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Chapter 6: Rational Number Operations and Properties

6.3 Multiplying and Dividing Fractions

6.3.1. Modeling multiplication of fractions

6.3.1.1. Repeated addition can be used when we have a whole number times a rational

number:

 3 × 4 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 or 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5

6.3.1.2. Joining of equal-sized groups can be used when we have a mixed number times

a rational number:

2

1

2

×

1

2

= ?

see figure 6.12, p. 326

6.3.1.3. Area model can also be used for multiplying a mixed number times a rational

number:

2

1

2

×

1

2

=

?

see figure 6.13, p. 326

6.3.1.4. Additionally the area model can be used to show multiplication of a rational

number times a rational number.

6.3.1.5. Your turn p. 327: Do the practice and reflect

6.3.2. Multiplying fractions

6.3.2.1. Fraction with a numerator of one is called a unit fraction

6.3.2.2. Generalization about multiplying rational numbers represented by unit

and

6.3.2.3. Procedure for multiplying rational numbers in fraction form: For rational

1

fractions: For rational numbers a

1

b ,

1 ×

a

1

b

1

ab

=

numbers b a and

c

d

,

a ×

b

c

d

=

ac

bd

6.3.2.4. Your turn p. 329: Do the practice and reflect

6.3.2.5. Class demonstration using paper folding to show multiplication of rational numbers:

1

2

2

3

1

2

3

4

1

3

3

4

2

3

4

5

1

6

1

2

1

3

3

5

6.3.2.5.1. half OF a third

×

=

6.3.2.5.2. two-thirds OF three-fourths

×

=

6.3.2.5.3. half OF two-thirds

×

=

6.3.2.5.4. three-fourths OF four-fifths

×

=

6.3.2.6. Integer rod steps (always use least number of rods possible)

6.3.2.7. Class demonstration using integer rods to show multiplication of rational numbers:

6.3.2.7.1. http://arcytech.org/java/

6.3.2.7.2.

×

1 1

= ?

2

3

1

2

×

3

5

= ?

6.3.2.7.3.

6.3.2.7.4.

W W
W
L
R L
R Y
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
L
L
Y
Y
G
E
R
G
G
E
W
L
R
G
G
E
W
L
G
E
1
3
6
10

6.3.3. Properties of rational number multiplication

6.3.3.1. Basic properties of rational numbers

6.3.3.1.1. Multiplicative inverse (reciprocal) analogous to additive inverse property

6.3.3.2.

6.3.3.3.

Your turn p. 330: Do the practice and reflect

Basic properties for multiplication of rational numbers

Closure property: For rational numbers b a and

c

d

,

b a ×

c d is a unique rational

number

Identity property: A unique rational number, 1, exists such that

1×

a

b

=

a

b

×1 =

b a ; 1 is the multiplicative identity element

Zero property: For each rational number b a , 0

Commutative property: For rational numbers b a and

×

a

b

=

a

b

×

c

d

c , and

Associative property: For rational numbers b a , d

(

a ×

b

c

d

)

×

e

f

=

a

b

×

(

c

d

×

e

f

)

Distributive property: For rational numbers b a , d

c , and

a ×

b

(

c

d

+

e

f

)

=

(

a

b

×

c

d

)

+

(

a

b

×

e

f

)

0

,

=

b

e

f ,

0

a ×

e

f ,

c

d

=

c

d

×

a

b

Multiplicative inverse: For every nonzero rational number b a , a unique

rational number,

b a , exists such that

a ×

b

b

a

=

b

a

×

a

b

= 1

6.3.3.4.

Property for multiplying an integer by a unit fraction: For any integer a and

1

any unit fraction b ,

a×

1

b

=

a

b

6.3.3.5. Using the properties to verify (prove) the procedure for multiplication of rational numbers: see p. 331

6.3.4. Modeling Division of fractions

6.3.4.1. used to separate a quantity into groups of the same size

6.3.4.2. no remainders in division of rational numbers

6.3.4.3. Partition model – fig. 6.16 p. 332

6.3.4.4. Measurement model – fig.6.17 p. 332

6.3.4.5. Integer rod steps (always use least number of rods possible)

6.3.4.6. Class demonstration using integer rods to show division of rational numbers:

6.3.4.6.1. http://arcytech.org/java/

6.3.4.6.2.

1 1
÷
=
?
2 3
W
W
R
L
R
R
R
L
L
G
L
R
G
G
L
R
G
L
R
6.3.4.6.3.
3
6.3.4.6.4.
2
3
1
6.3.4.6.5.
÷
=
?
5
2
L W
Y R

6.3.4.6.6.

6.3.4.6.7.

R
R
R
R
R
Y
Y
E
G
Y
E
E
G
Y
E
G
Y

3

10

6.3.5. Definition and properties of rational number division

6.3.5.1. Definition of rational number division in terms of multiplication: for rational

numbers a

b

that e

f

×

c

d

=

and c

a

d , c 0,

b

a

b

÷

c

d

=

e

f

if and only if

e

f

is a unique rational number such

6.3.5.2. Closure property of division for nonzero rational numbers: For nonzero

rational numbers a

b

and c

d ,

6.3.6. Dividing fractions

a

b

÷

c

d

is a unique nonzero rational number

6.3.6.1. Procedure for dividing fractions – multiplying by the reciprocal method: for

rational numbers a

b

and c

d , where c, b, and d 0,

a

b

÷

c

d

=

a

b

×

d

c

6.3.6.2. Procedure for dividing fractions – common denominator method: for rational

numbers a

b

and c

d , where c 0,

 a c ad bc ad ÷ = ÷ = b d bd bd bc

6.3.6.3. Procedure for dividing fractions – complex fraction method: for rational

numbers a

b

and c d , where c 0,

a

b

÷

c

d

=

a a

b

=

d d

c

 d a d b × c = b × c = ad × d 1 bc c

c

6.3.6.4. Procedure for dividing fractions – missing factor method: for rational

numbers a

b

and c

d , where c, b, and d 0,

a

b

×

d

c

=

d

c

×

c

d

×

f

=

f

, so

a

c

a

d

÷

=

×

=

b

d

b

c

bc

6.3.7. Estimation strategies

a

b

÷

c

d

=

f

, where a b

=

c

d

×

f .

6.3.7.1. rounding

6.3.7.2. front-end estimation

6.3.7.3. substituting compatible numbers

6.3.7.4. Where does the decimal point go?

To find f,

 6.3.7.4.1. 6.25 x 0.89 = 55625 6.3.7.4.2. 4.3 x 0.49 = 2107 6.3.7.4.3. 5.75 x 1.39 = 79925

6.3.8. Problems and Exercises p. 340

6.3.8.1. Home work: 1, 6, 7, 8, 9ac, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18