,he intended

"

difficult to

printed,such

device^ and

reprinted

University.

the

shape

be

not

and

merchants

some

been

have

of
privileges
The

:of

; and

printer of

the

printed

Any questionof infringementof L'Estrange's

patent would
the

Litchfield

Newcombe,

use

Muddiman

by Heniy

osity
curi-

discretion

will

to

serve

selves
them-

to content

rest

more

at leisura"

had

He

(on 2nd

to

and

resume

4th

and

the

King

and
his Intelligencer
December

7th
in

person;

takinglegalproceedings.

Charles

appealed
to the
"

to

"100

taken

into

Not

given to

year
the

for the

Williamaon.

and
respectively),
a

MSS.^

toL

then

step than

that, in addition

11. ordered

office,"^ and

Ormonde

wiser

much

newsbooks, which

Secretaries

News, however

henceforth
were

to

were

have

K.S.^ pp.
iii.^

this

351-352.

letters

whose

OP

HISTORY

194

bad

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

formerly

franked

come

their

to

hands,

was

Dismissed

*'

he

from

managed

that

and

This
diman

left

had

Hickes

Clarke,

also

side.

went

doing, he

him

to

"

Upon

myself about
last week

William

had

missal
dis-

son's
William-

Hickes

had

Williamson,

saw

(24th February,
says:

I wrote

thought it

and

turn

the

1666)

"

Mr.
at

Williamson

Oxon

and
till the

and

advisable

most

to

correspondents

my

fullyand

as

to

quit
Sir

that he had

as

detected

Hickes

him

with

formerly a

copy

of my

him

in it

by

sensible

forgery

those

of the

the

was

letters of news,

reply

which

to

he

in

this

he

practices,"

"

some

his letters to

sign, "nor

letters to write

pretends orders

after but
from

so

was

now

to

pass

writing for

off his

son,
William-

privilegedletters.
was

forgery ".

attempt of Hickes

in lieu of Muddiman's
Hickes's

free."

entrusted

he is disowned

formerly and

constantly as

privilegeand post

not

shall make

own

he

he

which
I

of

on

told of what

out

in which

own

wholly

adds

The

ful
untruth-

Hickes.

sent

London

same

given him
as

as

false account

When

"disowned"

I shall write

the
He

after Mud-

Morice, his Majesty's first principal secretary of

State.
with

ought

great hufif and heat," and ordered

"

the Oazette

at

office

that

therefore

misunderstanding between

he

as

Secretary, Sir William

same

was

circular.

then

of his

the

gave

in

went

recall his

circular

and

Monck*8

see

Muddiman

Muddiman

those

".

done

have

in enlistinghim
difficulty

no

promptly

latter

to

he

When

been

majestic and

imagined.

had

He

vantage
particnlarad-

own

February, consequently

15th

whom

to

his

contrived

hath

Williamson),

Arlington'soffice ;

well be

can

as

correspondence

he

his

of

(Arlingtonand

about

was

for that

service

for the

not

they expected he should

and

and

with

correspondence to

of honour

persons

of that

management

instructed

formerly was

and

the

characteristic.

He

at

once

GAZETTE

THE
drew

might

Mnddiman
of

be ordered

if he

as

with

''

in such

the

of

newsletters). He

had

in the presence

Morice

favourite

to interfere

and

of his

himself

expose

Muddiman

might

they

letter in

been

to him

reveal

the

not

was

fact that

''

letters,and

postage, had

free

Morice's
Hall

"

Williamson's

"

from

specialorder,
^had

meantime
the Oazette

under

Narrative

Williamson's

leO, No.
"

letters

accused

was

{i,e,,
original)

stop Muddiman's

to

his

frustrated

privilegeof
by Secretary

clerk in the

letters

of

letter office

franked.

as

In

been

the

writing

directions.^

betwixt

Mr.

severe

Henry Muddiman
(S. P. Dom.,
''

rebuff

to

and James
Charles

11.,

145).

Perrot

letter dated

not

had

agaiuQtSir William

at last administered

of the DiBoourse

one

directingthe

"first"

senior, concerning his Correspondence

Hickes

only Hickes'

Perrot, of Oriel College,had

Secretary Morice
^ '*

Williamson

to rescind

another

signed Muddiman's

Charles

that

''not

reallywas

attempts

first been

and

to

^receiving
stipends

Muddiman

attempt

the

up

contrived

was

"

it is

he

and

Hickes's

expected

to the end

there

Arlington by stylingMorice
belittling
Secretary of State.

King,

business in which

other

Animus

Muddiman.

wanting,

the

to draw

he

going on

background, and

Morice

".

".

per person

on

nected
con-

petition. He

ordered

he sent

in the

latter's attack

the

see

concerned

kept himself
that

God

grata with

was

were

that this had

All the time

not

changing his ground, accused

of those

to most

answer

it

to make

clearly not

free," stating that

go

40s. to "40

of from

himself

nor

as

this document
and

way

charge

discharged his duties,

to

letters of

sending out

King

Almighty

Hickes

In

case.

for the

was

even

and

thoroughly

of
the

neither

not

him

malpractices

persona

Arlington, and

did intervene, however,


statement

of

not

was

perhaps

195

"

repair

accused

as

Sir William
like

been

had

the

he remarked,

"

to

forgery (which he extended

appear

DANGER

Secretaries of State, askiiigthat

both

petitionto

up

IN

arranged
4th

to

see

February.

until 1671"
constantly,

Williamson
Wood

on

says that he

7th

February, 1666, in
wrote the QozeUe,though

196

HISTORY

Hickes

Gazette's

Ferrot, with
like

publicear
all

by
probability

as

well;

and

to be

"100

General

London

Williamson

Cwrent

must

have

at

'

by

*'

are

"

these

"

has

their conduct

Ebolxa

the

make

opportunityto
after

week's

bef ora'

terms,

interval.

its absence.
All his

newsletter

ceased.

papers

attempts

writer

When

His
to

futile,

were

Muddiman
a

scale

the

like

his newsletters
449

Fleming,

Mbdlby

Lady

an

Fopling Flutter,Act

young

we

indiscreet

so

exact

lovers

account

last talked of

they

from

m.,

deserve

the great

ii.,

scene

though

to

tunate.
to be unfor-

lady i* th'

box

I wonder

you

wench.

What
The

Townlby

BiBDLBT

been

Sir

liyix^libel,a breathinglampoon.

pieces.

to

torn

had

YouVe

You're

matters
'"

both

unremunerative.

seen

Man

Mbdlby

not

All

rescue.

Commiation, 10th Report, Appendix iv.,p.

to the little orange


"

delightedat

(761).

40

truth

of

includingthe printersof

correspondenceon

of Mode; or,
Geoige Etherege,1676 :"
Lady
Towztlby
: I pity the

Sir

out,

as

been

never

M88.

Cf. The

"

say

had

the

end, however.

an

newsletter

organised his

Cal., p.

in

and

Albemarle,

of

been

have

conspicuous by

correspondence was

Hid.

against

State

Duke

to

came

reappeared

compete with Muddiman

to contend

L'Estrange's charge

must

seized the

Gazette

not

were

of which

the

possessing the

not

and
Intelligence^

was
Intelligence

his

on

and
Intelligenoe;^

now

was

burnt

were

and

the

for, when

and

Oagette, and

difficulties.

Gazette

troubles

the

Secretary of

there

paid. L'Estrange

printersin

Current

to issue

hope

not

by

great fire of London

The

authorised

precarious. Williamson

Monck,

moreover

Williamson's

the

could

which

threatened

correspondentsand
backed

was

OurrerU

became

once

few

was

into

have

must

opposition to

the

Muddiman,

latter,who

the

in

silence

complete

Muddiman

"paper/'

position at

JOURNALISM

gather that he

days, entitled

same

and

the

we

latter.

the

official

second
the

subsided

then

punish

to

from

and

Williamson,

ENGLISH

OP

More

think

you

projectmay
:

You

would

office of

inteUigenoefor

have great dealingswith

country ladies.

of

settingup

get

Muddiman
tihai)

an

money.

has with

their husbands."

NBW8LETTEES

STOLEN
the

appeared
the

Chuf^te
'*

OaM0tU

greatest quality"

in favour

The

"

them

of

the

conniving

to

his

the (iazette and

in transit

to

Muddiman

through

the

Muddiman

by

to what

he

the

among
Hickes's

remained

it held

of free

postage

British

Merowry in 1712

alone

for many

in

Earl's

to 2nd

and

that

states

into the chancel

"

"

Court

Kensington

wife's grave, under

newsletters
of addressed

State

Papers

Parish

stillretains

years, and

been

(30th July

plentifulsubsistence".
near

intelligence,

Henry Muddiman's

to have

never

seems

Muddiman,"

Coldhern

supply

ences
guarded refer-

own

to the newsletters.
secondary position

"a

"

doing.^

was

its official position,


but until

"famous

to

post ; for the numbers

this fact,without

Gazette

clerks with

steal Muddiman's

disclose

March

Mr.

Secretary of State

"

newsletter

own

newsletters

him

sent

they havingnothingin

theft, and, in order

at

Hickes

actuallyemployed

The

December,

formerly were

proceedingsof Parliament, which

reduced

alone

themselves

27th

on

slightthem

Finally, Sir Joseph Williamson

while

betake

to

of the

persons

large."

writes at

was

clined
People "de-

''

and

Oazettea less than


much

people so

of them,

to Williamson

wrote

1667, that twenty dozen


out.

for".

''constrained

were

Hickes

to them".

asked

''never

was

197

August) writes

died

Church,

from

the North

privilege

withdrawn, and the

in 1692, and

Cambden's

His

his newsletters

He

Lord

death

gained

his house

"at

buried

was

of the

on

at

7th

the left side of his

on
"

pew

by

the

"

ing
allylead-

door ".^

Roger North's Lifeof 8vr John North ; Wood^s Life and Timet,
Commiaiion, 4th Report^
by A. Clark, (numeroas referenoes); Hist, M88,
p. 260; 6ih Report, p. 318; TihRe^rt,
p. 468; 12th Report, p. 77, eta
1
B.g.,7th September, 1868, S. P. Dom., Charles IL, 246, Ko. 190 : *" I
sent yesterdaya letter for you with two enclosed of H. M. and desir'd Mr.
Francis
newsletter derk) ** to send it to you without
(then Williamson's

See

also

"

opening it ". Every addressed newsletter


by Muddiman
(whether attributed to
signed,but are headed *' Whitehall,"and
*
Kensington Pariah Registers. The

is

by

Ooleheme

Court, Earl's

Court

The

to be found

Frands
can

or

in the State

Papers

no), llieywere not


by the seals.

be identified

site of Coldhern

house

wns

is now

occupied

the residence of Sir

HISTORY

198

The
and

Qazette

1666,

noticd
Both

Intelligence.
business

the

not

insert

would

not

would

publish

in

failed.
it

his

of

number
of

L'
and

of

Idster,

William
said
is

by

and

has

printing

its

folio,

"ither-in-law

Lysons

incorrect

to

as

he

have

lived

in

''catchword"

resided

General
in

Wimbledon.

it

Lambert,
at

to

the

time

of

concerned

as

it.

to

the

are

is

It

the

Gothic

up

though

day,

such
in

have

to

seems

succumbed

never

to

at

inserted

be

issued

June

is

chiefly

but

however,

25th

present

they

State,

Estrange,
on

the

that

of

advertisements,

to

Current

were

and

This

State

in

June,

"

matters

them.

at

in

advertisements

were

Gazette

it

time

same

Advertisements.

the

in

intelligence/'

patent,

Parliament

of

Act

biweekly

this

for

''

"

innovation

is

they

advertisements

with

by
a

unless

PtLblick

large

of

of

enough

Oddly

contains

only

virtue

the

that

''paper

apart

paper

called

pamphlet

advertisements,

appeared

about

stated

them

this

stopped

of

effect

appearing

papers

contain

to

this

to

similar

JOURNALISM

intended

not

was

announcement

an

ENGLISH

OF

quired
re-

still

modern

letters.

1649.

Lambert

Restoration,

but

A.

APPENDIX

Note.

"

ihis is the

I think

describing
notice
up

only

in existence

copy

at the murder

events

of

Charles

of King

Royalist periodical
L

owing to the fact that the date is 1648-49, and

among

identityof
*'

the word

the

periodicalsof

the

man

who

Remember

escaped
bound

important

King's faoe"and

the

spat in

as

settlingthe

the

meaning

of

".

MERCURY.

ROYALIST

It is

1648.

It has
has been

(1)

the

Places, discoveringtheir

other

Head-Qoarters, and

signes,reproving their Crimes,


From

Wednes.

31

the

of

till Wed.

January

dioere

Bidentem

Quid
To

kill the

But

Highest

'tis deemed

now

Temple

but
'Twas

now

'tis made

Oriminall

(now

'tis done

and

Grave

we

then

Lawes

haye

by

Godly

Men

Stable.

to yiolate

the wholesome
But

Done

Venerable

with

Adom'd

just,and

esteemed

was

and

Sacred

agon

Treason

to Reason.

consonant

as

The

King eight yeares

counted

was

yerum

yetat

o' th' Nation

lawless

Proclamation.
900

de-

advising the Eingdoma

and

1648.
.

1.

Proceedingsat Westminster,
unparallell'd

the

CoMMUNiOATiNG

Numb.

Elbnoticus,

Meecubius

State,)

the

of February

HISTORY

202

Horatiofl did the Tribnnes


cradelitatem
it

initiB"

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OF

of War,
condemne

You

damnatis,

Cmdelitatem

"

cruelty and

yet

use

yon

yourselves.
To

compleat story of their proceeding to this

the

give you

height of Impiety,or insert


of his

Majesty by

of that

pretended

you

his

this

narrow

at

speech

mixture

to

him

lingerto

him

entire truth

forbear

was

brought

You

must

the

Hurst

was

their indeavour

and

discomfit

best be done

his

ever

let

who

shall

all,at large,published

of them

respect I

also the wil-

am

collections.

Castle

that

understand,

hatchet, before

and

hope you

as

to

by
i(if

any

soule, and

from

some

time

he

death.

his neck

to

speak, so likewise
they could)

means

of

of his

ordained

him

this

the

houre

the

they had

they heard

notice

to take

cruelties of his Persecutors


from

the

Clowd

lived,should spare

But

Only this,I shall desire the Reader


circumstantial

continued

and

corrupt and

whilst he

in that

and

Ruder

my

Track

expect, that those

his death

at

impartial!Pen,

an

to

could

upon

wrong

the

manifest

Glosses

who

blemish

any

printedby themselves,

are

Majesty's expressions,arguments,

in deed

And

shortly have

by

his

of

to fix any
do

without

give

to

or

(I hope) be expected in

consideringthey
not

him

condemned

scaffold cannot

of their malicious

reasons.

not

the

roome,

sense

purer

which

answers

illegal
jurisdiction

the

exception to

court

new

on

large,though

of

way

solid

the several! full and

it

perplex

to

they supposed might the

by distempering his body.


(3)
philosophy Mr.

(for so much
To

this end

Rascallityof
buffet him
of

whilst he

the

with

fifteen

words

pound

to
a

the

they let the very

day long

him

eare-

''You

day allow'd

soldiers that stand

witnesse,who
with
you

in the cold must

heard
to

pox

for your
not

revile

to

this

Reproachfull language, of
an

capable of.)

was

at Windsor

Souldiery all

good qualitywas

these

was

Peters

gentleman

a
a

centinel

you,

must

table,but

have

and

15d.

we

use

have
poor

to releeve

APPENDIX

UB

with.

to

that

*'

giftwhich

shall be

we

by that

qnit of

anything

him

in

him

long," with

in relation

curing

the

other

much

evill)
brious
oppro-

ing
language and unseemly gesturesthink-

him
he

they

passion.
parable
incomhim

moved

never

and

princely scorn

into

temper, for of such

that

was,

put him

and

provoke

of another

than

more

given

ere

to

patience

203

(for so they termed

had

you

meanes

they found

But

God

treasonable

and

"

Stroaker

Well

to

their

neglect of

insolencies.
he had

When

happiness to enjoy the

the

of their commanders,
but the

was

rebuke

our

comfort

Saviour

had

The

scome.

told him

of them

one

he

day

thus

of the Jews,

"

(says he)

Well

"

(saidthe King)

what

then

die with
his

apprehending

it makes

to do with

they meane

I shall

me,

**

Hall

But

good company."
desired

meaning,
*'

by good company?

"

if

and

me,

perceive

they do murther
the

Wittall

what

not

he meant

(says the King)

meane

tryall".

for your

know

to

Windsor,

the Parliament

''

matter.

no

society

Temptation,

brought from

was

Sir

"

in their

he had

settingup scaffolds in Westminster

are
**

and

same

all the

of any

company

Beligion,

"

and Liberty,for these I think


Lawes, Prerogative,Privilege,

After

Trial

"

he

for these

to St.

came

not to
are

James's, and

the insolencies

speak of

notoriouslyknown

they permitted ^I may

rather

"

at their

(on Monday

January

of the

all the

so

will be

as

he

venome

store

his

All the

for you

night

the

himselfe

22) Col. Hewson^

handkerchiffe, and

and
time

Me

he

'Oneof

the

God

"

soldiers
the Hall

(for the
the

King only

patientlywyp'd

off his face, saying,'' Well, sir I


both

Cooke,

justiceon
Craft) cry'd ''justice,

Gentle

out

and

passed from

traytor," and withall spit in his face,whereat


smil'd,took

of his

remembered

commanded,

say

time

of Bradshaw

and

pleasure and

to revile him

honour

they might out-live

they will not"

but I feare

me,

wish

I could

and

good company,'

'

are

the

hath

justicein

more,

of louzie

".
had

couple

the'*jadgeB."

or

204

mSTORT

Booldiers

OF

that

him

stinking Tobacco

their

his

performe

nor

and

their

rested

never

smoaking

or

that neither

so

devotpn

without

not

and

themselves,

amongst

or

honres

two

JOURNALISM

centinel in his bed-chamber

stood

relieved every

ENGLISH

to

either

he could

Expostulationsand

were

talkingto

his eyes

out

Almighty God,

who

with

take his rest,

but in their

sight,

censura

(4)
Thus, I say, they indeavoured
should

be able

not

and

reason

least wise

found
to

so

execution

trouble

of his

and

of his

Boule

such

and

of his

nesse

that
sufferiugs,

Earth, and

the
of his
Rest

Thy
To

bishop

his

Bishop

he

Blessed

Saint

toilsome

huddle

Whilst

these

them

And

makes

Alas

fond

Ought

asssssinfttes

that did the Sin

every

their vaynes

straines
tyrannisein shrunken
Regicids 1 thought they to speed

them

better

in their worke

hundred

This dismal blow

hearts

for this black

they

hath left tbem

had
not

before
a

comforter
of

London)
to the

score

deed

with

of

that

Charity,which

dyed in and

loads their consciences, dries up

with

temptations both

thy fall,which terminates


dayes, but does afresh begin
on

and

boldly and

in

vengeance

that

hfe promised.

valour

spotlesssoule

cause

the

and

he encountered
and

with

testimony

spoken

Boyall spirit.

Which

For

it

undaunted

assaults

yieldedup

justnessof

Triumph

Doe

the

that

the
came

weakly

so

constancy, Faith, Hope and

Alacrity,courage,
became

blessed

that

patienceand

all
effectually,

subdued

be

of

At
he

purityof

much

so

(next his Saviour) the Lord

last moment

Hell

to

reverence

his Christian

was

it) leave

glory of God

(to the

But
honour

hinder

his death, which

goodness at

cleamesse

that when

conscience,fearfully,
or

(ifthey could

not

plead against

of their Hothams,

one

he

they feared, and

him

amaze

like

might dye
of

that

did, to their lastinginfamy.

he

horror

to

settled

otherwise

distemper and

he

and

might

which

judgement

neverthelesse

he

that

pretended Authority, with

their

to

himself, as

to recollect

so

him,
indispose

to

the

great-

APPENDIX
And

thoee

205

valiant martyrs when

they dy'd
Still Phceniz-like
the Ohiuroh with new
supply'd
Even
so, fresh troupe shal from thy ashes spring
as

T* avenge

Whilst

thou

Which

Thus

These

When

shall not

Charles

handkerchiefes

Others

bought

his blood, for which

with

of others

half

of the

desired

of board

lesse

or

body

was

admitted

which
of

dy'd

were

some

shilling

accordingto

the

without

none

cofiEin'd

as

certain

their

dip

to

blood, were

sought it. But

after his

And

money.

his

peeces

more

that

persons

as

the soldiers took

crowne,

glorie

to rot in storie."

things in

other

King

their

gain'dimmortal

him, such

mnrdered
or

for moneys.

the First hath

traitors stinking names,

had

they

Oharles

dost possesse a Grown


touch, nor Treason
owne

great Martyr

Yiolenoe
'^

second

the bloody Orowne

many

ity
qualready
desi-

as

(5)
red

to

permitted

the soldiers

meanes
was

it, were

see

heard

"

to say

I would

Majestiesto behead,
that which

But

Prince

of

his

it him

Wales)

could

we

(in case
should

which

else to

charged

not

had

King
be sent

he had

Pr. and

to the

they

his

house.

'

Bemember

were

had
what
But

rack'd)

given

the
to

him

the

on

did

'*

should

accordinglyand

his

That

withall that

Bishop

this

was

Bishop might

confess

held

proceedingsin

what

concerning
in

he had

messages

that

send

') Ordered

be

not

searched

carryed

required (and

the

Prince,

necessary
was

as

or

him

such

George
in

the

if occasion
the

King

other, and

any
or

for

away

private instructions

charge to deliver

so

(as

be

George
cabinets

those

as

That

the

son

to

they thought fitting


(some say dll)But the
for certain they took from
moved
him, and it was
papers

".

this.

was

of London

disposed of it)

so

bestowed

papers,"which

of them

use

upon

Bishop

such

more

odious

more

bestow

this word

the scaffold with


the

the

such

one

they but suspecting (because he gave

G^rge, which

on

but make

that

three

or

yet

rate, by which

insomuch

two

them

renders

had

had

we

King (having nothing

The

him

if

of moneys,

store

got

at

the

destructive

alleadged)it might

Queen.
to

their

incurre

206

HISTORY

farther

oditun, which
this

to

crept

in

moment

That

Prince
Ireland

of

Wales,

pain

under

or

in the

King
Rout

his

for any

For

that

and

the

father's

with

It may

the

England

or

their

of inherit-

claim

whatsoever

we

clearly

may

(but it will
been

have

which

execution
the Son

of

never

be

guiltyof

all

they laid

to

that

should

with

stand

archy
extirpateMon-

to

as

murders,

offences,will neither

reason.

and

utmost

city over

personal misdemeanours

suppose

lawfuU, yet that therefore

were

every

proclaim

of

King

him,

they murdered

Tyrannies, treasons

charge,and

to

etc., By which

granted) that the King could have


those

are

all the

other

any

much

so

Branch.

and

they

presume

to be the

or

treason

not

that

having already

they allow us) by colour

election

it was

That

other

any

is made

should

persons

High

of

of

for which

Proclamation

or

succession

need

no

of wickednes

(for of Scotland

cance

see

person

had

of their lives.

danger

no

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

they

height

this interim

In
'*

OF

sentence

sujfferfor the

good Divinity nor

of Justice.

manner

"

But

for once,

the

though

yes

great fancy

therefore

and

treason

have

I'le be

I hold

I 0 yes I

bold

so

land

no

be

to

guilty of

it.

by

and unjust power


Arbytrary illegall

terous

and

bloody

lawful

King

Charles

of

and

England

have

force

of

the First

by

Traytheir

barbarously murdered

most

army

of

play the champion

as

the Rebells

Whereas

this peece

of

(6)
that name,

in the

the clocke

and

the

the

King

Defender

of

Father's

death.

the

accordinglybound

of

the Second

Faith
And

King

England

is the

about

the

son

of God

two
men

very

and

requiredto a^jknowledgehim
hereby strictly

of

by

heir apparent

and

only undoubted

people within

by the lawes

all

unto

Scotland, France,

etc., from

all the

1648

it knowne

be

aforesaid murdered

lawful

of Jan.

30th

aftemoone,

presents that Charles

these
of

Tuesday

on

and

Ireland,

minute

his dominions
this

true

of his
are

nation,and

for their Iftwful

APPENDIX

Soveraigne and King


to him

and

to bear

paine of High

upon

God
This
Castle

and

Alleagiance

and

Treason

King.

the

save

of Windsor

escaped forth

in

to London

came

Faith

trae

Hambleton

evening Duke

207

habit

bntcher's

where

Wednesday, January 31.


Hee
he

taken

was

knocking

carryed by

was

set

guard

water

If

Southwark
had

whence

there

not

was

strong

they chop off his head

believe he

earnest, I shall then

in

inne

an

Whitehall, and

to

him.

upon

at

in

good

treacherous

so

as

cowardly.
This

day also Sir Lewes

from

Whitehall

were

drown'd

both

alive,and

where

that

These

their

should

be

appointed to bring in
High

said

the

that the

Court

Duke

of Holland

Earle

think

they

cast

are

they
are
on

up

put the regicidesin debate

of

of

that

Justice, who

others

(forso they

act

an

in order

should

ordered

was

and

call)the chiefe delinquents. And


voted

bodyes

tryallwhereupon it

to murder

escaped

think

hope and

to

it)to constitute another

forthwith

but

escapes

Holder

Mr.

some
prisoners,

were

this time

by

and

rest

bringing the
call

they

in the Thames,

safer shoare.

conmiittee

Dives

are

(whom
it

hereunto

be forthwith

they
was

removed

to the tower.

Thtirsday,February 1.
This
in

day the Begicidesat Westminster

debate

disable
voted
a

of

Which

was

House

are

that

admitted

They
and

to

assented

to, and

to

enter

their

be

absent

to

sit

voted

as

such

dissents

declare

the

to

settlingthe

for

ground

shall

sittingin

from

concessions

King's

late

sufficient

those

members

all those
the

(forsooth)which

Act

an

spent much
for the
the

of the

members

theirs

future
who

propositionsto

peace

from

House

wind

as

be

kingdome.
sit in the

said vote, and

the
before

they shall be

members.

that

Holland, the Lord

Duke

Hambleton,

Capelland

the

Sir John

Earles

Owen,

Norwich
should

be

208

HISTORY

the next

High

they
of

Court

they

made

ENGLISH

OF

minder

would

and

the

in the

Injusticemet

the

preparationto

some

JOURNALISM

day

next

of the

some

painted chamber,

where

tryallof them.

(7)

but

the

by

with

met

Capell this evening escaped

Lord

The

treachery of
and

the

But

House

Lords

touching

with

desire

settlement

the

that

day

ference
con-

of

the

the

vouchsafe

not

appointed

stand

to

acquainted

were

thereof

it may

no

unfortunately

was

doore, they would

instead

hearing,but
or

the

Commons

the

at

watermen

of the Tower

againe.

though they

was

whether

from

came

with
Nation.

thither

sent

message

two

forth

senger
mes-

him

consider,

to

their greatnesse to take

any

notice of them.
because

And

in the

run

therefore
others

who

have

little as

as

such

be

to

ordered

they consider

make

judges

those
the

the 9th of Feb.

and

make

and

as

them

that

was

while

that

Death, and that

authority from

It

of

all other

dealingswith

any

some

themselves.

his

by

to have

they have

and

adjourn'd until Fryday

meane

Trajrtors

void

are

refuse

to sit until

in the

that

King

of them

should

tearms

of the

name

some

and

Judges commissions

the

choice

fittest for

are

of

their

tumes.

Friday, February 2.
The

committee

(mz.) that

they

found

towards

the
it

ton

and

it in

''

voted

Commissioners

mad

so

as

state

thereof'

posture, that

of their assistance

merchants

advance

Smnmers

That

the

number

of

6000

and

ordered

the

some

moneys

fleet.

upon
Where-

ships for

the fleet

of
Victuallingthere-

to be raised for that service ".

thing miscalled
the

tartar'd miserable

of the next

settingout

was

reported the

Navy

some

they will be

moneyes

That

the

with

be 73 the Men

should
and

found

conferred

they had
and

of

rest

was

names

an

Act

for TriaU

again reported
to the

number

of Duke

and

of

Hamble-

approved of, and

63, whereof

any

15

HISTOBT

210

and

carried

content

in

their

give

his

kingly, only
and

of

I know
the

but
be

is to

Crowne
the

for

apart
those
of

disposed

of England,

wanting.

is

King

and

England,
The

please

Ire-

Bevenue
of

the

linquents
de-

make

to

the

officers

day

in

amongst

the

means

maintenance

shall

this

for

no

man.

the

they

As

by

of

great

And

king.

of

name

more

any

Constable

Marshall

mighty

of

be

to

are

only the

set

estates

be

to

to

have

to

intend

they

High

and

himselfe.

looks

one,

Lord

what

not

and

Army

be

is to

Cromwell

is all

effect

in

that

sit

liberty

the

Damme

excellency

are

not

allow

kingdome

the

Friyiledge they

have

but

would

they

this

may

advice,

Doable

of

government

ton

than

Pembrooke

makes

They

and

opinions
voice

negative

them.

JOURNALISM

Only

negative.

the

allow

to

ENGLISH

OP

of

the

Army.

Chamber
are

will

serve

he

be

President

informe

cannot

much

their

elect

to

their

of

one

Sure

If

no.

Tis

write

do

As

Man

ever

him

upon

will

turn

conduce
Inne

they

he

of treason,

passe

bred

by,

vowed

him,

but

be

give

served

die*

to

let him

Hereunder

lye

lyes

perjuries
and

other

may

to

Finis.

things
kings

of

they

this

upon

breeding
his

Grave.

they

Bradshaw

live

to

falls, there

murdering

to

for

Blow

one

were

thus^

impudence,

RebeUion,

Graiea

his

Painted

who

but

none

say

longer

can

Where

epitome

That

hope

thousandB

Bradshaw.

And

officers, but

and

ought

look

Bradshaw

Then

the

For,

older.

Th'

but

this

met

Some

you.

tumes,

Can

Injustice

of

Court

High

The

have

ere

APPENDIX

B.

NEWSLETTER.

WmTBHALL,
Wb

doe

Van

Beuingen

intends

Ld.

Haward

way

for

England

tells

that

us

he

disorder

lately their,

y* Plaza

Mayor

of both

presence

y* Gannon's
litie

of

the

especially
them.

the

bannished.
w^

The

Alguazills, w^

the

mag^

her

or

yet in

and

soldy"
The

On

ma^

this

but

to

be

to
was

time

Ld
that

of

Mayo'
purpos

pleased

to

to

of

that

their

are

from

y^ guard

they

so

went

superior

Channles

of

dye

theife

made

and

killed, severall

to

officers

cloystrs,

alguazill

and

it.

Killalough

is elected

to

fled into

10

about

hanged

Yaughan

y" 16th

message

his

alguazill

bishoprick

Dr.

voyd

regard

wounded,

have

togeather

till all the


all

are

dales

without

ether

revenge

and

companions

officer

one

the

greatest qual-

woemans

would

regemens

for

of

in

Melger

is like

of his

upon

happened

much

who

resque

y^ killinge of

inraged y^ soldy*"

of y*

expected

feast
de

were

six

or

Bull

y" Conde

and

five

from

newe

upon

of

6th

Madrid

quarrill which

Guerrarra

and

second

of

soldy"

seeke

of

Conde

at

p-sons

balcones

their

followed
a

many

dated

suddenly

between

w^

Marquess

Since

was

in

Spaine

and

and

beginning

the

to

have

first

ma^

Guards
out

ran

might

at

their

Cadiz

at

arrival.

Madrid

from

of

exchange

his

France

latest

the

the

before

take

to

arrived

was

great confusion

in

and

their.

if not

home,

goes

The
his

who

in

Boreel

Heer

Myn

dayely expect

now

23, 1670.

August

the

to

in

Ireland

place.

Aldermen

and

attended

acquaint
211

become

beinge

his
them

eta,
ma^

in

y^

he

in

p-suance

Councill
had

where

Besolved

of

212

OP

ENGLISH

to devarse

himselfe

HISTORY

for sometime
commanded

and

of tumults
to

prsume

y*

them

Which

Comons.

roabe

ma^^TB ^ard
ma^y

His

has

Bristoll w^

done

and

then

given

order

Court

Hampton

E.

19

and

20th

ma^

His
for y^

Sr Patrick

and

Paris

Artch

towards

Wednesday

of

that this weeke

y^ 19th

Westmin'

were

before

he

had

to them

their
On

of Scotland
of Snt

Bsp

AthoU, E. Hume

Eincardin, Bp.

Ld

Advocate,

Erskine
Bobt.

Sr

done
the

is

Esq' Sr.
Sinder

Sr.

Bamsey

care

of the

15000

they

days

Duke

men

to goe

upon

to have

was

for

y^

on

frontier
say

de

England

here.

justicisof

y^ Ld

the

that

french

expect him

his ma^^in
to

of

army

within

of y^

severall
before

an

23rd

Buckingham

may

we

Aug**

wh^

and

extraordinary treate

On

of

Peron

Duke

The

Flanders.

cording
ac-

pleased

has been

Bruce, Sr Andrew

da**

in y" head

went

Monday

kingdome

Morray,

and

Moray.

They write from

Crecqui

Windso'

on

Begester, Ld.

Artchibald

Sr

built at

be

to

to

removed

Privy Scale,

Freaser, Sr William

Alexander

as

etc.

Newbysh, William

Staires,Ld

Moray

Bobert

so

varieties of wines

Vide, Lt. Comm',

Dunblane, Bp. Galloway, Ld

an

his

Dunferline, E. Lothian, E. Tweedale,

Halton, Ld

of

into

fregot

mag^

to treat

Chancel', Ld

Ld

Andrews,

late Act

brought

newe

resolution.

Union.

the

the

their

where

the Comm'*

conseming

for

should

as

the

to

were

w^

treated

on

to their former
to nominate

they

such

upon

contrary

prevention

for

care

fore
there-

of ordinances.

70 peeces

carriageswent

The

comitrey and

their

ptickl'eye

in conventicl'

meete

in the

continue

to

have

to

JOURNALISM

peace

Councill

Mayor

and

in and

where

about

his ma*y

Aldermen

mended
com-

people in his absence

and

diligence to suppressinge y^ meeting houses.


y* 20**^ his ma^^

by

reason

of his short

stay here

to

before the
as lay undetermined
give a dispatchto such maf
board was
gratiouslypleased to sit againe in Councill,where
it

was

issued

ordered
forth

that

proclamation

that all y* memb"

should

of both

immediately

Houses

might

be

have

APPENDIX
that his

notice
all

up and

come

ment

Ma^

will and

make

to Windsor

attended

The
death

of Dr.

His

maf^

write

time

Scaville

Sr John

conduckted

that the

to

them

of y^ like usage

workmen

sent

were

places for such

fare

of

in

from
the

of

lay under

House.

of 20000
His

should

and

all

the

French

marched

let"

y^ last

towards

The

Einge

yeare

places where
been

sword

his severitie
his

and

the like

them.

Severall

Candea
not

build

to

of y^ Mahometan

v^as

27th

4 daies

are

like inconveniences

y^ troopes spoyled

and

presented him

preparingfor

we

any

Flanders, partly

they quartred.

at Paris

had

when

da*

upon

y^ privilegeof liveinge in

not

had

tells

sent

committ

beinge

they

them

him, who

y" Venechanes

all that

his

till

had

havinge by

countrey who

are

Mr.

ordered

attend

forage,and partly to avoyd y"

Buckingham

best horses

to

Constantinople to

By

that the campe

vintages in

Amb"

his

newe

that

and

corrispondenceamongst

Garrison.

that France
the

lef" da^ 15th

Adrianople

at

abused
to

religionhad

for want

the

having staid

y* Duke

Venice

The

left Candea

that

12th

their ; and

where
y^ pallace,

y^ vizer of Candea

advised

by

buildinge of

ma^*** Besident

his

Segn'was

offences settled

or

voyde

August

arrived

were

Finch

immediately

impayling

Citty

become

Court.

invoys extraordinaryfrom

for 6 daies.

Grand
to

y" mesage

threates

Hampton

the

da^

Mr.

Highness

with

hye chiaux

of

to

Astley is appoynted by
for

order

Florans

to be intertained
us

Herbert

from

and

ma^y and BoyaU

were

day

same

Norage beinge

given

has

Hammelton

some

of y" nobilitie and

Hull.

fregott at
They

y"

went

"

him.

suckseed

to

their adioum-

Highness Prince

great number

Crofts, Dr

they should

next.

queene
of

Deanery

that

accordinge to

Eoyall

by

y" gentrey etc. The

ma^

his

y* (torn) w**

On

full house

213

pleasure was

of October

the 24th

on

him

The

lodged
vdth
to

Duke
in the

of his

the

valine

crownes.

Ma^

beinge informed

in Councill

that

notwithstand-

214

ing

orders

of

the

16th

other

as

mSTOKY

coyned

that

vended

farthings

orders

that

and

the

found

guiltie

Generall

shall

for

France

(Written
in

down

by

of

in

me

Bichard

clerk,

shorthand.

forget

where

if

the

over

and

not

by

of

search

in

be

may

Mb.

Stmonbs

Lanceston
Cornwall
S.

P.

Dom.,

Chas.

EL,

278,

No.

38.

night

taken

Muddiman's

mare

etc.,

made

for

(torn)

Wm.

this

and

(Unsigned.)
To

till

Buckingham.

dictated

is

Attorney

adioumed

Duke

black

the

the

offers

be

shall

or

wind

probably

fresh

Corporations,

Coxmcill

y^

yet

give

17th

beene

have

following

The

will

Line

yatch

bringe

to

Hasp
tell

and

vending

and

especially

The

persons

prosecuted

prosecuted

law.

to

9th.

y^

effectually

the

silver

not

y"

on

and

such

Goyning

did

who

ooyners

(be)

of

1666

etc.,
been

offending,

so

or

halfpenies

p-tise

May

presenting

for

continued

psones

accordinge

September
goes

still

stampers

of

18th

accordingly
evill

the

was

all

the

1668,

had

that

JOURNALISM

one

farthings,

psons

nevertheless

the

December

of

severall

such

board,

the

or

ENGLISH

OP

writing:)
handif
the

you

can

gelding

APPENDIX

TITLES

SOME

OP

C.

*'

C0EANT08

"

BUENEY

THE

IN

COLLECTION.

The

23

Bohemia

garia,

Translated
Printed

London.

18

accident

strange
in

London.

Printed

by

William

ShefiEard

and

Alley.
Hie

25th

Sheflfard

27th

Thomas

and
4

Octob.

of

1622.

1622,
October

see

Newbery

and

Pope's-head

17

parts

of

Nathaniel

for

(Fine

pp.

37

relation

1622.
A

1622.
for

of

Christen-

Butter

woodcut

20

and

coat

of

Nathaniel

tisements
adver-

other

for

Nathaniel

the

afiEaires

and

Nicholas

Butter

pp.

relation

true

and

letters

Printed

etc.

newes

Archer

Printed

etc.

(For

1622.

of September.
of

The

Zitta

copie.

Dutch

in

inside.)

arms

The

of

City

the

sold

most

Printed

London.

William

from

News

of September.
etc.

be

to

are

''with

of

High

the

the

at

8 pp.

Nathaniel

for

D.

in

and

1622.

8 pp.

dome

of

out

1622.

and

copie.

shops

addition

the

Low

the

Bourne

their

at

Him-

Dutch

Low

Pallace

about

hapning

and

Nicholas

sold

with

Translated

".

Lusatia

be

Pope's-head
title

the

for

D.
to

are

Same

June.

of

in

and

Exchange
The

and

I.

France
of

out

by

Archer,

Thomas

Italy, Gennanie,

Palatinate

the

Countries.

from

Newes

Weekely

of May,

of

Butter

of

Europe
Bourne

pp.
issued

numbers
Notes

15, 1622.

and

by

Queries^
No,

2.

Butter

xii.,22nd

ser.

dated

continuation
216

2, 13

and

23

Aug., 1903,
of

the

Aug.,

p. 153.)

afiEaires
15

of

HISTORY

216

Conntries

Low

the

OF

Nathaniel

Batter

15, 1622.

Ootober

which

have

palatinateetc.

Printed

Downes

22 pp.

and

Barth.

2.

No.

Barth.

and

Nicholas

Austria

etc.

Downes

1622.

The

"

The

of November.
Articles

the

Printed

weekly

newes

ter
But-

Weekly

Newes

out

the

Edict

with

present weeke

and

Thomas

5.

William

Shefford

Europe

OF

1628.

8.

Mustapha etc.,1628.
Numb.

4.

of

Downes

Italy

Bourne

etc.

and

21 pp.

prio. More

Nu.

for Nathaniel

newes

Butter

and

22 pp.

PERIODICALS

Number

of

out

newes

Printed

AND

20.

the

Relating Divers

Coranto.

Itai. Oazet.

etc.

Archer

11.

at

of the News

Butter, Nicholas

1622.

46.

Numb.

EXAMPLES

St. Peters

for Bartholomew

the

Nathaniel

for

Thomas

xmder

22 pp.
A

6.

Numb.

Printed

from

shop

continuation

1622.

particularsconcerning

August 29.

I. D. for Nathaniel

Pope's-head Alley

Printed

etc.

Archer

7, 1622.

November

or

by

his

in

and

Numb.

this

December

19 pp.

12 pp.

5, 1622.

November

22

The

Printed

to be sold at

are

1622.

Starre

December

1622.

for Nathaniel

of France

eta

Comehill

in

Church

22

B. A.

20 pp.
''

Peace

of Peace

and

Newbery

November

of the

by

," etc.)

November

Printed

Bonrne

continuation

4.

for

relation of the late Occnrrents

(The inside heading commences


of

1622.

in Ghrifltendoma

Butter

Bohemia
and

the

happened

80, 1622.

from

JOURNALISM

and

Num.

for Nathaniel
Ootober

ENGLISH

ISSUED

BY

BUTTER

BOURNE.
The

wonderful

resignationof

the

22 pp.
The

affaires of

Italy etc., 1628.

pp.
2.

Number

6.

First from

Constantinopleetc.,1628.

pp.
13.

Number

7,

Weekly

newes

from

Germanic

etc..

APPENDIX

CATALOGUE

PEEI0DICAL8

OP

1666
Non.

where

Except

"

otherwise

The

consulted.

only are

for

1641

up

to the

the

Barney
existingnumbers

last

reading

vol

purposes

month

Collection

the

For

Collection

Bumey

Bookeellers

of the
Scotland

The

for the

be

iL of

periodical
Catalogue of

the

sulted.
(1908),should be conmanuscript catalogue in

the

Priniers

for

from

who

1641

of

the

interesting

important

year^

; in other

DieHonary
England^
R.
Plomer,
indispensable.
A

set

in

H.
^

(1907X

periodicals are

periodsexceeding a

or

1667, by

to

be consulted.

work

at

were

BibliographicalSodeiy

titles

full

appeared

and

Ireland

and

printed

April,

should

of each

at the British
Museum
must
Newspaper Boom
the biographies of the printers or booksellers

the

of

Tracts^ by Dr. G. E. Fortescue

the Thonuuon

For

TO

following periodicalsare

Collection

onwards

first and

cited,and

the

indioated

April,1660,

From

FEOM

INCLUSIVE.

in the Thomason

all contained
1660.

D.

when

out

they

the titles themselves

or

the

cases

catchwords

are

only

are

given.
1641.
The

Heads

(from the 22 of November


contained

the

divers

With

Bubstance

shewing

Ireland

(The First
differs in the

same.)

No.

of

kingdomes.
Printed
The

the Diumals,

succeeding numbers,
2.

Nov.

severall

passages

London.

Mondays.

of

29-6

Dec.
918

Present

Parliament

29, 1641). Wherein

to the

distresses

what

other

affaires of these

the

Proceedings in

of SeveraU

and

of
No.

letters

are

touching

moment
1.

from

sent

misery they

is

Nov.

in.
the

22-29, 1641.

for I. T.

synopsis of
but
No.

the contents

full title remains


3.

(?)6-13 Dec.

the

APPENDIX
Continued
Divmal

Occwrrences

the Heads

or

of Parliament.

Houses
Printed

for J. T.

omitted.)
Nath.

for

No.

and

Butter

(Continued

Jan. 2-10, 164i,

The

27-3

Printed

164^.

Jan.

title

on

Boyal Arms

Thomas.

in

Oocurrences

publishedby William

By Samuel

Royal Arms

for

Jo. Thomas.

DiumaU

as

(No. 4). Dec. 18-20" 1641.

for John

Dec.

Proceedingsin both

Severcdl

of

T. B.

Printed

(No.

paga

as

Mondays

and

219

No.

Parliament,

1,

Cooke.)

Pecke.

1642.
A

Continuation
Numb.
3

or

True

of

6.

the

Feb.

14-21.

Mar.

the

of

Passages

Printed

(Lasted for 2

Parliament.

Signed

for William

Diumall

Cooke.

By

Occurrences

2.

Jan.

of

24-31, 1641/2.

the

end.

Jo.

March.)

Continued

(No. 1). Jan.


Coules
in

(Ended

Passages in

and

T.

10-17,
Banks.

March.)

Parliament

Printed

Mondays.

as

Pecke.

for R

17-24, 1641/2.

PerfectDiumall

in

(Ended

Parliament

Printed

1641/2. Mondays.

10.

at the

Mondays.

Samuel
in

Numb.

(No. 1). Jan. 2-10, 1641/2.

in Parliament

Perfect DvwmalL

in

Parliamentor.

Cler.

Occurrences

No.

Parliament.

in

164i

Mondays.

14-21, 164|. Mondays.

Browne.

The

of Passages

months.)
DiumaU

Diumall

DiwnuM

True

(No. 1). Jan.

for WiUiam

Cook.

(Ended in March.)

By
Ireland's

Samuel
True

Diumall

Passages
January

Pecke.

that

have
this

unto

(No. 1) Jan.
Bladen, and

or

are

continued

True

DiumaU

or

Feb.

to be sold

1641/2.

by Bichard

continued

(No. 2). 12 Feb..8

since

(3 of Feb.) present) sent

11-3

there

happened

Continued
A

relation of the chiefe

March

Printed

the

(11th of

etc.

for William

Boyston in Ivie Lane.

as

relation of Lrish Occurrences

1641/2. Printed

for William

220

HI8T0KY

ENGLISH

OF

JOUENALISM

1642.
Bladen

and

be

to

by

sold

Francis

Couls.

the Heads

of the

(No

more

issued.)
By William
True

The

of

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Diumall

Houses

Both

Gierke.

(No. 1 ? )

the Heads

or

Feb.

6.

Averred
Feb.

31-7

Parliament.

of

Numb.

Jan.

Proceedings
B.

by

Printed

1642.

P.

by

Mondays.

Occurrences

Houses

or

Parliament.

of

Hammond.

John
Diumall

Occurrences

Proceedings in

of the

(Eoyal

Arms

(1641/2). Printed

7-14

title

on

both

page.)
Mon-

for I. G.

days.
in

(Ended
A

True

Diumall

March.)
the

of

14-21,1641/2.
Heads

The

All

of

Some

and

Proceedings in both

the

A. Coe.

and

of those

for Thomas

for

J.

Collected

Yorke, Hull

for the

satisfaction

information.

24-2

May

June

Thursdays. Printed

1642.

Baker.
in Parliament

(No. 1). May

30-6 June.

Passages in Parliament

(No. 1). May

13-6 June.

Oceurrances

Diumall

Printed

Westminster

London

that desire true


1.

ment
of Parlia-

Mondays.

Partes.

other

Number

2). Mar.

Houses

23-30, 1642.

May

1).

SpecialPassages from
Ireland

( ? No.

in Parliament

Mondays.

( ? No.
Smith

Passages

Mondays.
Bemarkdble

Mondays.
A

of

Perfect Diumall
1).

13-20, 1642.

June

numbers

Printed

the

for William

by

Tho.

Passages in Parliament
Printed

Mondays.

Cook.

Fawcet

for T. C.

Continued
A

Perfect Diumall

of the

you

will finde upon

6-12, 1642.

Cook,

Mondays.

then

some

(No. 9.) 8-15 Aug.

By Samuel

Pecke.

as

Passages in Parliament.

fullyand exactly taken


as

for Thomas

(Numb.

More
.

by any other printedCopies

comparing

etc.

Illustration

Numb.
of

House

13.

Sept.
sitting.

APPENDIX

221

1642.
for Francis

Printed

By Samuel
A

True

Pecke
shire.
of all the Chiefe Passages in Lanca-

PevfectDiumall

and

Sent
.

Coules.

shopkeepers in

five

to

friend.

Numb.

Printed

for T. U.

Passages in

of the

PerfectDiwmM

Printed

11-18, 1642.

(No. 1). July

Parliament

Williams.

for Eobert

Mondays.

July 3-19, 1642.

1.

from

London

Signed Hen.

Elsing. Mondays.
A

PerfectDnmudl
PerfectDiumall

the

Bobert

A Diwmall

from

his

True

and

Printed
A

(r)of

Aug.

1-9
A

Aug.

Aug.

Numb.

An

Exact

29-6

of

1.

"from

"

the True

M.

Specialand
for H.

from

Mondays.

Printed

Anlaby

G. D.

Westminster"
of

DiumaU

Number

Yorke.

and

1642.

No.

H.

etc.

Passages in

Mondays.

7.

Jonson.

for John

O. and

for R

Numb.

Parliament.

Printed

by

T.

Simmons.

True

Cook

etc.

in Parliament

in Parliament.

London

Aug. 8-15,

and
and

Hull

Diumall

of

(No. 1). Aug. 8-15, 1642.

Some

Tuesdays.

Sept. (1642).

Mondays.
Printed

1642.

1642

Continuation

Paine

places (Na 1). July 10-(26)

of the passages

SpecialPassages from
1

(after-

W.

dailyOccurrents

the last Weekes

of the passages

July 25-1 Aug. 1642.


10.

and

(No. 1).

by H. Blundell.

PerfectDiumall

Some

Thomas.

Parliament

by T. F. for D. C.

11.

for John

for J. G.

severall

PerfectDiumaU

Numb.

etc.

in

1.

No.

only). Mondays.

Majesty in

Printed

1642.
A

Wood

Particuia

and

Passages

Printed

July 18-25, 1642.


wards

Printed

Mondays.

of

PerfectDiwmatt

Proceedingsin Parliament.

the

or

July 18-25, 1642.


A

(No. 1).

Mondays.

July 11-19, 1642.


A

Proceedings in Parliament

The

or

(alsoThomas
Considerable

Numb.
Blxmden.

1.

the

Proceedingsin

Mondays.

Parliament

Printed

for William

Cooke).
Passagesfrom

Aug. 9-16,

1642.

London

Westminster

Tuesdays.

Printed

222

JOUENALISM

ENGLISH

OP

HISTOEY

1642.

to the hands

came

other

parts of this Kingdome,

Divers

Special Passages from

of

of the

some

Gommnnicated

of credit.

persons

Parliament.

Passages from

Bemarkable

Specialland

Francis

and

Aug.

25^30

Feb.

1646.)

Collected

for the

BemarhabU

3.

Passages

or

and

both

Printed
A

PerfectRelation

Continiuition

Accidents

or

of the

weekly

ceedings
pro-

Number

1.

Printed

for Mathew

Wal-

2).

Sept. 12-19,

1642.

of

True

Until Jan.

for Francis

and

Printed

of

for William

Certain

1.

16, 1643.

day)
Sept.19-29 (Thurs-

Coles.

SpecialPassages (? No. 1). Sept.22Cook.

Specialland

Oct. 3-8, 1642.

13.

(No.

Numb.

summarie.

Printed

Continuation
Numb.

formed.
truly in-

Tuesdays.

1642.

Parliament.

of

Houses

Stephen Bowtell.

for

29, 1642.
A

places.

J. W.

1642.
A

severall

desire to bee

Diumall

Mondays.

Memorable

EngUmds

from

23-30,

Aug.

Perfect

Sept. 5-12, 1642.


bank

Informations

(Until 27

Blunden.

for H.

in

for Francis

Pecke.

Samuel

By

of all that

use

Numb.
Printed

(No. 1.)

of etc.,Thursds

GonUnuation

"A

".

certain

SpecialPassages and

of

Houses

Printed

Monday.

as

1642

Tuseday

both

Coles.

4 is continued

Number

16-

Aug.

2.

Elsyng. Cler. Pari. D. Com.

Hen.

Aug. 22-26, Friday, 1642.


Leach

faction
satis-

the

Tuesdays.

23, 1642.
Certaine

for

Numb.

of the well-afifected Party.

divers

and

Parliament,

it

as

Bemarkable

Mondays.

Printed

Passages.
for Eobert

Wood.
A

Contimuition

Number

of
1.

for Marke
A

Continuation

(?No. 1).

Certaine

Speciailand

Oct., Monday,

Bema/rkable

10-14, Friday, 1642.

Passages,
Printed

Wallace.

of
Nov.

Certaine

Speciall and

12-18, 1642.

Printed

Bemarkable
for John

Passages
White.

APPENDIX

223

1643.

Oxford
of

the

Court

Henry

Hall

1643.

One

the

to

of

rest

for William
number

Intelligenceand

the

communicating

Ditmud

the

Oxford.

Eingdome.
First

Webb.

week

Jan.

of Crawford

In the Earl

"

afihires

1-7,
Bal-

and

Collection.
carres's,
The

abroad

sent
Kingdomes Weekly Intelligeneer

(No. 1). Dec.


Printed

by

H.

for G.

Until

B.

27-3

Bishop

9 Oct. 1649.

to

information
prevent misdays.
Tues-

(1643).

January

and

B.

White, afterwards

By

E.

C.

? Eichard

Col-

lings.
of the

Court,

the

Printed

Oxford.

Until

afEairs

Eingdome

(No. 1).

by Henry

Hall

for

By

Sir

Sept.

1645.

Berkenhead.

John

Kingdomes Weekly InUUigenoer or SpecialPassages. Numb.


24.

The

and
intelligence

the
of

rest

Sundays.

Webb.

Waiiam

the

to

8, 1643.

Jan.

The

communicating

Aidicm

Mercurius

Jan.

of Court, City
Daily Intelligenoer
the most

labour

much

in

Printed

1643.
Certaine

remarkable

for John

for G. B.

William

Ingler.
from

thence

misinformation.

are

to be

Mercwrius

the

Eebells

May
Eyves

Or

20, 1643.
D.D.

the
1.

whole

May
and

Bayly.

1.

Jan.

number.

Feb.

Mondays.
1644.

to

prevent

4-11, 1643.

days.
Thurs-

Bates

Thomas
10

By

parted
reallyim-

truth

kingdom

Until

30,

and
1646.

Dec.

CoUings.

the Countries

his

21

save

may

1-8, 1643.

Until

Wright

Plundrings and
on

One

or
intelligencer

the Old

? Eichard

Busticus

Bobberies

to

by John

sold in

By E. C.

E. W.

Numb.

Printed

May

16.

London's

Civicus.

Mercuriris

and

which

Numb.

letters.

Thompson.

Informations. Numb.

counterfeit.)

Countrey. Eelating

and

in either

passages

writing of

Printed

(One number.

17-24, 1643.

Complaint of the Murthers

other

Outrages committed

by

Majesties faithful Subjects (No. 1).

?For

about

six

months.

By

Bruno

224

HISTORY

OP

ENGLISH

JOURNALISM

1643.
Caranto

Printed
The

for

ScotUs

Fridays.

Printed

1.

Discovery. Numb.
for Bernard

Wednesdays Mercury

Alsop. By

Goldsmiths

Parliament

Printed

and

Coles

1643.

Printed

Mondays.

Greensmith;

afterwards

August.

Daniel

Weekly

By

(afterwardsfor Bernard
1647,then continued

Ap.

name)

same

Mercu/rius

as

The

July

3-10

John

and

Until

Alsop.

No.

Sept.6, 1634 {sic).

1.

at

GrayesInneGate

Until No.

PerfectWeekly

until 28 June

17.

Ap. 21-29,

Account

with No.

better

3.

Sept. 5-12, 1643.

Bishop

and

R. White.
Thomas

information

Until

of

Tuesdays.
18

Audley and

of

the

the

Great

People.

Printed

1646.

May

of the

Border.

affaires

the

communicating
the

another

By Daniel

1647.

Numb.

by Captain

Pecke.

1.

May (in competition with

Britcmicus

for Francis

Wood

Bernard

Alsop).

For

amont

Numb.

July

26-3

By Samuel

PhilipLane,

Britaine.

51

The

28-5

June

from

Border.

Printedfor

Wednesdays.

18.

by

and

Printed

for Robert

containingetc.

Account

Dillingham.
1.

Diurnall.

Perfect

or

Numb.

and

Bishop

in Parliament

Blaikelock.

the

(No. 2. 29June-

G.

Until 8 Oct. 1649.

Laurence

Weekly Accompt

The

Passages

some

Mondays.

1643.

of

T. P. and

by

Intelligenceto

John

By

parts of this Kingdom.

other

by

2.

No.

August

1643.

Printed

Until 30 Jan. 1645.

PerfectDiwmall

his

20-27 June

July.) Thursdays.

White.
A

Alley. Until

Numb.l.

tions.
informa-

Wednesday.

communicating

Scout

Kingdome.
6

ham.
Dilling-

John

certain

and

July 19, 1643.

1.

{The SpeciaU Passages conimMed^

The

9-16, 1643.

June

1.

Passages
Bpeciall

or

Numb.

S. in

1643.

9.

number.

One

M.

Jnne

Number.

One

Tuckey-

Humphrey

Pa/rUamerU's

Number

the Sea.

from Beyond

rest

by

Nos.

by

G.

1 to

March-

Nedham.

True

Informer Continuing a collection of the

and

observable

passages,

which

have

bin

most

speciall

imparted

this

226

HISTOEY

OP

J0UBNALI8M

ENGLISH

1643.
Tke

Kingdomes Weekly
his
Nov.

the

to

message

9, 1643.

with

Post

his

City and

man

Meretmus

Printed

Mondays.

6.

by Bernard

1.

mond.
Ham-

blowing

Bushworth.

By John

Numb.

Britarmua.

Cambro

John

Horseback

on

Until Jan. 10, 1644.

Numb.

Goontrey.

Imprinted by

Thursdays.

Frontispieceof
horn.

ing
packet of letters,publish-

Nov.

27-5 Dec.

Alsop. (The

last

1643.

number.)

1644.

Sundays
Mondays

(Oxford). (Until 7 Sept. 1645.)

Merouriiis Aidicus.

"

Certaine

"

Tuesdays

(Until 8 Oct. 1649.)

(Until 9 Oct.
Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer.

The

"

Informations. (Until 21 Feb.)

PerfectDiumaU.

from 1643.

Existence

alreadyin

Newsiboohs

1649.)
Merourius
2%6

Wednesdays"

ContinuaMon

Thursdays

Fridays"

KingdcrmesWeekly

Scotish

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the

2.

1645.

Until 24
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5-12, 1644.

from

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Dec.

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Passages.
Jan.

F. Leach.

divers
1644.

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Passages. Numb.

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for Andrew

Fridays. Printed

Coe.

May.

dtc.^Upon

my

let the Beader


wish

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Goales

By Samuel

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of Certain Speciailand

Jan.

Bemarkable

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Parliament

Printed

1646.)

(Until 22 Feb. 1645.)

Informer.

parts of this kingdom.

Fridays.

(Until Jan. 10.)

Post

(Until 26 Nov.

Dove.

of Certain

Informed

Ocofu/rrenoes

(Until 30 Jan. 1645.)

The

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August

(Until 10 Dec. 1646.)

Civicus.

Parliament

Contintiation

Passages. (Until

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The

ITw

Saturdays"

of

1647.)

May.)

Mercurius

"

(Until 31 March

Account.

Weekly

1646.)

(Until 18 May

1643.

Britanicus.

thee, if

enough doe know.

life new
then
not

so

borne

impose
bee

"

and
the

Mutus

wants

same.
"

^for

(No. 1.) Jan. 17, 1643/4.

name.

Veridicus
wee

Lyes

APPENDIX

227

1644.
Continued
But

Mutus

2.

Printed

April.

Feb.

23-30.

Anti-Aidum

Mercurius

"

Bri-

"

Merowrius

as

Until

Tuesdays.

10

Alsop.
Oxford.

Printed

Mondays.

No.

for

1.

I. F.

Hotham.

Tuesday Feb.

Printed

6, 1643/4.)

(One number.)

T.

Anglicusor

Feb.

Continued

By Durant

(No. 1). (MS.

for H.

"

from
Intelligence

1644.

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nor

^honest

please

6-13, 1644.

(Bumey.)

Until 25 June

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Bernard

by

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Jan.

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Jan.
3.

No.

Veridicus.

The

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No.

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as

Post

Printed

Wednesdays.

1644.

(No. 1). Jan. 31-7

the North

from

for T.

B.

Until

20

to

the

Feb.
The

Describing his

MilitaryScribe

People.
W.

by
Merourim

Numb.l.

E. and

Britaines

Late

Eingdomes.

21, 1644
Scottish

Army.

Letters.

No.

7.

being printedby

one

1.

by

Tuesdays.

Until

6.

Ap.

Passages

11-19, 1643/4.

in

days.
Tues-

April 2.
Numb.

Army,

Continued
14.

Gellibrand

as

March

4.

Intelligence
from

Continued

the

Extract

as

for Eobert

dwelling in

Numb.

G.

1.

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(One number.)

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Church-

1644.

Fridays.

(A continuation

Britamous.)

Perfect JoumaU
erroneous

Mar.

Scotish

the

Bemarkable

Ap. 30 (end). Printed

AuHco-Mastix.

and

ing
accord-

Bowles.

"

of the Counterfeit
True

Numb.

No.

Samuel

By

Printed

most

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tock and

real

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for L F.

Proceedingsof

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Mon-

(The counterfeit

the

"

12-18, 1644.

White.)

Printed
The

note

Bemembrcmaer

both

27 (sio). Mar.

by 6. Bishop.

to Thomason's

Printed

Tuesdays.

April.

Until 2

Numb.

Britanious.

Robert

Eelations

Feb. 20-27, 1644.

J. Q.

Printed

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of

the

information.

Printed

by

G.

Warres

Numb.

Bishop.

in

England.
1.

To

Ap. 16,

Until 30

vent
pre1644.

April.

228

HISTORY

ENGLISH

OF

JOURNALISM

1644.
The

tinned

from Forraigne Parts Beyond

Newes

Weekly

from

''

as

Nnmb.

1.

several!

parts beyond the

1, 1644.

May

the

Seas, con".

seas

(Wednesdays.)

(Three nnmbers.)
The

Printed

horn)

Chiefe

of

Each

Diary, or

Walbancke.

of

Goode.

Thomas

UnderhilL

or

Mathew

Sim.

Ash

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Printed

13, 1644.

for

August.

and

7, 1644.) Thursdays.

sold

by

Nicholas

Printed

1644.
1648.

John

By

Bourne.

by

Thomas

Cotgrave

Codgrave.

Cowrt

of the

16 Oct.
London

John

By

Post.

G. B.

John

Annie.
Printed

1.

Afterwards

Foot-Post.

the

Numb.

by

remarkable

most
1.

Tho.

June

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Until

Forset.

Cotgrave.

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Rushworth,

The Comtrey

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July 1644.

by

communicating

Mercwrie

Passages

Aug. 6, 1644.
Until

F. L.

Gilbert

sub-author
Numb.

Printed for G. B. and T. B.


The

16

December

14

2.

Bight Honourable,

By

etc.

June

Jan. 30-6 March

Until

Numb.
for

the

(MS. June

White

for Robert

Forcet,

Army
2.

1.

all

1646.

Until

Anglois.Numb.
No. 33.

Printed

from
Intelligence
Numb.

William

from
intelligence

true

Fridays.

the

ment.
of Parlia-

Houses

majestiesDominions.

of Manchester's

Earl

With

The

the

Wednesdays.

Faithfullycommunicating

Until 5 March

Continuation

Printed

The

his

within

24-31, 1644.

May

Le Merowre

by Francis

as

the
delivering

also

armies

the

Printed

proceedingsin both

remarkable
As

The

(No. 1).

Parliament

May 15-22, 1644

lowrnai.

Exact

an

1.

Continued

(One number.)

the

Alsop. (One number.)

Wednesdays.

Numb.

Dimnall

most

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(One number.)

Leach.

Horseback

on

Dayes Proceedingsin

8-15, 1644.

Exaot

man

by Bernard

Heads

May
An

of
(illustration

Post

Flying

1.

Tuesdays.
March

1645.

By

Mabbott.

Oct. 2, 1644.

(One number.)

Countrey Messenger, Number

Printed

2.

Wednesdays.
Continued

as

Oct. 4-11, 1644.

229

APPENDIX

1644.
Printed

Fridays.

By

Bushworth.

John

16, 1644

Oct.

1.

Nmnb.

Dayes Proceedings

Each

Perfect Passages of
R

number.

One

Bishop.

G.

by

Wednesdays.

Until 4 March

Austin.

1646.

Parliament

in

for

Printed
Walker.

By Henry

1645.

Sundays

il

Mondays"

Tuesdays

Sept.)

(Until 8 Oct. 1649.)

1643.

P^ect Diumall.

(Until

1643.
Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer.

The

"

(Oxford. Until

1643.

Aulicus.

Mercvrius

"

Existence.

already in

Newsbooks

9 Oct. 1649.)

!Z%6

Wednesdays"

1643.

Britanious.

MercuHus

Weekly

(Until 4 March.)

1644.

Post.

London

The

(Until18 May 1646.)


(Until 31 March

1643.

Accownt.

1647.)

(Until 4 March

1644.

The
Le

Fridays"

of

continuation

certain

Passages. 1644
A

Diary
March

Saturdays"
The

Monthly

Z%6

Special

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(Until 1 August.)
1644.

Journal.

Exact

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or

(Until 14 Dec. 1648.)

(Until 26 Nov. 1646.)

1643.

Dove.

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A

Anglois. 1643.

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1643.

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1646.)
(Until 10 Dec. 1646.)

1643.

Jlfercttmts Cifoums.

Thursdays"

Dayes Proceedings.

Each

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(Until 5

1646.)
True

No.

Account.

1643.

Informer.
2.

(MS. Mar.

(Until 22 Feb.)
1, 1644/5.) Printed

Harper. (Two numbers.)


Impartiallycommunicating
Intelligencer

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The

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Thursdays. Printed by B. W.
4 Oct. 1649.) By John
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The

General

1645.
The

Kingdome

(Monthly). (No. 1). (MS.

Account.

Printed

by

Weekely Post-Master.
Printed

by

of

G. B.

B. Austin

Numb.

for B. H.
1.

(until6 May).

Martiall
1.

March

Feb.

(Until

31)

(One number.)

Ap. 8-15,1645.

Tuesdays.

mSTORT

230

OP

ENGLISH

JOUENALISM

1645.
Veridicus

Mercurim

Printed

19, 1645.
March
A

Tme

or

by

Nmnb.

1.

Ap.

12-

Alsop. Saturdays (until7

Bernard

1646).
Nmnb.

PerfectDeclaration.

Proceedings

in

the armie.

No.

Printed

1.

Ap. 26, 1645.

(Continued as)

Informer containinga perfect collection

True

The

Informations.

Parliament
2.

26

by Thos. Bates

and

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and J. W.

information
1645.

April-3May

of the
from

Saturdays.

(until7 March

J.

1646).

By Henry Walley.
Parliaments

The

Printed

by

Post.

Numb.

G. B.

(until7 Oct.).

Printed
Heads

Some

of
1645.

(Until

Certaine

of

Number

1.

Kingdomes
Printed

The

as

11

Nov.

Spedall

Sept. 19-26,

by

2nd

4.

City

Scout.

(Note

of 1646

21, 1646.)

Printed

but

week,"

end

Citties

19

Aug.

No.

11.

Printed

1645.)

Bemarkahle

and

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Weekly

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Sundays.

p.

9.)

at

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Collection

(No. 1). Dec.

''

1st

( ? No.

2.)

(Until

until

15-22, 1645.

(Until 3 March

F. L.

this

March

Little.

By Eichard
Post

Harris.

marks

? Printed

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Wednesdays.

By John

with

for

Pecke.

Thomason

it starts

Passages,
Printed

Fridays.

1645.

(One number.)

I. H.

21,1645.

Dec.

days.
Wednes-

Numb.

(No. 1). Oct. 15.

Post

Weekly

Mercurius-AccLdemicus.

The

Scout.

(Until 27 Feb. 1646.) By Samuel

F. L.

the

15, 1645.

May

J. C.

Continuation

and

Citie

the

Tuesdays.

(until18 July).

Continued

Oct.

30-7

B. A. and

The

of

Tuesdays.

Sept.

1.

by T. Forcet

Notes

6-13, 1645.

May

Numb.
Exchange Intelligencer.

The

1.

Mondays.

1646.)

1646.
Newsbooks

Sundays

"

Merou/rhis

il

of the

Perfect Diwmall.

The

Citties

Existence.

(? Oxford.

1645.

Academicus.

the end

Mondays"

already in

? Until

year.)
1643.

Weekly Post.

(Until 8 Oct. 1649.)


1645.

(Until 3 March.)

231

APPENDIX

1646.

Tuesdays

Kingdomes Weekly InteLUgeneer.1643.

The

"

9 Oct

1649.)

Mercuriue
!Z%0

Wednesdays"

(Until

(Until18 May.)

1643.

Briiamms,

(Until 31 March

1643.

Weekly Aocownt.

1647.)

Perfect Passctgea of each dayes proceedings.


1644.
(Until4 March.)
(Until 10 Dec.)

1643.

Cimcus.

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Angloia. 1644

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Continuation

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Passages. 1645.
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exact Journal.

an

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March

only number.
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Newes

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The

pages.)
of

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Oenerall

7, 1645/6.

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to be sold

(Two numbers.)

H.

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1646.

(Until 3 March.)

B. A. and J. C.

by

Collection of the

True

27-3

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Fridays.Printed by Jane

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of Christendome.

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16

and

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Turkie

(May 6)

and
1646.

232

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

OF

HISTORY

1646.
Printed

Wednesdays.
Packet

of

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Britaine

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20 Nov.

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John

25-2 Dec. 1646.

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8-16, 1646.

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10

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Feb.

1647.

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Francis

Captain Thomas
Printed

proceedingsin Europe.

Martiall

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Oct. 20-27, 1646.

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26 Feb.

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1647.
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1643.
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Intelligencer.1645.

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1649.)
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(Until

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Thursdays"

already in

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Post.

1646.

(Until 26 Feb.)

234

HISTORY

OF

JOURNALISM

ENGLISH

1647.
seyerall debates

with

in the two

Martiall

Numb.

1.

B.

for H.
A

which

M.

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(Three numbers.)
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July 10-17, 1647.

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are

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14

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other

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from
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the

May 1650.

Samuel

Anti-Melancholuyus.

Fridays. Printed

love

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Nedham

was

1.
and

minster
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Counterfeits.

Sept. 18-24, 1647.


I will be.

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tions
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Tuesdays. Until

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Variations of title. By John

various writers in 1649

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"Nemo

Sept 14-21, 1647.

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other

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Sept.11-18

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1649

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Aug. 12-19, 1647.

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Babbins, if the

of Jerusalem

Spiritcan't

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Ad.
A

SynoNewe

APPENDIX

286

1647.

Beligion, lets enjoy


Mercuricm

years

Sept. 17-24,

Assembly of their m.

Clericu9

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in the

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(MS. Sept.26) 1647.

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1647.

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15-22, 1647.

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12-19, 1647.

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Fridays.

1647.

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10.)

No.

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November

11, 1647.

(Thursdays)

Independent.
(No. 1). (MS. November

12,1647.) (Until

236

HISTORY

ENGLISH

OP

JOURNALISM

1647.
Mercurius

BdUous

or

18-22, 1647.

alarum

an

to all Rebels.

(Until

Mondays.

29

1.

Nam.

Sir John

By

No