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Service Training

Update 97
September 1997

TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

769D/771D/773D/775D
UPDATE
OFF-HIGHWAY TRUCKS
PRELIMINARY INFORMATION
This document is provided for your reference only.
It may not be reproduced for use by others without
the authorization of East Peoria Service Training.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................5
WALK-AROUND INSPECTION ................................................................................................9
OPERATOR'S STATION............................................................................................................21
Caterpillar Monitoring System .............................................................................................21
Vital Information Management System (VIMS) ..................................................................37
POWER TRAIN .........................................................................................................................42
Power Train Components......................................................................................................42
Power Train Hydraulic System .............................................................................................44
Transmission and Chassis Control (EPTC III) .....................................................................55
STEERING SYSTEM ................................................................................................................62
HOIST SYSTEM ........................................................................................................................76
AIR SYSTEM AND BRAKES ..................................................................................................90
Brake Systems.......................................................................................................................92
INTEGRATED BRAKE SYSTEM (IBC) ................................................................................106
Automatic Retarder Control (ARC)....................................................................................109
Traction Control System (TCS) ..........................................................................................113
CONCLUSION.........................................................................................................................115

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INSTRUCTOR NOTES

UPDATE 97

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INSTRUCTOR NOTES

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769D/771D/773D/775D OFF-HIGHWAY TRUCKS

c 1998 Caterpillar Inc.

INTRODUCTION
3408E and 3412E
engines

The 769D and 771D update trucks are equipped with a Caterpillar 3408E
engine and the 773D and 775D update trucks are equipped with a
Caterpillar 3412E engine. These engines utilize the Hydraulic Electronic
Unit Injection (HEUI) system for power, reliability and economy with
reduced sound levels and low emissions.

Engine power ratings

The engine power ratings for the update trucks are:


769D/771D--362 kW (485 flywheel hp)
773D--485 kW (650 flywheel hp)
775D--517 kW (693 flywheel hp)

Load carrying
capacity

Fuel tank

The load carrying capacities and the Gross Machine Weights (GMW) of
the update trucks are:
769D--36.8 Metric tons (40.6 tons) @ 68182 kg (150,000 lbs.) GMW
771D--40.0 Metric tons (44.1 tons) @ 73970 kg (163,100 lbs.) GMW
773D--52.3 Metric tons (57.7 tons) @ 92530 kg (204,000 lbs.) GMW
775D--62.6 Metric tons (69.1 tons) @ 106594 kg (235,000 lbs.) GMW
Shown is the left side of a 775D update truck. The fuel tank is located on
the left side of the truck. On D-series pre-update trucks, the fuel tank is
located on the right side of the truck.

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Brake system
components located
on right platform

Shown is the right side of a 775D update truck. The service and retarder
air tanks, the brake master cylinders, the relay valves and the brake oil
makeup tank are located on the right platform near the steering tank and
the engine air filters.

Main hydraulic tank:

The main hydraulic tank is also visible. The hydraulic tank supplies oil
for the hoist system and the brake system.

- Hoist system
- Brake system

Torque converter case


used as sump for
converter and
transmission

On the D-series pre-update trucks, torque converter oil is also supplied


from the main hydraulic tank. A transmission oil supply tank is located in
front of the main hydraulic tank.
The D-series update trucks now use the torque converter case as the
supply tank for the torque converter and the transmission.

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775D update truck

Shown is the front of a 775D update truck. The 773D and 775D update
trucks use a conventional radiator core. All other Caterpillar Off-highway
Trucks use a folded-core style radiator.

Radiator cores

The folded-core style radiator provides the convenience of repairing or


replacing smaller individual cores. The conventional radiator core
requires repair or replacement of a large single core.

- folded-core
- conventional core

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Truck body options:


- 12 degree flat floor
- Dual-slope

Shown is the rear of a 775D update truck. Two body options are available
for the D-series update trucks:
- A 12 degree flat floor design that provides uniform load dumping,
excellent load retention and a low center of gravity.
- A dual-slope design with a "V" bottom main floor to reduce shock
loading, center the load and reduce spills.
All internal wear surfaces of the truck bodies are made with 400 Brinell
hardness steel. All attachment body liners are also made with 400 Brinell
hardness steel. The external components of the bodies are made of steel
with a yield strength of 6205 bar (90000 psi).

Rear suspension
cylinders

The rear suspension cylinders absorb bending and twisting stresses rather
than transmitting them to the main frame.

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AIR FILTERS AND


PRECLEANERS

STEERING
AIR
TRANSMISSION
OIL
RESERVOIRS AND TORQUE
CONVERTER OIL

HOIST AND
BRAKE OIL

BATTERIES
DISCONNECT SWITCH
PRIMARY FUEL FILTER/
WATER SEPARATOR
SUSPENSION
CYLINDERS

RADIATOR
ENGINE OIL

SEAT BELTS
SECONDARY STEERING TEST
BRAKE TESTS
INDICATORS AND GAUGES
BACKUP ALARM TEST

AIR RESERVOIR

FUEL TANK

MAINTENANCE
10 HOURS/DAILY

775D

SUSPENSION CYLINDERS

5
WALK-AROUND INSPECTION
Maintenance
- 10 hours/daily

The following list identifies the items that must be serviced every 10
Hours or Daily.
- Walk-Around Inspection: Check for loose or missing bolts, leaks
and cracks in frame structures
- Suspension cylinders: Measure/recharge
- Primary fuel filter/water separator: Drain moisture
- Transmission and torque converter oil: Check level
- Hoist and brake cooling oil: Check level
- Fuel tank: Drain moisture
- Radiator: Check level and radiator core plugging
- Steering system oil: Check level
- Air reservoirs: Drain moisture
- Engine crankcase oil: Check level
- Brakes: Check operation
- Indicators and gauges: Test operation
- Seat belt: Inspect
- Back-up alarm: Test operation
- Secondary steering: Test operation

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1. Transmission and
torque converter oil
level sight gauges

Supply oil for the transmission and the torque converter is contained in
the torque converter case. Sight gauges (1) are used to check the oil level
for the transmission and the torque converter.

2. Transmission and
torque converter oil
fill tube

Transmission and torque converter oil is added at the fill tube (2).

Transmission and
torque converter oil
fill procedure

When filling the transmission and torque converter oil sump after an oil
change, fill the sump with oil to the top of the upper sight gauge. Crank
the engine for approximately 15 seconds. The oil level will decrease as
oil fills the transmission and torque converter system. If the engine starts,
do not allow it to run for more than 15 seconds. Add more oil to the sump
to raise the oil level to the FULL COLD mark. Crank the engine for an
additional 15 seconds. Repeat this step as required until the oil level
stabilizes.
Start the engine and warm the transmission and torque converter oil. Add
more oil to the sump as required to raise the transmission and torque
converter oil level to the FULL WARM mark with the engine running.

NOTICE
Failure to correctly fill the transmission and torque converter oil
sump after an oil change may cause transmission clutch damage.

UPDATE 97

Use only TDTO oil

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Use only Transmission Drive Train Oil (TDTO) with a specification of


(TO-4) or newer.
- TDTO TO-4 provides maximum frictional capability required for
clutch discs used in transmissions and torque converters.
- Increases rimpull because of reduced slippage.
- Use only mono-viscosity (straight weight) oils. Multi-viscosity oils
use viscosity improvers which, when subjected to shearing
situations, are reduced to the lower weight rating. For example,
when a 10W-30 oil is used in a sheer condition, after time the oil
will only perform to 10W specifications.
- Never use engine oil in transmissions. Engine oils are formulated to
minimize friction. Oils used in transmissions and torque converters
must allow adequate friction to reduce slippage.

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Hoist and brake


hydraulic tank
1. Oil level sight gauge
door
Use only TDTO oil

Shown is the hoist and brake hydraulic tank. The oil level is checked by
opening the small door (1) and looking through the sight gauge The oil
level should first be checked with cold oil and the engine stopped. The
level should again be checked with warm oil and the engine running.
Use only Transmission Drive Train Oil (TDTO) with a specification of
(TO-4) or newer.
- TDTO TO-4 provides maximum frictional capability required for
clutch discs used in the brakes.
- Increases brake holding capability by reducing brake slippage.
- Controls brake chatter.

2. Breather

Check the hoist and brake hydraulic tank breather (2) for plugging (cover
removed for visibility). Clean the filter if plugged. If oil is flowing from
the filter, the hoist and brake hydraulic tank may be overfilled.

3. Return screen cover

Hoist and brake cooling oil returns to the hydraulic tank through a screen
located below cover (3).

4. Towing valve

The diverter (towing) valve (4) is used when it is necessary to release the
parking brakes for towing with a dead engine. The towing valve will be
discussed in more detail in the Air System and Brakes section of this
meeting guide.

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8
Fuel tank
1. Fuel level sight
gauge

The fuel tank is located on the left side of the truck. The fuel level sight
gauge (1) is used to check the fuel level during the walk around
inspection.

Fuel level sender

A fuel level sender is located on the fuel level sight gauge. The fuel level
sender provides input signals to the Caterpillar Monitoring System or the
attachment Vital Information Management System (VIMS) which informs
the operator of the fuel level.

Fuel information

The percentage of sulfur in the fuel will affect the engine oil
recommendations. The following is a summary of fuel sulfur and oil
recommendations:
1. Use API CG-4 performance oils.
2. With fuel sulfur below 0.5%, any API CG-4 oils will have a
sufficient Total Base Number (TBN) for acid neutralization.
3. For fuel sulfur values above 0.5%, the new oil TBN should be a
minimum of 10 times the fuel sulfur.
4. When 10 times the fuel sulfur exceeds the oil TBN, reduce the oil
change interval to about 1/2 the normal change interval.

2. Condensation drain
valve

Open the drain valve (2) to remove condensation from the fuel tank.

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5
4
2
3

1. Parking brake
retraction filters

Shown is the location of the parking brake retraction filters (1). Oil flows
from the parking brake retraction pump through the parking brake
retraction filters to the parking brake retraction valve. Oil flows from the
parking brake retraction valve to the parking brake piston in the rear
brakes when the parking brakes are released.

Parking brake
retraction oil used as
hoist pilot oil

Parking brake retraction supply oil also flows to the hoist control valve
and is used as pilot oil to shift the hoist directional spool.

2. Hoist and brake oil


SOS tap

Hoist and brake oil samples can be taken at the Scheduled Oil Sampling
(SOS) tap (2).

3. Transmission and
torque converter
filters

Located to the right of the parking brake retraction filters are the
transmission and torque converter filters (3). Oil flows from the
transmission and torque converter charging pump through the
transmission and torque converter filters to the transmission control
valves on top of the transmission and to the torque converter lockup
clutch valve located on top of the torque converter.

4. Transmission/TC
SOS tap

Transmission and torque converter oil samples can be taken at the


Scheduled Oil Sampling (SOS) tap (4).

5. Transmission/TC
filter bypass switch

A transmission and torque converter filter bypass switch (5) is located on


the filter base. The bypass switch provides input signals to the Caterpillar
Monitoring System or the VIMS which informs the operator if the
transmission and torque converter filters are restricted.

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10

1. Arctic battery cover

Shown is a 775D update truck with the arctic attachment installed.


Trucks with the arctic attachment have a second set of batteries located
under the battery cover (1).

No precleaners with
arctic attachment

To make room for the additional batteries, the air filter housings are
installed vertically and there are no precleaners. Two filter elements are
installed in the filter housings. The large element is the primary
element (2) and the small element is the secondary element (3).

2. Primary element
3. Secondary element

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5
3

2
4

11

Steering system tank

Located behind the air filters is the steering system tank.

1. Steering system oil


level sight gauge

Check the steering system oil level at the sight gauge (1).

2. Steering system oil


filter

The steering system oil filter (2) is located on the side of the steering tank.
Steering system oil samples can be taken from the Scheduled Oil
Sampling (SOS) tap (3) located on top of the steering filter.

3. Steering system
SOS tap

4. Case drain oil filter


screen fitting
5. Steering tank
pressure release
button and breather

The steering system uses a pressure compensated piston type pump. Case
drain oil from the steering pump returns to the hydraulic tank through a
screen that is part of the fitting (4) installed in the side of the steering
tank.
Before removing the cap to add oil to the steering system, depress the
pressure release button (5) on the breather to release any remaining
pressure from the tank.

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3
4

12

1. Brake master
cylinders
2. Brake oil makeup
tank
3. Brake cylinder
breather

4. Brake overstroke
switch

Located near the air filters and the steering tank are the front and rear
brake cylinders (1) and the brake oil makeup tank (2).
Inspect the condition of the breathers (3) for the brake cylinders. Oil
should not leak from the breathers. Oil leaking from the breathers is an
indication that the oil piston seals in the brake cylinder need replacement.
Air flow from the breathers during a brake application is an indication
that the brake cylinder air piston seals need replacement.
If air is in the system or a loss of oil downstream from the cylinders
occurs, the piston in the cylinder will overstroke and cause an indicator
rod to extend and open the brake overstroke switch (4). The switch
provides an input signal to the Caterpillar Monitoring System or the
VIMS which informs the operator of the condition of the service/retarder
brake oil circuit. If an overstroke condition occurs, the problem must be
repaired and the indicator rod pushed in to end the warning.

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13

1. Service/retarder
brake tanks
2. Service/retarder
brake tank drain
valve
3. Brake relay valves
Double check valve
Inversion valve

The service and retarder brake air tanks (1) are located behind the brake
cylinders and the brake oil makeup tank. Drain condensation from the
tanks daily with the drain valve (2).
Located above the service and retarder brake air tanks are the brake relay
valves (3), a double check valve and the inversion valve.

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14

10 hours/daily checks
performed in the
operator's cab

The remaining 10 Hours or Daily checks are performed in the operator's


compartment. They are as follows:
- Brakes: Check operation
- Indicators and gauges: Test operation
- Seat belt: Inspect
- Back-up alarm: Test operation
- Secondary steering: Test operation
The brakes are checked by engaging one of the brake systems and placing
the shift lever in FIRST FORWARD. Accelerate the engine until the
truck moves. The truck must not move below 1200 rpm. This procedure
should be repeated for each brake lever or pedal.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for more information on the
remaining tests performed in the cab.

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15

VIMS service lamp

The blue service lamp (arrow) located on the left side of the cab is part of
the attachment Vital Information Management System (VIMS). When the
key start switch is turned to the ON position, The VIMS runs through a
self test. During the self test the service lamp will flash three times if
there are logged events stored in the VIMS main module and once if there
are no logged events.
During normal operation, the service lamp will turn ON to notify service
personnel that the VIMS has an active machine or system event. The
service lamp flashes to indicate when an event is considered abusive to
the machine.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: For more detailed information on the VIMS,


refer to the Service Manual Module "Vital Information Management
System (VIMS)" (Form SENR6059).

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769D/771D/773D/775D UPDATE
OFF-HIGHWAY TRUCKS
CATERPILLAR MONITORING SYSTEM OR
VITAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (VIMS)

12

MPH
km/h

VIMS DISPLAY
MODULES

- GAUGES
- MONITORING
- WARNINGS
- CLOCK SYCHONIZATION
- MACHINE ID

3F

SPI LINK

ENGINE TEMP
60 Deg F

- GAUGES
- MONITORING
- WARNINGS
- CLOCK SYCHONIZATION
- MACHINE ID
- TELEMETRY
- PAYLOAD MEASUREMENT
- STRUT DIAGNOSTICS

[135]

OK

ID

SERVICE
TOOL

CAT DATA LINK


ADEM II
- EMISSIONS CONTROL
- FUEL INJECTION
- ETHER INJECTION
- FAN CONTROL
- ENGINE PRE-LUBE

VIMS
MAIN MODULE

INTEGRATED BRAKE CONTROL (IBC)


- TRACTION ASSIST
- RETARDING
- OVERSPEED RETARDING
- RETARDING LAMP

EPTC III

- ICM CONTROL
- NEUTRAL START
- BACKUP ALARM
- OVERSPEED PROTECTION
- CTS
- ENGINE PRE-LUBE
- DIRECTIONAL SHIFT MANAGEMENT
- AUTOLUBE

INTERFACE
MODULES

- TOP GEAR LIMIT


- REVERSE NEUTRALIZE
- LOAD COUNTER
- NEUTRAL COAST INHIBIT
- BODY UP GEAR LIMIT
- STARTER PROTECTION
- BODY HOIST CONTROL
- SECONDARY STEERING
- SPEED LIMITER

16
OPERATORS STATION
Caterpillar Monitoring System
Caterpillar Monitoring
System is standard

The Caterpillar Monitoring System is the standard monitoring system


installed on the D-series update Off-highway Trucks. The Caterpillar
Monitoring System is a flexible, modular monitoring system that includes:
a message center module, various switches and sensors, an action lamp
and action alarm.
The "heart" of the system is the message center module where information
is received from switches and sensors over the CAT Data Link and
processed. The message center module then activates various outputs.

VIMS is possible
future option

The Vital Information Management System (VIMS) is being tested as a


possible future attachment on the D-series update trucks.
If a truck is equipped with the VIMS, the message center control module
of the Caterpillar Monitoring System is replaced with the VIMS message
center module, a keypad module, a VIMS main module and two interface
modules.

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17

Middle front dash


panel

Shown is the middle of the front dash panel. Nine dash indicators, the
four-gauge cluster module and the speedometer/tachometer module are
shown.

Left dash indicators


(top to bottom)

The four dash indicators to the left of the four-gauge cluster module are
(from top to bottom):

- Left turn
- Body up
- Reverse
- High Beam

Left Turn
Body Up--Lights when the body is up. Input is from the Body Up
switch.
Reverse--Lights when the shift lever switch is in REVERSE.
High Beam

UPDATE 97

Right dash indicators


(top to bottom)
- Right turn

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The five dash indicators to the right of the Speedometer/Tachometer


Module are (from top to bottom):
Right Turn

- Action lamp
- Secondary steering
- Retarder
- TCS

Action Lamp--Lights when a Category 2 or Category 3 warning is


active.
Secondary Steering--Lights when the secondary steering pump is
ON.
Retarder--Lights when the retarder is ENGAGED (Auto or Manual).
TCS--Lights when the Traction Control System (TCS) is
ENGAGED.

Four-gauge cluster
module:
- Engine coolant
temperature
- Brake oil
temperature
- System air pressure

The four systems monitored by the Four-Gauge Cluster Module are (top
then bottom left to right):
Engine Coolant Temperature--Maximum operating temperature:
107 C (225 F)
Brake Oil Temperature--Maximum operating temperature:
121 C (250 F)

- Fuel level

System Air Pressure--Minimum operating pressure:


483 kPa (70 psi) on trucks with the Caterpillar Monitoring System.
450 kPa (65 psi) on trucks with the VIMS.
Fuel Level--Minimum operating level:
8% on trucks with the Caterpillar Monitoring System.
On trucks with the VIMS there are two fuel level warning
Categories:
- 10%--Category 1
- 5%--Category 2

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18

Rocker switches (top


row):

To the right of the Speedometer/Tachometer Module are several rocker


switches. The rocker switches control the following systems:

- Lights
- Automatic retarder
control
- Traction control
system test
- Operator modes
scroll

Top row (from left to right)


Lights
Vacant
ARC--Turns on the Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) system.
TCS Test--Tests the Traction Control System (TCS). Use this switch
when turning in a tight circle with the engine at low idle and the
transmission in FIRST GEAR.
Caterpillar Monitoring System Operator Scroll--Allows the Operator
to scroll through the Operator Modes in the Message Center Module
display window.

UPDATE 97

Rocker switches
(bottom row):
- Throttle backup/
throttle lock
- Ether starting aid
- Air conditioning
- Body up sound
reduction
- Secondary steering
and brake retraction

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Bottom row (from left to right)


Throttle Backup/Throttle Lock: (customer installed option)
- Throttle Backup--Raises the engine speed to 1300 rpm if the
throttle sensor signal is invalid.
- Throttle Lock--If the transmission is in NEUTRAL and the
parking brake is ENGAGED, the throttle lock will hold any
current engine rpm selected by the operator. If any service/retarder
brake is ENGAGED, the engine rpm will return to LOW IDLE.
After a brake application, the throttle lock must be turned OFF to
reset the system before the throttle lock function will work again.
Ether Starting Aid--Allows the Operator to manually inject ether if
the engine oil temperature is below 10 C (50 F) and engine speed
is below 1200 rpm (customer installed option).
Air Conditioning
Body Up Sound Reduction--Reduces engine HIGH IDLE to
1800 rpm when the body is raised.
Secondary Steering and Brake Retraction--Normally when this
switch is depressed, the steering system receives secondary steering
oil flow and brake retraction oil flows to tank. When the brake
retraction diverter (towing) valve spool is shifted, this switch will
also release the parking brakes (see Slide No. 71).

NOTE: The Secondary Steering and Brake Retraction switch can


also be used to provide hoist pilot oil for lowering the body on trucks
with a dead engine (see Slide No. 62).

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19
Message center
module

To the right of the rocker switches is the Message Center Module. The
Message Center Module contains ten alert indicators and a message
display window.

Alert indicators (top


row):

The alert indicators on the message center module represent the following
systems:

- Engine oil pressure


- Parking brake ON or
brake master
cylinder overstroke
- Torque converter oil
temperature or brake
oil temperature
- Battery charging
- Engine maintenance
required

Top row (from left to right)


Engine Oil Pressure--Minimum operating pressures:
- Low Idle - 44 kPa (6.4 psi)
- High Idle - 250 kPa (36 psi)
Parking Brake ON or Brake Master Cylinder Overstroke
Torque Converter Oil Temperature or Brake Oil Temperature-Maximum operating temperature: 121 C (250 F)
Battery Charging--Minimum voltage on Message Center
pin 1: 23 Volts. Minimum "R" terminal frequency/voltage:
95 Hz/12.4 to 14.75 DC volts.
Engine Maintenance Required--Steering pressure low
Air filter restriction
Engine coolant flow low

UPDATE 97

Alert indicators
(bottom row):
- Air filter restriction
- Steering pressure
low
- Transmission oil
filter restricted
- Engine coolant flow
low
- Check engine

- 27 -

Bottom row (from left to right)


Air Filter Restriction--Maximum allowable restriction: 7.5 kPa
(30 inches of water)
Steering Pressure Low
Transmission/Torque Converter Oil Filter Restricted--Maximum
differential pressure: 250 kPa (36 psi)
Engine Coolant Flow Low
Check Engine--Lights only when there are active engine fault codes

Message display
window

The message display window has a row of six digits, a decimal point
between certain digits, six text symbols (units of measure), a x10 symbol
and a service meter symbol that show machine system conditions and
other service and setup information. The type of information shown on
the screen depends on the message center operating mode.

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5
4

2
3

20

1. CAT Data Link


connector

Shown is the fuse panel located behind the operator's seat. A laptop
computer with the Electronic Technician (ET) software installed can be
connected to the CAT Data Link connector (1) to obtain diagnostic
information and perform programming functions on all of the electronic
controls.

2. 12 Volt/5 amp power


port

A 12 Volt/5 amp power port (2) provides an additional power supply for a
laptop computer.

3. TPMS/VIMS
diagnostic
connector

A laptop computer with the Truck Production Management System


(TPMS) or VIMS software installed can be connected to the diagnostic
connector (3) to obtain diagnostic and production information from the
TPMS or VIMS Electronic Control.

4. Caterpillar
Monitoring System
message center
service switches

Two Service Switches (4) and (5) are used to access the Caterpillar
Monitoring System Message Center for stored diagnostic information.
The switches are labeled with an "S" for SET or SCROLL and a
"C" for CLEAR. The Diagnostic Mode of the Message Center is changed
by depressing and holding both service switches "S" and "C". When the
desired mode is shown on the display, the switches can be released. By
following the instructions in the Caterpillar Monitoring System Service
Manual, the serviceman can program or diagnose faults in all electronic
controls on the CAT Data Link.

UPDATE 97

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OPERATOR MODES
INPUTS
SERVICE
METER
MODE
ODOMETER
MODE

41.4

DIAGNOSTIC
SCROLLING
MODE

- ENGINE SPEED/TIMING SENSOR


- ALTERNATOR "R" TERMINAL
- ENGINE OIL PRESSURE

MILES or KM

- TRANSMISSION OUTPUT SPEED SENSOR

170

DIGITAL
TACHOMETER
MODE
RESETTABLE
LOAD COUNTER
MODE

SERV
CODE

RPM

- ENGINE SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

700
L

- BODY UP SWITCH
(AFTER 10 SECONDS ACTIVATION)
Use "C" Service Switch to Clear

74
030

SERV
CODE

271 F05

MID

SERV
CODE

CID FMI

21
Message center
module display
window

The Caterpillar Monitoring System has eight different possible modes of


operation. Each mode provides important information regarding the
condition of the machine and setup of the monitoring system. On the
message center module display window, each mode is shown as a number.
The mode of operation is changed using either the Service Switches
located on the fuse panel behind the Operator or the Operator Mode Scroll
Switch located on the dashboard. Only some modes are accessible to the
Operator by using the dashboard-mounted rocker switch in Mode 0.
After the Caterpillar Monitoring System first powers up, the message
center display window will be in Mode 0. In Mode 0, the display window
six-digit readout shows various machine system conditions to the
Operator. The digital readout normally shows the service meter. Using
the Operator Mode Scroll Switch, the Operator may scroll through the
different Operator modes. As the display scrolls, it will show the
following information:

UPDATE 97

Operator modes:
- Service meter mode
- Odometer mode
- Digital tachometer
mode
- Resettable load
counter mode
- Diagnostic scrolling
mode

- 30 -

Service Meter Mode: The message center module keeps track of the
engine's total number of operating hours. When in service meter mode,
the six digit readout shows total machine operating hours. The service
meter symbol is ON to indicate the display is functioning as a service
meter. The operating hours will only increase when there are input
signals from the engine speed timing sensor, the alternator "R" terminal
and the engine oil pressure sensor. If there is an Active Fault, SERV
CODE will be displayed in the window.
Odometer Mode: In this mode, the six-digit readout displays the total
distance the machine has traveled. The units indicator will show MILES
or KM, depending on the units of measure setting. The distance traveled
will only increase when there is an input signal from the transmission
output speed sensor.
Digital Tachometer Mode: This mode displays the engine speed in
revolutions per minute on the six-digit display. The units indicator
shows RPM. The engine speed/timing sensor provides the input signal
to the message center module.
Resettable Load Counter Mode: Displays the number of loads since
last re-set by the operator. The number of loads is calculated as equal to
the number of times the body has been raised for more than ten seconds.
The body up switch provides the input signals to the message center
module. The load count can be cleared by depressing the "C" Service
Switch located behind the Operator's seat.
Diagnostic Scrolling Mode: Using this mode, service personnel or the
operator can view the faults the message center has detected. Faults
CANNOT be placed on hold or cleared in this mode. "SERV CODE"
will only be displayed if the fault is ACTIVE.
Fault Codes consist of two parts:

Diagnostic codes in
serviceman's
handouts

MID

- Module Identification. 030--Monitor, 036--ADEM II,


027--EPTC III, 116--ARC/TCS

CID, FMI

- Component Identification and Failure Modifier

Refer to the Serviceman's Handouts for a listing of the Diagnostic Codes


used on the D-series update Off-highway Trucks.

NOTE: During engine cranking, if the Caterpillar Pre-Lubrication


System is installed, a "P" will appear on the display during
pre-lubrication.
During engine cranking, if the ether starting aid is installed, an "E"
will appear on the display during ether injection.

UPDATE 97

- 31 -

SERVICE MODES
HARNESS
CODE
MODE

-1-

NUMERIC
READOUT
MODE

-2-

SERV
CODE

59

USE "S" SERVICE SWITCH TO SCROLL GAUGES

95

GA-1 (engine coolant)


SERVICE
MODE

kPa

88

-3-

715

GA-2 (brake oil)

030

---

SERV
CODE

MID
LOG
MODE

UNITS
MODE
PERMANENT
LOAD COUNT
MODE
DIAGNOSTIC
AND
PROGRAMMING
MODE

LOG

-4-

-6-7-

KM

US
L

271 F05
CID

SERV
CODE

GA-4 (fuel)
USE "S" SERVICE SWITCH
TO SCROLL FAULTS
USE "C" SERVICE SWITCH
TO CLEAR FAULTS

FMI

ALL GAUGES AND INDICATORS


DISPLAY EXTREME CONDITIONS RECORDED

MILES

-5-

75

GA-3 (system air)

USE "C" SERVICE SWITCH


TO CLEAR

USE "C" SERVICE SWITCH


TO CHANGE UNITS

SI

1057
n

3 F

3FL

USE "S" SERVICE SWITCH


TO SCROLL SUB-MODES

22
Service modes:
- Harness code
mode 1
- Numeric readout
mode 2
- Service mode 3
- Log mode 4
- Units mode 5
- Permanent load
count mode 6
- Diagnostic and
programming
mode 7

The Service Technician can use the message display to check other
machine condition information by selecting the different modes available.
Depress both Service Switches behind the Operator's seat to Scroll
through the Modes. Release the switches to enter a Mode when its
number is displayed. The seven Service Modes are described below.
Harness Code Mode 1: This mode shows the machine model that the
monitoring system is installed on. 769D through 777D pre-update
Off-highway Trucks are all "34." D-series update truck harness codes
are:
769D--"62"

771D--"61"

773D--"60"

775D--"59"

Numeric Readout Mode 2: This mode assists service personnel with


troubleshooting sensor inputs. Numeric readout mode more accurately
shows the same information as that shown on the gauges. The digital
readout will display one gauge value at a time. To scroll through the
four gauges, depress the "S" Service Switch and release the switch when
the desired gauge number is displayed.

UPDATE 97

SERV CODE on for


active faults

- 32 -

Service Mode 3: The message center module detects faults that occur
with sensor/sender inputs and message center module outputs. The
message center will then record the fault and turn on the "SERV CODE"
indicator. If the fault goes away, the "SERV CODE" indicator is turned
off. The fault code remains stored for future reference. This mode helps
service personnel see and trouble shoot faults that the message center
module has detected. Faults from other machine systems that are
attached to the Data Link are also shown in this mode.

Action alarm sounds


when fault is
displayed

When a fault is displayed in the window, the Action Alarm will sound
when the component or circuit changes state. For example, if the
display shows the fault code for the torque converter temperature sensor
and the technician unplugs and then plugs in the connector to the torque
converter temperature sensor, the Action Alarm will sound if the
Message Center Module detects a change from an OPEN to a completed
circuit.

Use "S" service switch


to scroll faults

Use the "S" Service Switch to scroll through logged faults. Use the "C"
Service Switch to clear logged faults that have been repaired.

Use "C" service


switch to clear faults

Log mode indicates


extreme conditions

Log Mode 4: Log mode is a management and maintenance tool, useful


for tracking machine history. The message center module records the
extreme value for each machine condition monitored. When in this
mode, each gauge in the four-gauge cluster will display its highest or
lowest recorded condition and the speedometer and tachometer will
display their highest recorded values. Alert Indicators will also light
when an abnormal condition has existed.
Use the "C" Service Switch to clear the logged values. Mode 4 must
also be exited before the logged values will be cleared from memory.
Units Mode 5: This mode is used to toggle the Ground Speed display
(MPH/km/h) between U.S. and SI (metric) units of measure.
Use the "C" Service Switch to change the units of measure.
Permanent Load Count Mode 6: Displays the total number of loads
accumulated since the machine was put into production. The number of
loads is calculated as equal to the number of times the body has been
raised for more than 10 seconds. This Mode is not resettable.

UPDATE 97

- 33 -

Diagnostic and Programming Mode 7: The Caterpillar Monitoring System display for Mode 7 has
been expanded to include several sub-modes to extend the diagnostic capabilities. After entering
Mode 7, use the "S" service switch to scroll through the sub-modes. The operator scroll switch and the
"C" service switch can also be used in some of the sub-modes. The sub-modes in Mode 7 are as
follows:
7.1
Shift Monitoring Mode--displays the position of the shift lever sensor on the left of the display
and the position of the transmission gear switch on the right of the display. The D6 digit will display
an "L" when the lockup clutch is ENGAGED.
n
1
r
3
F
--D1 D2
7.2

L
-D6

<--digital position on display

1
8
--D3 D4

3
-D5

4
-D6

<--TOS = 1834
<--digital position on display

Torque Converter Output Speed (COS) Display Mode--displays the rpm of the COS sensor (if
equipped).
C
--D1 D2

7.4

r
F
-D5

<--cane n, actual gear n, lockup clutch OFF


<--cane 1R, actual gear 1R, lockup clutch OFF
<--cane 3F, actual gear 3F, lockup clutch ENGAGED

Transmission Output Speed (TOS) Display Mode--displays the rpm of the TOS sensor.
T
--D1 D2

7.3

n
1
3
--D3 D4

1
8
--D3 D4

3
-D5

4
-D6

<--COS = 1834
<--digital position on display

Engine Output Speed (EOS) Display Mode--displays the rpm of the EOS sensor.
E
--D1 D2

1
8
--D3 D4

3
-D5

4
-D6

<--EOS = 1834
<--digital position on display

UPDATE 97

7.5

- 34 -

Hoist Display Mode--displays the hoist lever sensor INPUT to the Transmission and Chassis
Control or the hoist lever OUTPUT from the Transmission and Chassis Control. The input and
output can be different depending on the hoist lever strategy. For example, if a machine is started
with the hoist lever in FLOAT, the hoist strategy will keep the body in HOLD until the lever is
cycled from FLOAT to HOLD and then back to FLOAT. Therefore, the input can be FLOAT and
the output will be HOLD.
H
H
H
H
-D1

L
L
L
L
-D2

4
8
1
0
--D3 D4

0
0
0
0
-D5

H
L
R
F
-D6

<--hoist lever in HOLD


<--hoist lever in 40% LOWER
<--hoist lever in 80% RAISE
<--hoist lever in 100% FLOAT
<--digital position on display

Depress the Operator Scroll Switch and the above display changes to show the hoist OUTPUT.
The "L" changes to an "O" and the state of the hoist system is displayed in the same format.
H 0
--D1 D2

7.6

--D3 D4

0
-D5

S
-D6

<--hoist output in SNUB


<--digital position on display

Transmission Gear Switch Input Mode--displays the transmission gear switch input signals to
the Transmission and Chassis Control. Transmission gear switch inputs correspond to pins 29, 30,
31, 32, 33 and 35 in the J1 connector of the Transmission and Chassis Control. If the particular
input is grounded, a "0" will be displayed. If the input is not grounded (OPEN), a "1" will be
displayed. A normal transmission gear position will have two of the five gear wires grounded
along with the ground verify signal (pin 35). Pin 35 should always be grounded and a "0" should
always be displayed in the D1 position of the display. Therefore, a correctly functioning
Transmission Gear Switch and Harness should always have three 0's and three 1's for each gear
position.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-D1
35

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
-D2
33

0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
-D3
32

1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
-D4
31

1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
-D5
30

1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
-D6
29

<--pins grounded in NEUTRAL


<--pins grounded in REVERSE
<--pins grounded in 1st
<--pins grounded in 2nd
<--pins grounded in 3rd
<--pins grounded in 4th
<--pins grounded in 5th
<--pins grounded in 6th
<--pins grounded in 7th
<--digital position on display
<--pin number in the J1 connector

32 & 33
31 & 33
30 & 33
29 & 33
31 & 32
30 & 32
29 & 32
30 & 31
29 & 31

UPDATE 97

7.7

- 35 -

Economy Shift Program Mode--displays whether the Economy Shift feature is ON or OFF. The
Operator can select between faster cycle times or better fuel economy. Turning this feature ON or
OFF changes the torque map used by the engine control and the shift points used by the
transmission control. ON is ECONOMY mode. OFF is FULL POWER mode. When the
Economy Shift feature is ON, full power is still used in 1st and 2nd Gear. The Economy torque
map is only used in gears THREE and up.
Use the "C" Service Switch to turn this feature ON or OFF..

--D1 D2

O
--D3 D4

F
-D5

F
-D6

<--setting at OFF
<--digital position on display

UPDATE 97

- 36 -

23

Electronic Technician
(ET)

Shown is the 7X1700 Communication Adapter and a laptop computer


with the Electronic Technician (ET) diagnostic software installed. The
communication adapter is connected to the CAT Data Link diagnostic
connector located on the fuse panel.

ET must be used with


new MAC14 controls

The new electronic controls [Transmission and Chassis control


(EPTC III), Integrated Brake Control (IBC), ARC and TCS] used on the
D-series update trucks no longer have diagnostic windows to access
diagnostic information. The new controls are called Multiple Application
Controls with 14 output capability (MAC14). In order to perform
diagnostic and programming functions in the new MAC14 controls, the
service technician must use a laptop computer with ET.

ET version 2.0
required for IBC

ET version 2.0 or greater must be used to communicate with the


Integrated Brake Control (IBC).

UPDATE 97

- 37 -

24

Vital Information Management System (VIMS)


VIMS possible future
attachment

The Vital Information Management System (VIMS) is being tested as a


possible future attachment on the D-series update trucks.
If a truck is equipped with the VIMS, the message center control module
of the Caterpillar Monitoring System is replaced with the VIMS message
center module (1) and the keypad module (2).

1. Message center
module:
- Alert indicator
- Universal gauge
- Message display
window

The message center module consists of an alert indicator, a universal


gauge and a message display window. The alert indicator flashes when a
Category 1 Warning is present. The universal gauge displays the status of
the sensor selected for viewing by depressing the GAUGE key on the
keypad. The message display window shows various types of text
information to the operator.

UPDATE 97

2. Keypad module

- 38 -

The keypad module allows the operator or a service technician to interact


with the VIMS. Some of the functions that can be performed by the
keypad are:
- Calibrate Payload Monitor

PAYCAL

729225

- Payload Resettable Totals

TOT

868

- Reset Displayed Data

RESET

73738

- Display Self Test

TEST

8378

- Reset Service Light

SVCLIT

782548

- Show Acknowledged Events

EACK

3225

- Show Event Statistics

ESTAT

37828

- Show Event List

ELIST

35478

- Start Event Recorder

EREC

3732

- Start/Stop Data Logger

DLOG

3564

- Reset Data Logger

DLRES

35737

- Odometer Set/Reset
(requires VIMS PC connection)

ODO

636

- Machine Status

MSTAT

67828

- Change Language

LA

52

- Change Units

UN

86

- Change Backlight

BLT

258

- Change Display Contrast


(requires Updated Message Center)

CON

266

OK Key--Used to complete keypad entries and to acknowledge events.


Acknowledging an event will remove the event from the display
temporarily. Severe events cannot be acknowledged.
GAUGE key--Displays parameters monitored by VIMS. Depressing the
arrow keys will scroll through the parameters. Entering the parameter
number and the GAUGE key selects that parameter.
F1 Key--Provides additional information on the current event being
displayed. For SYSTEM events, the MID, CID, FMI is displayed. For
MACHINE events, the current parameter value is displayed (temperature,
pressure, rpm).

UPDATE 97

- 39 -

SERVICE
KEYSWITCH

VIMS
RS-232
PORT

SPEEDOMETER/
TACHOMETER
MODULE

GAUGE CLUSTER
MODULE

SERVICE
LAMP

12

MAIN MODULE

KEYPAD
MODULE

3F

VIMS
SERVICE TOOL
AND
SOFTWARE

ELECTRONIC
TECHNICIAN/ECAP
DISPLAY
DATA LINK

VIMS

MPH
km/h

MESSAGE CENTER
MODULE

VIMS
INTERFACE
MODULE

VIMS
INTERFACE
MODULE

KEYPAD
DATA LINK
CAT DATA LINK

ADEM II
CONTROL
ACTION
ALARM

ACTION
LAMP
CAT DATA LINK
SENSORS

SENSORS
SENSORS

VITAL INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(VIMS)
INTEGRATED BRAKE
CONTROL
(ARC) (TCS)

TRANSMISSION AND
CHASSIS CONTROL

25
VIMS

The VIMS operates very similar to the Caterpillar Monitoring System.


The VIMS uses two interface modules to receive input signals from many
sensors located around the machine. The VIMS also communicates with
other electronic controls on the machine. The VIMS provides the
operator and the service technician with a complete look at the current and
past conditions of all the systems on the truck.

TPMS is part of VIMS

If the truck is equipped with the VIMS, the TPMS is an integral part of
the VIMS. Access to the TPMS information is provided through the
VIMS message center and keypad modules and a laptop computer with
the VIMS PC software installed.

ET required for
programming and
diagnostics

While VIMS monitors all of the systems on the truck, ET is used for
programming, running diagnostic tests and retrieving logged information
from the engine, transmission and chassis, ARC and TCS electronic
controls.

UPDATE 97

- 40 -

4
1

2
3
5

26

1. VIMS main module


2. VIMS interface
module #1
3. VIMS interface
module #2
4. Transmission and
chassis control
5. ARC and TCS
control

Located in the compartment at the back of the cab is the VIMS Main
Module (1), the VIMS Interface Module #1 (2) and the VIMS Interface
Module #2 (3). These components make up the heart of the VIMS.
Also in this location is the transmission and chassis control (4) and the
ARC and TCS control (5). All of these electronic controls, along with the
engine control, communicate with each other on the CAT Data Link. All
of the information from these controls can be accessed through the VIMS
message center or a laptop computer with ET or VIMS PC software.

UPDATE 97

- 41 -

27

VIMS connector

Shown is a laptop computer with the VIMS PC diagnostic software


installed. The laptop computer is connected to the VIMS diagnostic
connector. This connector is the same one used for TPMS on trucks
without the VIMS.
Some of the operations that can be performed with a laptop computer with
VIMS PC installed are:
- View real time data (similar to the status menu of ET)
- View payload data
- Start and stop a data logger
- Calibrate the payload system
- Upload source and configuration files (similar to flash programming
with ET)
- Assign serial and equipment numbers
- Reset onboard date, time and hour meter
- Download event list, data logger, event recorder, payload data, trend
data, cumulative data and histogram data

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: For more detailed information on the VIMS,


refer to the Service Manual Module "Vital Information Management
System (VIMS)" (Form SENR6059).

UPDATE 97

- 42 -

28

POWER TRAIN
Power Train Components
Torque converter:
- Provides a fluid
coupling
- Multiplies torque
- Provides direct drive
operation

1. Lockup clutch
control valve
2. Outlet pressure relief
valve
3. Transmission and
torque converter
pump
4. Transmission and
torque converter
suction screen

The first component in the power train is the torque converter. The torque
converter provides a fluid coupling that permits the engine to continue
running with the truck stopped. In converter drive, the torque converter
multiplies torque to the transmission. At higher ground speeds, a lockup
clutch engages to provide direct drive. The NEUTRAL and REVERSE
ranges are converter drive only. FIRST SPEED is converter drive at low
ground speed and direct drive at high ground speed. SECOND through
SEVENTH SPEEDS are direct drive only. The torque converter goes to
converter drive between each shift (during clutch engagement) to provide
smooth shifts.
Mounted on the torque converter case are the lockup clutch control
valve (1), the outlet pressure relief valve (2), the transmission and torque
converter pump (3) and the transmission and torque converter suction
screen (4).

UPDATE 97

- 43 -

2
3

29

775D update truck


1. Transfer gears
2. Transmission

Shown are some of the power train components in a 775D update truck.
Power flows from the torque converter through a drive shaft to the
transfer gears (1). The transfer gears are splined to the transmission.

3. Differential

The transmission (2) is located between the transfer gears and the
differential (3). The transmission is electronically controlled and
hydraulically operated like all other ICM (Individual Clutch Modulation)
transmissions in Caterpillar rigid frame trucks.

Transmission is power
shift planetary design

The transmission is a power shift planetary design which contains seven


hydraulically engaged clutches. The transmission provides seven
FORWARD speeds and one REVERSE speed.
The differential is located in the rear axle housing behind the
transmission. Power from the transmission flows through the differential
and is divided equally to the final drives in the rear wheels. The final
drives are single reduction planetaries.

UPDATE 97

- 44 -

5
3

30

Power Train Hydraulic System


Torque converter
housing is oil sump
Two section pump:
1. Transmission
scavenge
2. Transmission and
torque converter
charging
3. Transmission
scavenge oil return
baffle cover
4. Suction screen
cover
5. Transmission and
torque converter
charging filters

Charging oil flows in


two directions:
- To torque converter
lockup clutch valve
- To transmission
control valves

The torque converter housing is the oil sump for the transmission and
torque converter oil supply.
A two section transmission and torque converter pump is located at the
rear of the torque converter. The rear section is the transmission scavenge
section (1) of the pump and the front section is the transmission and
torque converter charging section (2) of the pump.
The transmission scavenge section pulls oil through the magnetic screen
located at the bottom of the transmission case (see next slide). The
scavenged oil from the transmission is transferred into the torque
converter case through a baffle (diffuser) located behind the cover (3).
The transmission and torque converter charging section of the pump pulls
oil from the torque converter case through the suction screen located
behind the cover (4). Oil flows from the charging section to the
transmission and torque converter charging filters (5). Charging oil flows
in two directions from the filters:
- Charging oil flows to the torque converter lockup valve located on
top of the torque converter.
- Charging oil also flows to the transmission control valves located on
top of the transmission.

UPDATE 97

- 45 -

31

Transmission
magnetic scavenge
screen (arrow)

Shown is the transmission scavenge screen (arrow) and the magnet


assembly that fits inside the screen. The screen is located in the bottom of
the transmission case. The screen should always be checked for debris if
a problem with the transmission is suspected.
Oil is scavenged from the transmission by the rear section of the
transmission and torque converter pump (see previous slide).

UPDATE 97

- 46 -

3
2

32

1. Transmission and
torque converter
filters
2. Transmission/TC
SOS tap
3. Transmission/TC
filter bypass switch

Shown are the transmission and torque converter charging filters (1).
Transmission and torque converter oil samples can be taken at the
Scheduled Oil Sampling (SOS) tap (2).
A transmission and torque converter filter bypass switch (3) is located on
the filter base. The bypass switch provides input signals to the Caterpillar
Monitoring System or the VIMS which informs the operator if the
transmission and torque converter filters are restricted.

UPDATE 97

- 47 -

1
4

33

1. Torque converter
lockup valve
2. Lockup valve supply
port
3. Lockup solenoid

The transmission and torque converter charging pump supplies oil to the
torque converter lockup valve (1) through the inlet port (2). When the
lockup solenoid (3) is energized by the transmission and chassis control,
the lockup valve supplies oil to ENGAGE the lockup clutch in the torque
converter.

4. Torque converter
lockup clutch
pressure tap

Torque converter lockup clutch pressure can be measured at the tap (4).
Torque converter lockup clutch pressures are as follows:
769D/771D--Pressure will increase to 2065 100 kPa (300 15 psi) for
0.15 seconds, then decrease and hold at 1720 100 kPa (250 15 psi).
773D/775D--Pressure will increase to 2410 100 kPa (350 15 psi) for
0.15 seconds, then decrease and hold at 2065 100 kPa (300 15 psi).

Lockup clutch
pressure test

To check the lockup clutch pressure the drive shaft must be disconnected
at the torque converter or the rear axles must be removed. Move the shift
lever to first forward and raise the engine speed to HIGH IDLE. The
lockup clutch will engage at approximately 6.4 km/h (4 mph).
An 8T5200 Signal Generator/Counter can also be used to shift the
transmission.

Lockup clutch
pressure NOT
adjustable

The lockup clutch pressure is not adjustable. If the lockup clutch pressure
is not correct, verify that the lockup valve is operating correctly. Check
for loose or sticking components or debris in the valve. If the lockup
valve is operating correctly and the lockup clutch pressure is incorrect, a
new flash file may be required.

UPDATE 97

- 48 -

TORQUE CONVERTER LOCKUP VALVE

LOCKUP SOLENOID

DRAIN

PIN

LOCKUP
PRESSURE

PUMP
SUPPLY

CONTROL
SPOOL

34
Lockup clutch control
valve operation

The transmission and chassis control provides a Pulse Width Modulated


(PWM) signal to the lockup solenoid to control the lockup pressure.
When the lockup solenoid is energized, the pin moves to the right and
pushes against the ball. The ball blocks the pump supply oil from flowing
to drain. Pressure increases in the chamber to the left of the control spool
and moves the spool to the right.
When the control spool moves to the right, pump supply oil flows to the
lockup clutch. The transmission and chassis control opens and closes the
ball drain port as needed to maintain the correct lockup clutch pressure.

ECPC valve

The lockup clutch valve is often referred to as the Electronic Clutch


Pressure Control (ECPC) valve because it can control clutch pressure
electronically. A similar valve is used on Track-type Tractors and Wheel
Loaders.

UPDATE 97

- 49 -

3
7

5
1

35

1. Transmission
charging oil inlet
port
2. Shift solenoids
3. Torque converter
charging oil supply
hose
4. Torque converter
inlet relief valve

Shown is the Individual Clutch Modulation (ICM) transmission hydraulic


control valve. Oil flows from the transmission and torque converter
charging filters through the inlet port (1) to the transmission hydraulic
control valve and the shift solenoids (2). The charging oil is used to shift
the transmission and fill the clutches. Some of the charging oil drops to
the bottom of the housing to be scavenged, but most of the oil flows to the
torque converter through the outlet hose (3) to provide charging oil for the
torque converter. The torque converter inlet relief valve (4) limits the
maximum pressure to the torque converter.
The setting of the torque converter inlet relief valve is 930 kPa (135 psi).

5. Transmission
charging pressure
tap

The transmission charging pressure relief valve is part of the transmission


hydraulic control valve. The relief valve limits the maximum pressure in
the transmission charging circuit. Transmission charging pressure can be
measured at the tap (5). Transmission pressure should be a minimum of
2480 kPa (360 psi) at LOW IDLE and a maximum of 3200 kPa (465 psi)
at HIGH IDLE.

6. Transmission clutch
pressure taps

Transmission clutch pressures are measured at the pressure taps (6).

7. Transmission lube
inlet port

Lubrication and cooling oil from the the transmission and torque
converter oil cooler enters the transmission through inlet port (7).

UPDATE 97

- 50 -

36

Transmission lube tap


(arrow)

Shown is the left side of the transmission. Transmission lube pressure can
be measured at the tap (arrow) located below the lubrication supply hose.
Lube pressure should be greater than 3.5 kPa (0.5 psi) at LOW IDLE and
between 140 to 205 kPa (20 to 30 psi) at HIGH IDLE.

UPDATE 97

- 51 -

ICM
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DOWNSHIFT
PRESSURE
DOWNSHIFT
SOLENOID

UPSHIFT
PRESSURE

UPSHIFT
SOLENOID
ROTARY
ACTUATOR

CHARGING
FILTERS

PUMP
PRESSURE
CHARGING
PUMP

PRIORITY
REDUCTION
VALVE

NEUTRALIZER
VALVE

PILOT OIL
PRESSURE
LOCKUP
VALVE

ROTARY
SELECTOR
SPOOL

SCAVENGE
PUMP

TRANSMISSION
CASE

TORQUE
CONVERTER

RELIEF
VALVE

TORQUE
CONVERTER
INLET
RELIEF VALVE

SELECTOR VALVE
GROUP
OIL COOLER

LUBE
PRESSURE

PRESSURE CONTROL
GROUP

TO TRANSMISSION
LUBE

37
ICM transmission
hydraulic control
valve

Priority reduction
valve
Neutralizer valve

Rotary actuator
Rotary selector spool

Torque converter inlet


relief valve

Shown is a sectional view of the ICM transmission hydraulic control


valve group.
Pump supply oil flows to the shift solenoids, the priority reduction valve,
the relief valve and the pressure control group. Pump supply oil also
flows to the lockup valve. The relief valve controls the maximum
charging pressure in the system. The priority reduction valve reduces
transmission relief pressure to be used as pilot oil. Pilot oil flows through
the neutralizer valve to the rotary selector spool. The neutralizer valve
prevents the clutches from filling with oil if the engine is started with the
transmission in gear. The neutralizer valve will only allow pilot oil to
flow to the rotary selector spool if it is in NEUTRAL.
The rotary actuator is connected to the rotary selector spool. If a shift
solenoid is energized, pump supply oil flows to the rotary actuator and
rotates the rotary selector spool. The rotary selector spool directs pilot oil
to one or two valve stations and allows the clutches to fill with oil. The
valve stations control the modulation of clutch engagement and
dis-engagement.
The torque converter inlet relief valve limits the maximum pressure to the
torque converter.

UPDATE 97

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5
3

2
4

38

1. Torque converter
charging oil inlet
port

Charging oil flows from the transmission and enters the torque converter
through inlet port (1). The torque converter charging oil enters the torque
converter and provides a fluid coupling.

2. Torque converter
outlet relief valve

The torque converter charging oil then either drops to the bottom of the
housing or flows through the torque converter outlet relief valve (2). The
outlet relief valve limits the pressure inside the torque converter. The
outlet relief pressure can be measured at the tap (3) on the outlet relief
valve. The outlet relief pressure should be between 205 and 550 kPa
(30 and 80 psi) at Stall Speed. Stall Speed should be between
1760 and 1890 rpm.

3. Outlet relief valve


pressure tap

4. Torque converter
outlet port to oil
cooler

All the oil from the torque converter outlet relief valve flows from
port (4) through the transmission and torque converter oil cooler located
on the right side of the engine. Oil flows from the oil cooler back to the
transmission for lubrication. Transmission lube oil flows through the
transfer gears and the transmission to cool and lubricate the internal
components.

5. Torque converter
outlet temperature
sensor

A torque converter outlet temperature sensor (5) provides an input signal


to the Caterpillar Monitoring System or the VIMS which informs the
operator of the torque converter outlet temperature.

UPDATE 97

- 53 -

TRANSMISSION AND TORQUE CONVERTER


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
MAGNETIC
SCAVENGE SCREEN

TORQUE CONVERTER
LOCKUP CLUTCH
SUPPLY

TORQUE
CONVERTER
INLET

LOCKUP VALVE

SUCTION
SCREEN

RETURN
BAFFLE

SHIFT
SOLENOIDS

TRANSMISSION AND
TORQUE CONVERTER
CHARGING FILTERS

TRANSMISSION AND
TORQUE CONVERTER
OIL COOLER

TORQUE
CONVERTER
OUTLET

FROM
TRANSMISSION
MAGNETIC
SCAVENGE
SCREEN
TO TRANSMISSION
AND
TORQUE CONVERTER
CHARGING FILTERS

39
Transmission and
torque converter
hydraulic system
Two section pump:
- Transmission
scavenge
- Transmission and
torque converter
charging

Shown is the transmission and torque converter hydraulic system. A two


section transmission and torque converter pump is located at the rear of
the torque converter. The rear section is the transmission scavenge
section of the pump and the front section is the transmission and torque
converter charging section of the pump.
The transmission scavenge section pulls oil through the magnetic screen
located at the bottom of the transmission case. The scavenged oil from
the transmission is transferred into the torque converter case through a
baffle (diffuser).

UPDATE 97

Transmission and
torque converter
charging section

- 54 -

The transmission and torque converter charging section of the pump pulls
oil from the torque converter case through the suction screen. Oil flows
from the charging section to the transmission and torque converter
charging filters. Charging oil flows in two directions from the filters:
- Charging oil flows to the torque converter lockup valve located on
top of the torque converter.
- Charging oil also flows to the transmission control valves located on
top of the transmission.

Torque converter
lockup clutch supply
oil

The charging oil that flows to the torque converter lockup valve is
blocked from the lockup clutch until the lockup valve solenoid is
energized by the transmission and chassis control. When the lockup valve
solenoid is energized, the lockup valve supplies oil to ENGAGE the
lockup clutch in the torque converter.

Transmission
charging oil

The charging oil that flows to the transmission hydraulic control valve
also supplies the shift solenoids. The charging oil is used to shift the
transmission and fill the clutches. Some of the charging oil drops to the
bottom of the housing to be scavenged, but most of the oil flows to the
torque converter to provide charging oil for the torque converter.

Torque converter
charging oil

The torque converter charging oil enters the torque converter and provides
a fluid coupling. Charging oil then either drops to the bottom of the
housing or flows through the torque converter outlet relief valve. The
outlet relief valve limits the pressure inside the torque converter.

Transmission lube

The oil from the torque converter outlet relief valve flows through the
transmission and torque converter oil cooler located on the right side of
the engine. Oil flows from the oil cooler back to the transmission for
lubrication. Transmission lube oil flows through the transfer gears and
the transmission to cool and lubricate the internal components.

UPDATE 97

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40
Transmission and Chassis Control (EPTC III)
Transmission and
chassis control
(arrow)

The transmission and chassis control (arrow) is located in the


compartment at the rear of the cab. The transmission control used in the
D-series pre-update trucks is referred to as the second generation
Electronic Programmable Transmission Control (EPTC II).

Transmission and
chassis control called
EPTC III

The transmission control used in the D-series update trucks performs the
transmission control functions plus some other machine functions (hoist
and secondary steering control). Because of the added functionality of the
control, it is now referred to as the transmission and chassis control. But,
to keep written material to a minimum, we will often refer to this control
as the third generation Electronic Programmable Transmission Control
or (EPTC III).

MAC14 style control

The new control is a MAC14 style electronic control, which means that it
is a Multiple Application Control capable of 14 outputs (MAC14). The
MAC14 does not have a diagnostic window like EPTC II. Diagnostic and
programming functions must all be done with an Electronic Control
Analyzer Programmer (ECAP) or a laptop computer with the Electronic
Technician (ET) software installed. ET is the tool of choice because the
MAC14's can be reprogrammed with a "flash" file using the Winflash
application of ET. ECAP cannot upload "flash" files.

- No diagnostic
window
- Diagnostics and
programming
requires ECAP or ET

MAC14 looks like


ADEM II

MAC14's look like the second generation Advanced Diesel Engine


Management (ADEM II) electronic control with two 40-pin connectors,
but MAC14's do not have fittings for cooling fluid. Also, there is no
access plate for a personality module.

UPDATE 97

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TRANSMISSION AND CHASSIS CONTROL ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

INPUT COMPONENTS

OUTPUT COMPONENTS
CAT DATA LINK

SHIFT LEVER
POSITION SENSOR

ELECTRONIC SERVICE TOOL


ENGINE CONTROL

TRANSMISSION GEAR
SWITCH

ARC AND TCS CONTROL

TRANSMISSION OUTPUT
SPEED SENSOR
C kPaMiles KM RPM Liter SERV
CODE
X10

MESSAGE CENTER
MODULE

. ..

CONVERTER OUTPUT
SPEED SENSOR

UPSHIFT
SOLENOID

ENGINE OUTPUT
SPEED SENSOR
DOWNSHIFT
SOLENOID

SERVICE/RETARDER
BRAKE
PRESSURE SWITCH

LOCKUP
SOLENOID

PARKING/SECONDARY
BRAKE
PRESSURE SWITCH
BODY UP
SWITCH

BACK-UP ALARM

STARTER
RELAY
AUTO LUBE
SOLENOID

KEY START
SWITCH
SECONDARY
STEERING RELAY
LOW STEERING
PRESSURE SENSOR
HOIST RAISE
SOLENOID

HOIST LEVER
POSITION SENSOR

HOIST LOWER
SOLENOID

41
EPTC III shifts the
transmission
electronically

The purpose of the EPTC III is to determine the desired transmission gear
and energize solenoids to shift the transmission up or down as required
based on information from both the operator and machine.

Shifts controlled by
electrical signals

The EPTC III receives information from various input components such
as the shift lever sensor, Transmission Output Speed (TOS) sensor,
transmission gear switch, body up switch and the hoist lever sensor.
Based on the input information, the EPTC III determines whether the
transmission should upshift, downshift, engage the lockup clutch or limit
the transmission gear. These actions are accomplished by sending signals
to various output components.

NOTE: The torque Converter Output Speed (COS) sensor is not


installed on the D-series update trucks.

UPDATE 97

EPTC III outputs

- 57 -

Output components include the upshift, downshift and lockup solenoids,


the back-up alarm and others.
The EPTC III also provides the service technician with enhanced
diagnostic capabilities through the use of onboard memory, which stores
possible diagnostic codes for retrieval at the time of service.

Benefits of electronic
communication

The Advanced Diesel Engine Management (ADEM II) engine control, the
Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) and Traction Control System (TCS)
control, the Caterpillar Monitoring System or the Vital Information
Management System (VIMS) and the EPTC III all communicate with
each other through the CAT Data Link. Communication between the
electronic controls allows the sensors of each system to be shared. Many
additional benefits are provided, such as Controlled Throttle Shifting
(CTS). CTS occurs when the EPTC III tells the engine ECM to reduce
engine fuel during a shift to lower stress to the power train.

EPTC III used to


control hoist and
secondary steering
system

The EPTC III is also used to control the hoist and secondary steering
system on the D-series update trucks.

Service tool
diagnostic and
programming
functions

Some of the diagnostic and programming functions that the service tools
can perform are:

The Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP) and the Electronic


Technician (ET) Service Tools can be used to perform several diagnostic
and programming functions (see Slide No. 23).

- Display real time status of input and output parameters


- Display the internal clock hour reading.
- Display the number of occurrences and the hour reading of the first
and last occurrence for each logged diagnostic code and event.
- Display the definition for each logged diagnostic code and event.
- Display load counters.
- Display the lockup clutch engagement counter.
- Display the transmission gear shift counter.
- Program the top gear limit and the body up gear limit
- Upload new Flash files
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: In the following slides, only some of the
input and output components of the transmission and chassis control
will be shown. Other components will be shown when the system
they control is discussed (hoist raise and lower solenoids for
example).

UPDATE 97

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42

1. Shift lever sensor


- PWM duty cycle
input

The shift lever (also referred to as the "Cane" or "Gear Selector")


sensor (1) is located inside the cab in the shift console and provides an
input signal to the transmission and chassis control (EPTC III). The shift
lever sensor controls the desired top gear selected by the operator. The
sensor provides a PWM duty cycle signal that is unique for each position
of the shift lever sensor.

Shift lever diagnostics

To view the shift lever sensor positions or diagnose problems with the
sensor, use Mode 7.5 of the Caterpillar Monitoring System display
window or the status screen of the service tool and observe the
"Gear Lever" status. As the shift lever is moved through the detent
positions, the Gear Lever status should display the corresponding lever
position shown on the shift console.

2. Shift lever
adjustment nuts

The position of the shift lever can be changed to obtain better alignment
with the gear position numbers on the shift console by loosening the three
nuts (2) and rotating the lever. The position of the shift lever sensor is not
adjustable.

UPDATE 97

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1
2

43
1. Service/retarder
brake switch

Service/retarder
brakes engaged:
- Raises shift points
- Eliminates anti-hunt
timer

The service/retarder brake switch (1) is located in the compartment


behind the cab. The switch is normally closed and opens when
service/retarder brake air pressure is applied. The switch has two
functions for the EPTC III:
- Signals the EPTC III to use elevated shift points, which provides
increased engine speed during downhill retarding for increased oil
flow to the brake cooling circuit.
- Signals the EPTC III to allow rapid shifting during braking by
overriding the anti-hunt timer.
A diagnostic code is stored if the EPTC III does not receive a closed
(ground) signal from the switch within seven hours of operation time or
an open signal from the switch within two hours of operation time.

Service/retarder
switch used as TCS
input

The Traction Control System (TCS) also uses the service/retarder brake
switch as an input through the CAT Data Link (see Slide No. 80).

UPDATE 97

2. Parking/secondary
brake switch
location
Parking/secondary
brakes engaged:
- Eliminates anti-hunt
timer
- Signals parked
machine

- 60 -

The parking/secondary brake switch is in location (2) (trust me, it's in


there somewhere) in the parking/secondary brake air pressure line. The
normally open switch is closed during the application of air pressure. The
purpose of the switch is to signal the EPTC III when the parking/
secondary brakes are engaged. Since the parking/secondary brakes are
spring applied and pressure released, the parking/secondary brake switch
is closed when the brakes are not applied and opens when the brakes are
applied. This signal is used to override the anti-hunt timer for rapid
downshifting and is used to sense when the machine is parked.
A diagnostic code is stored if the EPTC III does not receive a closed
(ground) signal from the switch within seven hours of operation time or
an open signal from the switch within one hour of operation time.

3. Back-up alarm relay

The back-up alarm relay (3) is also located behind the cab. When the
operator moves the shift lever to REVERSE, the EPTC III provides a
signal to the back-up alarm relay, which turns ON the back-up alarm.

Hoist lever sensor

Another input to the EPTC III is the hoist lever sensor (see Slide
No. 124). The main function of the hoist lever sensor is to raise and
lower the body, but it is also used to NEUTRALIZE the transmission. If
the transmission is in REVERSE when the body is being raised, the hoist
lever sensor is used to shift the transmission to NEUTRAL. The
transmission will remain in NEUTRAL until:

- Reverse inhibitor
operation

1. The hoist lever is moved into the HOLD or FLOAT position; and
2. the shift lever has been cycled into and out of NEUTRAL.
Lockup solenoid

The EPTC III provides a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal to the
torque converter lockup solenoid to control the lockup clutch pressure
(see Slide No. 33 and 34). When the lockup solenoid is energized, the
lockup valve supplies oil to ENGAGE the lockup clutch in the torque
converter.

UPDATE 97

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44

1 Body up switch
2. Magnet

The body up switch (1) is located on the frame near the body pivot pin.
This magnetic switch is normally open. When the body is raised, a
magnet (2) mounted on the body passes by the switch and causes the
switch to close. The resulting ground signal is sent to the EPTC III. This
signal is used to limit the top gear into which the transmission will shift.
The top gear value is programmable utilizing the ECAP or ET Service
Tool. The EPTC III comes from the factory with this value set to FIRST
gear. When driving away from a dump site, the transmission will not shift
past FIRST gear until the body is down. If the transmission is already
above the set limit gear when the body is raised, no limiting action will
take place.

Body up signal used


for hoist snubber
control

The body up switch signal is also used to control the snubber position of
the hoist control valve. When the body is being lowered and the magnet
passes by the body up switch, the transmission and chassis control
(EPTC III) signals the hoist lower solenoid to move the hoist valve spool
to the snubber position. In the snubber position, the body float speed is
reduced to prevent the body from contacting the frame too hard.

Body up switch must


be adjusted

The snubber feature will only function if the body up switch is adjusted
correctly.

Body up diagnostic
code

A diagnostic code occurs if the Electronic Control does not receive a


closed (ground) signal from the switch within four hours of operation
time or an open signal from the switch within one hour of operation time.

UPDATE 97

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5
3

2
4

45

STEERING SYSTEM
Steering system
requires less
horsepower

The D-series update trucks use a load sensing, pressure compensated, type
steering system which is a substantial change from the steering system
used on the D-series pre-update trucks. Very little horsepower is used by
the new steering system when the truck is traveling in a straight path.
Steering hydraulic horsepower requirements depend on the amount of
steering pressure and flow required by the steering cylinders.

Steering system tank

Located on the right platform behind the air filters is the steering system
tank.

1. Steering system oil


level sight gauge

Check the steering system oil level at the sight gauge (1).

2. Steering system oil


filter

The steering system oil filter (2) is located on the side of the steering tank.
Steering system oil samples can be taken from the Scheduled Oil
Sampling (SOS) tap (3) located on top of the steering filter.

3. Steering system
SOS tap

4. Case drain oil filter


screen
5. Steering tank
pressure release
button and breather

The steering system uses a pressure compensated piston type pump. Case
drain oil from the steering pump returns to the hydraulic tank through a
screen (4) that is part of the fitting installed in the side of the steering
tank.
Before removing the cap to add oil to the steering system, depress the
pressure release button (5) on the breather to release any remaining
pressure from the tank.

UPDATE 97

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3
4

46
1. Steering pump

2. High pressure cutoff


valve
- Main steering system
relief

3. Flow compensator
valve
- Low pressure
standby

4. Load sensing signal


pressure port

The D-series update trucks are equipped with a load sensing, pressure
compensated, piston-type pump (1). The steering pump is the third pump
mounted in tandem to the engine flywheel housing.
The steering pump operates only when the engine is running and provides
the necessary flow of oil for steering system operation. The steering
pump contains a load sensing controller with two valves. The high
pressure cutoff valve (2) is used as the primary steering system relief
valve. To adjust the primary steering system pressure setting (high
pressure cutoff), loosen the jam nut and turn the adjusting screw IN to
increase the pressure or OUT to decrease the pressure. The primary
steering system pressure setting is 23500 350 kPa (3400 50 psi). To
verify the new pressure setting, operate the truck in NEUTRAL with the
engine at HIGH IDLE and turn the steering wheel hard against the stops
to the left or right.
The flow compensator valve (3) is used to adjust the low pressure standby
pressure. When the truck is traveling in a straight path, there is virtually
no flow or pressure required to the steering cylinders and the pump
destrokes to low pressure standby. To adjust the low pressure standby
setting, loosen the jam nut and turn the adjusting screw IN to increase the
pressure or OUT to decrease the pressure. The low pressure standby
setting should be between 2100 and 3600 kPa (300 and 525 psi). To
verify the new pressure setting, operate the truck in NEUTRAL with the
engine at HIGH IDLE and DO NOT turn the steering wheel.
Load sensing (LS) signal pressure from the Hand Metering Unit (HMU)
(see Slide No. 52) enters the load sensing controller at port (4).

UPDATE 97

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3
1
2

47

Steering pump
1. Steering oil supply
hose
2. Steering outlet hose
3. Case drain return
hose

Shown is the steering pump in a 775D update truck. The steering pump
pulls supply oil from the steering tank through hose (1). Steering oil
flows from the pump through hose (2) to the steering valve located on the
frame behind the right front suspension cylinder (see Slide No. 50).
All piston type pumps produce a small amount of internal leakage for
lubrication and cooling. The internal leakage is referred to as case drain
oil and flows to the steering tank through hose (3). Before entering the
steering tank, the case drain oil flows through a case drain screen
(see Slide No. 45).

UPDATE 97

- 65 -

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE
FROM HMU

HIGH PRESSURE
CUTOFF VALVE

TO STEERING
VALVE
AND HMU

STEERING PUMP
LOW PRESSURE STANDBY

PUMP OUTPUT
ACTUATOR
PISTON

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE

FLOW
COMPENSATOR
LOAD SENSING
CONTROLLER
SWASHPLATE
PISTON
CASE DRAIN
SCREEN

48
Steering pump at
minimum flow low
pressure standby

When the truck is traveling in a straight path, the steering cylinders


require virtually no flow or pressure. The HMU provides a very low
pressure load sensing signal to the flow compensator in the load sensing
controller.
Pump oil (at low pressure standby) flows to the swashplate piston and past
the lower end of the displaced flow compensator spool to the actuator
piston. The actuator piston has a larger surface area than the swashplate
piston. The oil pressure at the actuator piston overcomes the spring force
and oil pressure of the swashplate piston and moves the swashplate to
destroke the pump. The pump is then at minimum flow, low pressure
standby.

Low pressure standby


setting

Pump output flow and pressure is equal to the setting of the flow
compensator plus the pressure required to compensate for system leakage.
The low pressure standby setting should be between 2100 and 3600 kPa
(300 and 525 psi).

UPDATE 97

- 66 -

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE
FROM HMU

HIGH PRESSURE
CUTOFF VALVE

TO STEERING
VALVE
AND HMU

STEERING PUMP
MAXIMUM FLOW

PUMP OUTPUT
ACTUATOR PISTON

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE

FLOW
COMPENSATOR
LOAD SENSING
CONTROLLER
SWASHPLATE
PISTON
CASE DRAIN
SCREEN

49
Steering pump at
maximum flow

During a turn, when steering pressure and flow is required, pressure


increases in the HMU load sensing signal line. The pressure in the signal
line is equal to the pressure in the steering cylinders. The pump load
sensing controller is spring biased to vent the actuator piston pressure to
drain. Venting pressure from the load sensing controller and the actuator
piston positions the spring biased swashplate to maximum displacement
(maximum flow).
As pressure increases in the HMU load sensing signal line, pump supply
pressure is sensed on both ends of the flow compensator. When pressure
is present on both ends of the flow compensator, the swashplate is kept at
maximum angle by the force of the spring in the pump housing and pump
discharge pressure on the swashplate piston. The pistons travel in and out
of the barrel and maximum flow is provided through the outlet port.
Since the pump is driven by the engine, engine rpm also affects pump
output.

UPDATE 97

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5
3
6

50

1. Steering pressure
switch

Steering oil flows from the pump to the steering valve located on the
frame behind the right front suspension cylinder. A steering pressure
switch (1) monitors the output of the steering pump. The steering
pressure switch provides input signals to the transmission and chassis
control and the Caterpillar Monitoring System or the VIMS informs the
operator of the condition of the steering system. A steering system
warning is displayed if the pressure in the steering system drops below
700 100 kPa (100 15 psi).

2. Pressure reducing
valve

The steering pressure switch cannot tolerate high steering system


pressures. A pressure reducing valve (2) reduces steering system pressure
to the steering pressure switch. The setting of the pressure reducing valve
is 2070 kPa (300 psi). To check the setting of the pressure reducing
valve, remove the steering pressure switch and install a gauge in the
switch port.

Secondary steering

If the steering pressure switch signals the transmission and chassis control
that the steering system pressure is low, the transmission and chassis
control will energize the secondary steering relay located behind the cab.
The secondary steering relay will then turn ON the secondary steering
motor (see Slide No. 53). Secondary steering supply oil flows to the
steering valve through hose (3).

3. Secondary steering
supply hose

UPDATE 97

- 68 -

4. Secondary steering
backup relief valve

Two relief valves are located on the left side of the steering valve. The
top relief valve (4) is a back-up relief valve for the secondary steering
system. The secondary steering back-up relief valve protects the
secondary steering system if the relief valve on the secondary steering
pump malfunctions. The setting of the secondary steering back-up relief
valve is 17300 300 kPa (2500 45 psi). Secondary steering pressure is
first controlled by a relief valve located in the secondary steering pump
load sensing valve. The setting of the relief valve in the secondary
steering pump load sensing valve is 15150 300 kPa (2200 45 psi).

Secondary steering
backup relief valve
adjustment

To check the setting of the secondary steering back-up relief valve,


increase the setting of the relief valve in the secondary steering pump load
sensing valve. Count the number of turns made to the adjustment screw
so the valve can be put back to its original setting. Loosen the jam nut on
the secondary steering back-up relief valve and turn the adjusting screw
IN to increase the pressure or OUT to decrease the pressure. To verify the
new pressure setting, do not start the truck. Turn ON the key start switch
and depress the secondary steering switch located on the dash (see Slide
No. 18). Turn the steering wheel hard to the left or right while the
secondary steering pump is running.

Primary steering
backup relief valve

The lower relief valve is a back-up relief valve for the primary steering
system. The primary steering back-up relief valve protects the primary
steering system if the high pressure cutoff valve on the steering pump
malfunctions. The setting of the primary steering back-up relief valve is
25500 300 kPa (3700 45 psi). Primary steering pressure is first
controlled by the high pressure cutoff valve located on the steering pump.
The setting of the high pressure cutoff valve on the steering pump is
23500 350 kPa (3400 50 psi).

Primary steering
backup relief valve
adjustment

To check the setting of the primary steering back-up relief valve, increase
the setting of the high pressure cutoff valve on the steering pump. Count
the number of turns made to the adjustment screw so the valve can be put
back to its original setting. Loosen the jam nut on the primary steering
back-up relief valve and turn the adjusting screw IN to increase the
pressure or OUT to decrease the pressure. To verify the new pressure
setting, operate the truck in NEUTRAL with the engine at HIGH IDLE
and turn the steering wheel hard against the stops to the left or right.

5. Steering system
pressure tap

Connect a pressure gauge at tap (5) when checking the primary steering
system pressures and the secondary steering system pressures.

6. HMU supply hose

Steering supply oil flows to the HMU through hose (6). Return oil from
the HMU flows through hose (7), the steering valve and the large hose
located above the steering pressure switch. The large hose above the
steering pressure switch returns steering oil through the steering filter to
the steering tank.

7. HMU return hose


Steering return hose
to tank

UPDATE 97

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51

Check valve plugs


(arrows)
- Secondary check
valve (top)
- Primary check valve
(bottom)

Shown is a front view of the steering valve. Located behind the two
plugs (arrows) are two check valves. The check valves are used to
separate the primary and secondary steering systems. The secondary
check valve is behind the top plug and the primary check valve is behind
the bottom plug.

UPDATE 97

- 70 -

52
1. HMU

The Hand Metering Unit (HMU) (1) is located at the base of the steering
column behind a cover at the front of the cab. The HMU is connected to
the steering wheel and controlled by the operator.

Meters oil to steering


cylinders

The HMU meters the amount of oil sent to the steering cylinders by the
speed at which the steering wheel is turned. The faster the HMU is
turned, the higher the flow sent to the steering cylinders, and the faster the
wheels will change direction.

Q-amp steering
system

The steering system is referred to as "Q-amp" which means flow


amplification. During a sudden steering change, additional steering pump
oil flow will bypass the gerotor pump in the HMU and flow directly to the
steering cylinders. Steering oil flow to the cylinders is equal to the
gerotor pump oil flow plus the bypass oil flow from the steering pump.
The steering oil flow is amplified by up to 1.6 to 1. The purpose of the
flow amplification is to provide quick steering response when sudden
steering changes are needed.

2. Load sensing signal


line

Load sensing signal pressure flows through hose (2) to the load sensing
controller on the primary steering pump (see Slide No. 46) and the load
sensing controller on the secondary steering pump (next slide).

HMU hoses

On the front of the HMU are four hoses. The four hoses are:
- Top left hose--return to tank
- Top right hose--left turn
- Bottom left hose--pump supply - Bottom right hose--right turn

UPDATE 97

- 71 -

HMU crossover relief


valves

Located in the top of the HMU are two crossover relief valves. The
crossover relief valves are installed in series with the left and right turn
ports. If an outside force is applied to the front wheels while the steering
wheel is stationary, the crossover relief valves provide circuit protection
for the steering lines between the steering cylinders and the HMU. The
crossover relief valves allow oil to transfer from one end of the steering
cylinders to the other end of the cylinders. The setting of the crossover
relief valves is 27200 kPa (3950 psi).

Right crossover relief


valve pressure test

To test the right crossover relief valve, install two Tees with pressure taps
in the right turn steering hose at the steering cylinders. Steer the truck all
the way to the right against the stops and shut off the engine. An external
pump supply must be connected to one of the pressure taps on the right
turn hose. Connect a pressure gauge to the other pressure tap on the right
turn hose. Pressurize the steering system and the reading on the gauge
will be the setting of the right crossover relief valve.

Left crossover relief


valve pressure test

To test the left crossover relief valve, install two Tees with pressure taps
in the left turn steering hose at the steering cylinders. Steer the truck all
the way to the left against the stops and shut off the engine. An external
pump supply must be connected to one of the pressure taps on the left turn
hose. Connect a pressure gauge to the other pressure tap on the left turn
hose. Pressurize the steering system and the reading on the gauge will be
the setting of the left crossover relief valve.
On D-series pre-update trucks a separate crossover relief valve block was
located on the frame in the engine compartment.

UPDATE 97

- 72 -

53

1. Secondary steering
pump

2. Secondary steering
motor
3. Secondary steering
pump load sensing
valve
4. Load sensing
solenoid
5. Load sensing signal
pressure fitting

The secondary steering pump (1) is mounted under the rear engine frame
above the torque converter. If the steering pressure switch
(see Slide No. 50) signals the transmission and chassis control that the
steering system pressure is low, the transmission and chassis control will
energize the secondary steering relay located behind the cab. The
secondary steering relay will then turn ON the secondary steering
motor (2). Secondary steering supply oil flows to the steering valve from
the secondary steering pump load sensing valve (3).
When the transmission and chassis control energizes the secondary
steering motor, it also de-energizes the load sensing solenoid (4). When
de-energized, the solenoid allows load sensing signal pressure to flow
from the HMU through fitting (5) to the load sensing valve. The load
sensing valve uses the load sensing signal to control the amount of
pressure in the secondary steering circuit.

Secondary steering
relief valve

The primary relief valve for the secondary steering circuit is in the load
sensing valve. The setting of the relief valve is 15150 300 kPa
(2200 45 psi). The relief valve is accessible through the small allen
head plug on the bottom of the load sensing valve and closest to the
pump.

6. Towing brake
retraction pump

Pump (6) is used to release the parking brakes for service work or towing.
Before the pump will provide oil to release the brakes, a diverter (towing)
valve must be shifted (see Slide No. 71). Normally oil flows from the
pump directly to the hoist and brake oil tank.

UPDATE 97

- 73 -

STEERING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

STEERING
TANK

T
LS

STEERING
FILTER

P
R

CASE DRAIN
SCREEN

HMU

PRIMARY
STEERING
PUMP
LOAD
SENSING
VALVE

SECONDARY
CHECK VALVE

SECONDARY
STEERING
BACK-UP RELIEF
VALVE

SECONDARY STEERING PUMP

LOAD SENSING
SOLENOID

STEERING PRESSURE
SWITCH

PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
STEERING VALVE
STEERING VALVE
(REAR)
(FRONT)
PRIMARY
CHECK VALVE

PRIMARY STEERING
BACK-UP
RELIEF VALVE

54
Steering hydraulic
system

Shown is the steering hydraulic system. The primary steering pump pulls
supply oil from the steering tank. All piston type pumps produce a small
amount of leakage to case drain for lubrication and cooling. The case
drain oil flows to the steering tank through a case drain screen.

Steering pressure
switch

Steering oil flows from the pump to the steering valve located on the
frame behind the right front suspension cylinder. A steering pressure
switch monitors the output of the steering pump. The steering pressure
switch cannot tolerate high steering system pressures. A pressure
reducing valve reduces steering system pressure to the steering pressure
switch.

Pressure reducing
valve

Secondary steering

If the steering pressure switch signals the transmission and chassis control
that the steering system pressure is low, the transmission and chassis
control will turn ON the secondary steering motor and turn OFF the
secondary steering load sensing solenoid. Secondary steering supply oil
flows to the steering valve.

UPDATE 97

- 74 -

Secondary steering
load sensing solenoid

When the transmission and chassis control energizes the secondary


steering motor, it also de-energizes the load sensing solenoid. When
de-energized, the solenoid allows load sensing signal pressure to flow
from the HMU to the secondary steering load sensing valve. The load
sensing valve uses the load sensing signal to control the amount of flow
from the secondary steering pump to the steering valve.

Secondary steering
back-up relief valve

Two relief valves are located on the steering valve. The top relief valve is
a back-up relief valve for the secondary steering system. The secondary
steering back-up relief valve protects the secondary steering system if the
relief valve on the secondary steering pump malfunctions.

Primary steering
back-up relief valve

The lower relief valve is a back-up relief valve for the primary steering
system. The primary steering back-up relief valve protects the primary
steering system if the high pressure cutoff valve on the steering pump
malfunctions.

Primary and
secondary steering
check valves

Two check valves are located on the steering valve. The check valves are
used to separate the primary and secondary steering systems.

HMU

On the HMU are five ports. The five ports are:


- T--Tank
- L--Left turn
- P--Pump supply
- R--Right turn
- LS--Load sensing
The Hand Metering Unit (HMU) is located at the base of the steering
column behind a cover at the front of the cab. The HMU is connected to
the steering wheel and controlled by the operator. Steering supply oil
flows to the HMU (P) from the steering valve. Return oil from the
HMU (T) flows through the steering valve and the steering filter to the
steering tank.
The HMU meters the amount of oil sent to the steering cylinders
(L and R) by the speed at which the steering wheel is turned. The faster
the HMU is turned, the higher the flow sent to the steering cylinders, and
the faster the wheels will change direction.
Load sensing (LS) signal pressure flows to the load sensing controller on
the primary steering pump and the load sensing solenoid valve on the
secondary steering pump.

UPDATE 97

- 75 -

CROSSOVER
RELIEF VALVES

STEERING HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM

HMU

LOAD
SENSING
SOLENOID

PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
STEERING
PRESSURE
SWITCH

LOAD
SENSING
VALVE
M

PRIMARY
STEERING
BACK-UP
RELIEF VALVE

STEERING
FILTER

EPTC III

SECONDARY
STEERING
BACK-UP RELIEF
VALVE

SECONDARY
STEERING
PRIMARY RELIEF
VALVE

SECONDARY
STEERING
PUMP

55
Steering hydraulic
system ISO schematic

Shown is an ISO schematic of the steering hydraulic system used in the


D-series update trucks.
All of the internal valve components and the direction of oil flow can be
seen. The components are discussed in more detail when the iron is
shown in the previous slides.

UPDATE 97

- 76 -

56

HOIST SYSTEM
Hoist system
controlled by EPTC III

The hoist system on the D-series update trucks is electronically controlled


by the Transmission and Chassis Control, sometimes referred to as the
third generation Electronic Programmable Transmission Control
(EPTC III).

Hoist lever (arrow)

The operator controls the hoist lever (arrow). The four positions of the
hoist lever are RAISE, HOLD, FLOAT and LOWER.

Hoist lever normally in


FLOAT position

The truck should normally be operated with the hoist lever in the FLOAT
position. Operating with the hoist lever in the FLOAT position allows the
hoist valve to provide some downward hydraulic pressure on the hoist
cylinders and prevents an empty body from bouncing on rough haul
roads.

Hoist snubber control

The hoist valve has a fifth position referred to as the snubber position.
The operator is unaware of the snubber position because there is no
corresponding lever position. When the body is being lowered, just
before the body contacts the frame, the EPTC III signals the hoist lower
solenoid to move the hoist valve spool to the snubber position. In the
snubber position, the body float speed is reduced to prevent the body from
contacting the frame too hard.

UPDATE 97

- 77 -

57

Hoist control position


sensor (arrow)
Sensor energizes two
solenoids on hoist
valve

The hoist lever controls a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) position


sensor (arrow). The PWM sensor sends duty cycle input signals to the
EPTC III. Depending on the position of the sensor and the corresponding
duty cycle, one of the two solenoids located on the hoist valve is
energized.

Hoist lever sensor


provides modulation

The four positions of the hoist lever are RAISE, HOLD, FLOAT and
LOWER but since the sensor provides a duty cycle signal that changes for
all positions of the hoist lever, the operator can modulate the speed of the
hoist cylinders.

Sensor performs three


functions:

The hoist lever sensor also replaces the body raise switch (transmission
neutralizer switch) that was located behind the operators seat. The hoist
lever sensor performs three functions:

- Raises and lowers


body
- Neutralizes
transmission in
REVERSE
- Starts cycle for
TPMS

- Raises and lowers the body.


- Neutralizes the transmission in REVERSE.
- Starts a cycle for the Truck Production Management System
(TPMS).

UPDATE 97

- 78 -

58

Hoist and brake


hydraulic tank
1. Oil level sight gauge
door
Use only TDTO oil

Shown is the hoist and brake hydraulic tank. The oil level is checked by
opening the small door (1) and looking through the sight gauge The oil
level should first be checked with cold oil and the engine stopped. The
level should again be checked with warm oil and the engine running.
Use only Transmission Drive Train Oil (TDTO) with a specification of
(TO-4) or newer.
- TDTO TO-4 provides maximum frictional capability required for
clutch discs used in the brakes.
- Increases brake holding capability by reducing brake slippage.
- Controls brake chatter.

2. Breather

Check the hoist and brake hydraulic tank breather (2) for plugging (cover
removed for visibility). Clean the filter if plugged. If oil is flowing from
the filter, the hoist and brake hydraulic tank may be overfilled.

3. Return screen cover

Hoist and brake cooling oil returns to the hydraulic tank through a screen
located below cover (3).

UPDATE 97

- 79 -

59

Rear of hoist and


brake oil tank
Suction screen (arrow)

Shown is the rear of the hoist and brake oil hydraulic tank. The hoist
pump pulls oil from the hydraulic tank through the suction screen (arrow)
located in the rear of the tank.

UPDATE 97

- 80 -

1
2

60

1. Hoist pump

The hoist pump (1) is the first of three pumps mounted in tandem to the
engine flywheel housing. Oil flows from the hoist pump to the hoist
valve.

2. Parking brake
retraction pump
supplies hoist pilot
oil

The parking brake retraction pump (2) supplies oil to release the parking
brakes and cool the brakes and is also used as pilot oil for the hoist valve.

UPDATE 97

- 81 -

4
3

6
5

61

Hoist control valve


1. Hoist oil supply hose
2. Pilot oil supply hose

3. RAISE position
solenoid valve
4. LOWER position
solenoid valve

Hoist solenoids
"dither" in the HOLD
position

Oil flows from the hoist pump through hose (1) to the hoist control valve
located inside the right frame next to the torque converter. The hoist
valve uses brake retraction oil as the pilot oil to shift the directional spool
inside the hoist valve. Brake retraction oil enters the hoist valve through
hose (2). The brake retraction oil pressure is 3170 200 kPa
(460 30 psi) on 769D/771D trucks and 4700 200 kPa (680 30 psi)
on 773D/775D trucks.
Pilot oil pressure is always present at both ends of the directional spool.
Two solenoid valves are used to drain the pilot oil from the ends of the
directional spool, which then allows the spool to move. The solenoid on
the right is the RAISE solenoid valve (3) and the solenoid on the left is
the LOWER solenoid valve (4).
The RAISE and LOWER solenoid valves are always receiving
approximately 300 milivolts at a frequency of 80 Hz when they are in the
HOLD position. The excitation, referred to as "dither," is used to keep the
solenoids in a ready state for quick response.

NOTE: On the 769D/771D update pilot trucks, the brake retraction


oil pressure is 4700 200 kPa (680 30 psi). Brake retraction oil
pressures may be changed later.

UPDATE 97

- 82 -

Hoist solenoids
receive between 0 and
1.9 amps

When the EPTC III receives an input signal from the hoist lever sensor,
the EPTC III sends an output signal current between 0 and 1.9 amps to
one of the solenoids. The amount of current sent to the solenoid
determines how much pilot oil is drained from the end of the directional
spool and therefore how far the directional spool travels toward the
solenoid.

5. Hose to oil cooler

When the hoist valve is in the HOLD or FLOAT position, all the hoist
pump oil flows through the large hose (5) to the hoist and brake oil cooler
located on the right side of the engine. Excess oil from the brake
retraction valve joins the hoist pump oil at the fitting connected to the
large hose.

6. Oil cooler relief valve


plug

An oil cooler relief valve is located in the hoist valve behind the large
plug (6). The relief valve limits the brake oil cooling pressure when the
hoist valve is in the HOLD or FLOAT position. The setting of the oil
cooler relief valve is 586 14 kPa (85 2 psi).

Relief pressures
different for RAISE
and LOWER

The hoist system relief pressures are different in the RAISE and LOWER
positions. The RAISE relief valve (7) controls the pressure in the hoist
system during RAISE. The hoist system relief pressure during RAISE is:

7. RAISE relief valve

769D/771D/773D 775D 8. LOWER relief valve

17225 + 520 - 0 kPa (2500 + 75 - 0 psi).


18950 + 520 - 0 kPa (2750 + 75 - 0 psi).

The LOWER relief valve (8) controls the pressure in the hoist system
during LOWER. The hoist system relief pressure during LOWER is
3450 + 350 - 0 kPa (500 + 50 - 0 psi).

UPDATE 97

- 83 -

62

Two-stage hoist
cylinders

Shown are the twin two-stage hoist cylinders used to raise the body. Oil
flows from the hoist valve to the two hoist cylinders when the directional
spool in the hoist valve is not in HOLD.

Lower body with dead


engine

To lower the body with a dead engine, air pressure and hoist pilot pressure
are required. The towing pump can be used to provide the hoist pilot oil,
but the parking brakes will be released at the same time. Use the retarder
brakes to prevent the truck from rolling when the parking brakes are
released. To lower the body with a dead engine, follow the steps below:
- Block the wheels so the machine cannot move.
- Move the diverter (towing) valve to the towing position (see Slides
No. 152 and 153).
- Approximately 550 kPa (80 psi) air pressure must be available to
shift the spool in the brake retraction valve so when the parking
brakes are released the hoist pilot oil does not flow to tank.
- Engage the retarder brakes.
- Release the parking brakes.
- Turn ON the key start switch so the towing motor and the hoist
solenoids can be energized.
- Move the hoist lever to the RAISE position for 15 seconds, then to
the FLOAT position.
- Depress the secondary steering and brake retraction switch on the
dash (see Slide No. 18).

UPDATE 97

- 84 -

63

Hoist system pressure


taps (arrows)
- RAISE pressure
(bottom)
- LOWER pressure
(top)
Orifice plate

Located on the bottom of the left hoist cylinder are the two hoist system
pressure taps (arrows). The top tap is used to measure the LOWER hoist
pressure. The bottom tap is used to measure the RAISE hoist pressure.
The relief valve pressure setting is tested with the engine at HIGH IDLE
and the hoist valve in the RAISE or LOWER position.
An orifice plate is installed between the upper hose and the rod end port
on both hoist cylinders. The orifice plate restricts the flow of oil from the
rod end of the hoist cylinders.
The orifice plate prevents cavitation of the cylinders when the body raises
faster than the pump can supply oil to the cylinders (caused by a sudden
shift of the load).

UPDATE 97

- 85 -

HOIST HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM

OIL COOLER
BRAKE
RETRACTION
PUMP

REAR BRAKES

HOIST
PUMP
HOIST VALVE

HYDRAULIC
TANK

BRAKE
RETRACTION
VALVE

HOIST CYLINDERS

64
Hoist hydraulic
system

The hoist pump pulls oil from the hydraulic tank through the suction
screen located in the rear of the tank. Oil flows from the hoist pump to
the hoist valve.
The hoist valve uses brake retraction oil as the pilot oil to shift the
directional spool inside the hoist valve. Oil flows from the brake
retraction valve to both ends of the hoist valve. The brake retraction oil
pressure is 3170 200 kPa (460 30 psi) on 769D/771D trucks and
4700 200 kPa (680 30 psi) on 773D/775D trucks.
Pilot oil pressure is always present at both ends of the directional spool.
Two solenoid valves are used to drain the pilot oil from the ends of the
directional spool, which then allows the spool to move.

NOTE: On the 769D/771D update pilot trucks, the brake retraction


oil pressure is 4700 200 kPa (680 30 psi). Brake retraction oil
pressures may be changed later.

UPDATE 97

- 86 -

Hoist and brake


retraction oil flows to
oil cooler and brakes

When the hoist valve is in the HOLD or FLOAT position, all the hoist
pump oil flows through the hoist and brake oil cooler located on the right
side of the engine. Excess oil from the brake retraction valve joins the
hoist pump oil and also flows to the oil cooler. Oil flows from the oil
cooler through the rear brakes and returns to the hydraulic tank through
the return screen.

Oil cooler relief valve

An oil cooler relief valve is located in the hoist valve. The relief valve
limits the brake oil cooling pressure when the hoist valve is in the HOLD
or FLOAT position. The setting of the oil cooler relief valve is
586 14 kPa (85 2 psi).

Relief pressures
different for RAISE
and LOWER

The hoist system relief pressures are different in the RAISE and LOWER
positions. Two relief valves control hoist system pressure, one for RAISE
and one for LOWER. The hoist system relief pressure during RAISE is:
769D/771D/773D 775D -

17225 + 520 - 0 kPa (2500 + 75 - 0 psi).


18950 + 520 - 0 kPa (2750 + 75 - 0 psi).

The hoist system relief pressure during LOWER is 3450 + 350 - 0 kPa
(500 + 50 - 0 psi).
Oil flows from the hoist valve to the two hoist cylinders when the
directional spool in the hoist valve is not in HOLD.

UPDATE 97

- 87 -

BRAKE RETRACTION
PUMP

HOIST HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


BRAKE RETRACTION
VALVE

BRAKE RETRACTION
FILTER

LOWER
RELIEF VALVE

HOIST PUMP

REAR BRAKES

OIL COOLER
AND SCREEN

ORIFICE
PLATES

HYDRAULIC TANK

RAISE
RELIEF VALVE

HOIST
CYLINDERS

DUAL STAGE
SIGNAL SPOOL

BRAKE COOLING
RELIEF VALVE

LOWER
SOLENOID

RAISE
SOLENOID

POWER
DOWN

RAISE

FLOAT SNUBBER
HOLD

MAIN RELIEF
DUMP SPOOL

65
Hoist hydraulic
system ISO schematic

Shown is an ISO schematic of the hoist hydraulic system used in the


D-series update trucks.

Directional spool
operation

Pilot oil pressure is always present at both ends of the directional spool.
Two solenoid valves are used to drain the pilot oil from the ends of the
directional spool, which then allows the centering springs and the pressure
on the opposite end of the spool to move the spool. The solenoid on the
left is the RAISE solenoid valve and the solenoid on the right is the
LOWER solenoid valve. When the RAISE solenoid is energized, the
directional spool will move toward the RAISE solenoid.

Hoist solenoids
"dither" in the HOLD
position

The RAISE and LOWER solenoid valves are always receiving


approximately 300 milivolts at a frequency of 80 Hz when they are in the
HOLD position. The excitation, referred to as "dither," is used to keep the
solenoids in a ready state for quick response.

UPDATE 97

Hoist lever sensor


provides modulation

- 88 -

The hoist lever controls a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) position


sensor. The PWM sensor sends duty cycle input signals to the EPTC III.
Depending on the position of the sensor and the corresponding duty cycle,
one of the two solenoids located on the hoist valve is energized.
The four positions of the hoist lever are RAISE, HOLD, FLOAT and
LOWER but since the sensor provides a duty cycle signal that changes for
all position of the hoist lever, the operator can modulate the speed of the
hoist cylinders.

Hoist solenoids
receive between 0 and
1.9 amps

When the EPTC III receives an input signal from the hoist lever sensor,
the EPTC III sends an output signal current between 0 and 1.9 amps to
one of the solenoids. The amount of current sent to the solenoid
determines how much pilot oil is drained from the end of the directional
spool and therefore how far the directional spool travels.

Hoist lever normally in


FLOAT position

The truck should normally be operated with the hoist lever in the FLOAT
position. Operating with the hoist lever in the FLOAT position allows the
hoist valve to provide some downward hydraulic pressure on the hoist
cylinders and prevents an empty body from bouncing on rough haul
roads.

Hoist snubber control

The hoist valve has a fifth position referred to as the snubber position.
The operator is unaware of the snubber position because there is no
corresponding lever position. When the body is being lowered, just
before the body contacts the frame, the body float speed is reduced to
prevent the body from contacting the frame too hard.

Body up signal used


for hoist snubber
control

A body up switch is located on the frame near the body pivot pin. When
the body is raised, a magnet mounted on the body passes by the switch
and causes the switch to close. When the body is lowered the switch will
open. These signals are sent to the EPTC III.
The body up switch signal is used to control the snubber position of the
hoist control valve. When the body is being lowered and the magnet
passes by the body up switch, the EPTC III signals the hoist lower
solenoid to move the hoist valve spool to the snubber position.

Body up switch must


be adjusted

The snubber feature will only function if the body up switch is adjusted
correctly.

UPDATE 97

RAISE position

- 89 -

When the hoist valve is in the RAISE position, pump supply oil flows to
the head end of the hoist cylinders. Pump supply oil also flows to the
dual stage signal spool and moves the spool to the left. When the dual
stage signal spool moves to the left, pump supply oil is blocked from the
LOWER relief valve and the RAISE relief valve will control the hoist
system pressure.
The hoist system relief pressure during RAISE is:
769D/771D/773D 775D -

LOWER position

17225 + 520 - 0 kPa (2500 + 75 - 0 psi).


18950 + 520 - 0 kPa (2750 + 75 - 0 psi).

When the hoist valve is in the LOWER (POWER DOWN), FLOAT or


SNUBBER position, pump supply oil flows to the rod end of the hoist
cylinders. Pump supply oil is blocked from the dual stage signal spool
and the spring holds the spool in the right position. When the dual stage
signal spool is in the right position, pump supply oil can flow to the
LOWER relief valve and hoist system pressure is controlled by the
LOWER relief valve.
The hoist system relief pressure during LOWER is 3450 + 350 - 0 kPa
(500 + 50 - 0 psi).

UPDATE 97

- 90 -

66

AIR SYSTEM AND BRAKES


1. Service/retarder
brake reservoirs

Air flows through the air dryer and fills three reservoirs. The two
service/retarder brake reservoirs (1) are located on the right platform.

2. Check valve

A check valve (2) prevents a loss of air if an air line breaks upstream of
the air reservoirs.

Relief valve

A relief valve is installed in the service/retarder brake reservoirs. This


relief valve serves as a back-up for the relief valve on the air dryer.
The third reservoir is located behind the cab and supplies air for the
parking/secondary brake system.

Drain condensation

Condensation should be drained from the tanks daily through the drain
valve located on the right platform (see Slide No. 13).

UPDATE 97

- 91 -

AIR CHARGING SYSTEM

AIR
COMPRESSOR
AND
GOVERNOR

RELIEF
VALVE

AIR DRYER

ONE WAY
CHECK VALVE

AIR RESERVOIR
(SERVICE)

AIR RESERVOIR
(SERVICE)

CAB ENCLOSURE

AIR
PRESSURE
SENSOR

WIPER
MOTOR

DRAIN
VALVE

PRESSURE
PROTECTION VALVE
HORN
VALVE

WINDSHIELD
WIPER
VALVE
WIPER
NOZZLE

PARKING/
SECONDARY
RESERVOIR

WIPER FLUID
BOTTLE

AIR HORN

67
Air charging system
schematic

This schematic shows the flow of air through the air charging system. Air
flows from the air compressor, through the air dryer, to the
service/retarder brake reservoirs.
Air from the service/retarder brake reservoirs enters the pressure
protection valve. When the pressure in the service/retarder reservoirs
reaches 550 kPa (80 psi), the pressure protection valve allows air to flow
to the parking/secondary brake reservoir and the accessory circuits
(wiper and horn).
All reservoirs have a check valve at the air supply port to prevent a loss of
air if a leak upstream of the reservoirs occurs.
The air system pressure sensor provides an input signal to the Caterpillar
Monitoring System or the VIMS which informs the operator if air system
pressure is low.

UPDATE 97

- 92 -

1
4

68
Brake Systems
1. Service brake valve
- Engages front and
rear brakes
2. Automatic Retarder
Control (ARC) valve
Front brake ON/OFF
switch and front brake
ratio valve

3. Left double check


valve
Service brake and
manual retarder
engage rear brake
relay valve

4. Right double check


valve
5. Retarder ON switch

The service brake valve (1) is controlled by the brake pedal in the cab.
Supply air for the service brake valve, the manual retarder valve and the
Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) valve (2) is supplied from the bottom
port of the service brake valve.
When the service brakes are engaged, air flows from the service brake
valve to the front brake ON/OFF switch. If the front brake ON/OFF
switch is ON, air flows through the front brake ratio valve to the front
brake relay valve near the brake master cylinders.
Air from the service brake valve also flows through the left double check
valve (3) to the rear brake relay valve near the brake master cylinders.
Air from the manual retarder valve also flows through the left double
check valve. If the manual retarder and the service brakes are engaged at
the same time, air from the system with the highest pressure will flow
through the left double check valve to the rear brake relay valve.
Air from the manual retarder valve also flows through the right double
check valve (4) to the retarder ON switch (5) and the stop light switch and
transmission service/retarder brake switch (see Slide No. 43).
The retarder ON switch turns on the amber retarder lamp on the dash in
the operators station when the manual or automatic retarder is
ENGAGED (see Slide No. 17).

UPDATE 97

ARC brake system


engages separate
relay valve

- 93 -

The Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) system function is to modulate


truck braking (retarding) when descending a long grade to maintain a
constant engine speed. On D-series pre-update trucks, the ARC was
installed in parallel with the manual retarder and the service brakes. On
D-series update trucks, the ARC system is separate from the manual
retarder and the service brakes.
When the ARC is engaged, air flows from the ARC valve to a separate
ARC relay valve located near the brake master cylinders. Air also flows
from the ARC valve through the right double check valve to the retarder
ON switch and the stop light switch and transmission service/retarder
brake switch.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The ARC system will be discussed in more


detail in the ARC section of this meeting guide.

UPDATE 97

- 94 -

2
6

69

1. Service brake and


manual retarder
relay valve
2. Brake cylinder
double check valve

The rear brake relay valve (1) receives metered air from only the service
brake valve or the manual retarder valve. When the service brakes or
manual retarder brakes are ENGAGED, the rear brake relay valve opens
and metered air flows from the service brake reservoir, through the brake
cylinder double check valve (2), to the rear brake cylinder.

3. ARC relay valve

The ARC relay valve (3) receives metered air from only the Automatic
Retarder Control (ARC) valve. When the ARC brake system is
ENGAGED, the ARC relay valve opens and metered air flows from the
service brake reservoir, through the brake cylinder double check valve, to
the rear brake cylinder.

Brake relay valves


reduce time to engage
and release brakes

The brake relay valves reduce the time required to engage and release the
brakes.

Double check valve


separates brake
systems

The brake cylinder double check valve is used to separate the service
brakes and manual retarder brakes from the ARC brake system.

UPDATE 97

4. Front brake relay


valve
5. Front brake double
check valve

- 95 -

The front brake relay valve (4) receives metered air from the service
brake valve only if the front brake ON/OF switch is in the ON position.
When the service brakes are ENGAGED, if the front brake ON/OF switch
is ON, the front brake relay valve opens and metered air flows from the
service brake reservoir, through the front brake double check valve (5) to
the front brake cylinder.
The front brake double check valve prevents air from flowing through the
inversion valve exhaust port when the service brakes are engaged.

6. Inversion valve
- Engages front
brakes

The inversion valve (6) is used to ENGAGE the front brakes with the
secondary brake lever, even if the front brake ON/OFF switch is OFF.
Supply air from the parking/secondary brake reservoir is present at the
supply passage of the inversion valve. When the secondary brake lever is
pulled, the secondary brake valve blocks the flow of air to the control
passage of the inversion valve.
Removing air pressure from the control passage of the inversion valve
allows supply air pressure to flow through the inversion valve and the
front brake double check valve to the front brake cylinder and engage the
front brakes.

UPDATE 97

- 96 -

70

1. Electric motor
2. Towing pump

If the parking brakes need to be released for service work or towing, the
electric motor (1) can be energized by the brake retraction switch located
in the cab (see Slide No. 18). The motor drives the a pump (2) which
sends oil through a diverter (towing) valve to the brake retraction valve to
RELEASE the parking brakes. Towing pump pressure is controlled by
the relief valve in the brake retraction valve.

Air pressure needed


to release brakes for
towing

Air pressure is also needed to release the brakes for towing. The piston
chamber in the brake retraction valve must be pressurized to move the
spool in the valve. The oil from the electrically driven brake release
pump can then flow to the rear brakes.

3. Secondary steering
pump

Pump (3) is used for secondary steering (see Slide No. 53).

UPDATE 97

- 97 -

71

Diverter valve (arrow)

The diverter (towing) valve (arrow) must be shifted before towing. The
diverter valve is located on the rear of the hydraulic tank.

Towing pump oil flows


to hydraulic tank
during secondary
steering test

When the key start switch is turned ON, the secondary steering system is
energized for three seconds to check the system. Since the towing pump
is driven by the same electric motor as the secondary steering pump, the
diverter valve allows the towing pump oil to flow directly to the hydraulic
tank during the secondary steering test.

Shift diverter valve for


towing

To shift the diverter valve, loosen the two diverter valve clamp bolts and
slide the plate and the spool to the left. After the spool is shifted, tighten
the diverter valve clamp bolts. Now, when the electric motor is energized,
supply oil can flow from the towing pump through the diverter valve to
the parking brake retraction valve.

UPDATE 97

- 98 -

Procedure to check
parking brake release
system for towing

To check the brake retraction system used for towing, install a gauge on a
parking brake pressure tap on the rear axle. Use a long gauge hose so the
gauge can be held in the cab. With the parking brake air switch in the
RELEASE position and the key start switch in the ON position, energize
the parking brake retraction switch on the dash used for towing. The
parking brake retraction pressure should increase to 3170 200 kPa (460
30 psi) on 769D/771D trucks and 4700 200 kPa (680 30 psi) on
773D/775D trucks, which is the setting of the relief valve in the brake
retraction valve. Turn off the switch when the pressure stops increasing.

Parking brake release


pressures

The parking brakes start to release between 2580 and 2760 kPa
(375 and 400 psi) on 769D/771D trucks and 3100 and 3445 kPa
(450 and 500 psi) on 773D/775D trucks. Parking brake release pressure
must not be below these pressure or the brakes will drag.
The parking brakes are fully released between 2860 and 3170 kPa
(415 and 460 psi) on 769D/771D trucks and 3445 and 3860 kPa
(500 and 560 psi) on 773D/775D trucks.

NOTE: At least 550 kPa (80 psi) air pressure must be available at the
parking brake retraction valve to ensure full release of the brakes for
towing.
NOTE: On the 769D/771D update pilot trucks, the brake retraction
oil pressure is 4700 200 kPa (680 30 psi). Brake retraction oil
pressures may be changed later.

NOTICE
Energize the brake retraction switch only when additional pressure is
required to release the brakes. Leaving the brake retraction (towing)
motor energized continuously will cause damage to the motor.
The parking brake release pressure setting must not exceed
4200 kPa (610 psi) on 769D/771D trucks or 5445 kPa (790 psi) on
773D/775D trucks. Exceeding these pressures can cause internal
damage to the brake assembly.

UPDATE 97

- 99 -

AIR SUPPLY
FROM PARKING BRAKE
AIR SWITCH

BRAKE RETRACTION
DURING TOWING

PARKING
BRAKE
RETRACTION
VALVE

RELIEF VALVE
HOIST VALVE
PILOT SUPPLY

PARKING BRAKE
RETRACTION PUMP
AND FILTER

CHECK VALVE

DIVERTER
VALVE

DIVERTER VALVE
CLAMP BOLTS

TOWING
PUMP

SECONDARY
STEERING
PUMP

72
Parking brake system
- During towing

Shown is a schematic of the parking brake system during TOWING with


the parking brakes released.

Towing pump is
energized with
secondary
steering/brake
retraction switch

If the parking brakes need to be released for service work or towing, an


electric motor can be energized with the secondary steering/brake
retraction switch on the dash in the cab. The electric motor then drives
two pumps. One pump provides supply oil for releasing the parking
brakes and the second pump supplies oil for secondary steering.

Diverter valve must be


shifted before towing

A diverter valve must be shifted before the towing pump can supply oil to
the parking brake system. To shift the diverter valve, loosen the two
diverter valve clamp bolts and slide the plate and the spool to the left.
After the spool is shifted, tighten the diverter valve clamp bolts. Now,
when the electric motor is energized, supply oil will flow from the towing
pump through the diverter valve to the parking brake retraction valve.

UPDATE 97

Check valve prevents


oil flow to normal
parking brake
retraction pump
Air supply required for
towing
Brake release
pressure controlled by
relief valve in parking
brake retraction valve

- 100 -

A check valve prevents towing pump supply oil from flowing to the
normal parking brake retraction pump.
Towing supply oil flows through the parking brake retraction valve to
release the parking brakes as long as supply air is available from the
parking brake air switch in the cab.
During towing and normal operation, the brake release pressure is
controlled by the relief valve located in the parking brake retraction valve.

NOTE: Before normal operation of the parking brake release system


can occur, the diverter valve must be shifted back to its normal
operating position.

UPDATE 97

- 101 -

PARKING/SECONDARY BRAKE SYSTEM


SECONDARY BRAKES ENGAGED
RELAY
VALVE
(FRONT)

SECONDARY
BRAKE
VALVE

PARKING
BRAKE
AIR
SWITCH

DOUBLE
CHECK
VALVE

PARKING/
SECONDARY
BRAKE
SWITCH
INVERSION
VALVE

BRAKE
CYLINDER
( FRONT )

BRAKE
RETRACTION
VALVE

PARKING/SECONDARY
AIR RESERVOIR
HOIST VALVE
PILOT SUPPLY

73
Parking/secondary
brake system

Shown is the parking/secondary brake system with the secondary brakes


ENGAGED.

Secondary brake valve


controls air flow to:

Supply air from the parking/secondary brake reservoir is present at the


supply passage of the secondary brake valve and the inversion valve.
When the secondary brake lever is pulled, the secondary brake valve
blocks the flow of air to the parking/secondary brake switch, the parking
brake retraction valve and the control passage of the inversion valve.

- parking/secondary
brake switch
- brake retraction
valve
- inversion valve

Removing air pressure from the parking/secondary brake switch causes


the EPTC III to eliminate the anti-hunt timer and allow rapid downshifts.
Removing air pressure from the parking brake retraction valve allows oil
from the parking brake to drain through the brake retraction valve, which
allows the springs in the parking brake to ENGAGE the brakes.

Inversion valve
engages front brakes

Removing air pressure from the control passage of the inversion valve
allows supply air pressure to flow through the inversion valve and the
double check valve to the front brake cylinder and engage the front
brakes. The double check valve prevents air from flowing through the
inversion valve exhaust port when the service/retarder brakes are engaged.

UPDATE 97

- 102 -

SERVICE/RETARDER BRAKE SYSTEM


FRONT BRAKE VALVE OFF
SERVICE BRAKES ENGAGED
RETARDER RELEASED
ARC OFF

AIR RESERVOIR
(SERVICE)

RELIEF
VALVE

ONE WAY
CHECK VALVE
AIR RESERVOIR
(SERVICE)

CAB ENCLOSURE

FRONT BRAKE
ON/OFF
SERVICE
VALVE
BRAKE
CONTROL
VALVE

DRAIN VALVE
RETARDER
VALVE

AIR
PRESSURE
SENSOR

FRONT BRAKE
RATIO VALVE

RELAY
VALVE
(FRONT)

BRAKE
CYLINDER
( FRONT )

ARC
VALVE

RELAY
VALVE
(SERVICE/
RETARDER)

RELAY
VALVE
(ARC)

BRAKE
CYLINDER
( REAR )

STOP LIGHT
AND
TRANSMISSION
SERVICE/RETARDER
SWITCH

RETARDER
SWITCH

74
Service/retarder brake
air system

This schematic shows the flow of air through the service/retarder brake air
system. In this schematic, the front brake ON/OFF valve is in the OFF
position and the service brake control valve is ENGAGED. The retarder
valve is in the RELEASED position and the ARC is OFF.
Supply air pressure flows from the service brake air reservoirs to the relay
valves and through the air system pressure sensor to the service brake
valve. Supply air pressure flows from the service brake valve to the
retarder valve and the ARC valve.
The retarder valve blocks the flow of air to three double check valves.
The ARC valve blocks the flow of air to two double check valves and the
ARC relay valve.

UPDATE 97

- 103 -

Front brake ON/OFF


valve controls air flow
to front brake cylinder

With the front brake ON/OFF switch in the OFF position and the service
brake pedal depressed, only the rear service brakes are ENGAGED. Air
flows from the service brake control valve to the front brake ON/OFF
valve and is blocked.

Service brake
energizes two brake
switches

Air also flows from the service brake control valve, through a double
check valve, to the stop light switch and the transmission service/retarder
brake switch. Depressing the service brake pedal turns ON the brake
lights, and changes the transmission shift points and anti-hunt timer.
Air also flows from the service brake control valve, through a double
check valve, to the service and manual retarder brake relay valve. The
service and manual retarder brake relay valve opens and allows air from
the service brake reservoirs to flow through a double check valve to the
rear brake cylinder. Air from the service and manual retarder brake relay
valve compresses the piston in the rear brake cylinder and ENGAGES the
rear brakes.

Manual retarder
operation
- Energizes three
brake switches

- Engages only rear


brakes

ARC operation
- Energizes three
brake switches

- Engages only rear


brakes

When the retarder lever is moved, air flows through three double check
valves. Air flows from the retarder valve through a double check valve
next to the ARC valve and through a double check valve next to the brake
switches. Pulling the retarder lever turns ON the retarder dash lamp, the
brake lights, and changes the transmission shift points and anti-hunt timer.
Air also flows from the retarder valve through a double check valve to the
service and manual retarder brake relay valve. Only the rear brakes are
ENGAGED when the retarder is ENGAGED.
When the ARC is energized, air flows through two double check valves.
Air flows from the ARC valve through a double check valve next to the
ARC valve and through a double check valve next to the brake switches.
Energizing the ARC turns ON the retarder dash lamp, the brake lights,
and changes the transmission shift points and anti-hunt timer.
Air also flows from the ARC valve to the ARC relay valve. The ARC
relay valve opens and allows air from the service brake reservoirs to flow
through a double check valve to the rear brake cylinder. Only the rear
brakes are ENGAGED when the ARC is energized.

UPDATE 97

- 104 -

BRAKE COOLING SYSTEM


HOIST
VALVE

MAKEUP
TANK

OIL COOLER

OIL COOLING
RELIEF VALVE

BRAKE
RETRACTION
PUMP

HOIST
PUMP

BRAKE
RETRACTION
FILTERS

BRAKE
RETRACTION
VALVE
TO
PARKING
BRAKES

HYDRAULIC
TANK

REAR BRAKES

75
Brake oil cooling
system
- uses two pumps

This schematic shows the flow of oil through the brake cooling system.
Two pumps provide oil for brake cooling; the hoist pump and the brake
retraction pump. Both pumps pull oil from the hydraulic tank through a
suction screen.

Hoist pump oil flow

Oil flows from the hoist pump to the hoist valve. When the hoist valve is
in the HOLD or FLOAT positions, all of the hoist pump oil flows through
the oil cooler screen and the oil cooler to the rear brakes. Oil from the
rear brakes flows through a return screen to the hydraulic tank.

Brake retraction pump


oil flow

Oil flows from the brake retraction pump through the brake retraction
filters to the brake retraction valve. The brake retraction valve controls
the oil pressure to release the parking brakes and shift the directional
spool in the hoist valve. These functions require very little oil flow. Most
of the oil from the brake retraction pump flows through the brake
retraction valve and joins with the hoist pump oil to cool the brakes.

UPDATE 97

- 105 -

Brake cylinder oil


makeup tank

Brake cooling oil also flows to the brake cylinder oil makeup tank. The
makeup tank provides a continuos supply of oil to the brake cylinders.
The brake cylinders require more oil as the brakes wear.

Oil cooling relief valve

The pressure in the brake cooling system is controlled by a relief valve


located in the hoist valve. The setting of the brake oil cooling relief valve
is 586 14 kPa (85 2 psi). The relief valve is usually only needed when
the brake cooling oil is cold. When brake cooling oil is at operating
temperature, measured brake cooling oil pressure is usually much lower
than the setting of the oil cooling relief valve.

High brake cooling oil


temperature

A brake oil temperature sensor is located in the brake oil cooling tube on
the right side of the truck. The brake oil temperature sensor provides
input signals to the Caterpillar Monitoring System or the VIMS which
keeps the operator informed of the brake cooling oil temperature.

- Too high a gear


- Engine speed too
low

The most common cause of high brake cooling oil temperature is


operating a truck in too high a gear for the grade and not maintaining a
high enough engine speed. Engine speed should be kept at approximately
2230 rpm during long downhill hauls.

- Relief valve stuck


open

If brake cooling oil temperature is high and flow to the brake cylinder oil
makeup tank is low, make sure the oil cooling relief valve is not stuck
open.

- Slack adjuster
pistons stuck

Also, make sure the pistons in the slack adjuster are not stuck and holding
too much pressure on the brakes (see Slides No. 147 - 149).

UPDATE 97

- 106 -

INTEGRATED BRAKE CONTROL ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

INPUT COMPONENTS
SHIFT LEVER
SENSOR

THROTTLE
SENSOR

TRANSMISSION OUTPUT
SPEED SENSOR

ACTUAL GEAR
SWITCH

ENGINE
SPEED/TIMING
SENSOR

SERVICE/RETARDER
BRAKE SWITCH

PARKING/SECONDARY
BRAKE SWITCH

OUTPUT COMPONENTS

ELECTRONIC SERVICE TOOL


ENGINE CONTROL
TRANSMISSION AND
CHASSIS CONTROL (EPTC III)

CAT DATA LINK

ENGINE OUTPUT
SPEED SENSOR

C kPaMiles KM RPM Liter SERV


CODE
X10

MESSAGE CENTER
MODULE

. ..

CAT DATA LINK

ON INPUT
ARC ON/OFF
SWITCH

ARC SUPPLY
SOLENOID

OFF INPUT
RETARDER
PRESSURE SWITCH

ARC CONTROL
SOLENOID

AUTO RETARDER
PRESSURE SWITCH

RETARDER
ENGAGED
LAMP

ARC
TCS

TCS
ENGAGED
LAMP

TCS TEST
SWITCH

ARC
TCS
TCS SELECTOR
SOLENOID
LEFT AND RIGHT

LEFT WHEEL
SPEED SENSOR
PROPORTIONAL
SOLENOID

RIGHT WHEEL
SPEED SENSOR

76
INTEGRATED BRAKE CONTROL (IBC)
Integrated Brake
Control (IBC)

The D-series update trucks use a new electronic control module for
controlling both the Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) and the Traction
Control System (TCS). There are three possible arrangements that can be
installed on a truck. The three arrangements are:
- ARC only
- TCS only
- ARC and TCS--called IBC
When a truck has both the ARC and the TCS, the arrangement will be
referred to as the Integrated Brake Control (IBC) system.

Flash files required

Each arrangement requires a separate "flash" file to tell the control which
arrangement is installed. Therefore, there are three separate flash file part
numbers, and which flash file is used depends on the hardware installed
on the truck.

UPDATE 97

Brake functions
controlled by
electrical signals

- 107 -

The IBC receives information from various input components such as the
Engine Output Speed (EOS) sensor, retarder pressure switch, left and
right wheel speed sensors and the TCS test switch.
Based on the input information, the IBC determines whether the
service/retarder brakes should ENGAGE for the ARC or the
parking/secondary brakes should ENGAGE for the TCS. These actions
are accomplished by sending signals to various output components.
Output components include the ARC supply and control solenoids, the
retarder ENGAGED lamp, the TCS selector and proportional solenoids
and the TCS ENGAGED lamp.
The IBC also provides the service technician with enhanced diagnostic
capabilities through the use of onboard memory, which stores possible
diagnostic codes for retrieval at the time of service.

Benefits of electronic
communication

The Advanced Diesel Engine Management (ADEM II) engine control, the
Transmission and Chassis control, the Caterpillar Monitoring System or
the Vital Information Management System (VIMS) and the IBC all
communicate with each other through the CAT Data Link.
Communication between the electronic controls allows the sensors of
each system to be shared.

Service tool
diagnostic and
programming
functions

The Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP) and the Electronic


Technician (ET) Service Tools can be used to perform several diagnostic
and programming functions (see Slide No. 23).
Some of the diagnostic and programming functions that the service tools
can perform are:
- Display real time status of input and output parameters
- Display the internal clock hour reading.
- Display the number of occurrences and the hour reading of the first
and last occurrence for each logged diagnostic code and event.
- Display the definition for each logged diagnostic code and event.
- Display the supply and control solenoid engagement counter.
- Program the ARC control speed
- Perform ARC diagnostic tests
- Upload new Flash files

UPDATE 97

- 108 -

77

Integrated brake
control (arrow)
MAC14 style control
- No diagnostic
window
- Diagnostics and
programming
requires ECAP or ET

MAC14 looks like


ADEM II

The Integrated Brake Control (IBC) (arrow) is located in the compartment


at the rear of the cab. The new control is a MAC14 style electronic
control, which means that it is a Multiple Application Control capable of
14 outputs (MAC14). The MAC14 does not have a diagnostic window
like the ARC and the TCS used on the D-series pre-update trucks.
Diagnostic and programming functions must all be done with an
Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP) or a laptop computer
with the Electronic Technician (ET) software installed. ET is the tool of
choice because the MAC14's can be reprogrammed with a "flash" file
using the Winflash application of ET. ECAP cannot upload "flash" files.
MAC14's look like the second generation Advanced Diesel Engine
Management (ADEM II) electronic control with two 40-pin connectors,
but MAC14's do not have fittings for cooling fluid. Also, there is no
access plate for a personality module.

UPDATE 97

- 109 -

AUTOMATIC RETARDER CONTROL


INTEGRATED BRAKE CONTROL
(ARC) (TCS)

ENGINE SPEED
SENSOR
ON INPUT
ARC ON/OFF
SWITCH
OFF INPUT
SERVICE TOOL
ENGINE CONTROL
EPTC III
MESSAGE CENTER

CAT DATA LINK


RETARDER
ENGAGED
LAMP

SUPPLY
SOLENOID
VENT

AIR FROM
SERVICE BRAKE
RESERVOIR

VENT
CONTROL
SOLENOID

SERVICE
BRAKE
VALVE

TO SERVICE/
RETARDER BRAKE
RELAY VALVE

AUTOMATIC
RETARDER
VALVE

MANUAL
RETARDER
VALVE

AUTO RETARDER
PRESSURE SWITCH

RETARDER
PRESSURE
SWITCH

TO ARC
RELAY VALVE

78
Automatic Retarder Control (ARC)
Automatic Retarder
Control (ARC)

The Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) system function is to modulate


truck braking (retarding) when descending a long grade to maintain a
constant engine speed. The ARC system engages the rear service/retarder
brakes. If the ON/OFF switch is moved to the ON position, the ARC will
be activated if the throttle pedal is not depressed and the parking/
secondary brakes are RELEASED. The ARC system is disabled when the
throttle is depressed or when the parking/secondary brakes are
ENGAGED.
The ARC is not connected to the service brakes and the manual retarder.
When the ARC is engaged, air flows from the ARC valve to a separate
relay valve located near the brake master cylinders (see Slide No. 69).

UPDATE 97

ARC set to maintain


2230 engine rpm

- 110 -

The ARC is set at the factory to maintain a constant engine speed of


2230 50 rpm (engine speed setting is programmable). When the ARC
initially takes control of retarding, the engine speed may oscillate out of
the 50 rpm target, but the engine speed should stabilize within a few
seconds.
For proper operation of the ARC, the operator needs only to activate the
control with the ARC ON/OFF switch and select the correct gear for the
grade, load, and ground conditions. The ARC is designed to allow the
transmission to upshift to the gear selected by the shift lever. After the
transmission shifts to the gear selected by the operator and the engine
speed exceeds 2300 rpm, the ARC will apply the retarder as needed to
maintain a constant engine speed.

ARC provides engine


overspeed protection

The ARC system also provides Engine Overspeed protection. If an


unsafe engine speed is reached, the ARC will engage the brakes, even if
the ARC ON/OFF switch is in the OFF position and the throttle is
depressed.
Trucks approaching an overspeed condition will sound a horn and activate
a light at 2475 rpm. If the operator ignores the light and horn, the ARC
will engage the retarder at 2560 rpm. If the engine speed continues to
increase, the transmission and chassis control will either upshift (one gear
only above shift lever position) or unlock the torque converter (if the shift
lever is in the top gear position) at 2675 rpm.

ARC provides
programming and
diagnostic capability

The ARC also provides service personnel with enhanced diagnostic


capabilities through the use of onboard memory, which stores possible
faults, solenoid cycle counts and other service information for retrieval at
the time of service.
By using an ECAP or a laptop computer with the Electronic Technician
(ET) software installed, service personnel can access the stored diagnostic
information or set the adjustable engine speed control setting.
The Auto Retarder Control receives signals from several switches and
sensors. The control analyzes the various input signals and sends signals
to the output components. The output components are two solenoids and
a lamp.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: For more detailed information about the


Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) system, refer to the Service
Manual Module "Automatic Retarder Control System" (Form
SENR5683) and the Technical Instruction Module "Automatic
Retarder Control System" (Form SEGV2593).

UPDATE 97

- 111 -

4
2
5
1
3

79

1. Retarder pressure
switch

Shown is the location of the retarder pressure switch (1). The retarder
pressure switch signals the control module when retarder air pressure is
present (manual or automatic). The switch is normally open and closes
when the manual retarder or automatic retarder is engaged.
A fault is recorded when the control module detects the absence of
retarder pressure (switch open) while the supply solenoid and the control
solenoid are energized.

2. Auto retarder
pressure switch
3. Automatic retarder
valve

The auto retarder pressure switch (2) signals the control module when air
pressure is present and the automatic retarder valve (3) is functioning.
The auto retarder pressure switch is located in front of the cab in the
output port of the automatic retarder valve. The switch is normally closed
and opens only when the auto retarder is engaged.
A fault is recorded when the control module detects the presence of auto
retarder pressure (switch open) while the supply solenoid and the control
solenoid are not energized.

UPDATE 97

4. Supply solenoid
valve

- 112 -

The supply solenoid valve (4) turns ON or OFF to control the flow of
supply air to the automatic retarder valve (3). The control module
energizes the supply solenoid valve with + Battery voltage (24 Volts) at
2125 rpm. The supply solenoid is energized approximately 100 rpm less
than the programmed control speed setting.
A fault is recorded if the control module senses the signal to the supply
solenoid as open, shorted to ground, or shorted to battery.

5. Control solenoid
valve

The control solenoid valve (5) modulates the air flow to the brakes during
automatic retarding. The control solenoid receives a Pulse Width
Modulated (PWM) signal from the control module. The longer the duty
cycle, the more time the control solenoid valve is open and more air
pressure is allowed to the brakes. Voltage to the control solenoid
increases proportionally from 0 to approximately 22 Volts with the
demand for more brake pressure.
A fault is recorded if the control module senses the signal to the control
solenoid as open, shorted to ground, or shorted to battery.

Supply and control


solenoid resistance

Normal resistance through the supply and control solenoids is 31 Ohms.


An excess resistance of approximately 40 Ohms will prevent the valves
from opening and will cause a supply or control valve malfunction fault to
be logged. Therefore, a measurement of approximately 71 Ohms or more
will show that the solenoid is defective.

ARC valve
malfunction

The control module can also determine if the solenoid valves have
malfunctioned (valves leaking). If air pressure is present at the auto
retarder pressure switch when the solenoids are not energized, the auto
retarder pressure switch will signal the control module that the ARC valve
has malfunctioned.

UPDATE 97

- 113 -

TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM


INTEGRATED BRAKE CONTROL
(ARC) (TCS)
ELECTRONIC
SERVICE TOOL
TCS
ENGAGED
LAMP

SERVICE/RETARDER
BRAKE SWITCH
TRANSMISSION
OUTPUT SPEED
SENSOR

TCS SELECTOR
SOLENOID
LEFT AND RIGHT

CAT DATA LINK

TCS TEST
SWITCH
PROPORTIONAL
SOLENOID

LEFT WHEEL
SPEED SENSOR

+ 10V TO
WHEEL SENSORS

RIGHT WHEEL
SPEED SENSOR

80
Traction Control System (TCS)
TCS uses
parking/secondary
brakes

The Traction Control System (TCS) uses the rear parking/secondary


brakes (spring engaged and hydraulically released) to decrease the
revolutions of a spinning wheel. The TCS allows the tire with better
underfoot conditions to receive an increased amount of torque. The
system is controlled by the TCS or Integrated Brake Control (IBC)
(see Slide No. 77).
The TCS electronic control monitors the drive wheels through three input
signals: one at each drive axle, and one at the transmission output shaft.
When a spinning drive wheel is detected, the electronic control sends a
signal to the selector and proportional valves which in turn engage the
brake of the affected wheel. When the condition has improved and the
ratio between the right and left axles returns to 1:1, the electronic control
sends a signal to release the brake.

UPDATE 97

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TCS formally called


AETA

The TCS was formerly referred to as the Automatic Electronic Traction


Aid (AETA). The operation of the system has not changed. The main
difference is the appearance of the electronic control and the TCS is now
on the CAT Data Link. Also, the ECAP and ET Service Tools can
communicate with the TCS.

Service/retarder brake
switch

A service/retarder brake switch provides an input signal to the TCS


through the CAT Data Link and performs two functions
(see Slide No. 43):

- Stops TCS function


- Performs diagnostic
test

1. When the service brakes or retarder are ENGAGED, the TCS function
is stopped.
2. The service/retarder brake switch provides the input signal needed to
perform a diagnostic test. When the TCS test switch and the retarder
lever are ENGAGED simultaneously, the TCS will engage each rear
brake independently. Install two pressure gauges on the TCS valve
and observe the pressure readings during the test cycle. The left brake
pressure will decrease and increase. After a short pause, the right
brake pressure will decrease and increase. The test will repeat as long
as the TCS test switch and the retarder lever are ENGAGED.
NOTE: During the diagnostic test, the parking/secondary brakes
must be released.

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81

CONCLUSION
This presentation has provided a basic introduction to the Caterpillar
769D/771D/773D/775D UPDATE Off-highway Trucks. All the major
component locations were identified and the major systems were
discussed. When used in conjunction with the service manual, the
information in this package should permit the serviceman to analyze
problems in any of the major systems on these trucks.

UPDATE 97
9/98

Printed in U.S.A.