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Dielectric Response Analysis

on other assets

2 February 2011

Negative Dissipation Factor


Issue
Sometimes negative DF values at high frequencies (f > 10 Hz)
Usuallyy not at low frequencies,
q
so water analysis
y not affected
Reasons
Small measured capacitance
p
and
large guard capacitance
Inductance of coils
High guard currents (dirty bushings)

DF
1.000
0 500
0.500

0.0100
0
0100
0.005

Solution
Connect both guards of measurement
cables and maybe additional wire
Decrease guard current (clean bushings,
disconnect all devices)
Check
C
ratio off capacitances
(measure adjacent windings)
February 2,
2011

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CHL

0.100
0.050

0.001

0.010

0.100

1.000

10.000

f/Hz

Dissipation Factor
I
IR
R

A Dielectric can be modeled by:


Capacitance
p
Resistance (losses)

IC
C

Im I
R
IC

Dissipation factor
Tangent of angle between
sum current I and capacitive
current IC
Quality of a dielectric

U
February 2,
2011

Re
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Explaination of Negative Dissipation Factor

Due to leakage currents over CH and CL


a frequency dependent bridge is formed.
Resonances depending on impedances of the network!
February 2,
2011

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Explaination of Negative Dissipation Factor


A negative dissipation factor mainly appears:
- if CL and CH are high in relation to CHL
- if the guard resistance and
input resistance of the device is high

e.g. the measured and simulated influence of guard resistance:

Content

1 Drying considerations
1.
2. Bushings
3 Instrument Transformers
3.

Content

1 Drying considerations
1.
2. Bushings
3 Instrument Transformers
3.

Transformer in Meiningen/Austria

Technical data

Manufactured in 1967
R t d power 133 MVA
Rated
230/115/48 kV
Cooling: Oil forced/air forced

Drying required?

February 2,
2011

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Measurement Results: Water in Cellulose

Moisture in cellu
ulose [%]

5
4
3
2
1
0

February 2,
2011

Dira
HV-LV

Dira
LV- Tertiary

Dira
Oil sample
Tertiary
RS
- Tank

Page: 9

Oil sample
PPM

Water Concentration After Drying

On-line drying with oil circulation for 1,5 years

Moisture
e in cellulos
se [%]

5
4
3
2
1
0

February 2,
2011

Dira
HV LV
HV-LV

Dira
Oil sample
LV Tertiary
LVRS

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Estimation of Financial Benefit

Extension of lifespan by 13 years


Investment of 1,5 Mio. Euro postponed
by 13 a, money invested by 5 %,
minus 2.5 % inflation

S 100% (1.02513 1) 38%

Life expecctance / a

1000

Successful drying

Dr
y
1%

100

10

2%
3%

i.e. profit of 570 Thousand Euro


Costs for drying
y g app.
pp 2 x 2 T + 60 T

4%

0,1
50

70

90

110
130
Temperature / C

Needless drying
y g
Overestimation by conventional equilibrium diagrams
Costs of drying app. 60 T
Compared
p
with this costs for reliable moisture determination by
y dielectric
response methods app. 2 T
February 2,
2011

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Transformer Drying
Refurbishment of aged units

Manufacture of new transformers

February 2,
2011

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Transformer Drying
Refurbishment of aged units
1 Drying
1.
D i within
ithi ttank
k

Active part still inside tank


Application often on-site
Vapor phase and vacuum
Cellulose typically oil impregnated

Manufacture of new transformers

February 2,
2011

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Case Study: Drying of a Distribution Transformer

distribution
di
t ib ti ttransformer
f
manufacturing year:
was
as found
ou d to be wet
et
drying in tank
Oven temperature: 80C
Vacuum: 0
0.1
1 mbar

February 2,
2011

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Case Study: Drying of a Distribution Transformer

dryout

February 2,
2011

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Transformer Drying
Refurbishment of aged units
1 Drying
1.
D i within
ithi ttank
k

Active part still inside tank


Application often on-site
Vapor phase and vacuum
Cellulose typically oil impregnated

Manufacture of new transformers


2 Active part outside tank
2.
Active part placed in oven
120C and vacuum
Cellulose typically not oil impregnated
February 2,
2011

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Case Study: Drying of a Shell Type Transformer


new manufactured
for quality control in factory
not impregnated cellulose
measurement like usual
different data base for non-impregnated cellulose
rather flat curve with no hump

February 2,
2011

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Case Study: Drying of a Shell Type Transformer

Beginning of the
drying cycle

End of the drying


y g

February 2,
2011

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Content

1 Drying considerations
1.
2. Bushings
3 Instrument Transformers
3.

Variaty of Applications
Transformers

Analysis of moisture content


Monitoring of drying

Bushings
Moisture / aging at ambient
temperature

Cables, rotating machines


Cables
and instrument transformers

February 2,
2011

Different Geometry Values for Test Objects


Insulation geometry of test object stronly differs
needs to be modeled

The X-Y-Model
oil:
paper:
p
p

conductivity 1
conductivityy 2

HV-winding
Y

Spacer
Barrier
Oil

Oil

Core

LV-winding

Io Spacers
IS

Barriers

IS

modeles wich proportion of the current is flowing though oil OR spacers


AND afterwards trough barriers
defining the sereal and parallel impedances in our equivalent circuit
February 2,
2011

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Types of Bushings and Analysis

RBP resin bounded paper

RIP resin impregnated paper


February 2,
2011

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OIP
oil impregnated
p g
paper
p p

Noise

Low capacitance

Low currents

External fields influence charges


- 50 Hz coupling
- Corona (PD)

E-Field

Measurement in frequency domain


instead of time domain might
be necessary

February 2,
2011

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Interpretation of Dielectric Response

DF

1%@20C

1.000
0.500
0.200
0.100

3
2
1

0.010
0.005
0.001

Paper/pressboard dominates
dielectric response
Strong dependence on moisture
concentration for low frequencies
q

0.050
0.020

Dissipation factor vs.


s freq
frequency
enc
for cellulose material

0.01

0.1

1.0

10.0

100

f /Hz

Mains frequency 50/60 Hz


not very sensitive
Moisture determinition:
X-values to 70-100%
Y-values to 30-100%

February 2, 2011

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Frequency Range for Bushings


10 mHz mostly sufficient

RBP

RIP
OIP

February 2,
2011

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Interpretation
Parameter

RBP

OIP

RIP

Increased
capacitance
it

Oil cracks
Breakdown
B kd
off cap. layers
l

Breakdown of cap. layers

Breakdown of cap. layers

Increased
dissipation factor

Breakdown of cap. layers


Dirty or wet insulator;
Ageing;
Moisture

Breakdown of cap. layers


Dirty or wet insulator;
Ageing;
Moisture

Breakdown of cap. layers


Dirty or wet insulator;
Ageing;
Moisture

Strong
temperature
dependence of
DDF

Ageing;
Moisture

Ageing;
Moisture

Ageing;
Moisture

Partial discharges

Constant level is usual

DDF increases
with voltage
g

Bad contact of meas. tap


Breakdown of cap.
p layers
y

February 2,
2011

Moisture analysis
Gas-generation;
Breakdown of cap.
Destruction of paper
layers;
Formation of x-wax
a
Cracks after mechanical
or electrical stress
Bad contact of meas. tap
Breakdown of cap.
p layers
y

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Bad contact of meas. tap


Breakdown of cap.
p layers
y

Influence of Moisture on RBP Bushings


Micafil UTXF 24

Qualitative comparison
of DF (f) traces

wet

Same temperature
necessary
dried

February 2,
2011

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Content

1 Drying considerations
1.
2. Bushings
3 Instrument Transformers
3.

Design of the Insulation System: CTs


Current transformer
Eye-bolt type CT
Insulation made of paper
with capacitive potential
control
t l
Typically with screen
at HV and LV potential
Measurement between
HV and screen
Without screen
between HV and LV

February 2,
2011

Page: 29

Noise

Low capacitance

Low currents

External fields influence charges


- 50 Hz coupling
- Corona (PD)

E-Field

Measurement in frequency domain


instead of time domain might
be necessary

February 2,
2011

Page: 30

Interpretation of Dielectric Response

DF

1%@20C

1.000
0.500
0.200
0.100

3
2
1

0.010
0.005
0.001

Paper/pressboard dominates
dielectric response
Strong dependence on moisture
concentration for low frequencies
q

0.050
0.020

Dissipation factor vs.


s freq
frequency
enc
for cellulose material

0.01

0.1

1.0

10.0

100

f /Hz

Mains frequency 50/60 Hz


not very sensitive
Moisture determinition:
X-values to 70-100%
Y-values to 30-100%

February 2, 2011

Page: 31

Dielectric response of four CTs of the same type


-manufactured in 1963
- 110N / 260kV

- moisture:
1,8 -1,9%
- oil conductivity: 3 6 pS/m

Dielectric response of four CTs of the same type


-manufactured in 1963
- 110N / 260kV

1,8 -1,9% moisture


3 6 pS/m

- moisture:
1,8 -1,9%
- oil conductivity: 3 6 pS/m

Dielectric response of two CTs of the same type

February 2,
2011

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Dielectric response of two CTs of the same type

aged
2% moisture; 1,9 pS / m

aged
0,6% moisture; 1 pS / m

February 2, 2011

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Measurement Results

Dissipation factor vs.


frequency for CTs
New under dry conditons,
new under medium
conditions
Aged
High sensitivity to moisture
particularly for low
frequencies

February 2,
2011

DF

Aged
3,9%

1.0
0.5
0.2
0.1

New
1,2/1,7%
/ %

0.05
0.02
0.01
0.005

New dry
0 3%
0,3%

0.001

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0.01

0.1

1.0

10

f/Hz

1000

Overview about Moisture and DDF at 50 Hz


Moisture

Dissipation factor at 50 Hz

w.c. < 2,2%

DDF < 1%

(dry according to IEC60422)

(Temperature dependent!)

February 2, 2011

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Overview about Oil Conductivity at 30C


Oil conductivity
< 25 pS/m
(Temperature dependent!)
unsatisfactory
satisfactoryy
very good / good

February 2, 2011

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Overview about Increase of Capacitance


Increase of capacitance
C10mHz / C50Hz < 1,3...1,5
Capacitance should be stable over frequency!

new: 1,8%
aged: 2%
new: 1,3%
aged:
g
4%

February 2, 2011

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Overview about Moisture and DDF at 10 mHz


Dissipation factor at 10 mHz
DDF < 0,7
Flat curve for good insulation condition!

aged: 4%

new: 1,8%
new: 1,2%

February 2, 2011

aged: 2%

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Thank you!
OMICRON

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