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Hydroelectric Power Plants

and
Synchronous Machines

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HydroelectricPowerPlants

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Power Plants for Primary Resources


The vast majority of electricity generated worldwide
(about 99%) is generated from power plants using
primary energy resources such as hydropower, fossil
fuel, and nuclear fuel.
The geological and hydrological characteristics of the
area where the power plant is to be erected determine, to
a large extent, the type of the power plant.
Fossil fuel power plants in the United States are
concentrated mainly in the east and Midwest regions
where coal is abundant.
Hydroelectric power plants are concentrated in the
northwest region where water and water storage
facilities are available.
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Power Plants for Primary Resources


Nuclear power plants, however, are distributed in all
regions since their demand for natural resources is
limited to the availability of cooling water.
Fossil fuels are the main source of electric energy (over
80%), and about 63% of the electric energy is produced
by coal and oil-fired power plants.
In the United States, coal counts for about 50% of the
fuel used to generate electricity.

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ElectricityGenerationinUSA

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RenewableEnergyConsumptionbymajorsource

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Hydroelectric Power Plants


Hydro is a Greek word meaning water, hydropower means
the power in the moving water and hydroelectric is the process
by which hydropower is converted into electricity.
The hydroelectric power plant harnesses the energy of the
hydrologic cycle.
The motion of water toward oceans is due to its kinetic energy,
which can be harnessed by the hydroelectric power plant that
converts it into electrical energy.
If water is stored at high elevations, it possesses potential energy
proportional to that elevation.
When this water is allowed to flow from a higher elevation to a
lower one, the potential energy is transformed into kinetic
energy, which is converted into electrical energy by
hydroelectric power plants.
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Hydroelectric Power Plants


The worlds first hydroelectric power plant was constructed
across the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin, and began its
operation on September 30, 1882.
The plant generated only 12.5 kW, which was enough to power
two paper mills and the private home of the mills owner.
The latest and largest hydroelectric power plant, so far, is the one
being built in Chinas Three Gorges, which has a capacity of 22.5
GW.

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Worlds Largest Hydroelectric Power Plants

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Types Of Hydroelectric Power Plants


Thecommontypesofhydroelectricpowerplantsare
impoundmenthydroelectric,
diversionhydroelectric,and
pumpedstoragehydroelectricpowerplants.

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ImpoundmentHydroelectricPowerPlants
Impoundmenthydroelectricisthemostcommontypeof
hydroelectricpowerplantandissuitableforwaterbodies
withhighheads.
Thedaminthesepowerplantscreatesareservoiratahigh
elevationbehindthedam.AgoodexampleistheGrand
CouleeDamshownintheFigure
Atypicalimpoundmenthydroelectricpowersystemhassix
keycomponents:dam,reservoir,penstock,turbine,generator,
andgovernor.Aschematicofahydroelectricpowerplantis
shownintheFigure.

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Energychanges

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Energychangesinhydroelectricpowerstations:
Potentialenergy>Kineticenergy>Electricity
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Impoundment Hydroelectric Power Plants

13

The Grand Coulee Dam and Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (Washington State)
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Key Components of Power Plants

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Diversionhydroelectricplant

15

Strongcurrentsofriversareutilizedbylowheadturbinestogenerateelectricity.This
hydroelectricplantdoesnotrequireawaterreservoirathighelevation,soitsgenerating
capacityislessthanthatfortheimpoundmenthydroelectricpowerplant.

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PumpedStorageHydroelectricPlant

16

Apumpedstorageplantusestworeservoirs,onelocatedatamuchhigherelevationthan
theother.Duringperiodsoflowdemandforelectricity,suchasnightsandweekends,
energyisstoredbyreversingtheturbinesandpumpingwaterfromthelowertothe
upperreservoir.Thisincreasesthepotentialenergybehindthedamforlateruse.The
storedwatercanlaterbereleasedtoturntheturbinesandgenerateelectricityasitflows
backintothelowerreservoir.
Oneofthelargestpumpedstoragehydropowerfacilitiesintheworld Ludington
PumpedStoragePlantinMichigan.

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Dam

It is a barrier that prevents water from flowing downstream,


thus creating a lake behind the dam.
The potential energy of the water behind the dam is directly
proportional to the volume and height of the lake.
The dam can be enormous in size; the Grand Coulee Dam in
Washington State is 170 m in height, 1.6 km in length, and its
crest is 9 m wide. Its base is 150 m wide.
The volume of the concrete used to build the dam is almost
9.16 x 106 m3.
The Three Gorges Dam in China is the biggest dam ever built
so far, followed by the Itaipu Dam in Brazil.

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PowerOutputfromaDam
IfQisthevolumeflowrate(cubicmeters/sec),Histhe
effectiveheadinmeters, istheefficiencyoftheturbo
generatorsystem,thenthepoweroutputofthedamis;
P=.1000.H.Q.g Watts
IfH=50m,Q=20m3/sec,=1,
P=1000x20x50x9.81=9.81MW

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Comparative Data on
Two Large Hydroelectric Dams

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Reservoir
The dam creates a lake behind its structure called a
reservoir and often covers a wide area of land.
The Grand Coulee Dam created the Franklin D.
Roosevelt artificial lake, which is about 250 km long
and has over 800 km of shore line.
Its surface area is about 320 km2, the depth of the
lake ranging from 5 to 120 m.

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Reservoir Energy

21

The water behind the dam forms a reservoir (lake).


The potential energy of the water in the reservoir PEr is a linear
function of the water mass and head.
PEr= MgH
(1)
Where M is the water mass (kg)
g is the acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
H is the water head (average elevation) behind the dam (m)

The unit of PEr is joule (Ws). The mass of the water is a function
of the water volume and water density
M = Vol
(2)
Where vol is the volume of water (m3)
is the water density (kg/m3)

At temperatures up to 20C, is 1000 kg/m3


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Penstock
Penstock: It is a large pipeline that channels water from
the reservoir to the turbine.
The water flow in the penstock is controlled by a
valve called governor.

Penstock of the Grand Coulee Dam.

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Penstock Energy
The potential energy of the water entering the
penstock, PE, is
PE=mgH
(3)
where m is the mass of water entering the penstock.
This potential energy is converted into kinetic energy
as the water moves inside the penstock.
The kinetic energy, KE, of the water leaving the
penstock is
(4)
where v is the velocity of water exiting the penstock
(m/s). The penstock is generally inclined; therefore, its
length is longer than the water head, which results in
some energy losses.
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Penstock Energy
Hence, the penstock efficiency, p is defined as the ratio of its
output energy KE to its input energy PE.

(5)
The mechanical power of the water exiting the penstock (also
known as hydropower) is given by

where f is the flow of water inside the penstock (kg/s) and is


defined as

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Penstock Energy
The volume of water passing through the penstock
during an interval time, t, is
where
A is the cross-sectional area of the penstock
t is the time interval
The mechanical power of the water exiting the
penstock (also known as hydropower) is given by

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Turbine

A turbine is an advanced water wheel. The high-pressure water


coming from the penstocks pushes against the blades of the
turbine causing the turbine shaft to rotate.
The electrical generator is mounted directly on the same shaft of
the turbine, thus the generator rotates at the speed of the turbine.
Hydroelectric turbines are specially designed water wheels that
come in three main types.
Kaplan turbines, named after Viktor Kaplan, are used mainly in
diversion power plants with small heads.
Pelton turbines, invented by Lester Pelton, are used in high head
impoundment power plants.
Francis turbines, invented by James Francis, are used in either
type of power plant

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HydroTurbines

27

KaplanTurbine

AssemblyofaPeltonTurbineinthe''Walchensee''
PowerPlant,Germany

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Francis turbine

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Hydroelectric TurbineGenerator Units

FrancisTurbine

TurbinesinsideHooverDaminArizona

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Generator
The electrical generator is mounted directly on the
same shaft of the turbine, thus the generator rotates at
the speed of the turbine.
It is an electromechanical converter that converts the
mechanical energy of the turbine into electrical
energy. The generators used in all power plants are the
synchronous machine type.
The generator is equipped with various control
mechanisms such as the excitation control and various
stabilizers to maintain the voltage constant and to
ensure that the generators operation is stable.

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Example1
ThePenstockoutputofGrandCouleedamisabout800MW
whentheeffectivewaterheadis87m.TheturbineisFrancise
design.Computethewaterflowrateinsidethepenstock.
PE=mgH m is in kg, H is in meters
Flow rate is f = vol/t m3/s
Mass m = vol.
PE= vol. .g. H = f.t. .g. H
Power=PE/t=f..g. H
f = Power/(.g. H) = (800 x 106)/(1000 x 9.81 x 87)

= 837.35 m3/sec

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Problems
1. Inahydroelectricplant,twomillioncubicmetersofwaterisstoredinareservoirataheight
of60metersfromahydroturbine.CalculatetheamountofenergyinMWHifallthewater
usedforproducingelectricity?Neglecttheleakageandotherlosses.Thedensityofwateris
1000kg/m3
2. Thereservoirofahydroelectricpowerplantisataheightof80ft.Thedensityofwateris
1000kg/m3.Whatistheminimumamountofwaterrequiredtoobtain500MWh ofelectric
power?(1kWh=3.6MJandg=9.8m/sec2)
3. Inahydroelectricplant,thewaterinthereservoircoversthearea5squarekilometers.The
depthofthewateris20meters.Theheightofthereservoiris70metersfromahydro
turbine.CalculatetheamountofenergyinKWHifallthewaterisusedforproducing
electricity?Neglecttheleakageandotherlosses.Thedensityofwateris995kg/m3
4. Estimatethepoweroutputofadamwithaheadof50mandvolumeflowrateof
20m3/sec(Neglectanylosses).Densityofwateris1000kg/m3

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2.0 Synchronous Machines

37

Power Generation
99+ % of all power are generated by the
synchronous generators
Synchronous machines can operate as
generators or motors

38

Synchronous Machines
Synchronous generators or alternators are used to convert
mechanical power derived from steam, gas, or hydraulic-turbine
to ac electric power
Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical
energy we consume today
Large ac power networks rely almost exclusively on synchronous
generators
Synchronous motors are built in large units compared to induction
motors (Induction motors are cheaper for smaller ratings) and
used for constant speed industrial drives

39

Construction of synchronous
machines
Synchronous machines are AC machines that have a field circuit supplied
by an external DC source.
In a synchronous generator, a DC current is applied to the rotor
winding producing a rotor magnetic field. The rotor is then turned
by external means producing a rotating magnetic field, which
induces a 3-phase voltage within the stator winding.
Field windings are the windings producing the main magnetic field
(rotor windings for synchronous machines); armature windings are
the windings where the main voltage is induced (stator windings
for synchronous machines).

Construction of synchronous
machines
The rotor of a synchronous machine is a large electromagnet. The magnetic poles
can be either salient (sticking out of rotor surface) or non-salient construction
(Cylindrical).

Non-salient-pole rotor: usually two- and four-pole rotors.

Salient-pole rotor: four


and more poles.

Rotors are made laminated to reduce eddy current losses.

Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator


1. Most hydraulic turbines have to turn at low speeds
(between 50 and 300 r/min)
2. A large number of poles are required on the rotor
d-axis

Non-uniform
air-gap

D 10 m
q-axis

Turbine
Hydro (water)

Hydrogenerator
42

Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator

Stator

43

Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator


D1m

Turbine

L 10 m
Steam

d-axis
Stator winding

High speed

3600 r/min -pole

Stator

1800 r/min -pole


Direct-conductor cooling (using
hydrogen or water as coolant)

Uniform air-gap

Rotor winding

q-axis

Rotor

Rating up to 2000 MVA

Turbogenerator

44

Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator

Stator

Cylindrical rotor

Construction of synchronous
machines
A synchronous rotor with 8 salient poles

Salient pole with field


windings

Salient pole without


field windings
observe laminations

45

Construction of synchronous
machines
Two common approaches are used to supply a DC current to the field circuits on
the rotating rotor:
1. Supply the DC power from an external
DC source to the rotor by means of
slip rings and brushes;
2. Supply the DC power from a special
DC power source mounted directly on
the shaft of the machine.

Slip rings are metal rings completely encircling the shaft of a machine but insulated
from it. One end of a DC rotor winding is connected to each of the two slip rings on
the machines shaft. Graphite-like carbon brushes connected to DC terminals ride on
each slip ring supplying DC voltage to field windings regardless the position or speed
of the rotor.

Construction of synchronous
machines

Slip rings

Brush

Construction of synchronous
machines
Slip rings and brushes have certain disadvantages: increased friction and
wear (therefore, needed maintenance), brush voltage drop can introduce
significant power losses. Still this approach is used in most small
synchronous machines.
On large generators and motors, brushless exciters are used.
A brushless exciter is a small AC generator whose field circuits are
mounted on the stator and armature circuits are mounted on the rotor
shaft. The exciter generators 3-phase output is rectified to DC by a 3phase rectifier (mounted on the shaft) and fed into the main DC field
circuit. It is possible to adjust the field current on the main machine by
controlling the small DC field current of the exciter generator (located on
the stator).
Since no mechanical contact occurs between the rotor and the stator,
exciters of this type require much less maintenance.

Construction of synchronous
machines
A brushless exciter: a
low 3-phase current is
rectified and used to
supply the field circuit
of the exciter (located
on the stator). The
output of the exciters
armature circuit (on the
rotor) is rectified and
used as the field
current of the main
machine.

Construction of synchronous
machines
To
make
the
excitation
of
a
generator completely
independent of any
external
power
source, a small pilot
exciter is often added
to the circuit. The pilot
exciter is an AC
generator
with
a
permanent
magnet
mounted on the rotor
shaft and a 3-phase
winding on the stator
producing the power
for the field circuit of
the exciter.

Construction of synchronous
machines
A rotor of large
synchronous machine
with a brushless exciter
mounted on the same
shaft.

Many synchronous
generators having
brushless exciters also
include slip rings and
brushes to provide
emergency source of
the field DC current.

Construction of synchronous
machines
A large
synchronous
machine with
the exciter
and salient
poles.

Rotation speed of synchronous


generator
By the definition, synchronous generators produce electricity whose
frequency is synchronized with the mechanical rotational speed.

fe
Where

nm P
120

fe is the electrical frequency, Hz;


nm is mechanical speed of magnetic field (rotor speed for synchronous
machine), rpm;
P is the number of poles.

Steam turbines are most efficient when rotating at high speed; therefore,
to generate 60 Hz, they are usually rotating at 3600 rpm and turn 2-pole
generators.
Hydraulic turbines are most efficient when rotating at low speeds (200-300
rpm); therefore, they usually turn generators with many poles.

Internal generated voltage of a


synchronous generator
The magnitude of internal generated voltage induced in a given stator is

where Kc is a constant representing the construction of the machine, is flux in


it and fe = electrical frequency
.
Since flux in the
machine depends
on the field current
through it, the
internal generated
voltage is a
function of the
rotor field current.
Magnetization curve (open-circuit characteristic) of a
synchronous machine

Equivalent circuit of a synchronous


generator
The internally generated voltage in a single phase of a
synchronous machine EA is not usually the voltage appearing
at its terminals. It equals to the output voltage V only when
there is no armature current in the machine. The reasons
that the armature voltage EA is not equal to the output
voltage V are:
1. Distortion of the air-gap magnetic field caused by the
current flowing in the stator (armature reaction);
2. Self-inductance of the armature coils;
3. Resistance of the armature coils;
4. Effect of salient-pole rotor shapes.

Equivalent circuit of a synchronous


generator
A synchronous generator can be Y- or -connected:

The terminal voltage will be

VT 3V forY VT V for
Xs is the synchronous reactance = Armature reactance + Self inductance reactance

Equivalent circuit of a synchronous


generator
Since for balanced loads the three phases of a synchronous generator are
identical except for phase angles, per-phase equivalent circuits are often used.

Equivalent Circuit
RA

Xs

EA

X s Synchronous Re ac tan ce
RA Armature Re sis tan ce

RA X s
59

Generator Equivalent Circuit


Xs

IA
EA

60

Phasor diagram of a synchronous


generator
Since the voltages in a synchronous generator are AC voltages, they are usually
expressed as phasors. A vector plot of voltages and currents within one phase is
called a phasor diagram.
A phasor diagram of a synchronous generator
with a unity power factor (resistive load)

Lagging power factor (inductive load):

Leading power factor (capacitive load).


For a given field current and magnitude of
load current, the terminal voltage is lower for
lagging loads and higher for leading loads.

The Synchronous generator


operating alone
The behavior of a synchronous generator varies greatly under
load depending on the power factor of the load and on
whether the generator is working alone or in parallel with other
synchronous generators.
Most of the synchronous generators in the world operate as
parts of large power systems.
Unless otherwise stated, the speed of the generator is
assumed constant.

The Synchronous generator


operating alone
Generally, when a load on a synchronous generator is added, the following
changes can be observed:

1. For lagging (inductive) loads, the phase (and terminal) voltage


decreases significantly.
2. For unity power factor (purely resistive) loads, the phase (and
terminal) voltage decreases slightly.
3. For leading (capacitive) loads, the phase (and terminal) voltage rises.
Effects of adding loads can be described by the voltage regulation:

VR

Vnl V fl
V fl

100%

Where Vnl is the no-load voltage of the generator and Vfl is its full-load voltage.

The Synchronous generator


operating alone
A synchronous generator operating at a lagging power factor has a fairly large
positive voltage regulation. A synchronous generator operating at a unity power
factor has a small positive voltage regulation. A synchronous generator operating
at a leading power factor often has a negative voltage regulation.
Normally, a constant terminal voltage supplied by a generator is desired. Since the
armature reactance cannot be controlled, an obvious approach to adjust the
terminal voltage is by controlling the internal generated voltage EA = K. This
may be done by changing flux in the machine while varying the value of the field
resistance RF, which is summarized:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Decreasing the field resistance increases the field current in the generator.
An increase in the field current increases the flux in the machine.
An increased flux leads to the increase in the internal generated voltage.
An increase in the internal generated voltage increases the terminal voltage of
the generator.

Therefore, the terminal voltage of the generator can be changed by adjusting the
field resistance.

The Synchronous generator


operating alone: Example
A 480 V, 60 Hz, Y-connected six-pole synchronous generator has a per-phase
synchronous reactance of 1.0 . Its full-load armature current is 60 A at 0.8 PF
lagging. Its friction and windage losses are 1.5 kW and core losses are 1.0 kW at 60
Hz at full load. Assume that the armature resistance (and, therefore, the I2R losses)
can be ignored. The field current has been adjusted such that the no-load terminal
voltage is 480 V.
a. What is the speed of rotation of this generator?
b. What is the terminal voltage of the generator if
1. It is loaded with the rated current at 0.8 PF lagging;
2. It is loaded with the rated current at 1.0 PF;
3. It is loaded with the rated current at 0.8 PF leading.
c. What is the efficiency of this generator (ignoring the unknown electrical losses)
when it is operating at the rated current and 0.8 PF lagging?
d. How much shaft torque must be applied by the prime mover at the full load?
how large is the induced countertorque?
e. What is the voltage regulation of this generator at 0.8 PF lagging? at 1.0 PF? at
0.8 PF leading?

The Synchronous generator


operating alone: Example
Since the generator is Y-connected, its phase voltage is

V VT

3 277V

At no load, the armature current IA = 0 and the internal generated voltage is EA =


277 V and it is constant since the field current was initially adjusted that way.
a. The speed of rotation of a synchronous generator is

nm
which is

120
120
fe
60 1200rpm
P
6

1200
2 125.7rad s
60

b.1. For the generator at the rated current and the 0.8
PF lagging, the phasor diagram is shown. The phase
voltage is at 00, the magnitude of EA is 277 V,

The Synchronous generator operating


alone: Example
jX S I A j 1 60 36.87 6053.13

and that

Two unknown quantities are the magnitude of V and the angle of EA. From the
phasor diagram:

E A2 V X S I A sin X S I A cos
2

Then:

Since the generator is Y-connected,

VT 3V 410V

The Synchronous generator operating


alone: Example
b.2. For the generator at the rated current and
the 1.0 PF, the phasor diagram is shown.
Then:

VT 3V 468.4V

and

b.3. For the generator at the rated current and the


0.8 PF leading, the phasor diagram is shown.
Then:

V E A ( X S I A cos( )) 2 X S I A sin( ) 308.8V


2

and

VT 3V 535V

The Synchronous generator operating


alone: Example
c. The output power of the generator at 60 A and 0.8 PF lagging is

Pout 3V I A cos 3 236.8 60 0.8 34.1kW


The mechanical input power is given by

Pin Pout Pelecloss Pcoreloss Pmechloss 34.1 0 1.0 1.5 36.6kW


The efficiency is

Pout
34.1
100%
100% 93.2%
Pin
36.6

d. The input torque of the generator is

Pin

app

36.6
291.2 N - m
125.7

The Synchronous generator


operating alone: Example
The induced countertorque of the generator is

app

Pconv

34.1
271.3 N - m
125.7

e. The voltage regulation of the generator is


Lagging PF:

VR

480 410
100% 17.1%
410

Unity PF:

VR

480 468
100% 2.6%
468

Lagging PF:

VR

480 535
100% 10.3%
535

Terminal characteristics of
synchronous generators
All generators are driven by a prime mover, such as a steam, gas, water, wind
turbines, diesel engines, etc. Regardless of the power source, most of prime
movers tend to slow down with increasing the load. This decrease in speed is
usually nonlinear but governor mechanisms of some type may be included to
linearize this dependence.
The speed drop (SD) of a prime mover is defined as:

SD

nnl n fl
n fl

100%

Most prime movers have a speed drop from 2% to 4%. Most governors have a
mechanism to adjust the turbines no-load speed (set-point adjustment).

Terminal characteristics of
synchronous generators
A typical speed
vs. power plot
A typical
frequency vs.
power plot

Since the shaft speed is linked to the electrical frequency as

fe

nm P
120

the power output from the generator is related to its frequency:

P s p f nl f sys

Slope of curve, W/Hz

Operating frequency of the system

Terminal characteristics of
synchronous generators
A similar relationship can be derived for the reactive power Q and terminal voltage
VT. When adding a lagging load to a synchronous generator, its terminal voltage
decreases. When adding a leading load to a synchronous generator, its terminal
voltage increases.
The plot of terminal voltage vs.
reactive power is not necessarily
linear.
Both the frequency-power and
terminal voltage vs. reactive power
characteristics are important for
parallel operations of generators.
When a generator is operating alone supplying the load:
1. The real and reactive powers are the amounts demanded by the load.
2. The governor of the prime mover controls the operating frequency of the system.
3. The field current controls the terminal voltage of the power system.

Terminal characteristics of
synchronous generators: Example
Example: A generator with no-load frequency of
61.0 Hz and a slope sp of 1 MW/Hz is connected
to Load 1 consuming 1 MW of real power at 0.8
PF lagging. Load 2 (that is to be connected to the
generator) consumes a real power of 0.8 MW at
0.707 PF lagging.
a. Find the operating frequency of the system before the switch is closed.
b. Find the operating frequency of the system after the switch is closed.
c. What action could an operator take to restore the system frequency to 60 Hz
after both loads are connected to the generator?
The power produced by the generator is

P s p f nl f sys

Therefore:

f sys f nl

P
sp

Terminal characteristics of
synchronous generators: Example
a. The frequency of the system with one load is

f sys f nl

P
1
61 60Hz
1
sp

b. The frequency of the system with two loads is

f sys f nl

P
1.8
61
59.2Hz
1
sp

c. To restore the system to the proper operating frequency, the operator should
increase the governor no-load set point by 0.8 Hz, to 61.8 Hz. This will restore
the system frequency of 60 Hz.

Parallel operation of synchronous


generators
Most of synchronous generators are operating in parallel with other
synchronous generators to supply power to the same power system.
Obvious advantages of this arrangement are:
1. Several generators can supply a bigger load;
2. A failure of a single generator does not result in a total power loss to the load
increasing reliability of the power system;
3. Individual generators may be removed from the power system for maintenance
without shutting down the load;
4. A single generator not operating at near full load might be quite inefficient.
While having several generators in parallel, it is possible to turn off some of
them when operating the rest at near full-load condition.

Conditions required for paralleling


A diagram shows that Generator 2
(oncoming generator) will be connected
in parallel when the switch S1 is closed.
However, closing the switch at an
arbitrary moment can severely
damage both generators!
If voltages are not exactly the same in both lines (i.e. in a and a, b and b etc.), a
very large current will flow when the switch is closed. Therefore, to avoid this,
voltages coming from both generators must be exactly the same. Therefore, the
following conditions must be met:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The rms line voltages of the two generators must be equal.


The two generators must have the same phase sequence.
The phase angles of two a phases must be equal.
The frequency of the oncoming generator must be slightly higher than the
frequency of the running system.

Conditions required for paralleling


If the phase sequences are different,
then even if one pair of voltages
(phases a) are in phase, the other two
pairs will be 1200 out of phase creating
huge currents in these phases.

If the frequencies of the generators are different, a large power transient may occur
until the generators stabilize at a common frequency. The frequencies of two
machines must be very close to each other but not exactly equal. If frequencies
differ by a small amount, the phase angles of the oncoming generator will change
slowly with respect to the phase angles of the running system.
If the angles between the voltages can be observed, it is possible to close the
switch S1 when the machines are in phase.

Operation of generators in parallel


with large power systems
Often, when a synchronous generator is added to a power system, that system is
so large that one additional generator does not cause observable changes to the
system. A concept of an infinite bus is used to characterize such power systems.
An infinite bus is a power system that is so large that its voltage and frequency do
not vary regardless of how much real and reactive power is drawn from or supplied
to it. The power-frequency and reactive power-voltage characteristics are:

Operation of generators in parallel


with large power systems
Consider adding a generator to an
infinite bus supplying a load.
The frequency and terminal voltage of all
machines must be the same. Therefore,
their power-frequency and reactive
power-voltage characteristics can be
plotted with a common vertical axis.
Such plots are called sometimes as house
diagrams.

Operation of generators in parallel


with large power systems
If the no-load frequency of the oncoming
generator is slightly higher than the
systems frequency, the generator will be
floating on the line supplying a small
amount of real power and little or no
reactive power.

If the no-load frequency of the oncoming


generator is slightly lower than the
systems frequency, the generator will
supply a negative power to the system:
the generator actually consumes energy
acting as a motor!
Many generators have circuitry
automatically disconnecting them from the
line when they start consuming energy.

Operation of generators in parallel


with large power systems
If the frequency of the generator is increased after it is connected to the infinite bus,
the system frequency cannot change and the power supplied by the generator
increases.
If the frequency of the generator is further increased, power output from the
generator will be increased and at some point it may exceed the power consumed by
the load. This extra power will be consumed by the load.

Summarizing, when the generator is operating in parallel to an infinite bus:


1. The frequency and terminal voltage of the generator are controlled by the
system to which it is connected.
2. The governor set points of the generator control the real power supplied
by the generator to the system.
3. The generators field current controls the reactive power supplied by the
generator to the system.

Active and reactive power-angle


characteristics
Pm

Pe, Qe
VT

Fig. Synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus.

P>0: generator operation


P<0: motor operation
Positive Q: delivering inductive vars for a generator action or
receiving inductive vars for a motor action
Negaive Q: delivering capacitive vars for a generator action or
receiving capacitive vars for a motor action
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Active and reactive power-angle


characteristics
The complex power output of the generator in voltamperes per phase is given by
_

S P jQ V T I a*
where:
VT = terminal voltage per phase
Ia* = complex conjugate of the armature current per phase
Taking the terminal voltage as reference
_

V T VT j 0

The generated voltage,


_

E A E A cos j sin
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Active and reactive power-angle


characteristics
The armature current,
_

E A V T E A cos VT jE A sin
Ia

jX s
jX s
_

Pm

Pe, Qe

VT

where Xs is the synchronous reactance per phase.


_
_
E cos VT jE A sin
S P jQ V T I *a VT A

jX s

VT E A sin
Xs

V E cos VT2
VT E A sin
j T A
Xs
Xs
&

VT E A cos VT2
Q
Xs

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Active and reactive power-angle


characteristics
Pm

Pe, Qe
VT

V E sin
P T A
Xs

&

VT E A cos VT2
Q
Xs

The above two equations for active and reactive powers hold
good for synchronous machines for negligible resistance
To obtain the total power for a three-phase generator, the above
equations should be multiplied by 3 when the voltages are line-toneutral
If the line-to-line magnitudes are used for the voltages, however,
these equations give the total three-phase power

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92

93

94

95

96

97

98

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Synchronous Motors
Motor

P, Q
Vt

A synchronous motor is the same physical machine as a


generator, except that the direction of real power flow is
reversed
Synchronous motors are used to convert electric power to
mechanical power
Most synchronous motors are rated between 150 kW (200
hp) and 15 MW (20,000 hp) and turn at speed ranging from
150 to 1800 r/min. Consequently, these machines are used in
heavy industry
At the other end of the power spectrum, we find tiny singlephase synchronous motors used in control devices and
electric clocks

Operation Principle
The field current of a synchronous motor produces a steadystate magnetic field BR
A three-phase set of voltages is applied to the stator windings of
the motor, which produces a three-phase current flow in the
windings. This three-phase set of currents in the armature
winding produces a uniform rotating magnetic field of Bs
Therefore, there are two magnetic fields present in the machine,
and the rotor field will tend to line up with the stator field, just
as two bar magnets will tend to line up if placed near each other.
Since the stator magnetic field is rotating, the rotor magnetic
field (and the rotor itself) will try to catch up
The larger the angle between the two magnetic fields (up to
certain maximum), the greater the torque on the rotor of the
machine
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Vector Diagram
The equivalent circuit of a synchronous motor is exactly same as
the equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator, except that the
reference direction of Ia is reversed.
The basic difference between motor and generator operation in
synchronous machines can be seen either in the magnetic field
diagram or in the phasor diagram.
In a generator, Ef lies ahead of Vt, and BR lies ahead of Bnet. In a
motor, Ef lies behind Vt, and BR lies behind Bnet.
In a motor the induced torque is in the direction of motion, and in a
generator the induced torque is a countertorque opposing the
direction of motion

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Vector Diagram
Ia
Vt

Bs
jIa Xs

sync

Ef

Bnet

BR

Fig. The phasor diagram (leading PF: overexcited and |Vt|<|Ef|) and
the corresponding magnetic field diagram of a synchronous motor.
Vt
jIa Xs

Ia

Ef

Fig. The phasor diagram of an underexcited synchronous


motor (lagging PF and |Vt|>|Ef|).
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Application of Synchronous Motors


Synchronous motors are usually used in large sizes because in small sizes
they are costlier as compared with induction machines. The principal
advantages of using synchronous machine are as follows:
Power factor of synchronous machine can be controlled very easily
by controlling the field current.
It has very high operating efficiency and constant speed.
For operating speed less than about 500 rpm and for high-power
requirements (above 600KW) synchronous motor is cheaper than
induction motor.
In view of these advantages, synchronous motors are preferred for driving
the loads requiring high power at low speed; e.g; reciprocating pumps and
compressor, crushers, rolling mills, pulp grinders etc.

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REFERENCES
1. Mohammed A. El_Sharkavwi, Electric Energy An Introduction, CRC
Press, 2013
2. Synchronous Machines: http://ee.lamar.edu/gleb/Index.htm by Gleb V.
Tcheslavski
3. http://elektro.fs.cvut.cz/en/SSem/2141025/Synchronous_Machine.pdf

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