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Introduction to Bushings Jill C Duplessis 2 February 2011
Introduction to Bushings
Jill C Duplessis
2 February 2011
Agenda
Agenda

Bushing Introduction Bushing Classification Bushing Nameplate and Ratings Bushing Testing Analyzing Results Field Experience

© OMICRON
© OMICRON
Definition of a Bushing
Definition of a Bushing

An insulating structure including a through conductor or providing a central passage for such a conductor, with the provision for mounting a barrier, conducting or otherwise, for the purpose of insulating the conductor from the barrier and conducting current from one side of the barrier to the other.

-IEEE C57.19.00 © OMICRON
-IEEE C57.19.00
© OMICRON
Bushing Definition Provides an insulating path for high voltage conductors to enter a grounded electrical
Bushing Definition
Provides an insulating path
for high voltage conductors
to enter a grounded
electrical power apparatus
400kV Bushing
Bushing Measuring Tap
Core
Tapped HV winding
HV winding
LV winding
© OMICRON
Bushing Application Designs The following are application designs for different insulating media at t h
Bushing Application Designs
The following are
application designs for
different insulating media
at t
h e en
d
o
f
t
h
e
b
us
hi
ngs:
Oil to Air Bushing
Oil to Oil Bushing
Oil to SF6
Air to Air Bushing
Air to SF6 Gas
© OMICRON
Bushing Classification
Bushing Classification

Condenser Type (Capacitive Graded) Oil Impregnated paper insulation (OIP) Resin-impregnated paper insulation (RIP) Resin-bonded paper insulation (RBI)

Noncondenser Type (Solid Bushing) Composite Bushing Compound Filled Bushing Oil and Compound  SF6 ©
Noncondenser Type (Solid Bushing)
Composite Bushing
Compound Filled Bushing
Oil and Compound
 SF6
© OMICRON
Capacitive-Graded Core Oil-Impregnated Paper (OIP) – Paper is wound and impregnated with oil. The space
Capacitive-Graded Core
Oil-Impregnated Paper (OIP) – Paper is wound and
impregnated with oil. The space between paper and
porcelain is also filled with oil.
Resin Impregnated Paper (RIP) – After the paper is wound
it is then impregnated with curable resin under vacuum.
Resin Bonded Paper (RBP) – Paper is first coated with
epoxy resin and then wound.
*Some manufacturers also use semi-conductive ink on the
oil impregnated paper as well
© OMICRON
Condenser (Capacitive) Type Bushing Used in almost all ratings above 25 kV system Voltage Outdoor
Condenser (Capacitive) Type Bushing
Used in almost all ratings above 25 kV system Voltage
Outdoor terminal
Oil level gauge
A bushing having a Capacitive
Core made up of a series of
capacitors that are arranged
between the center conductor
and the flange
Outdoor porcelain insulator
Oil im re nated condenser core
p
g
Key Items:
Site Glass/Gauge for Oil Level
Tap – Performing Electrical tests
C1 (Main Insulation) – Conductor
to Tap
C2 Insulation – Tap to Ground
Test tapping
Mounting flange
Current transformer
extension
Oil side porcelain insulator
Oil side stress shield
© OMICRON
Capacitive Core The voltage is stressed equally across each layer of the condenser bushing C
Capacitive Core
The voltage is stressed equally across
each layer of the condenser bushing
C =  r  0 (A/d)
© OMICRON
Center C onductor
Non Condenser Type Bushing Center Conductor Typically Lower Voltage through 25 kV Cap Sealing Gasket
Non Condenser Type Bushing
Center Conductor
Typically Lower
Voltage through 25 kV
Cap
Sealing Gasket
Found in small distribution
transformers and generator
step up transformers
Porcelain
Limitation – Ability to
withstand voltage above 90kV
Compound
Mountain Flange
Common Insulation Materials:
Spring Washer
Air, Oil, Composite Bushing,
Compound Filled
Clamping Nut
© OMICRON
Bushing Test Tap Ca Test Tap: Cb Cc Condenser Bushings having a BIL Rating 350
Bushing Test Tap
Ca
Test Tap:
Cb
Cc
Condenser Bushings having a BIL
Rating 350 kV, typically 69 kV and
below rated voltage.
Cd
Ce
Cf
Cg
Ch
Tap allows electrical tests such as
C1 and C2 to be performed on
bushing.
Tap
Typical Test voltage 500 Volts
Only one tap cover should be
remove , rep ace tap w en test s
complete.
d
l
h
i
© OMICRON
Center Conductor
Bushing Potential Tapp Potential or Voltage Tap: Ca Condenser Bushing having a BIL Rating Above
Bushing Potential Tapp
Potential or Voltage Tap:
Ca
Condenser Bushing having a
BIL Rating Above 350 kV
Cb
Cc Cd
Ce
Creates a voltage divider for
Potential Device to be used for
monitoring
Cf
Cg
Ch Ci
Tap
Tap allows electrical tests to be
performed on Bushing.
Typical Test voltage 2500 Volts
 Only one tap cover should be
removed, replace tap cover when
test is complete.
© OMICRON
Center C onductor
Bushing Taps © OMICRON
Bushing Taps
© OMICRON
Bottom Connected Bushing  The conductor is fixed in the center of the bushing 
Bottom Connected Bushing
 The conductor is fixed in the center of the bushing
 The transformer windings are connected directly to the bottom of
the conductor of the bushin
Draw Lead Bushing
 The transformer windings are connected to a flexible cable
 The cable is pulled through a hollow metallic tube that is fixed
within the insulation of the bushing
Draw Rod or Split Conductor Bushing
 The transformer winding is connected to a solid conductor
 The rod is pulled through a hollow metallic tube that is fixed
within the insulation of the bushing
 For ease of installation, the solid conductor may be split.
© OMICRON
Draw Lead or Draw Rod Bushing . Ideal application for lower MVA ratings which do
Draw Lead or Draw Rod Bushing
. Ideal application for lower MVA ratings which do not require typical current
carrying capacities Bushing normally have current ratings of 1200 A or
higher
.

The current capacity of a bushing is also limited to the temperature rise of the conductor in the bushing

System Voltage (kV) C Rated on nuous Current ti R a e Draw Lead t
System Voltage
(kV)
C
Rated
on nuous
Current
ti
R
a e
Draw Lead
t
d C
on nous
Current
ti
34.5 – 69
1200
400
138 – 765
1200
800
Reduces time of bushing replacement
© OMICRON
Special Application High Altitude
Special Application
High Altitude

High Contamination Environments

 High Temperature DC Application Seismic © OMICRON
 High Temperature
DC Application
Seismic
© OMICRON
High Altitude above 1000 meters The air density is reduced at high altitudes which directly
High Altitude above 1000 meters
The air density is reduced at high altitudes which directly reduces the
dielectric strength of the insulation
Altitude, m
Altitude Correction Factor
1000
1.00
1200
0.98
1500
0.95
1800
0.92
2100
0.89
2400
0.86
2700
0.83
3000
0.80
3600
0.75
4200
0.70
4500
0.67
© OMICRON
Environments with High Contamination Following precautions can be made to help the situation with high
Environments with High Contamination
Following precautions can be made to help the situation with high
levels of contamination:
1. Verify bushing creep distance complies with IEEE C57.19.100
C
on am na on
t
i
ti
C
reep
Di
s ance
t
Light
28
mm/kV
Medium
35
mm/kV
High
44
mm/kV
Very High
54
mm/kV
2. Apply protective coating such as silicon grease, however this
required periodic replacement.
3. Periodic cleaning of bushing surfaces as part of a maintenance
program
© OMICRON
High Contamination Environments Environments with contamination can be broken into the following groups:
High Contamination Environments
Environments with contamination can be broken into the
following groups:

Light – Low population of industrial or residential. These areas are not exposed to sea winds. ESDD level 0.03 – 0.08 mg/cm2

Medium – Area with industries not producing pollution. High population of industrial or residential. Exposed
Medium – Area with industries not producing pollution. High
population of industrial or residential. Exposed to sea winds, but
not directly on the coast. ESDD levels 0.08 – 0.25 mg/cm2
High – High industrial population, large cities. Area close to the
sea or exposed to strong sea winds ESDD 0.25 – 0.6 mg/cm2
Very High – Area subject to smoke and thick deposits. Exposed
to coastal areas and strong sea winds. ESDD above 0.6 mg/cm2
© OMICRON
High Temperature It is important to realize that oil impregnated paper has a maximum temperature
High Temperature
It is important to realize that oil impregnated paper has a
maximum temperature of 105°C and resin impregnated paper
has 120°C without accelerated loss of life. This is based on a
maximum air temperature of 40°C.
Air Temperature In Bus Duct or Enclosed Housings >>40° C
Bushings must be thermally upgraded:
Nomex Insulation
Viton Gaskets
Increased Oil Expansion Chamber
© OMICRON
Bushing Storage  It is recommended to consult with the manufacturer for information on storing
Bushing Storage
 It is recommended to consult with the manufacturer for information on
storing of bushings.
The following guidelines can be used for storing bushings:
1. Oil filled condenser bushings should generally never be
stored completely horizontally.
2. Bushings having exposed core insulation on the lower end
require protection to prevent moisture contamination.
3. Bushings should be stored where they will not be damaged.
4. Always perform electrical test to verify bushing are
acce table for service before
p
p
lacin
g
a in service s are
p
© OMICRON
Bushing Nameplate and Ratings The Following information will be found on Bushing Nameplates:  Manufacturer
Bushing Nameplate and Ratings
The Following information will be found on Bushing Nameplates:
 Manufacturer
 Identification number
 Type
Year of Manufacture
 Weight
 Rated voltage
 Rated continuous current
 Rated full-wave lightning-impulse withstand voltage (BIL)
 C1 and C2 Power Factor and Capacitance on all bushings equipped with
Potential Taps.
 Only C1 PF and Cap. is required on bushings equipped with test taps
 Rated frequency
© OMICRON
SEISMIC  Requirements specified in IEEE 693  Two Qualification Levels :  .25 g
SEISMIC
 Requirements specified in IEEE 693
 Two Qualification Levels :
 .25 g RRS ( Moderate Seismic Level)
 .5 g RRS ( High Seismic Level)
 Not possible for transformer bushings
 Typical Failure modes:
 Offset of Porcelain in respect to Flange
 Cracked Porcelain
 Protruding Gasket
© OMICRON
Bushing Tests Prototype Design Test Factory Test Field Test © OMICRON
Bushing Tests
Prototype Design Test
Factory Test
Field Test
© OMICRON
Prototype Design Test Design Test Internal pressure and vacuum Draw-lead bushing cap pressure Cantilever strength
Prototype Design Test
Design Test
Internal pressure and vacuum
Draw-lead bushing cap pressure
Cantilever strength
 These test are typically only
performed on prototype
bushings.
Capacitance measurement
Power Factor measurement
Tap withstand voltage
Full-wave lightning-impulse with stand voltage
Chopped-wave lightning-impulse
Rated frequency wet withstand voltage
(230 kV below)
Wet Switching-impulse withstand voltage
(345 kV and above)
 Purpose of these test is to
verify the assigned rating and
acceptability for service
ons
con
diti
Rated frequency dry withstand test
Capacitance measurement
Power Factor measurement
Temperature rise
Verification of nameplate marking
© OMICRON
Factory Tests  The following test are made on every bushing at the factory Routine
Factory Tests
 The following test are made on every bushing at the factory
Routine Test
Internal Pressure and vacuum
Capacitance measurement
Power Factor
Tap Withstand Voltage
Rated Frequency dry withstand with partial
discharge measurement
Capacitance measurement
Power Factor
V
er
ifi
ca on o namep a e mar
ti
f
l
t
ki
ng
© OMICRON
Special Factory Test  The following test are not part of the routine test, but
Special Factory Test
 The following test are not part of the routine test, but can be made between
the purchaser and manufacturer for a bushing particular design
Special Test
Thermal Stability
Front of wave lightning impulse
Seismic
© OMICRON
Field Tests The following test are electrical field tests performed with portable test equipment to
Field Tests
The following test are electrical field tests performed with portable
test equipment to determine bushing suitability for service.
Condenser Bushing with
Potential Tap
Condensers Bushing with
Test Tap
Non Condenser
Visual Inspection Visual Inspection Visual Inspection C1 Power Factor (60 Hz) C1 Power Factor (60
Visual Inspection
Visual Inspection
Visual Inspection
C1 Power Factor (60 Hz)
C1 Power Factor (60 Hz)
Energize Collar Test
C1 Capacitance (60 Hz)
C1 Capacitance (60 Hz)
Infrared Test
C2 Power Factor (2.5 kV)
C2 Power Factor (0.5 kV)
C2 Capacitance (2.5 kV)
C2 Capacitance (0.5 kV)
Advance Power Factor
Measurements
Advance Power Factor
Measurements
Power Factor Tip Up Test
Power Factor Tip Up Test
Infrared Test
Infrared Test
VISUAL INSPECTION - Proper oil level - No oil leaks near bushing gaskets, or tap
VISUAL INSPECTION
- Proper oil level
- No oil leaks near bushing gaskets, or tap
- No cracks in the body of the procelain
- No dark oil observed in sight glass
- No darkening of center conductor
Power Factor / Capacitance - BUSHING C1 • Bushing H1-C1 UST • All Terminals Remain
Power Factor / Capacitance - BUSHING C1
• Bushing H1-C1
UST
• All Terminals Remain Shorted
Bushing C1 Test Data Bushings - NAMEPLATE Model/ Serial Catalog Drawing BIL kV A C1
Bushing C1 Test Data
Bushings - NAMEPLATE
Model/
Serial
Catalog
Drawing
BIL
kV
A
C1
C1
C2
C2
Bushing
Manufact.
Year
Type
Number
Number
Number
kV
Rating
Rating
PF[%]
Cap (pF)
PF[%]
Cap (pF)
H1
ABB
O+C
1993
350
44.00
400
0.35
238
H2
ABB
O+C
1993
350
44.00
400
0.26
240
H3
ABB
O+C
1993
350
44.00
400
0.32
239
H0
X1
ABB
O+C
1993
150
25.00
2000
0.33
695
X2
ABB
O+C
1993
150
25.00
2000
0.30
692
X3
ABB
O+C
1993
150
25.00
2000
0.31
699
X0
ABB
O+C
1993
150
25.00
2000
0.29
693
Bushings - C1
Measurement Type
Ref@10 kV
Watt
PF [%]
PF [%]
Correction
Mode Insulation
Bushing
Energize
Ground Guard
UST
Test kV
I mA
Cap pF
Loss
Measured Corrected
Factor
Condition
H1
Conductor
-
- Tap
10.022
0.891
236.25
0.020
0.22
0.22
1.00
UST A
PASS
H2
Conductor
-
- Tap
10.014
0.896
237.67
0.021
0.23
0.23
1.00
UST A
PASS
H3
Conductor
-
- Tap
10.022
0.896
237.68
0.021
0.24
0.24
1.00
UST A
PASS
H0
Conductor
-
- Tap
n/a
0.000
0.00
0.000
n/a
n/a
1.00
UST A
X1
Conductor
-
- Tap
7.505
2.617
694.15
0.062
0.24
0.24
1.00
UST A
PASS
X2
Conductor
-
- Tap
7.506
2.560
679.08
0.058
0.23
0.23
1.00
UST A
PASS
X3
Conductor
-
- Tap
7.506
2.631
697.78
0.061
0.23
0.23
1.00
UST A
PASS
X0
C
on
d
uc or
t
-
- 7 505
T
ap
.
2 610
.
692 23
.
0 063
.
0 24
.
0 24
.
1 00
.
UST A
PASS
Power Factor / Capacitance - BUSHING C2 • H1-C2 GST gA
Power Factor / Capacitance - BUSHING C2
• H1-C2
GST gA
Bushing C2 Test Data Bushings - C2 Measurement Type Ref@10 kV PF [%] PF [%]
Bushing C2 Test Data
Bushings - C2
Measurement Type
Ref@10 kV
PF [%]
PF [%]
Correction
Insulation
Bushing
Energize
Ground
Guard
UST
Test kV
I mA
Cap pF
Watt
Loss Measured Corrected
Factor
Mode Condition
H1
Tap
- Conductor
-
0.507
2.099
553.67
0.058
0.28
0.28
1.00
GST gA
PASS
H2
Tap
- Conductor
-
0.505
2.301
607.14
0.074
0.32
0.32
1.00
GST gA
PASS
H3
Tap
- Conductor
-
0.502
2.165
571.03
0.063
0.29
0.29
1.00
GST gA
PASS
H0
Tap
- Conductor
-
n/a
0.000
0.00
0.000
n/a
n/a
1.00
GST gA
X1
Tap
- Conductor
-
0.508
0.887
232.41
0.063
0.71
0.71
1.00
GST gA
PASS
X2
Tap
- Conductor
-
0.507
0.879
230.15
0.029
0.33
0.33
1.00
GST gA
PASS
X3
Tap
- Conductor
-
0.507
0.873
228.82
0.023
0.27
0.27
1.00
GST gA
PASS
X0
Tap
- Conductor
-
0 507
.
0 844
.
221 01
.
0 014
.
0 16
.
0 16
.
1.00
GST gA
PASS
Conditions Affecting Measurements The following test conditions play a critical role when performing electrical test
Conditions Affecting Measurements
The following test conditions play a critical role when performing
electrical test on bushings:
Temperature:
 Testing in temperatures below 0°C, may result in inaccurate power
factor measurements
External Contamination
 Contamination (salt, moisture, dirt) located on the upper or lower
surfaces can affect the power factor measurements in the following
ways
 Increase Power factor
 Decrease Power factor (may become negative)
Environment Conditions
 Weather
 Any type of precipitation could affect the bushing electrical tests
 Humidity
 It is not recommended testing above 70% humidity, as it can
affect the power factor test results
It is very important to understand your testing condition and document
them well
© OMICRON
Bushing Standard Limits Power Factory limits at power frequency and corrected to 20°C %PF IEEE
Bushing Standard Limits
Power Factory limits at power frequency and corrected to 20°C
%PF IEEE
Insulation
(C57.19.01)
%DF
(IEC 60137)
Oil Impregnated
Paper
<0.5%
<0.7%
Resin Impregnated
Paper
<0.85%
<0.7%
Resin Bonded Paper
<2.0%
<1.5%
© OMICRON
Analyzing Results Condenser Bushing The results should be analyzed by the following three methods: 1.
Analyzing Results Condenser Bushing
The results should be analyzed by the following three methods:
1. Nameplate Value
2. Previous Test Result
3. Similar Bushings
General limits for C1 Power Factor Tests

Results should compare well with nameplate. If results are over twice nameplate advanced tests should be performed to help determine if acceptable for service, as well as test frequency.

General Limits for C2 Power Factor tests Results should typically be under 1 percent. Capacitance
General Limits for C2 Power Factor tests
Results should typically be under 1 percent.
Capacitance C1 and C2 Limits
A deviation of 5 percent or more from initial/nameplate value is cause for
investigation. Deviation over 10% should be removed from service.
(However, it is is very important to understand that some C2
capacitance values can deviate more than 10% when compared to
nameplate and initial test and may be acceptable)
© OMICRON
Analyzing Results Condenser Bushing An increase or decrease in bushing measurements can be due to
Analyzing Results Condenser Bushing
An increase or decrease in bushing measurements can
be due to the following reasons:
 Aging/deterioration
 Physical Change
 Contamination/moisture present in insulation
 External contamination
© OMICRON
Energize Collar Test Perform test on all bushings without a tap Any external contamination such
Energize Collar Test
Perform test on all bushings without a tap
Any external contamination such as dirt or moisture can
effect the test results
Important to make sure collar fits tightly around top
weathershed
© OMICRON
Power Factor / Capacitance - BUSHING EC • H1-EC GST or UST • UST and
Power Factor / Capacitance - BUSHING EC
• H1-EC
GST or UST
UST and GUARD circuits can be used for external
contamination investigation and/or isolation
Energized “Hot” Collar Test Data Bushings - Energized Collar Measurement Type Ref@10 kV Watt Insulation
Energized “Hot” Collar Test Data
Bushings - Energized Collar
Measurement Type
Ref@10 kV
Watt
Insulation
Bushing
Energize
Ground
Guard
UST
Test kV
I mA
Loss
Mode
Condition
H1
Collar
-
--
10.022
0.891
0.020
GST
PASS
H2
Collar
-
-
- 10.014
0.896
0.021
GST
PASS
H3
Collar
-
-
- 10.022
0.896
0.021
GST
PASS
H0
Collar
-
-
- n/a
0.000
0.000
GST
X1
Collar
- -
- 10.006
1.973
0.061
GST
PASS
X2
Collar
- -
- 10.016
1.974
0.060
GST
PASS
X3
Collar
- -
- 10.008
1.973
0.062
GST
PASS
X0
Collar
- -
- 10.020
1.975
0.061
GST
PASS
Analyzing Energize Collar Results Energize collar test is effective in finding deterioration, contamination, low
Analyzing Energize Collar Results
Energize collar test is effective in finding
deterioration, contamination, low compound or liquid
level and voids in the compound.
The results should be analyzed by the following two
methods:
1. Previous test result
2. Similar bushings
Results should compare to previous test results, as
well to similar units and should all be under 0.1
Watts. If all bushings under test have elevated
watts, typically this is due to the atmospheric
conditions.
© OMICRON
Analyzing Results An increased watts loss can indicated the following:
Analyzing Results
An increased watts loss can indicated the following:

Internal Contamination Deterioration of dielectric External Contamination

Increase in current can indicate the following: Physical change within the dielectric Low level of
Increase in current can indicate the following:
Physical change within the dielectric
Low level of compound or oil
© OMICRON
Bushing Investigation Chart Reason Result Method Identifying Recommendation
Bushing Investigation Chart
Reason
Result
Method Identifying
Recommendation
Chart Reason Result Method Identifying Recommendation Aging/Deterioration •Normal •Affects of

Aging/Deterioration

•Normal

•Affects of

Contamination

•Overheated

•Combination

Advanced Power Factor and trending watts loss

Depending on age and assessment, first verify suitability for service, then increase test frequency.

suitability for service, then increase test frequency. Physical Change •Short Circuited Condenser Layers

Physical Change

•Short Circuited Condenser Layers •Loss of Oil •Shifting of Core •Bad tap connection

•Trend Current and Capacitance •Advanced Power Factor

Depending on deviation of capacitance and Advanced Power Factor, this will determine acceptable for continued service.

Internal •Cracked porcelain •Deterioration of cemented joints •Gasket leaks •Solder seal •Advanced Power
Internal
•Cracked porcelain
•Deterioration of cemented
joints
•Gasket leaks
•Solder seal
•Advanced Power Factor
(very clear)
Moisture/Contamination
•Trendin
g Watts loss
Examining results from
Advanced Power Factor to
indicate contamination level
of insulation.
Partial Discharge
•Partial discharge within
dielectric
Perform Power Factor Tip
Up test
Power factor should not
change with voltage.
Bushing should be
investigated
Once external contamination
is identified:
•Moisture
External Contamination
•Salt
•Dirt
•Visual Inspection
•Energized Collar Test in
GST Mode
•Use Collars to guard
surface contamination
during test
•Alternate C1 test
•Power Factor Tip Up Tests
•Moisture – Clean with dry
lint free cloth
•Salt /Dirt - Use non
alcoholic solution and wipe
clean
© OMICRON
Typical Failure Modes Moisture ingress Electrical Flashover – Broken Porcelain Lightning – Broken
Typical Failure Modes
Moisture ingress
Electrical Flashover – Broken
Porcelain
Lightning – Broken porcelain
Short circuited Condenser
Section
Corrosive Sulfur
Broken Connection between
ground Sleeve and Flange
Bad tap connection
© OMICRON

% Power Fa ctor

Temperature vs %Power Factor (60 Hz) 100 10 Wet
Temperature vs %Power Factor (60 Hz)
100
10
Wet
Fa ctor Temperature vs %Power Factor (60 Hz) 100 10 Wet Moderately Wet Slightly Wet Dry
Moderately Wet Slightly Wet Dry 1 Very Dry 0 1 . 0 20 30 40
Moderately
Wet
Slightly Wet
Dry
1
Very Dry
0 1
.
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Temperature in Celsius
© OMICRON

% Power Fa ctor

Frequency (15 Hz – 400 Hz) vs % Power Factor 2.5 2 1.5
Frequency (15 Hz – 400 Hz) vs % Power Factor
2.5
2
1.5
Frequency (15 Hz – 400 Hz) vs % Power Factor 2.5 2 1.5 Wet Moderately Wet
Wet Moderately Wet Slightly Wet 1 Dry Very Dry 0.5 0 15 30 50 70
Wet
Moderately
Wet
Slightly Wet
1
Dry
Very Dry
0.5
0
15
30
50
70
90
125
175
225
275
325
400
Frequency, Hz
© OMICRON
Tan Delta (f) at 30°C (33kV OIP Bushings) Tan Delta (f) A, B, C %
Tan Delta (f) at 30°C (33kV OIP Bushings)
Tan Delta (f) A, B, C
%
1.8
A
1.6
B
C
1.4
A
Removed
1.2
B Removed
C Removed
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Hz
0.0
PAGE 47
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
123kV OIP Bushings PF (V) A, B, C 1 3% . 1.2% 1.1% 1 .
123kV OIP Bushings
PF (V) A, B, C
1 3%
.
1.2%
1.1%
1
.
0%
A
0.9%
B
0.8%
C
0
.
7%
0.6%
0.5%
0
.
4%
PAGE 48
0.0V
2000.0V
4000.0V
6000.0V
8000.0V
10000.0V
12000.0V
14000.0V
123kV OIP Bushings PF (f) A, B, C 2 0% . 1.8% 1.6% 1.4% A
123kV OIP Bushings
PF (f) A, B, C
2 0%
.
1.8%
1.6%
1.4%
A
1.2%
1.0%
B
0.8%
C
0.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0.0%
PAGE 49
0.0Hz
50.0Hz
100.0Hz
150.0Hz
200.0Hz
250.0Hz
300.0Hz
350.0Hz
400.0Hz
450.0Hz
Moisture in RBP and RIP Bushings • The oil side of RBP and RIP bushings
Moisture in RBP and RIP Bushings
• The oil side of RBP and RIP bushings
doesn't need a housing
• Cellulose near to the surface can absorb
water, if bushings are not stored properly
• Incoming water, also from the ambient air
reduces the dielectric strength – this causes
an increase of the dielectric dissipation factor
PAGE 50
Water in RBP and RIP Bushings Drying of RBP and RIP bushings is limited RIP
Water in RBP and RIP Bushings
Drying of RBP and
RIP bushings is
limited
RIP wet
RIP dry
PAGE 51
Micafil UTXF 24 (Drysomic) RBP Bushings • A,B,N humid after storage • C dryed PAGE
Micafil UTXF 24 (Drysomic)
RBP Bushings
• A,B,N humid
after storage
• C dryed
PAGE 52
New Micafil UTXF 24 RBP Bushings A,B,N Stored Under Wet Conditions, C Dried DF (f)
New Micafil UTXF 24 RBP Bushings A,B,N Stored Under
Wet Conditions, C Dried
DF (f) A, B, C, N
Messung bei 20°C
6.0%
5.0%
humid
humid

dryed

4.0% A B 3.0% C
4.0%
A
B
3.0%
C
2.0% N 1.0%
2.0%
N
1.0%
0.0% 0.0Hz 50.0Hz 100.0Hz 150.0Hz 200.0Hz 250.0Hz 300.0Hz 350.0Hz 400.0Hz 450.0Hz
0.0%
0.0Hz
50.0Hz
100.0Hz
150.0Hz
200.0Hz
250.0Hz
300.0Hz
350.0Hz
400.0Hz
450.0Hz
PAGE 53
PAGE 53
Short Prepared Topic © OMICRON Pag
Short Prepared Topic
© OMICRON
Pag
North America Region – Focus of a lot of Attention © OMICRON Pag
North America Region – Focus of a lot of Attention
© OMICRON
Pag
Common Features of Observed Failures > Draw-Lead Bushings > Mostly 230 kV rated 750 and
Common Features of Observed Failures
>
Draw-Lead Bushings
>
Mostly 230 kV rated 750 and 900 kV BIL
>

Arcing Marks found between the Draw Lead Cable and the Tube in the center of the Bushing (Above and Below the Flange)

> Leads Badly Arced and Tubes Internally Marked or had Developed Holes > Most Bushings
> Leads Badly Arced and Tubes Internally Marked or had Developed
Holes
> Most Bushings Failed Violently
> Failures Occured within 4 – 13 years of Installation but Main Tank
Gassing Reported within 2 years of Installation
> Mostly Leads Wrapped with Only 20 mils of Cotton Tape
> Occasional Occurrence with Insulated Leads
© OMICRON
Pag
Axially Cut Tube with Burned Lead Inside © OMICRON Pag
Axially Cut Tube with Burned Lead Inside
© OMICRON
Pag
Internal Surface of Same Tube Showing Arc Marks © OMICRON Pag
Internal Surface of Same Tube Showing Arc Marks
© OMICRON
Pag
Burn Marks on the Condenser Core just outside the Central Tube © OMICRON Pag
Burn Marks on the Condenser Core just outside the
Central Tube
© OMICRON
Pag
At the Root: > Accelerated Aging between Lead & Tube > Lead & Tube Erosion
At the Root:
> Accelerated Aging between Lead & Tube
> Lead & Tube Erosion at Power Frequencies

Significant Tube Heating leading to Accelerated Aging of the Adjacent Condenser Paper.

> © OMICRON Pag
>
© OMICRON
Pag
Hypothesized Failure Mechanism  A High Frequency Transient enters the top of the bushing 
Hypothesized Failure Mechanism
 A High Frequency
Transient enters the top
of the bushing
 Resulting travelling wave
progresses down the
cable lead and the tube
at slightly different
speeds.
The wave in the somewhat
faster lead is reflected by the
larger impedance of the
transformer winding &
results in a reflected wave of
the same polarity as original
sum of original and reflected wave
yields a magnitude between 1.0 and 2.0 p.u. of the original
© OMICRON
Pag
Hypothesized Failure Mechanism  The wave in the aluminum tube is reflected when it hits
Hypothesized Failure Mechanism
 The wave in the aluminum tube is reflected when it hits the end of
the tube, resulting in a reflected wave of the same magnitude &
polarity as the original wave
2.0 times the original.
magnitude of the resulting wave is
 Distance the lead wave has to travel > Distance that the tube wave
has to travel because of additional distance between the bottom of
the bushing & the winding.
  Tube wave starts its return before Lead wave returns to the
bottom of the bushing.
 Arcing between the cable lead and the tube is initiated when the
voltage difference exceeds the withstand capability of the
insulation & oil film surrounding the lead.
© OMICRON
Pag
Hypothesized Failure Mechanism  Gasses from the degradation of the oil film are produced by
Hypothesized Failure Mechanism
 Gasses from the degradation of the oil film are produced by the arcing
and the arcing is eventually sustained by 60 Hz (power frequency)
current. Erosion between the lead & tube occurs, generating
additional gasses.
Gas Level may rise in the Tube, pushing the oil level down until it is
below the level of the arcing site. This reduces the heat carrying
capacity of the system.
 When the discharges deposit sufficient carbon & ionozed gasses in
the region to effectively place the lead in conctact with the tube, then
60 Hz current is able to flow, with as much as 50% of the load current
flowing through the tube.
 Tube heats to the degree that it starts to degrade the adjacent paper
insulation in the bushing condenser outside the tube.
 The entire condenser eventually fails rapidly.
© OMICRON
Pag
Recommendations > Periodic DGA Measurements on the Transformer Tank Oil (Hydrogen, Ethane, Ethylene, Methane &
Recommendations
>
Periodic DGA Measurements on the Transformer Tank Oil
(Hydrogen, Ethane, Ethylene, Methane & even Acetylene) –
warning of arc erosion w/in the tube.
>

A look at the Condenser Oil Gases may give warning of the deterioration of the Condenser; Vigilance to changes in C1 test results.

> Removal of the Bushings & Adding Insulation to the Draw Lead > Add surge
> Removal of the Bushings & Adding Insulation to the Draw
Lead
> Add surge capacitors to the bus supplying the transformer
> Increase the Diameter of the Lead
> Wording is to be Added to Transformer/ Bushing Test
Standards to Prevent this Problem from Occuring in the
Future
© OMICRON
Pag
Any Questions? © OMICRON
Any Questions?
© OMICRON