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Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 1 Managing People and Organizations


TOPIC: Personal Effectiveness / 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

Covey, S. (1990). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People.


The Seven Habits
1. Be Proactive More than
taking initiative. As human
beings we are
responsible for our own
lives. Our behavior is
a function of our
decisions, not our
conditions.
2. Begin with the
End in Mind To
start with a clear
understanding of
your destination. It
means to know
where youre going
so that you better
understand where you
are now and so that the
steps you take are always in
right direction. A personal
statement.

Interdependence

simply

Seekfirstto
Synergize
6
Understand
thentobe
understood PUBLIC
5
VICTORY
Think
Win/Win
4

Independence
3
PutFirst
ThingsFirst

PRIVATE

VICTORY
1
2
Be
Begin
Proactive
withtheEnd
inMind

Dependence

the
mission

3. Put First Things FirstOrganizeandexecutearoundpriorities.


Urgent/ImportanceMatrixPlanning.
4. Think Win/Win A frame of mind & heart that constantly seeks
mutual benefit in all human interactions.
5. Seek First to Understand then to be Understood Listen
with the intent to understand, not to reply.
6. SynergizeThewholeisgreaterthanthesumofitsparts.Therelationshipisthe
mostimportantpart.

7. Sharpen the Saw Preserving and enhancing the greatest asset


you have you. Renewing the four dimensions of your nature
physical, spiritual, mental, and social/emotional.
TOPIC: Discuss history of management

Until the late 1800s, organizations were very small or individual.


With the industrial revolution (trains, assembly line/automobiles, oil),
business organizations became very large and very complex.
TOPIC: What large organizations existed prior to 1900?

These early, large organizations were based on the only large


organizational form that existed at the time the military.
Early management theory was centered around scientific
management (Frederick Taylor). Efficiency, people were extensions of
machines. No one was expected to like their jobs.
Mid 1900s behavior psychology / Carl Jung influenced management
thinking. People started to study human behavior and motivation.
Hawthorne studies (Eldon Mayo) at Western Electric influenced
thinking.
Today: still influences of military organization in business, and
management. Additional thinking about why we work, what we should
expect out of work. Coaching, communication, open-book
management,

TOPIC: Managers dont design, make, sell, or deliver anything. What?


Managers are responsible for working with and through others to achieve
objectives by influencing people and systems in a changing environment.
Some managers are also leaders and visionaries, the qualities of which
become necessary as managers take on central decision-making roles within
an organization.

Why Study Management and Organizational Behavior?


TOPIC: What is organizational behavior?
Organizational behavior (OB) refers to the behaviors of individuals and
groups within an organization, and the interactions between the
organization and environmental forces.
Students of organizational behavior seek to improve the effectiveness of
organizations (and their lives in organizations) through the application of
behavioral science concepts and research. The assumption that
organizational behavior can be improved by study and analysis is based on
the premise that behavior is not completely random. Rather, it represents

mutual dependencies or cause-and-effect links that can be anticipated,


sometimes predicted, and often influenced to varying degrees.
TOPIC: What is management?
Management is the practice of organizing, directing, and developing
people, technology, and financial resources to provide products and services
through organizational systems.
Organization is a group of people working in a network of relationships
and systems toward a common objective.

What Purpose Do Organizations Serve?


TOPIC: Pick a company, list stakeholders, what do they want/conflict?
Formulating a purpose and goals in an organization is complicated by the
need to balance the interests of various groups who have a stake in its
actions and outcomes. Stakeholders are members of identifiable clusters
of people who have economic and/or social interests in the behaviors and
performance of a specific organization. (e.g. Managers, Employees, Unions,
Customers, Governments, Watchdog Groups, Universities, Suppliers,
Alliances, Investors.) To link the role of employee/investor, many firms with
rapid growth prospects use stock options as financial incentives for
employees. An important challenge for managers is to identify the relevant
stakeholders and to operate the organization in ways that optimize the
returns to each group. Sometimes the interests of these stakeholders are in
conflict.
TOPIC: Is the mission of business to make money?
Mission is an organizations fundamental purpose, articulated to define the
nature of the business and unify human and other resources. A well-framed
mission provides a sense of purpose and establishes parameters that focus
effort and resources.
TOPIC: What is Your Personal Mission? Write one (picture end of life).
Beyond defining its mission, founders and top managers are responsible for
articulating the organizations fundamental values, goals, and guiding
concepts. Such statements provide a sense of direction, conveying how the
game of business is to be played by organization members. Superordinate
goals are the highest goals of an organization; fundamental desired
outcomes that enable managers to assess performance relative to its
mission. According to Peter Drucker, there is only one valid definition of
business purpose: to create a customer.
Simplistic goals and strategies that contribute to performance early in the
life of an organization may become detrimental as the firm grows. Once
success for the emerging firm takes hold and growth takes off, managers
often branch out to offer products and services beyond those that

established the original business. The firm then runs the risk of becoming
unfocused, of trying to be too many things to too many people.
Many employees are more motivated to work diligently for organizations
that fulfill socially desirable purposes than for firms whose managers define
their principal objective as profit taking or engaging in practices that
question ethical norms.
Organizational behavior is usually not random. The law of effect is the
behavioral tendency where people tend to behave in ways that enable them
to attain the goals for which they are rewarded.

How Do Organizations Behave as Systems?


A system is an integrated whole formed by a set of interrelated elements
and interacting subsystems.
Organizations are complex forms of social systems comprised of people,
other resources, and subsystems integrated for the purpose of transforming
inputs into mission-relevant outputs. Any business is an inputtransformation-output system that takes in resources, converts them into
goods and services, and passes along these outputs to customers and
others.
Closed systems operate without environmental or outside disturbance.
Open systems are influenced by external pressures and inputs, making
them more complex and difficult to control than closed systems.
Dynamic systems change over time as structures and functions adapt to
external disturbances and conditions.
All business organizations are thus open dynamic systems. As an open
system, firms are subject to outside forces by competitors, customers,
suppliers, and regulators. As a dynamic system, a business can change its
product mix, enter new markets, restructure its sources of financing, hire
new managers, or redesign its compensation policy in anticipation of or in
response to outside forces.
TOPIC: Pick a business, what are the inputs, subsystems & outputs?

Organizational Subsystems
Inputs
People,
materials
,
supplies,
capital

Imports

Procuremen
t&
Production

Order
Fulfillment

Exports

Money
Managemen
t
Informatio
n

Money

Feedbac
k

Outputs
Sales of
goods
and
services,
waste,
jobs

The management of open dynamic systems requires careful attention to


important boundary spanning transactions. Boundary-spanning
transactions are actions that link an organization to specific external
sectors; exchanges that make the system dynamic and open.

What Do Successful Managers Do?


TOPIC: Who have been managers (or managed)? What did mgrs do?
Managers are people responsible for working with and through others to
achieve objectives by influencing people and systems in a changing
environment. Managers do not have total control over that part of the
organization for which they are responsible. No manager can absolutely
predict and control environmental forces. Even internal forces that involve
human behavior are often unpredictable and people will thwart attempts by
managers to influence them.
TOPIC: The Rational Heroic View
The rational heroic view is a legacy of early descriptions and prescription
of the nature of a managers job. This view characterizes the manager as one
who engages in reflective planning, takes time to carefully organize
structures and systems, directs and coordinates an orchestrated flow of
activities, and then exercises control to keep critical elements in harmony.
The manager is expected to have an overall feel for where the organization
is going, know what is going on, and accept responsibility for problem
solving and the departments success or failure. All forces considered, the
rational heroic model places too much emphasis and responsibility on the
manager and not enough on teams and followers within the organization.
When managers act as if they should be the only ones in control, they
deprive followers of job challenges and create delays in decisions.
TOPIC: The Chaotic View
The chaotic view is that managerial life is intense, fragmented, and
complex. Henry Mintzberg found that instead of being the reflective and
systematic planners described in tradional books on management, most
managers are actually caught up in a variety of intense, brief, disconnected
activities. Managers prefer action to reflection, according to both Mintzberg
and Kotter. The plans of managers often exist largely in their heads; They
prefer oral mediums over written information. Verbal contacts with others
are the managers principal source of information gossip, ideas, opinions,
and facts.
All managers share common work characteristics. Writes Mintzberg, All
these managers are vested with formal authority over an organizational
unit. From formal authority comes status, which leads to various
interpersonal relations, and from these comes access to information.

Information, in turn, enables the manager to make decisions and strategies


for his unit.

The Interpersonal Roles


o Figurehead participating in ceremonial duties
o Leader focusing on exerting influence over people; to
motivate and encourage (servant-leadership)
o Liaison interactions with others outside his or her vertical
chain of reporting relationships
The Informational Roles involves obtaining or exchanging relevant
information
o Monitor scanning the environment, asking questions,
maintaining a network of contacts, and in general finding out
what is going on (MBWA)
o Disseminator sharing information with unit members
especially proprietary or goal affecting information
o Spokesperson sharing information with influential people
outside the unit
The Decisional Roles acting on information to commit the
organization to new courses of action, whether as entrepreneur,
disturbance handler, resource allocator, or negotiator.
o Entrepreneur attempting to adjust the organization to its
environment
o Disturbance Handler typically draws managers in
involuntarily (can delegate)
o Resource Allocator a role that all levels of managers perform
o Negotiator negotiations and the management of conflict are a
way of life for managers.

How Do Managers Influence Organization Systems?


The key resource variables or capabilities that managers seek to influence
and transform include tasks, technology, organization, people, and
organizational culture.
TOPIC: The Managers Toolbox what can a manager do to help?

Tasks the jobs or work that people do in pursuit of enterprise


purpose. Tasks begin with goals and can be designed to be simple or
complex, easy or difficult, physical or mental, and so on.
Technology includes the knowledge, equipment, subsystems,
software, and methods for accomplishing work tasks (also includes
the knowledge needed to use hardware and software).
People People energize and give life to organizations. To begin with,
managers have to decide how many people to employ in a certain task
and what knowledge and skills they require. Managers are then

responsible for selecting and training people who have or can develop
the skills needed to achieve organizational goals.
Organization Organization as used here refers to a structural
network and the processes that define and link key subsystems within
the enterprise. Organization structure is simplistically symbolized by
a chart, drawing, or map that depicts the decision authority and
communication relationships among people and the ways in which
tasks are grouped into departments or subunits. In a realistic sense,
managers view structure in a broader way to include all those
elements that help govern peoples behavior at work. These include
goals, plans, policies, and rules, as well as the authority and
communication networks.
Organizational Culture All the foregoing elements combine to
form a network of social systems, and from these evolve an
organizational culture. By culture we mean the beliefs, values, and
assumptions people have about their particular organization and the
expected behavior within it.
Management The Integrating Responsibility In the center of this
transformation network, we show managers and leaders.

The planned changes managers make in a system to achieve intended


results commonly lead to unintended second-order consequences.
In diagnosing how and where to influence an organizational system,
managers typically start with outputs because they are important to all
organizations. All organizations try to produce outputs that meet the quality,
quantity, timeliness, and price expectations of customers. To do so, they
need to set specific goals that address three output criteria: productivity,
satisfaction, and revitalization.
TOPIC: Important Definitions ASK
Productivity is the ratio of acceptable quality outputs to inputs consumed;
a measure of how well the organization achieves its goals. Efficiency
means doing something right or getting the most output for the least input.
Effectiveness means producing the right output or doing things right to
create value for stakeholders.
It is possible to have efficiency without effectiveness or vice versa. The ideal
is to achieve a balance of effectiveness and efficiency, although
effectiveness is usually more critical.
Satisfaction is another key goal of organizations. Satisfaction refers to
positive feelings people have about an organization, whether as an
employee, customer, supplier, or regulator.
Revitalization refers to the ability to take care of tomorrows problems as
well as todays by renewing strategies, resources, technology and skills.
Rather than deplete the resource base to get immediate results, companies

must periodically or continually reinvest, renew, and reinvent. Revitalization


also involves people, for without training and professional development of
human resources, an organization slips in its capacity to compete.
Therefore, the overall job of any manager is:

To identify clearly the output requirements of his or her system


To devise measures of efficiency and effectiveness
To develop core skills and capabilities within the organization to do
the job well
To promote improvement and innovation
To make changes when results fail to measure up

What Are the Organizational Context Challenges for Managers?


Four thematic issues emerge: managing technology, global business,
human diversity and ethical behavior.
In managing diversity, differences in gender, race, language, size, physical
impairments, and age are clearly visible. Less visible are differences in
education, religion, nationality, economic status, sexual orientation, and
learning disabilities. Affirmative action and managing diversity are not the
same. The goal of affirmative action is to ensure that people are given fair
opportunities to be hired or admitted to organizations.
TOPIC: Discuss the impact of globalization on local/national economy?

Summary
Organizations are open dynamic systems for transforming resource inputs
into outputs of useful products and services that satisfy the needs of
customers and provide value to stakeholders. But the interests of various
stakeholders are not always aligned. This places conflicting pressures and
demands on managers.
At the highest organizational level, managers seek to navigate competitive
environmental forces by developing a mission to define the firms unique
business purpose and crafting superordinate goals to challenge and guide
employees. At all levels, managers diagnose and influence systems by
working with people and allocating resources to carry out tasks and achieve
goals within an environment of change. In performing their jobs, managers
behave in different roles, frequently shifting emphasis among interpersonal,
information, and decision-making roles.
To maintain organizational viability, managers work to achieve goals in the
areas of productivity, satisfaction, and revitalization. One of the realities of
life in organizations is that todays effective practices are not likely to
suffice tomorrow. Whether pulled by the success of growth or jolted by
crisis and downturn, managers must periodically transform the system to

adapt to environmental realities. In the process of transformation,


managers can target changes in the key internal resources such as tasks,
technology, organization, people, and culture. Maintaining a dynamic
balance among these resources is what organizational behavior (OB) is all
about.
The study of organizational behavior is important because of the growing
complexity and turbulence of the business environment and the related
growth in research knowledge about behavior within and between
organizations.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 2 Strategic Thinking, Planning & Continuous


Improvement
It is not just the tangible plans that are important. Also important is the
process by which plans are developed.

How Does a Manager Begin to Think Strategically?


TOPIC: What is strategic thinking?
Strategic thinking is a process of envisioning and planning to create a
workable match between organizational competencies (and limitations) and
external opportunities (and threats) with the goal of better serving
customers. Thinking strategically means anticipating what actions and
behaviors are most likely to help the organization prosper in a changing
environment.
Key objectives are articulated as mission-consistent measurable results to
be achieved by specific times in the future. Objectives help frame the
choices for crafting strategy that charts a course for the future makeup of
products and services and targeted customer bases.
Every organization has a mission, or cause, intended to unite and provide
direction to its members.

The Strategic Cycle


1A. Mission
1B. Vision

6.
Controlling
&
Improving
5.Impleme
nting &
executing

2. Setting
objectives
3. Crafting
strategy
4.
Organizing
and
financing

TOPIC: Discuss football coach analogy. Most businesses jump in.


1. A Craft a Mission to Define a Common Purpose

The mission of a firm is the fundamental purpose of an enterprise that


defines the nature of its business and provides strategic direction to
unify the use of human and other resources. A well-conceived mission
answers the questions: Why do we exist and what do we do? Who are we
and where are we headed? With the passage of time, mission statements
have to be reassessed and even reformulated. Missions become
complicated when an organization branches beyond its original line of
business. A mission is normally expected to provide direction that
stretches beyond the foreseeable future.
To be useful, a statement of mission should:

Articulate the vision that defines the business, what it is, what it is
not, and what it should be in the future.
Communicate to internal members and external constituencies a clear
sense of meaning and direction that is motivating and energizing
Convey which customer wants and needs it will seek to satisfy, and
the target markets it will serve
Identify the value-adding functions it will perform, realizing its
specific enabling actions will change over time while the purpose
endures.
Be of bumper-sticker length brief enough to be incorporated into
corporate communications and easily remembered

TOPIC: Example Mission Statements

Worldcoms Mission
To be the preeminent global communications company for the digital
generation, generation d.

Consecos Three-Pronged Mission


To be more efficient than other insurance companies. To actively manage
our investments to generate greater returns with no additional risk. To
develop products that meet real market needsand find more effective
channels for distributing them.

Enrons Mission
Not found.

IBMs Mission
At IBM, we strive to lead in the creation, development and manufacture of
the industrys most advanced information technologies, including computer
systems, software, networking systems, storage devices and
microelectronics.

Microsofts Mission
To enable people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full
potential

Apples Mission
Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to
students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world
through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings.

Peace Corps Mission

To help the people of interested countries in meeting their need for


trained men and women;
To help promote a better understanding of Americans on the part of the
peoples served;
To help promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of
Americans.

Ball States Mission


Ball State University is committed to being a premier teaching institution
and providing excellent programs of instruction. Consistent with this
commitment, the mission of the College of Business is to provide highquality business and economic education and other related services to our
students, to the organizations (business, governmental, educational, and
not-for-profit) that employ or admit our graduates, and to the citizens of our
state.

Eli Lilly Values


As we implement our strategies and pursue our objectives, long-established
core values guide us in all that we do:

Respect for people that includes our concern for the interests of all
people worldwide who touch or are touched by our company:
customers, employees, shareholders, partners and communities;
Integrity that embraces the very highest standards of honesty, ethical
behavior and exemplary moral character;
Excellence that is reflected in our continuous search for new ways to
improve the performance of our business to become the best at what we
do.
TOPIC: Discuss Tylenol experience, J&J used mission as guide.

Johnson & Johnsons Credo


We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses and patients, to
mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services. In

meeting their needs everything we do must be of high quality. We must


constantly strive to reduce our costs in order to maintain reasonable prices.
Customers' orders must be serviced promptly and accurately. Our suppliers
and distributors must have an opportunity to make a fair profit.
We are responsible to our employees, the men and women who work with us
throughout the world. Everyone must be considered as an individual. We
must respect their dignity and recognize their merit. They must have a
sense of security in their jobs. Compensation must be fair and adequate,
and working conditions clean, orderly and safe. We must be mindful of ways
to help our employees fulfill their family responsibilities. Employees must
feel free to make suggestions and complaints. There must be equal
opportunity for employment, development and advancement for those
qualified. We must provide competent management, and their actions must
be just and ethical.
We are responsible to the communities in which we live and work and to the
world community as well. We must be good citizens support good works
and charities and bear our fair share of taxes. We must encourage civic
improvements and better health and education. We must maintain in good
order the property we are privileged to use, protecting the environment and
natural resources.
Our final responsibility is to our stockholders. Business must make a sound
profit. We must experiment with new ideas. Research must be carried on,
innovative programs developed and mistakes paid for. New equipment must
be purchased, new facilities provided and new products launched. Reserves
must be created to provide for adverse times. When we operate according
to these principles, the stockholders should realize a fair return.
TOPIC: Where there is no vision the people perish. But, what about
corporate cults?
1. B Use a Vision to Set Direction for a Desired Future
Visions change more frequently, are often more detailed, and can be
specific to a product, program or project. A vision is a desired future
image of the organization and its processes and products that integrates
current realities and expected future conditions within a specific time
frame.
Three elements are fundamental to a comprehensive, meaningful vision:

A statement of purpose it should inspire and motivate insiders


A tangible goal framing a clear, specific and compelling goal that
focuses peoples efforts. A well-framed goal has a target and a time
frame for its attainment.
An image of results the image should paint a compelling picture
using crisp language

TOPIC: How is vision different than a mission?


2. Set Objectives to Define Measurable Results
Objectives convert visionary intentions into specific performance targets
that can be measured at designated points in time. Benchmarking can
be used to compare a units performance to outcomes achieved in other
outstanding organizations.
Any type of organization needs to specify objectives focusing on two
types of performance outcomes: financial and strategic. Financial
objectives are critical to guiding the long-term viability of the
enterprise. Strategic objectives are used to assess performance against
the specific design of a strategy.
TOPIC: Balanced Scorecard
A balanced scorecard is a strategic management system that encourages
companies to set objectives in four perspectives:

Financial
Customer
Business Process
Learning & Growth (Employee)

TOPIC: Strategy fairly recent in business. Sun Tsu, The Art of War.
3. Craft Strategy to Fulfill the Mission and Vision
A strategy is a plan of actions to achieve a favorable position within the
competitive marketplace by strengthening the relationship between an
organizations capabilities and its changing environment. Strategies
pertain to those destiny-shaping decisions concerning:

The
The
The
The
The

choice of technologies on which products and services are based


development and release of new products and services
processes for producing products and services
way products and services are marketed, distributed, and priced
ways in which the organization responds to rivals

TOPIC: More about strategies later


4. Organizing and Financing to Support Strategy
Two planning processes are close companions to crafting strategy, and
they must be resolved before (or at least concurrently with)
implementation.
The organizing function plans supportive structures and systems that
align people to the strategy. In organizing, structure provides a way of
grouping people and tasks into departments or work units to promote

coordination of communication, decisions, and action. Also in


organizing, systems provide guidelines or structured processes for
handling recurring transactions and events in a standardized or
consistent way.
The financing function involves budget preparation and finding or
determining sources of funding to meet requirements for capital
investments and operating expenses.
5. Implementing and Executing Strategy
The greatest concentration of management and non-management effort
occurs with implementation (or execution) of strategy. Above all,
implementation requires leadership, the formation of teams, and the
nurturing of a supportive organizational culture.
TOPIC: Project management must be used to implement strategy
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve a particular aim.
Every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. While projects are
similar to operations in that both are performed by people, both are
generally constrained by limited resources, and both are planned, executed
and controlled, projects differ from operations in that operations are
ongoing and repetitive while projects are temporary and unique. The
Project Management Institute (PMI)
Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and
techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements
of the particular project. Project management knowledge and practices are
best described in terms of their component processes. These processes can
be placed into five Process Groups: Initiating, Planning, Executing,
Controlling and Closing and nine Knowledge Areas Project Integration
Management, Project Scope Management, Project Time Management,
Project Cost Management, Project Quality Management, Project Human
Resource Management, Project Communications Management, Project Risk
Management, and Project Procurement Management. The Project
Management Institute (PMI)
This is the most common area where strategy falls down.
6. Controlling Results to Sustain Continuous Improvement
But profits are the result, or the derivative, of doing several things well.
While a certain level of profitability may be one objective, other
objectives and measures are needed to assure that people are focusing
effort and resources on the things they have to do to bring about
favorable results, to create customer satisfaction, and the like.
Continuous improvement is ongoing assessment and problem solving
aimed at improving designs, processes, and outcomes.

Assessment, thus, completes the strategic cycle, and in the process


generates new visions just as it promotes organizational learning of new
skills and knowledge bases.

The Teachable Point of View


The teachable point of view puts the leader in front of her people by writing
about and interactively teaching her personal beliefs, assumptions, and
models of change.
1. What Business Are We In?
The most basic question any organization must answer is: What product
or service should we market? A related question is: Who is our customer
and how can we provide value to that customer? Experience and
research substantiates that organizations do best if they remain focused
on a core business that takes advantage of the unique capabilities that
give them competitive advantage over rivals.
Every unit must serve a customer, regardless of the departments or
units level, function, or size. In effect, all managers of work units should
think of themselves as entrepreneurs serving customer markets and if
they dont serve them well, other customers (whether external or
internal) should be free to buy where they find the best deal.
2. What Are Our Internal Strengths and Weaknesses?
A firm (or a line of business within it) should be aware of its core
capabilities and sources of competitive advantage. A sustainable
competitive advantage is created if a firms core capabilities cannot be
readily copied by competitors.
Core capabilities are the critical skills and processes that an
organization executes so well in carrying out its intended strategy that
its reputation builds around them.
In addition to knowing its strengths, an organization must recognize its
limitations.
TOPIC: What are your core capabilities? Reputation is key in business.
3. What External Opportunities and Threats Do We Face?
External and internal environments present both driving and restraining
forces. A SWOT analysis is an assessment of internal resources and
competence (Strengths and Weaknesses) in relation to conditions in an
organizations external environment (Opportunities and Threats).
TOPIC: Michael Porters Five Forces Model

4. What Business Should We Be In?


With this question, managers seek to control their organizations destiny.
First, the traditional interpretation focuses on lines of business product
and market combinations.
Second, management might probe the internal business processes used
to bring products and services to the market. Three basic process
networks or businesses are found in most organizations: a product
innovation business, a customer relationship business, and an
infrastructure business that builds and manages facilities for the highvolume repetitive tasks.
By outsourcing noncore capabilities, the organization concentrates on
what it can do better than others.
5. How Do We Get There? (This is called a Gap Analysis)
Responses to the preceding questions cascade down into planning how to
strategically position or reposition resources and actions to achieve the
desired business objectives.
6. How Do We Know Were Still on the Right Course?
Plans need to have milestones and controls to ensure that actions
correspond to plans, or to evaluate whether intended actions and goals
are still feasible. A firm uses milestones, future dates by which certain
events are planned to occur, to track progress.
A control system works if it prevents deviations from a well-conceived
plan. If a deviation does occur, the control process should trigger actions
to bring out-of-control elements back in line with the plans goals and
milestones.

Results Are the Payof


All the plans, actions, milestones, goal, and controls managers use to shape
business strategy culminate in performance results.
Results are external acceptance or rejection of what an organization does
satisfied customers are the hallmark of positive results.
TOPIC: LOVE this quote by Peter Drucker!
The single most important thing to remember about any enterprise is that
results exist only on the outside. The result of a business is a satisfied
customer. The result of a hospital is a healed patient. The result of a school
is a student who has learned something and puts it to work ten years later.
Inside an enterprise, there are only costs. (Peter Drucker)
The previous six questions, or variations of them, should not be asked only
when an organization is in trouble. Such questions serve as the focus for
management retreats, meetings, and conversations with peers.

How Do Organizations Develop Competitive Advantage?


TOPIC: How is Dell different than Gateway? Burger King from McDs?
In a practical sense, strategy begins by making decisions about which
markets to compete in and what products and services to provide so that
customers needs are met and expectations are exceeded. Strategy then
includes decisions about:

How much of the product the firm should make, and how much it
should buy from other firms
Whether to be technology or labor intensive
Whether to distribute through independent dealers, wholesale trade
channels, a business-owned dealer network, or the Internet
Whether to aim for high-volume economies of scale, or flexibility with
short product life-cycles and greater customized production
Whether to price products to gain market share or to improve gross
margin

Competitive advantage occurs whenever a business is able to sustain an


edge over its rivals by attracting customers and defending itself against
competitive forces.
To achieve a strategic competitive advantage, all enterprises build their
strategies around a core of physical assets, business processes, and the
skills and talents of its people. Core capabilities provide the keys to longterm success by enabling the firm to combine assets and skills to do certain
things better than competitors.
Corporate strategy for multi-business firms, are the highest-level decisions
and actions about what lines of business to be in and how to manage them.

Professor Michael Porters research on diversified firms found that


competition occurs only at the business-unit level, which in a diversified
firm involves a plant or division targeting a focused product line at a
specific market.
TOPIC: Five Generic Competitive Strategies
When one strips away the details to get at the real substance the biggest
and most important differences among competitive strategies boil down to
(1) whether a companys market target is broad or narrow and (2) whether
it is pursuing a competitive advantage linked to low costs or product
differentiation. Five distinct approaches stand out:

A low-cost leadership strategy Appealing to a broad spectrum of


customers based on being the overall low cost provider of a product or
service.

A broad differentiation strategy Seeking to differentiate the


companys product offering from rivals in ways that will appeal to a
broad spectrum of buyers.

A best-cost provider strategy Giving customers more value for the


money by combining an emphasis on low cost with an emphasis on
upscale differentiation; the target is to have the best (lowest) costs and
prices relative to producers of products with comparable quality and
features.

A focused or market niche strategy based on lower cost


Concentrating on a narrow buyer segment and outcompeting rivals by
serving niche members at a lower cost than rivals.

A focused or market niche strategy based on differentiation


Concentrating on a narrow buyer segment and outcompeting rivals by
offering niche members a customized product or service that meets their
tastes and requirements better than rivals offering.
Type of Competitive Advantage Being Pursued
Lower Cost

Differentiation

Overall Low-Cost

Broad
Differentiation
Strategy
Best-Cost
Provider
Strategy
Market Target
Focused
Focused LowDifferentiation
Buyer Cost Strategy
Segment
A Narrow
Strategy
Leadership
CrossBuyers
A Broad
Strategy
Section of

TOPIC: Important Definitions (and some not so important things)

Diversification in complex organizations, is a corporate strategy of


branching out beyond the core business by offering different combinations
of products and markets that establish new lines of business. (Can be
pushed by growth needs of stock companies when they hit an upper limit).
Outsourcing is the strategy of purchasing services or components from
suppliers to prevent overextending the firm beyond its core capabilities.
Managers realize that they must not lose strength in their core businesses;
otherwise their relative quality will be degraded. Relative quality
degradation occurs when an enterprises rate of improvement falls behind
that of competitors, which relegates it to second-class performance.
Competitive strategy is possible only within specific lines of business,
where competitive advantage can be created through making choices about
where to compete (the markets and segments, the type of rivals one goes up
against) and how to compete (on the basis of product features,
manufacturing, pricing, distribution, and so on). Competitive strategy is
actions at the level of a specific line of business intended to create a
competitive advantage by planned actions about where to compete and how
to compete.
Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected organizations in
a particular field.
Every manager, regardless of level within the organization, needs to think
strategically before initiating major actions.
In reality, planning is more about organizational learning than about
programming a series of activities to attain an objective. When managers
plan, the emphasis is on strategic thinking, not on strategic planning.
Most organizations encounter periods of crisis in which the winning formula
that created success under one set of conditions no longer propels growth
success breeds failure.
Planning is the process of establishing objectives and specifying how they
are to be accomplished in a future that is uncertain. When it works well,
planning helps individuals and groups visualize desired outcomes and
anticipate the behaviors and resources necessary to make them a reality.
Controlling is the process of evaluating the degree to which outcomes
match objectives; and when they do not, analyzing why and taking
corrective action.
Ideology are beliefs and values held by a manager about how to succeed in
business; encompasses economic assumptions and ethical ideals.
TOPIC: Not sure how useful these two systems of management are?
Two systems of management have been identified by Professor Larry
Cummings, one based on information and the other on ideology.

Management by information is a structured system of information


management based on developing clear, specific goals, and plans for all
managers to use in analyzing problems by studying cause-effect
relationships.
Management by ideology is a system of information management based
on trust in individual managers to be sensitive to the attitudes and
perceptions of all participants in a decision situation and to do what is best
for all by applying appropriate values and beliefs.
Trust and credibility begin to center more on ideology, values, and basic
beliefs, as opposed to . . . the accuracy and completeness of information. If
one cannot trust others information because of environmental change and
turbulence, then one must trust others values.
The combination of increased environmental turbulence and bettereducated management has made management by ideology more common.
In management by ideology, innovation is sought and positions are
advocated that, in fact, reward innovative policies and structures. Contrary
to the usual assumption, on the other hand, in management by information
real innovation is to be avoided . . . Technological and information systems
are designed to ensure the status quo or, at most, the gradual and
incremental modification of organizational policies and designs.
Environmental scanning is the monitoring of current and anticipated
trends and events in the external environment through quantitative data
and qualitative perceptions. Active environmental scanning opens managers
to a broader array of possibilities, especially if they evaluate data guided by
ideology.

How Can Group Techniques Promote Innovative Visions?


TOPIC: Good series of steps to use in your group project!
1. Identify Stakeholder Needs and Requirements

Brainstorm a list of possible stakeholders affected by the project


Brainstorm lists of the specific needs or requirements of any
stakeholders with whom the group has experience
From these overall impressions, participants are collectively asked
to categorize (a) the strength of these needs and (b) the degree to
which they are satisfied by the organizations current offerings (or
in the case of potential new products, the extent to which they are
satisfied by whatever is currently available). (=strong,
=medium, =weak).
A comparison of needs and their fulfillment usually reveals unfilled
needs. Strong needs that are weakly satisfied at present are
candidates for visioning new offerings or initiating corrective
actions.

Stakeholders
Employees
Stockholders
Community
Customers

Strength of Need

Degree of
Satisfaction

2. Initiate Visioning through an Affinity Diagram

Define what the group wants the business or product/service


offering to look like at some time in the future.
Participants proceed by (1) viewing the stakeholder analysis as a
picture of the present state, (2) creating a vision of the future, and
(3) working out details of the plan as the bridge between the
present and future.
Ask the participants what the characteristics of a successful
business in the future will be. Have them think about internal
capabilities, customer needs, competition, the economic
environment, obstacles to overcome, technology trends and
opportunities to exploit. Participants individual write their
responses.
Move all the statements around the wall to create thematic
clusters. This creates an affinity diagram, which is an output from
a quasi-structured group process created by arranging individual
responses to a focusing question into groupings in which individual
statements appear to have an affinity relationship to each other.
This affinity mapping often results in 6 to 10 clusters for most
visioning tasks.
The group then decides on a thematic title for each affinity set and
draws a border around the individual items in the cluster.

3. Convert Cause Effect Diagram to a Vision Statement

Evaluate the relationships (if any) between the items in the circle,
looking for cause-effect linkages. Connecting arrows are drawn to
show cause-effect relationships.
Once the network of cause-effect arrows has been completed, the
group counts the number of incoming and outgoing arrows for
each theme and tabulates scores beside the label (C=number of
causal elements and E=number of effects).
The group then labels the two or three thematic elements that have
the largest number of outgoing arrows as PC for primary cause.
The same is done for the PE, or primary effect, themes.
For planning purposes, the PC elements are the ones that focus
attention. If primary cause elements are acted upon and
strengthened, the primary effects will likely occur. From this cause-

effect diagram, the group then collectively articulates a written


vision statement of what the future should look like.

Theme
A
Theme
B

Theme
C

P
C
P
C

P
E

Theme
D

P
E

Theme
E

P
C

P
E

Theme
F

4. Use a Radar Chart to Show Vision-Reality Gaps

Starting with a hub and circle, with a spoke for each thematic
group.

The hub represents a score of zero (0) on a theme (the complete


absence of performance or lack of any value added). The point at
the circle represents a perfect score of ten (10) the future state
desired three years from now (or whatever the time horizon is).

Each person then pastes an adhesive dot on each spoke at the


point where he or she judges the organization to be currently
performing on that thematic element.

The facilitator asks the group to visually estimate the central


tendency of dots on each thematic spoke. The average value and
number approximating its value is written beside the mark.

Connecting lines are drawn between the midpoints of pairs of


spokes. The facilitator then shades in the inner portion of the web
to represent the distance already traveled in crossing the bridge to
the future. The non-shaded area represents the gap, where future
progress must be accomplished.

Participants than have a shared sense of where they must


concentrate their planning efforts. Most important, this interactive
process usually energizes participants and gives them a broader
shared vision of the project, which is difficult to accomplish when
A down to plan.BSuch a group approach to
just one or two people sit
planning emphasizes four Ps: participation of people in a series of
processes that collectively produce a variety of visualization
products that guide action to achieve performance results.

How Do Control Systems Impact Continuous Improvement?


Although negative connotations persist, evaluation and control systems are
a must in organizations.
A control is any process to help align actions of people and systems with
the goals and interests of the organization.
A control system is evaluative and feedback processes to let people know
their managers are paying attention to what they do and can tell when
undesired deviations occur. Control systems can be formalized and
structured. However, as defined above, control systems also include
behavioral sources of control, such as organizational culture and leadership.
For social system controls to work, people need to know that someone in
authority knows what they are doing and is willing to call attention to gaps
between performance and objectives.
TOPIC: What control systems are we using in the classroom?
Measurement is preferred when outcomes can be quantified. To be
effective, any evaluation or measurement needs to assess outcomes or
behaviors that are affected by the actions of the unit or individual.
One paradox of management is that social expectations conveyed within an
organizations culture provide better controls over people than do formal
measurement systems. The purpose of social controls is to get people to
commit themselves to the organization.
Many leaders engage their people in a Baldrige-type evaluation process
because it is broad-based and provides an eye-opening experience for
participants that typically dramatizes the gaps between current
performance and desired results. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality
Award framework for evaluating the qualities and processes of
organizations dedicated to quality performance as measured by seven
dimensions of organizational life ranging from leadership practices to
performance results:

1. Leadership senior leaders are involved in creating and sustaining


consensus regarding the organizations mission, values, plans, and
goals; and focus on the stakeholder groups being served.
2. Planning the process for short-, intermediate-, and long-range plans
are communicated and aligned throughout the organization.
3. Service orientation processes are provided for learning about the
needs and expectations of the groups for which services are provided,
and satisfaction for these groups is monitored and improved
(especially relative to peer and benchmark institutions).
4. Information and analysis information is assessed and managed to
track and improve overall organizational effectiveness and service
excellence.
5. Employees and workplace climate employees at all levels are
encouraged to develop their full potential relative to the
organizational mission and goals, supported by an environment
conducive to excellence, participation, appreciation of diversity, and
personal/organizational growth.
6. Process management key processes are developed, managed, and
improved to achieve superior organizational performance and a
service orientation.
7. Excellence levels and trends achievements and improvements are
documents in key excellence areas, relative to past performance and
to peer and benchmark organizations.
Six-sigma is a high-performance, data driven approach to analyzing the
root causes of business problems and solving them after first lining the
outputs of a business directly to marketplace requirements. Organizations
that embrace six sigma analyze their customers requirements, and then
build their internal processes in a highly disciplined manner to fulfill these
customer requirements by driving out variances from the standard. They do
this by measuring and tracking performance, sharing data with those
involved in the process, analyzing why deviations occur, and then working
to eliminate causes of unacceptable performance. Critical to all this working
is close attention to employee training in statistical methods and the
techniques for process improvements. In this regard it is more an
intervention to affect organizational behavior than it is a statistical tool.
Three different managerial control orientations (depend on values and
commitments):

A competitive team orientation focuses on adding value to the


market, with controls used to enhance the organizations core
competence and strategic competitiveness. Information flow laterally
and informally throughout the organization to help people make
timely decisions.

The classic command and control orientation is used most often in


firms that rely on a chain-of-command structure to emphasize

operating efficiency and conservation of corporate resources. Controls


focus on internal events, with vertical flows of information up the
hierarchy for top management review and oversight.

The conformance orientation of control is found most often in


organizations doing business with the government. Work is organized
around a bureaucracy, with fixed control routines for processing
information and externally reporting it in compliance with
government regulations. The IRS is the archetype of an organization
focused on conformance control.

TOPIC: What examples of these control orientations have you seen?


The more stereotypical view of control is seen in the core values of
managers who view their roles more to police activities and people. They
emphasize oversight and surveillance and administration of rules and
procedures.
Team-oriented leadership is typical of organizations operating in dynamic,
fast-changing, high-tech environments. The team-centered manager is more
likely to use social expectations combined with quality-oriented methods to
foster commitment and self-accepted responsibility than the manager who
polices the behavior of others.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 3 Organizing Work and People


Organization is the architectural alignment of people and processes
around which enterprises are designed.
Electronic business makes corporate boundaries transparent by enabling
transactions that enables instant and simultaneous access to the same data
and information. Where work is carried out through (information) networks,
an organizations structure changes whether you want it to or not.

The Organizational Star (Change Points)


Regulator
s

People

Vendors

Tasks

Technology

Customers

Organizatio
n Culture

Organizati
on &
Systems

Competito
rs

Technology is the scientific knowledge, processes, systems and equipment


used to create products and services and to help people carry out their
tasks.
Jobs have shifted to new knowledge-based technologies. In the Third-Wave,
Alvin Toffler saw work-related changes transforming civilization. The three
waves were agricultural, industrial and informational.

The Basic Organizational Design Structures


Organizational structure is the networked arrangement of positions and
departments through which the essential tasks of an enterprise are
subdivided and grouped to create the systems, decision centers, and
behavioral linkages that carry out business strategies.
Organizational charts are the symbolic structures of boxed titles and lines
that represent positions and reporting relationships.
Organizational design is the process managers go through to create
meaningful structures, decision and information networks, and governance
systems. Organizational design provides for:

The dividing and grouping of tasks


Networks to convey information
A structure for locating decision centers or authority
Processes for coordination, control and conflict resolution
The means to link key work units with appropriate external
stakeholders such as customers and suppliers

Designing an organization involves deciding how the enterprise should be


managed and led as much as it does creating structures to subdivide and
allocate tasks.

The Four Basic Structures

Design by Function grouping people into departments or subunits


based on similar skills, expertise, and functions performed such as
product design, production, and marketing.
o Advantages: Works best when a company has a single line of
business and/or is relatively small. Ideally suited to encourage
specialization and prompt people to keep up with the latest
technical developments in their specialty field. If departmental
tasks are relatively independent, a high level of functional
efficiency is possible. Because of departmental specialization,
the functional form relies on pushing decisions to a higher level
of management for control and coordination, which may not be
an efficient use of managerial time.
o Disadvantages: Extreme specialization creates tunnel vision.
People tend to perceive multifunctional problems from the
vantage point of their narrow area of expertise. This leads to
conflict and turf protecting, which can strain the process of
communication and coordination in the absence of a decisive
leader. Decisions that are complex, or span two or more
functions tend to get pushed to the top for resolution, slowing
decision responsiveness as the organization becomes larger and
more layered. Maintaining quality becomes difficult, since few

people genuinely feel responsible for customer satisfaction or


the acceptance of decisions. A functional design also
complicates the process of developing broad-based general
managerial skills, because functional managers have a limited
range of specialized experiences.
Design by Geography with organizational growth, this design
creates units focused on serving the needs of a region or territory,
which could include organizing by country or hemisphere.
o Advantages: Emphasizes local adaptation to market and/or
supplier conditions. Especially well suited to retain chains, the
U.S. Postal Service, public accounting partnerships, urban police
departments, and fast-food restaurants. For organizations
engaged in customer service, a regional structure allows local
personnel and managers to be responsive to pressures and
opportunities in their region. It promotes competitiveness and
quality. Geographic design also makes it possible to create many
profit centers where local general managers are responsible for
both revenues and expenses.
o Disadvantages: Maintaining consistency of image and service
can be compromised by a geographic design. The dilemma faced
by headquarters managers is how much freedom to allow local
managers versus how much control to exercise centrally. This
decision typically depends on the size and complexity of the
territory to be managed locally. A multi-national firm will grant
greater autonomy to its business unit managers in foreign
countries than national (or regional) firms within a single
region.
Design by Product Line A structural grouping on the basis of the
unique product or service each activity center provides.
o Advantages: Promotes entrepreneurial behavior. Product-line
executives typically have profit center responsibility to reinforce
accountability.
o Disadvantages: The difficulty of coordinating related activities
across business units. Rivalry is likely to exist rivalry not only
for customers for also for corporate resources. If several
business units separately draw on similar core technologies for
the research and design of products, they likely forgo economy
of scale savings and may be slow to share with other units the
technological breakthroughs discovered in one unit. Some
duplication of function specialization is almost inevitable.
Design by Customer/Market Channel Clustering human talent
and resources so that each organizational unit focuses on the unique
sales/service requirements for each type of customer or channel of
distribution such as the home market, commercial accounts, or
resellers.

o Advantages: Usually used in combination with one or more


other designs. They serve well the needs of the business when
product lines can be marketed to very distinct customer
segments. Their advantage is that special customer needs can
focus quality service throughout each organizational unit. To
create high employee involvement, Edward Lawler believes that
customer-based design is optimum. Focusing on the customer
enables the competitive market not hierarchical controls or
supervisor whims to affirm or modify employee behavior.
o Disadvantages: The challenge for companies offering several
lines of products to the same customer is to balance product
expertise (a benefit of product-focused designs) with the
simplicity of having one voice speak to the customer. Market
focused designs also tends to require duplication of sales and
marketing staff, with two or more groups selling the same
product line.
As firms age and grow in size, firms pass through an organizational life
cycle in which they move from simple to progressively more complex
structures and systems. The ultimate design for a firm diversified into
several lines of business is to take on characteristics of a network, loosely
coupled by central resource allocations. The focus of most reorganizations
is to better align organization design with business strategies and
competitive forces, although at times reorganization is simply a
euphemism for reducing headcount by layoffs.

A Hybrid Combination The Matrix Organization


A matrix organization is a structure that incorporates dual responsibilities
and reporting relationships connecting selected functions with specific
products or projects. The matrix structure originated in aerospace and is
used where people with functional expertise need to be temporarily
assigned to a project, but where it is expected people will be reassigned to
another project once a designed milestone (timetable or accomplishment) is
reached.
The project manager is typically given the overall responsibility for bringing
the project in on time, on budget, and meeting the product requirements.
The project manager is dependent on pulling temporary talent from
specialized functions and paying the salaries of those functional team
members. The functional manager is responsible for assuring the assigned
personnel are keeping up with their professional development, such as state
of the art technical knowledge and skills. Individual specialists thus have to
contribute to the needs of the project, and yet continue to interface with
their functional manager. Managers in the matrix organization need to

become skilled at managing conflict, for at times there will be differences in


perspective and priority.
EXERCISE: Hand out group exercise 3. About 30 minutes.

Fundamental Trade-Offs for Balancing Organizational Design


Centralization and Decentralization
The central trade-off pits pressures for centralization against the need for
decentralization. Centralization is the concentration of authority and
decision-making toward the top of an organization. Decentralization is the
dispersion of authority and decision making to operating units throughout
an organization. Most medium-to-large organizations have a degree of both
centralization and decentralization in their structures.
Larger enterprises with highly competent and skilled employees tend to
diffuse decision-making, allowing greater participation and less
centralization. Large firms that perpetuate centralized management tend to
be slower in recognizing how their hierarchical structure restrains
organizational effectiveness over time. Central structures work reasonably
well in slow-changing industries but are less adaptable in complex, fastchanging environments.
As environmental uncertainty and complexity increase, senior managers
move incrementally toward decentralized control to promote local
adaptability and decision-making. In particular, implementation of
strategies and operating policies are decision areas normally delegated to
local or lower-level managers. However, major resource allocation
decisions, such as acquisitions or investments in new plants are typically
retained by the top management team.

Autonomy and Control


An emphasis on control limits the authority given managers to shape
decisions and resource allocations by specifying parameters and providing
for higher-level reviews, often with approvals prior to proceeding.
Organizations that emphasize control and concerned with consistency of
action.
In contrast, autonomy means granting power and responsibility to
followers to initiate innovative action that improves processes and
performance with results assessed against general goals. An organization
that emphasizes autonomy is more concerned with promoting creativity and
freedom of action in the belief that people will do what is right. Autonomy
pushes decisions to those who are closest to the action, who have
information, with the expectation that people will accept responsibility for
producing favorable results.

The control-autonomy conflict is often framed in terms of maintaining


consistency and predictability versus promoting innovation and flexibility.

Diferentiation and Integration


Differentiation distinguishes the congnitive-emotional orientations people
hold toward a subpart of an organization (department, discipline or
function). Integration reflects the quality and form of collaboration
between work units to shift expectations to a big picture perspective of
the larger organization.
Differentiation promotes specialization and functional expertise, whereas
integration promotes synergy and coordination.
With increased globalization and use of information technology, integration
has become a stronger need where the whole, not just the sum of the parts,
is important for success.

Bureaucracy and Organic, Postmodern Structures


A mechanistic organization is an organization with a traditional look and
feel that is highly structured and formalized, desiring conformance
behaviors to handle routine functions appropriate to stable environments.
An organic organization is an organization with a looser look and feel
that relies on the adaptive capacities of individuals to cope with dynamic
internal and external forces, facilitated by empowerment and a
collaborative network.
A bureaucracy is a classic pyramid-shaped structure created as a rationallegal system of authority emphasizing formal roles and rules with the intent
of being efficiency oriented.
Alternative structures go by names such as networks, clusters, crossfunctional teams, temporary systems, ad hoc task forces, lattices, modules,
and matrices. Organic organizations empower individuals and teams to
pursue continuous improvement through flexible adaptation. Task roles are
expected to continually change or are ambiguously defined, and
organizational design is fluid and features frequent structural
reorganizations. Goals are diverse, complex, less measurable, and more
likely to change than in the mechanistic organization. Planning flows up,
down and across organizational units rather than being passed up and
down. Structurally, the organization is flatter.
Organic organizations are designed to promote effectiveness in complex,
fast-changing environments, especially when technology is a driving force
for change. The organic organization promotes high involvement, which
helps people provide high-quality products and services at competitive costs
and respond quickly to opportunities or threats.

How Do Organizations Become Leaner, Flatter, More Integrated?


Widen the Span of Control
Span of control denotes the number of people supervised by one manager,
or the ratio of managers to persons managed.
The only way a large organization (100,000 or more) can maintain flexibility
without becoming overly hierarchical is to increase the average span of
control and reduce the number of management levels (and thus the number
of managers). Executives today generally aim to have 7 or fewer levels.
In organizations that hold to the old principle of narrow span of control,
people are undermotivated and underutilized. As the number of people in a
managers unit increases, the opportunity for the manager to directly
control their behavior decreases while the empowerment potential
increases. Ultimately, a managers span of control is constrained by his or
her information processing capabilities.

Flatten Levels of Management


Power firmly held at the top transmits the message that people lower in the
organization are not to be trusted to think and act independently. By
structuring to eliminate layers of management, an organization pushes
power to lower levels and encourages employee involvement.
Information technology provides a tremendous boost to the concept of
pushing decisions to lower levels.

Shift Control from Staf to Line


Line positions are job assignments that directly contribute to creating
customer value by either designing products, producing them, financing
needed resources, marketing to create demand, and/or selling and servicing
the product.
Staff positions are jobs that support the line positions through carrying
out advisement and internal overhead support activities such as
accounting, purchasing, and human resource functions.
Expanding the scope of staff control carries two costs: the cost of employing
staff and the added cost (especially in time requirements) to line people who
have to comply with staff procedures.

Reengineer from Vertical Flows to Horizontal Work Processes


Shift from emphasizing vertical relationships to focusing on horizontal work
flows. This shift feeds on changes in high-involvement work teams, the
electronic distribution of information, and managing business processes
rather than functional departments.

Reengineering is the radical redesign of business processes to achieve


dramatic improvements in measures such as cost, quality, service and
speed. Reengineering seeks to make two changes:

At the personal level, it aims to shift the mindsets of people caused by


working within the silos of vertical, functionally aligned
organizations.

At the competitive level, work flows are redesigned to make sense


from a customers perspective. The emphasis is on rearranging
business processes so they cut across functions in a horizontal flow.

These approaches rely on Paretos law, known as the 80/20 rule, that
states that 80 percent of an observed result is caused by 20 percent of the
activities, or efforts, or people involved.
These approaches are not without risk. 50 to 70 percent of reengineering
efforts fail to achieve their objectives.
Before launching a top-down redesign using one or more of the three Rs
(restructuring, reengineering, and rightsizing), executives might do well to
rethink their pending actions by pulling the three Cs noted above to the
forefront: character, constituencies, and capabilities.

Self Managed Teams


Tasks are increasingly bundled into teams to work in harmony with
technology. Firms are moving to abandon what have been narrowly defined
job classifications. Many organizations give team members broad
responsibilities and greater discretion to define their jobs so they can
respond to whatever challenge the group encounters. Teams now carry out
many of the planning and problem-solving functions previously reserved for
managers. The most important factor in this improvement is increased
cooperation of the workforce to help find ways to reduce costs.
Managers who wish to allow nonmanagers to participate in making
decisions face two questions: In what types of decisions should employees
participate? How much latitude should they be granted to implement their
recommendations?
LEVELS OF
DECISIONS
Formulating
business strategy
Organizational
design and
governance
Managing work
unit performance

Traditional
management
practices

Task forces

Consultative
participation

Cross-functional
teams

Deciding on work
procedures

Job design

Quality circles

Self-managed
teams

Management
decides

Joint decisions

Performers
decide

WHO MAKES DECISIONS


Not all decisions are equally participative. Once management moves beyond
traditional management practices, in which decisions reside with managers,
the intermediate step is usually joint decisions, where performers can make
recommendations (as usually practiced by quality circles, consultative
participation, and task forces). Only when decisions are completely
delegated to the performers (as with self-managed teams and crossfunctional teams) is participation at its highest level.
Self-managed teams are work units whose members are granted
responsibility and authority to take the decisions and actions necessary to
produce a product or service. Teams are given the right to be largely selfgoverning, to make decisions about scheduling and assigning tasks, to
decide on work methods and who gets hired, and even in some cases to
adjust rates of pay. Teams are intended to create high rates of member
involvement and commitment.
Cross-functional teams are a way of organizing that pulls people together
from several different functions or disciplines to emphasize coordination of
separate but interrelated tasks in achieving product and service quality.
They often take the form of development teams who band together only long
enough to complete a particular project and then disband.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Organizational Culture


TOPIC: Discuss group dynamics: Form Storm Norm - Perform
Culture is the configuration of learned behavior and results of behavior
whose component elements are shared and transmitted to the members of a
particular society.
TOPIC: What is American culture? List words that come to your mind.
Organizational culture is the fundamental assumptions people share
about an organizations values, beliefs, norms, symbols, language, rituals,
and myths all the expressive elements that give meaning to organizational
membership and are accepted as guides to behavior. Most organizations
develop patterns of cultural assumptions that answer such fundamental
questions as: How does our organization relate to its environment? How do
we learn and communicate? What do we expect of people and relationships?
What constitutes successful results? At what do we excel?
Strong culture is achieved when most members accept the interrelated
assumptions that form an internally consistent cultural system.

Assumptions define relationships to the environment. Firms


generally fit four natural environmental profiles: reactive, defensive,
accommodative, and proactive. Most often these assumptions refer to
the industry environment, related to assumptions concerning
customers, markets and competitors.

Assumptions promote learning and communicating. Some


organizations seek to learn empirically through experimenting and
gathering feedback. Others believe truth is revealed intuitively or
comes only from higher management. These issues frame assumptions
about managements planning timeframe (short or long-term),
concepts of space and equity (open cubicles or private offices), and
beliefs about how to achieve innovation (driven by management or
teams throughout the organization). Language and communication
norms also define organizational reality.

Assumptions tell about people and relationships. Organizations


tend to develop common assumptions about human nature and how
people are to be treated. The culture also reflects assumptions about
who is to have power and how power is to be used, which affects
relationships among people.

Assumptions link competencies to mission. Common assumptions


about the competencies with give them advantage in the market
environment are held by employees and managers. Assumptions about
what constitutes technological competencies and how to enable
knowledge workers to create innovation differs across organizational
cultures. Organizations that develop technology-sharing relationships
or networks in collaboration with other organizations are more likely
to produce a sustained competitive advantage.

Organizational Value Systems


The assumptions most critical to organizational behavior are those shared
values that lie at the heart of human character and societal behavior.
Values are the enduring beliefs and expectations that a person or group
hold to be important guides to behavior.
TOPIC: What do you think the top five company values are?
The top five organizational values are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Provide excellent service to customers.


Operate in a highly ethical manner at all times.
Provide products and/or services of excellent quality.
Consistently make a fair and reasonable profit (not maximize profits).
Staff the organization with high-caliber employees from top to bottom.

An organizations values convey what behaviors and beliefs are important to


its success. A set of values becomes an organizational value system when
those core values are shared by the majority of organizational members,
typically differentiated by the origin and content of those enduring values.
Organizational values originate from either charismatic leadership or
organizational traditions.
Charismatic-based values originate from a strong leader, usually the
founder, which tend to be internalized by members as long as they look to
the leader for guidance and inspiration.
Alternatively, values can emerge out of organizational traditions that are
more anonymous in origin. Tradition-based values are values deeply
rooted in historical practices, which provide stability as they are passed
from generation to generation.
The content or interpreted meaning of values is based on either functional
or elitist ideals. Functional values express a normative mode of conduct
that tells members what they should pay attention to (e.g., customer
service, innovation, quality). Elitist values focus more on the perceived
superiority of the organization in comparison to others. Elitist values
attempt to instill pride in membership, creating a were number one
mentality. Elitist values can create an aloofness that weakens members
abilities to confront changing realities.

Functional Content

Functional /
Charismatic

Functional / Traditional

Elitist / Charismatic

Elitist / Traditional

Charismatic Origin

Tradition Origin

Elitist Content

When organizational values are strong, one of these four systems typically
emerges as the dominant pattern. Since charismatic types are inherently
more unstable, the arrows show possible movements toward greater
organizational effectiveness (with solid arrows stronger than dashed).
Values embedded in tradition with a functional focus are thus more effective
in bringing about behaviors necessary for long-term success.
Functional-Traditional Values - Most likely to contribute to the
development of environmentally viable values and, consequently, to
organizational effectiveness.
Elitist-Charismatic Values At the opposite end of long-term
effectiveness. Values usually comes from the flamboyant, eccentric
personality of a founder who creates a product or service that meets early
market success.
Functional-Charismatic Values This system has the potential for longerterm effectiveness and probably represents a transitional phase along the
path toward functional-traditional values. Dedication to functional values
puts the focus on doing what is right rather than on elitist pride.
Elitist-Traditional Values Finally some organizations use tradition as a
way of intentionally sustaining long-term elitism. Usually these are smaller,
niche marketers who appeal to clients attracted by snob appeal or the long
tradition of being perceived as superior or exclusive.

Core Ideology
Companies that others sought to emulate built their organizations on a
foundation core ideology. An organizations core ideology combines
essential and enduring core values as a set of guiding principles with a
purpose that uniquely defines the fundamental reasons for the
organizations existence (beyond making money). Ideology provides for
stability over generations of management; it is a set of precepts around
which the organization functions irrespective of its leaders, its strategies,
its lines of business, and its practices as they change over time.

Purpose more than profits. Emulated organizations build their


organizations around an ideology that had more than an economic
purpose. HIGHLIGHT THIS!

Ideologies vary across organizations. There was not a consistency of


themes or values embedded in the core ideologies of sustainable
visionary companies. What was central to all, was the authenticity of
the ideology. Behavior and actions that are consistently aligned with
the stated ideology are more critical than the content of the ideology
per se.

Functions of Organizational Cultures


Less overt than the traditional managerial tools, organizational culture
contributes as a guide to consistent behavior by reinforcing capabilities and
strengthening sources of competitive advantage.
Organizational epitomizes the expressive character of organizations; it is
communicated less through objective realism and more through symbolism,
feelings, and the meanings behind language, behaviors, and physical
settings.

Culture Complements Rational Managerial Tools


Rational Tools
(used to do things)

Expressive Cultural Elements


(used to say things)

Goals and objectives


Task and job design
Technology/equipment
Organizational structure
Policies and procedures
Plans and controls
Information system
Performance evaluation
Rewards and punishment
Skill training

Rites
Ceremonies
Myths
Legends
Symbols
Folktales
Language
Gestures
Physical Settings
Artifacts

How people behave in


organizations
What gets done
How it gets done
By whom and how often
With what consequences

Culture Supports (or Resists) Strategic Choices


Culture serves as a rudder to keep the firms strategy on course. Strategy is
a rational management process that leads to actions intended to match a
firms product and service offering to a specific market or type of customer.
Culture is the expressive backup that influences how well the strategy is
implemented. Managers are often blindsided when they try to introduce
radical strategic changes that run contrary to cultural expectations.
TOPIC: What happens if a strategy runs contrary to the culture?

Culture Helps Socialize New Members


Socialization is the process by which new members are indoctrinated in
the expectations of the organization and its cultural norms, or unwritten
codes of behavior.
TOPIC: Anyone been through new employee orientation?
Organizations with strong ideologies and cultures devote considerable time
to indoctrinating and training new members in the ways of the organization.
Bureaucratic organizations typically devote attention to detailed

explanations of rules and procedures. By contrast, socialization into


younger, more entrepreneurial organizations is less formal.

Culture Promotes Expected Behaviors


Culture works best when strong. Culture works best when people forget
why they are doing certain things, but keep on doing them. But the strong
culture that promotes consistent behavior also makes it difficult to adapt
when old ways no longer fit new realities.

Subcultures Facilitate Organizational Diversity


Subcultures are localized subsystems of values and assumptions that give
meaning to the common interests of smaller clusters of people within the
overall organization. Subcultures have three possible impacts on the
organization: They can (1) serve to enhance the dominant culture; (2)
promote an independence from it, as commonly occurs among divisions of
diversified firms; or (3) function as countercultures when they are at odds
with it.
Countercultures reject the values and assumptions of the host
organization and develop opposing beliefs, often based on elitist notions
that may be promulgated by a charismatic leader.

Reading Organizational Culture


Managers need to learn how to read cultural clues, for often there are
inconsistencies between what is said and what is done, or between
subcultures and the overall culture.

Observation of Physical Settings and Artifacts

Facilities Physical facilities tell a tale of what is important, and not


so important. They reflect values and performance expectations.
Organizations that function around elitist values tend to convey status
differentials in the location and sizes of offices.
o Bricks and Mortar
What is the physical appearance of the facility? Is it well
maintained, with an aesthetically pleasing sense of dcor,
or unkept, dingy, and rundown?
Do work areas show individual flair (with artwork or
awards and other artifacts on display), or does everything
appear to be stock issues and monotonously uniform?
o Use of Space
Do space allocations seem equitable and well used, or do
some departments seem to have more than they need
while others are shoehorned into a corner?

In office settings, does an open layout invite spontaneous


conversations, or are people protected by private offices
(behind closed doors)?
Does the allocation of space clearly reinforce status
differences among people in different positions, or does it
appear that most people have about the same amount of
space?
o Equipment, Symbols, and Artifacts
How ostentatious or Spartan are the furnishings and
dcor? Are the walls painted? Wallpapered? Paneled with
inexpensive veneer or solid hardwood?
What adorns the walls in the reception area, galleryquality paintings or mass-produced prints? Award plaques
and trophies?
Are the computers, fax machines, and other technological
equipment state of the art?

Dress What people wear says a lot about the organization. Such
clues offer insights into the degree of formality expected of people.

Find Meaning in Organizational Rites


A rite is a planned public performance where other forms of cultural
expression, such as recounting company legends, are woven into a single
event. Stories and legends are often told at rites. Meetings are the most
frequent rites practiced in organizations. Are they formal, planned and
predictable, or scheduled as needed, and less formal? An off-site meeting is
a daylong or multi-day forum intended to bring key players together to
question basic assumptions, raise critical issues, and plan responses to
challenges.

Ask Questions and Observe Responses


Asking questions is more efficient and direct, even though responses cant
always be taken at face value. As questions, then listen and act on what
others say and learn more about the culture.

How Do Leaders Build Flexible, Responsive Cultures?


Once established, an organizations culture takes on a life of its own,
resisting pressures to change even if feedback confirms that the firms
relationship to its environment has deteriorated.

First Generation Managers Develop a Culture


During the formative period culture emerges from two sources: the
founders behaviors and from direct experience. Founders manifest three
important behaviors:

1. The behaviors they deliberately use to role model, teach, and coach.
2. What they pay attention to in the organization or its environment
what they measure and control.
3. How they react to critical events and organizational crises, or their
demonstrated methods of coping.
Second, another early source of culture is active experimentation (trail and
error), where group members learn what really works and what fails.

The Second Generation Adapts a Culture


Culture typically comes under threat once the founder begins to hire into
key positions people who are not part of the first generation. The first
generation of employees tends to operatae more on the basis of personal
relationships than the formal systems more characteristic of the second
generation.
The alternative to a strong culture is to have no consistency of beliefs and
values, in effect, a weak culture. In weak cultures, there is the absence of
assumptions and norms, people are not sure what is expected of them,
much less how the organization believes it will succeed. Purposeful change
may be even more difficult in weak-culture organizations.

Growth Prompts Revolutionary Shifts in Culture


Culture change is typically more revolutionary and the result of a change in
leadership. Often there is a period of skepticism, resistance, and
complaining about losing our values. Cultural change thus needs to be
led, guided, and nurtured, for like a large ship at sea, it takes time to turn.
Many times changes are guided through teachable points of view, where the
leader defines his or her values and beliefs about what it takes to succeed in
the organizations chosen businesses and in business generally, and then
projects those ideas as a teacher throughout the organization.
Cultural changes may be necessary whenever organizations need to:

Break away from a rigid bureaucratic culture and become more


responsive to change.
Diminish the belief that power or policies gets things done and shift
more toward satisfying customers and the marketplace.
Create an identity and set of values for a mediocre, culturally weak
organization.
Integrate an acquisition (with its own culture) into the ways of a new
parent.
Blend two cultures into one following a merger.
Establish a unique, autonomous culture after a division is spun off or
divested.

Permit a division or major task unit to develop a subculture supportive


of its task.
Infuse stronger cultural elements into a weak culture firm through
rites and symbols.

Ethnic Diversity Sensitizes Organizational Culture


What you are learning about managing peoples organizational behavior
gives you an Americanized view of the world. The managerial approaches
that work for us do not necessarily stand up well in other countries.

How Do National Cultures Impact Global Business?


While business people may share some commonality of values across
national cultures, a countrys culture and business environment can cause
value elements to differ significantly across national borders.
Values, beliefs and behaviors have patterned differences. Ethnic differences
give people different predispositions toward work and business practices.
Cultural differences influence management styles.
The essence of country culture is national mental preprogramming,
which is that part of a countrys collective learning that is shared with other
members of that nation, region, or group, but not with members of other
nations, regions or groups.
Values tend to be stable across nationally groups, where attitudes differ.
Attitudes are temporal beliefs based on evaluative interpretations of
current conditions.
Four patterns of enduring values provide the framework for describing
national cultures:

Individualism versus Collectivism. In highly individualistic


societies, the individual is expected to look out for his or her own selfinterest, and maybe that of the immediate family. At the other
extreme, collectivist societies assume that close ties exist among
people and the interests of the individual are subordinated to the
group, be it extended family, tribe, village, and/or employer.
Individualistic nations are loosely integrated (do your own thing),
collectivist tightly integrated (honor thy group heritage).

Centralized versus Diffused Power. Centralized power societies


permit unequal intellectual or physical capabilities to grow into
blatant inequalities in the distribution of power and wealth. Diffused
power societies play down individual differences by sharing or
decentralizing power.

Strong versus Weak Uncertainty Avoidance. Societies accepting


of uncertainty use organized creativity to reduce the risk of

uncertainty. Nations with a strong need for uncertainty avoidance


usually claim that absolute truth originates from a dominant religion.

Masculinity versus Femininity. Some nations make sharp


distinctions between roles based on sex. Nations with such clear sex
role divisions are called masculine. Masculine values permeate
societies where the hero is the successful achiever, where showing off
and displaying wealth is accepted. Other societies are more tolerant
of a wider distribution of roles almost independent of sex and are
called feminine. Feminine values include respecting the underdog,
putting relationships before wealth, and tending to the quality of life
and the environment.

TOPIC: Utilize American Culture quiz from ice breaker section.


The key to effective management practices or quality organizational
research is to understand the cultural contexts in which firms and
individuals function and operate. Organizations that choose to operate on a
transnational basis, especially business, must obviously build in some
capacity of adaptiveness to function harmoniously within hose national
cultures.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 5 Perception, Learning & Personality


Person-job fit is the degree of fit between a persons abilities and motives
and a jobs demands and rewards.
Abilities
What the person
can do
Motives
What the person
wants

Degree of
Fit

Demands
What the job
requires
Rewards
What the job offers

Druckers Five Skills for Improving the Person-Job Match

First, ask What is the task? What are we trying to accomplish? What
do it at all? In any industry, the most profound route for improving
performance and the person-job match is often to eliminate tasks
altogether-to stop doing that which really does not need to be done.
Second, take a hard look at the ways in which jobs add value. Where
does real value occur? Many activities only add costs rather than
value. Cost generators should be candidates for elimination.
Third, define performance in terms of what works. Quality only comes
by analyzing the steps in the process that produce value-added
performance. Managers then need to wipe out unnecessary steps and
build in those that are necessary but lacking.
Fourth, managers need to develop a partnership with people who hold
potentially productive jobs and get them to improve the process.
Finally, to sustain continuous learning, people at all levels need to
teach.

The contemporary challenge is to continually increase productivity in the


sectors employing most of the population, the knowledge and service
sectors. Technology is also creating global competition for jobs and skills.

Psychological Contract
The psychological contract is the workers implicit expectations about
what they are expected to contribute to an organization and what they will
receive in return. Individuals contribute such qualities as their skills, effort,
time, loyalty, and commitment to an organization. In return the organization

offers such things as pay, benefits, security, and opportunities to satisfy such
motives as the need for achievement, power, status, and affiliation. Both the
individual and the organization feel satisfied if they perceive the
psychological contract as fair. The psychological contract is dynamic
because the expectations and contributions of both the individual and
organization change over time. Terms of the psychological contract are
affected by economic cycles and business trends.
TOPIC: What do you expect to contribute to BSU? Get at the end?
A social contract is a term used to describe collective psychological
contracts within a national culture. The general social contract in the US
included two common elements: employees would give regular attendance
and effort along with loyalty to the organization; In return, employers would
provide fair pay and benefits, advancement based on seniority and merit,
and job security within reasonable limits.
TOPIC: American social contract. Has this changed in any way?
Recent times suggest that a revised social contract is needed including the
following elements: Employees will be expected to provide a high level of
performance, a commitment to the companys objectives, and a willingness
to innovate or make suggestions and train to improve behavior; Employers
in turn, will provide interesting and challenging work, learning, flexibility,
performance-based compensation, and opportunities for participation and
involvement. This means that many workers will have to change from their
psychological dependence on their employers to a commitment to their craft
or profession.
Ability is the capacity to perform physical and intellectual tasks. Aptitude
is the capacity to learn an ability. People differ in both their abilities and
aptitudes. Managers should know what abilities are required to perform
various jobs and should try to match the jobs with people who have
appropriate abilities, or at least the aptitude to learn.

Perceptions & Attributions


TOPIC: Mind over Matter Exercise, p 2.503
Perception is the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory
data. People DO NOT see objective reality, but they believe what they
perceive is real. Our perceptions are our personal reality, whether they are
objective or not, and they influence our behavior.

The Perceptual Process

Stimuli

Attention &
Selection
Perceiver
Perceived
Setting

Organization
Classification
Figure-ground
Closure

Interpretation
Beliefs
Values
Attitudes

Personal
Meaning &
Intentions

Behavi
or

Attention & Selection


TOPIC: Old Woman/Young Woman Exercise, p 2.499
The Perceiver People tend to notice what is important to them. People
tend to perceive what they need, want and expect to see. The physical,
mental, and emotional condition of the perceiver affects attentiveness.
The perceivers beliefs, attitudes, values, motives, and expectations
influence what he or she perceives as relevant.
TOPIC: Count the Fs Exercise, p 2.489
The Perceived
Certain general attributes of the perceived object or
person influence what is noticed and what is not. These include
size, novelty, motion, proximity, and intensity.
TOPIC: Misplaced Dot Exercise, p 2.493
The Setting Time and physical conditions such as temperatures, lighting,
noise, smell, and clutter are examples of contextual factors that
may influence what is noticed and what is not. The nature of the
setting influences what is perceived as appropriate or normal.

Organization
Classification We classify people in a variety of categories such as age,
gender, race, nationality, physical categories, education, occupation, and
status. We also attach the assumptions, beliefs, and attitudes we hold
about those groupings. Classifying sensory inputs helps us to sort and
recall sensory data faster.
TOPIC: Perception Exercise, p 2.521 (leave on last slide)
Figure-ground A key element in perceptual accuracy is the ability to
distinguish figure (dominant features) from ground (surrounding,
competing, stimuli). You respond selectively to the most relevant stimuli.

People pay more attention to some stimuli than others and run the
danger of overlooking relevant clues. A major purpose for studying
organizational behavior is to alert you to possible important stimuli.
TOPIC: Perceptual K Exercise, p 2.515
Closure Perceptual closure is the minds tendency to fill in missing data
when it receives incomplete information, especially if the situation or
topic is familiar. Given sketchy information, people often make
assumptions about the missing data. However, if the stimulus is
insufficient to effect closure and thus cope with an ambiguous situation,
then frustration, anxiety, and stress may result.
TOPIC: Hidden Triangles Exercise, p 2.507

Interpretation
The perceptual process happens instantly. Our past learning and experience
as well as our current beliefs, assumptions, attitudes, and values all
influence the meaning we add to what we take in. Combined, they form our
individual frame of reference, which is the mental filter through which
perceptions are interpreted and evaluated.

Perceptual Distortions
TOPIC: Remodeling a Window Exercise, p 2.517
Selective perception is the tendency to focus on those attributes of people
and situations that fit our frame of reference. The potential danger of
selective perception is that we miss important data, and the omission
causes a distorted view of a person or situation.
A stereotype is a rigid, biased perception of a person, group, object, or
situation. We tend to categorize people by their obvious, and sometimes less
obvious, differences. Stereotypes can be positive or negative. Unwarranted
negative stereotypes can lead to bias, which in turn leads to destructive
attitudes such as sexism, racism, and nationalism.
A halo effect is the tendency to overrate a person based on a single trait.
Halo effects can lead to incomplete and inaccurate judgments and, like
stereotypes, may prompt someone to miss individual differences.

Projection is attributing to others ones own thoughts, feelings, attitudes,


and traits.

Attribution
Attribution is an assumed explanation of why people behave as they do,
based on our observations and inferences. We also make attributions about
our own behavior. Theory suggests that when people observe anothers
behavior, they use certain criteria to determine whether it fits that persons
general personality or is affected by other factors (often subconscious).
Individual
Behavior
Examples:
productivity,
promptness,
attendance
Situational
Factors
Examples:
workload,
resources,
support, time

Internal Causes
Examples: ability,
effort, attitude

Criteria
Distinctiveness
Consistency
Consensus

Behavior
Response
External Causes
Examples: work
demands,
conditions, time
pressures

Criteria

Distinctiveness is an attribution process used to explain whether a


persons behavior fits with other behaviors.
Consistency is an attribution process used to explain the degree of
variance in behavior over time.
Consensus is an attribution process used to determine how others behave
in similar situations.
Attribution of Internal-External Causality

After assessing observations using the above criteria, the cause of behavior
is likely to be attributed to internal and/or external factors.
Attributional error is the tendency to overestimate internal factors and
underestimate external factors when making attributions about others.
Self-serving bias is the tendency of individuals to attribute their own
positive performance to internal factors and their to negative performance
to external factors.

How People Learn


Learning is the acquisition of knowledge or skill through study, practice, or
experience.
Learning is affected by intelligence, which is the ability to adapt to novel
situations quickly and effectively, use abstract concepts effectively, and

grasp relationships and learn quickly. An additional concept of intelligence,


emotional intelligence, relates to a persons ability to get along with
others, exert control over ones life, and think and decide clearly.
Individuals differ in memory, intelligence, and ability to learn. Three
theories of how people learn:
1. Behavioral Conditioning
Classical conditioning (Pavlov), is an experimental approach that
associates a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to
achieve a conditional response.
Operant conditioning (Skinner) is learning in which reinforcement
depends on the persons behavior. In operant conditioning, the critical
learning element is the direct linkage of significant contingent
consequences to an operant behavior. A contingent consequence is a
reinforcer; it may be positive, negative or neutral. The basic
assumption underlying conditioning theory is simple: People tend to
repeat those behaviors that lead to desirable consequences and avoid
those that lead to negative results.
Self-Management of contingencies. It is possible for a person to
manage his or her own contingencies. The Premack principle is the
pairing of disagreeable tasks with enjoyable tasks or events to hasten
their completion.
2. Social Learning
Social learning theory is the belief that we learn many behaviors by
observing and imitating others. Imitation is especially strong when
the learner identifies with and desires to be like the role model or
mentor. People are certainly capable of anticipatory control,
choosing how they will respond in various situations.
3. Cognitive Discovery
Cognitive learning involves selective interpretation of perceptual
data organized into new patterns of thoughts and relationships.
Human beings are capable of rearranging thought patterns into new configurations, or gestalts. Gestalt is a
German word meaning shape, configuration, or the arrangement of relationships in a total situation.
Patterns of concepts and relationships may occur suddenly, through insight, or they may evolve gradually as
elements are linked together with new data.

An insight is the sudden discovery of the answer to a problem


(Eureka!).
Concrete
How Do People Differ in How They Learn?

Kolbs Experiential Learning Styles


Active
Experime
n-tation

Experienc
e

Accommodat
ion

Divergence

Convergenc
e

Assimilation
Abstract
Conceptu
al-ization

Reflective
Observati
on

Kolbs experiential learning model distinguishes two primary dimensions of


the learning process. These two dimensions are combined to suggest four
key learning abilities or processes. A complete pattern of learning flows in a
circular direction. Most people become highly skilled at one or two
processes rather than all four. When two adjacent processes are
emphasized, a dominant learning style emerges. The four distinct personal
learning styles in this model are:

The Diverger: Learn best by reflecting on specific experiences and


drawing new inferences. The diverger tends to be highly imaginative,
excels at brainstorming, and likes involvement in the generation of
creative ideas. Academically, such learners often are interested in the
liberal arts, humanities, and fine arts. Human resource managers are
often divergers.

The Assimilator: With their capability to combine reflective


observation and abstract conceptualization, assimilators are good at
creating theoretical models. Dealing with abstract ideas is the
assimilators domain, more so than seeking practical applications or
working with people. Individuals who adopt this learning style are
attracted to basic research; in business you may find them staffing
corporate research and planning departments.

The Converger: Convergers use abstract concepts as a basis for


active experimentation. They focus on specific problems, looking for
answers and solutions. Like the assimilator, the converger prefers
working with ideas and specific tasks more than working with people.
Convergers tend to do well in the physical sciences and engineering.

The Accommodator: The style focuses on doing. The


accommodators domain is active experimentation and the carrying
out of plans that lead to real experiences. Such people are risk takers,
able to adapt quickly to new situations. Although at ease with people,
accommodators tend to be impatient and assertive. Accommodation is
often the dominant style of individuals trained for the business world,
especially those who gravitate toward action-oriented management or
sales jobs.

Managers and organizations should value and consciously seek learning


from experience by budgeting time for the learning process. Second,
managers and organizations should value and include those with different
learning styles and perspectives. Action-oriented people should be
combined with those who are reflective, etc.

Brain-Hemisphere Dominance Learning


Our dominant brain hemisphere may play a significant role in how we learn.
The brains left hemisphere assimilates information in ordered, systematic
ways. Quantification and written language are handled by the left
hemisphere of the brain.
The world of the right hemisphere manager involves holistic, simultaneous,
creative learning. In addition, it emphasizes learning from face-to-face
verbal exchanges rather than from written reports. Hunches and judgment
are mental processes from which insights and new possibilities spring forth.

Other Models (Not In Book)

Senses classification: auditory (aural), visual, tactile (taste, smell can


affect learning)
Thinking / seeing / doing
4MAT Model 4 Quadrants: Why, What, How, What If?
o Type 1 (Why?): Innovative Learners are primarily interested in
personal meaning. They need to have reasons for learning-ideally, reasons that connect new information with personal
experience and establish that information's usefulness in daily
life. Some of the many instructional modes effective with this
learner type are cooperative learning, brainstorming, and
integration of content areas (e.g., science with social studies,
writing with the arts, etc.).
o Type 2 (What?): Analytic Learners are
primarily interested in acquiring facts in order
to deepen their understanding of concepts and
processes. They are capable of learning
effectively from lectures, and enjoy
independent research, analysis of data, and
hearing what "the experts" have to say.
o Type 3 (How?): Common Sense Learners are
primarily interested in how things work; they
want to "get in and try it." Concrete,
experiential learning activities work best for

them--using manipulatives, hands-on tasks, kinesthetic


experience, etc.
o Type 4 (What If?): Dynamic Learners are primarily interested in
self-directed discovery. They rely heavily on their own intuition,
and seek to teach both themselves and others. Any type of
independent study is effective for these learners. They also
enjoy simulations, role play, and games.

How Do Personal Values Differ from Attitudes?


Values are stable, enduring beliefs or ideals held to be important that
influence thought and behavior. The values of the larger culture and society
greatly influence what individuals learn. The natural tendency for an
expatriate manager is to cross-reference her own cultural values with her
stereotypes of the new culture. Two simple recommendations may prevent
cross-cultural mistakes:

Seek our a cultural mentor.


Approach learning another culture much like a scientist who treats
cultural stereotypes like hypotheses to be reality tested against a
specific work situational context.

A classification of values developed by Allport and associates include the


following categories:

Theoretical: Values the discovery of truth and emphasizes critical


and rational approaches to problems.
Economic: Values utility and practicality and emphasizes standard of
living.
Aesthetic. Values form, grace, and harmony and emphasizes the
artistic aspects of life.
Social: Values love of people and altruism and emphasizes concern
for others.
Political: Values power, position, and influence and emphasizes
competition and winning.
Religious: Values unity and peoples relationship to the universe and
emphasizes high ideals and the search for the purpose of being on
earth.

Values people emphasize vary with their occupations. A second way of


classifying values was developed by Rokeach, distinguishing between two
sets of values. Instrumental values describe desirable beliefs about what
behaviors are appropriate in reaching desired goals and ends. Terminal
values describe desirable ends that are worth striving to reach.
A personal value system is a relatively permanent perceptual framework
(an enduring organization of beliefs) that shapes and influences an
individuals behavior.

Where the organization reinforces personal values, the consistency makes it


highly probable that those core values will guide behavior.
Moral dilemmas, internal conflicts, and ethical compromises occur when
personally intended and organizationally induced values clash.
Integrity defines a loyalty in demonstrated action to rational principles and
ones values, or the principle or being principled, practicing what one
preaches regardless of emotional or social pressure.
Values can and do shift over time. An awareness of values can help
managers understand and predict behavior of others.
An attitude is a predisposition or readiness to respond in a certain way to a
person, object, idea, or situation. Although some attitudes may remain
relatively stable over time, others are subject to change with the
accumulation of new information and experience. Attitudes have three
components:

Cognition: the beliefs and perceived knowledge about the subject of


the attitude.
Affect: the feelings associated with the subject, often conveying likes
and dislikes.
Behavior: the perceptions and feelings as an intention to behave in a
certain way.

Cognitive dissonance describes a state of inconsistency between an


individuals attitudes and behavior. The discomfort experienced by people
feeling cognitive dissonance leads to efforts to reduce the tension by (1)
changing the attitude, (2) changing behavior, or (3) rationalizing the
inconsistency.

Personalities
Personality is the set of traits and behaviors that characterizes an
individual. Managers and others use personality to understand and predict
an individuals behavior and to define the essence of an individual.
Personality emerges over time from the interaction of genetic and
environmental factors. Peoples personalities become clearer and more
stable as they grow older. Personality can change and may do so slowly over
the years.

The Big Five Personality Factors

Expressive style: How individuals express themselves verbally and


behaviorally (e.g. quiet/reserved vs. talkative/outgoing)
Interpersonal style: How individuals behave while interacting with
others (e.g. cool/distant vs. warm/close)
Work style: How people work and meet responsibilities (e.g.
detailed/structured vs. general/spontaneous).

Emotional style: How people express their emotions (e.g.


unemotional/stable vs. highly emotional/volatile).
Intellectual style: How individuals learn, think, and decide (e.g.
learning, thinking, deciding in simple/traditional ways vs.
complex/novel ways).

Each factor helps us to know what behavior patters to observe in


understanding someones personality. Key elements of each factor combine
to provide an overall understanding of an individuals personality. This
ability to understand different personalities is helpful to managers in being
better able to predict an individuals behavior in different situations.

Psychological Types and Cognitive Styles


The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), developed from the theories of
Carl Jung, is the most widely used personality test in the U.S.
Sensation

Thinkin
g

Gathering
Information

Sensation
Thinkers
(ST)

Evaluating

Sensation
Feelers
(SF)

Information

Intuitive
Thinkers
(IT)

Feeling

Intuitive
Feelers
(IF)

Intuitio
n

Cognitive style describes the way an individual perceives and processes


information. According to Jung, individuals develop, mostly unconsciously,
preferred ways of gathering information and evaluating it to make
decisions.
The Four Cognitive Styles

Two styles of gathering information:

Sensation: Collect information by sensing seeking details, hard facts,


and quantitative reports. Sensors like to apply structures for
organizing data logically, step by step. They are especially

comfortable working within a structure of organizational policies and


rules that provide clear guidelines for action. Sensors learn best from
concrete experience; they can be thought of as left-brain-hemisphere
processors.

Intuitive: Disavow routine, structured reports and rely more on


hunches and nonverbal perceptions of problems. Data collection by
this type often appears to be nonsystematic, with considerable
jumping back and forth. Intuitives excel at synthesis, that is, taking a
large amount of data from a number of sources and drawing
seemingly spontaneous conclusions. These people are imaginative,
futuristic, and often good at drawing creative ideas out of others.
They are more dependent on the right-brain hemisphere.

Two styles of processing information:

Thinking: Use analysis and rational logic as the basis for problem
solving. They tend to be unemotional in applying data to models or
problem-solving techniques. The forte of these managers is the use of
the scientific method (systematic evaluation of empirical data), devoid
of personal considerations.

Feeling: Rely heavily on person-centered values. They personalize


their evaluations and are sensitive to the concerns, ideas, and feelings
of those around them. Placing major emphasis on the human aspects
of problems, these managers dislike creating conflict. They value
harmony and tend to conform to the wishes of others rather than
consider alternatives based on logic or analysis.
Introversion/Extroversion

E -- Extraverted: turned toward the outer world, of people and things. An extravert, or
extraverted type, is one whose dominant function is focused in an external
direction. Extraverts are inclined to express themselves, using their primary
function, directly.
I -- Introverted: turned toward the inner world of symbols, ideals and forms. An introvert,
or introverted type, is one whose dominant function is inwardly focused.
Introverts are inclined to express themselves, using their primary function,
indirectly, through inference and nuance.
What about P and J?

P stands for Perceiving, J for Judging. What they really represent is, again,
complex. For the E (extraverted) types, it's simple enough - P means that
the dominant function is a Perceiving function (iNtuition or Sensing); J
means the dominant function is a deciding or Judging function.
For Introverts, it's just the opposite. P actually means that the extraverted
function is a Perceiving (data-collecting, or irrational) function, but since
the dominant function is introverted (by definition for Introverts), the I _ _ P
types' first functions are Judging (deciding or rational) functions.

Four Types of Problem-Solving Behaviors

Sensation-Thinkers (ST): Bureaucratic, concerned with formulating


and enforcing rules. Because sensation and thinking dominate
function, they are persistent, yet decisive. They weight costs and
benefits, plan logical schedules, and have an infinite capacity to
absorb and remember details. Hard working, good coordinators, and
dependable leaders. Their penchant for analysis and logic makes them
quite predictable. However, they tend to be impatient with those who
arent equally detailed, organized, and rational. Avoids abstractions
and seldom provides feedback to others unless it is based on
measured performance. So concerned with preserving acceptable
practices and tradition that they overlook possibilities for creative
improvement.

Intuitive-Thinkers (IT): Looks ahead, always searching for


innovative possibilities. Although they tend to be impersonal, they are
quick to analyze the power dynamics within an organization. Noted
for intellectual capabilities and pioneering ideas. A great designer of
new methods and projects. Depends on staff to flesh out the details of
proposals. Relinquishes administration to someone better suited to
establishing organizational routines. Gifted in abstract creativity,
sometimes is insensitive to the personal needs and wishes of others.
Responds to the ideas and problems of others when they are logical
and reasonable. Finds it difficult to accept anything other than
competent, professional performance. Frequently expects more than
others are prepared to deliver.

Sensation-Feelers (SF): Methodological. Great at analysis based on


detailed observation. Deals efficiently with here-and-now problems.
Decisions and actions result from quick interpretation of the facts.
Loves to find the causes of problems in standardized operations and
excels at extracting higher efficiency from programmed procedures.
Does not like to see changes sweep too far in new directions. Would
rather fix an old system than conceptualize a new approach. Generally
gets along well with co-workers. Reinforces good performance by
giving praise, writing memos of thanks, and publicly acknowledging
others accomplishments.

Intuitive-Feelers (IF): Charismatic leader who communicates


fluently and is quick to visualize possibilities for improvement. Draws
out ideas from others and always consults co-workers before moving
ahead on significant actions. Given the freedom to manage, creates a
high level of esprit de corps within their team. Believes in
psychological rewards and makes sure they come in timely response
to their workers emotional needs. Need recognition from others.

Tends to back away from his personal ideas when they appear to
conflict with views held by esteemed others. Is very popular among
co-workers, but because they wish to retain this popularity, is at times
hesitant to act. Sometimes the opportunity of the moment is lost as a
result of indecision.
TOPIC: Personality Types Exercise, p 2.511. Discuss proper uses of
personality tests, and limitations.

Other Personality Traits


Locus of control is the degree to which people believe that they, rather
than external forces, determine their own lives.
Authoritarianism is the degree to which a person believes that status and
power differences are appropriate in an organization.
Dogmatism is the degree of flexibility or rigidity of a persons views.
Machiavellianism is a personality attribute that describes the extent to
which a person manipulates others for personal gain.
Risk propensity is a persons willingness to take risks.
Self-esteem is the judgment one makes about ones own worth.
Self-monitoring is the degree to which people are sensitive to others and
adapt their own behavior to meet external expectations and situational
needs.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 6 Motivation
People have different needs that direct their behavior. Some of these needs
depend on personal circumstances and outside events. Needs can cause
people to seek out experiences that enrich their lives. Alternatively, needs
can trigger behavior to avoid threatening conditions and feelings of
deprivation. Other needs are learned from rewarding experiences. These
learned needs become relatively persistent motives that influence a person
to seek out experiences that satisfy a particular motive, such as the need for
achievement or power.
Beyond human needs and the acquired taste for specific motives, a different
explanation of motivation focuses on expectancies, or peoples expectations
about whether they can affect performance outcomes and how closely
desired rewards are linked to performance. People also consider the equity
of how they are treated, and those evaluations help determine whether they
will appear motivated or not.

How Do Human Needs Differ in Content?


Motivation involves a conscious decision to perform one or more activities
with greater effort than other competing activities. Motivation governs
behavior selection, direction, and level of effort.
Motivation, thus, contains three elements:

Some need, motive, or goal that triggers action.


A selection process that directs the choice of action.
A level of effort intensity applied to the chosen action.

The content theories of motivation identify specific human needs and


describe the circumstances under which these needs activate behavior.
Approach and avoidance behaviors people willingly seek out or
approach desirable conditions; people try to minimize or avoid troubling or
debilitating conditions.
Deficiency reduction needs are universally experienced needs that
trigger behaviors of avoidance where the aim is to find relief from
deficiencies, deprivations, or unpleasant tensions.

Growth aspiration needs are somewhat unique personal needs that


motivate people to approach or seek out goals and experiences that they
find personally meaningful.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Hierarchy of needs is a five-level need theory proposed by Maslow in which
lower-level basic needs must be satisfied before advancing to a higher-level
need. Once a lower-level need has been largely satisfied, its impact on
behavior diminishes and a person can activate the next higher-level need.
(This assertion of movement up the pyramid is not confirmed in research.)
1. Self-actualization needs the peak of human existence the ability
to develop latent capabilities and realize fullest potential.
2. Esteem needs Psychological well-being, built on the perception of
oneself as worthy and recognized by others.
3. Love or belonging needs Beyond existence needs lies the desire
for nurturing, acceptance, respect, and caring relationships.
4. Safety needs Need to be free from harm or danger, to have a
secure and predictable life.
5. Physical needs Most basic is the need for relief from thirst, hunger,
and physical drives.
ERG Theory Alderfers simplified content theory that identifies existence,
relatedness, and growth as need categories, and acknowledges multiple
needs may be operating at one time without being hierarchically
determined.

How Do Needs Affect Work-Related Motivation?


Herzbergs Dual-Factor Theory
Herzbergs Dual-Factor Theory job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction
derive from different sources and simply removing the sources of
dissatisfaction will not cause a person to be motivated to produce better
results. The theory is based on two independent needs: hygiene and
motivator factors.
Hygiene factors are job context factors such as working conditions and
benefits that trigger dissatisfaction if inadequate. Such factors are largely
extrinsic, or external to the nature of the job itself; thus they can be thought
of as job context factors. If adequate, they simply produce neutral feelings
with the realization that basic maintenance needs are taken care of.
Motivator factors are job content factors such as job challenge,
responsibility, opportunity for advancement, achievement and recognition
that which originate from the nature of the job itself and that provide
feelings of satisfaction when experienced. Such factors are intrinsic to the
job or unique to each individual.

Because motivation is derived from the job itself, one way managers can
improve motivation is to enrich jobs. Job enrichment is a means to
encourage motivation by building greater scope (variety) and depth
(responsibility for planning and control of the work) into a job.

McGregors Theory X and Theory Y


A philosophy based on differing managerial practices.
Theory X

Theory Y

A Theory X set of assumptions about


human behavior postulates that
people act only to realize their basic
needs and therefore do not
voluntarily contribute to
organizational aims.

A Theory Y view of human behavior


sees people motivated by higherorder growth needs and they will
therefore act responsibly to
accomplish organizational objectives.

Managers believe their task is to


direct and modify human behavior to
fit the needs of the organization.
Managers must persuade, reward,
punish, and control those who dont
naturally strive to learn and grow.

Managements task is to enable


people to act on these needs and to
grow in their jobs; To structure the
work environment so that people can
best achieve their higher-order
personal goals by accomplishing
organizational objectives.

Managers believe that:

Managers believe that:

1. People dislike responsibility and


lack ambition; therefore, they
prefer to be led, and management
must direct their efforts.

1. People seek responsibility and


have the capacity to direct and
control organizational tasks if
they are committed to the
objectives.

2. The average person is passive,


indolent, and works as little as
possible; thus, people need to be
coerced and controlled.
3. People are self-centered and
indifferent to organized needs;
therefore, they are by nature
resistant to change.

2. People by nature are not passive


or indifferent to organizational
needs, for work is as natural as
rest or play.
3. Employees at all levels have the
ability to be creative and use
ingenuity in solving
organizational problems.

How Do Learned Motives Influence Work Behavior?


Motives are learned from experience. Examples of learned motives include
the need for achievement, power, affiliation, competence, status, and
autonomy. This learning can be either conscious or unconscious. Individuals
differ in the importance they assign to specific motives. Managers can

motivate others if they are sensitive to the learned motives of individual


employees.

The Achievement Motive


The need to achieve (or achievement motive) is a learned motive that
satisfaction can be found in seeking tasks that will provide a sense of
accomplishment. Many people of Anglo descent like to think of themselves
as being achievement-oriented, undoubtedly because achievement is highly
valued in most Western societies.
Several behavioral characteristics distinguish the achievement-motivated
person:
1. Achievers prefer a moderate level of difficulty or challenge. The most
desired task is one that requires a high level of exertion but carries a
reasonable probability of success.
2. High achievers also like to feel that they are in reasonable control of
an outcome.
3. Achievement-motivated people also like to receive frequent and
specific feedback about how well they are doing. Ideally the task itself
should provide enough feedback so they can evaluate themselves; selfapproval is good feedback for an achiever.

The Power Motive


Power is the ability to influence others to behave as we want. People who
have a high need for power (or power motive), find satisfaction from
being in charge and controlling or influencing others. Managers with high
personal power needs exemplify the stereotypical self-serving, exploitative,
dominating boss. Managers with high institutional power needs temper
their influence over others with inhibition and self-control. They are
altruistic and believe power should be used more for the good of the
organization than for personal advantage. Satisfaction is obtained more
from the process of influencing others to carry out work in pursuit of
organizational goals than from their own personal success.

The Affiliation Motive


Persons with a high need for affiliation (or affiliation motive) find
satisfaction in the quality of their social and interpersonal relationships.
People who are high affiliators often make weak bosses.

Attributions and Learning Afect Motive Development


Personal attribution is the process of rationalizing causality (either to
external or internal [personal] factors) as to why personally involving events
turn out as they do. (Remember the self-serving bias.)

Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is twice as important as either technical skills or IQ
as a driver of outstanding performance. The five key components of
emotional intelligence are self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation,
empathy, and social skill.

How Do Expectations Affect Work Motivation?


Process theories of motivation are theories that focus on the ways people
think through motivation issues and how they determine whether their
actions were successful. The human tendency is to embrace the most
advantageous option or at least avoid functioning at a disadvantage.

Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory is a theory of motivation based on a persons beliefs
about effort-performance-outcome relationships.
The three variables of expectancy theory:
Expectancy

Instrumentality

Valence

The probability (from 0


to 1) that an individual
believes his or her work
effort directly affects
the performance
outcome of a task.

The probability (from 0


to 1) that an individual
anticipates that an
attained level of task
performance will have
personal consequences.

The value (from positive


to negative) that a
person assigns to the
personal consequences
that follow work
performance.

The basics of expectancy theory for organizational practitioners can be


converted into a series of three questions that people often ask themselves
about their work situation:
1. Does how hard I try really affect my performance? To be motivated,
you must have a positive answer to this expectancy question. Positive
task motivation begins when you see a link between personal effort
and task performance.
2. Are personal consequences linked to my performance? To answer this
instrumentality question, you must believe that task performance
results (a first order outcome) serve to obtain second-order personal
consequences or payoffs. Increased motivation is possible when you
perceive a positive personal consequence arising from satisfactory
task performance.
3. Do I value the consequences available to me? Answers to this valence
question depend on how much you value a particular expected
personal outcome or payoff. A person must value the payoff if the
expectancy loop is to be positive and motivational.

Motivation is enhanced when a person answers yes to all three expectancyrelated questions: (1) when effort is believed to be performance related, (2)
when performance is linked to personal consequences, and (3) when the
consequences or payoffs available are highly valued. Conversely, when one
or more answers is negative, motivation potential diminishes.
There are two basic sources of rewards or payoffs: Extrinsic rewards are
rewards externally bestowed, as by a supervisor, teacher, or organization.
Intrinsic rewards postulate that motivation is moderated by perceived
fairness or discrepancies between contributions and rewards. Although
most people look for some mix of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, people
clearly differ as to which is the more compelling motivational force.
Expectancy theory is most applicable to those jobs in which an individual
has discretion as to how and when work is performed. To get the best from
their people, managers should emphasize anticipated rewards, whether
extrinsic or intrinsic. The managers job is to strengthen effort-performancereward expectations.

Clarify Performance-Reward Linkages clarify rewards available to


employees and relate them to personal and team performance. The
key is to make obvious in advance the payoffs people can expect for
certain levels of performance, and then follow up on satisfactory
performance with feedback and appropriate rewards.

Provide Performance Feedback Managers need to provide feedback


both to demonstrate that they know what others are doing and to
acknowledge improved performance or a job well done.

How Do Perceptions of Equity Affect Motivation?


Managers need to be aware of equity perceptions and reduce gaps in the
rewards or conditions of employment where possible.
Equity theory is the idea that motivation is moderated by perceived
fairness or discrepancies between contributions and rewards. People often
think in terms of the ratio of their personal outcomes to work inputs. People
also compare their own outcomes/input ratio to those they perceive for
other people doing comparable work. These comparisons may be made on
three levels:
1. Comparisons to specific other individuals.
2. Comparisons to another reference group.
3. Comparisons to general occupational classifications.
The equity concept affects motivation whenever a person perceives a
meaningful difference in personal or group outcomes and then adjusts
behavior or perceptions to reduce the gap.
Distributive justice is the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation
of rewards and allocation of rewards among individuals.

Procedural justice is the perceived fairness of the means used to


determine the amount and distribution of rewards.
Referent cognitions theory postulates that people evaluate their work
and rewards relative to what might have been under different
circumstances.
Research implies that if an organizations procedures treat employees fairly,
they will view the organization as positive even if dissatisfied with personal
outcomes such as pay.

Should Motivation Focus on Individuals or Groups?


Theories of motivation in western countries focus on the individual. But not
all cultures emphasize the individual. In many cultures, the group is the
center of attention, and individual behavior gets attention only if it deviates
from group norms.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 7 Motivation Methods and Applications


How Does Goal Setting Enhance Motivation?
Goal striving is a common element in most motivational theories. A goal is
the desired outcome of an action, which becomes motivational when an
individual wants it and strives to achieve it.
Content of a goal emphasizes the features of the goal, how it is to be
measured or assessed, and its level of specificity which implies a level of
difficulty in attaining it. Given adequate ability and commitment, more
difficult goals stimulate greater effort and performance.
Intensity considers the process by which a goal is set the extent of
participation and the degree of commitment and intention to bring it
about. Having a goal assigned by management or participating in goal
setting is associated with higher performance (equally), rather than the
simple instructions of do your best. By focusing on goals rather than
controls, a manager can align people behind organizational purposes and
then allow individual initiative without sacrificing coordination.
An intention is a cognitive representation of both the goal and the action
plan to obtain the goal.
Actions involve choices about where to direct behaviors combined with
intense, persistent efforts to achieve a goal over some time period. The
more a manager specifies goals, the easier it is for others to frame
intentions for achieving them.
Management by objectives (MBO) is the practice of manager and
subordinate jointly determining time-specific objectives. The intent of MBO
is threefold: (1) to strengthen planning, (2) to encourage participative
decision making, and (3) to motivate performance of tasks that have a high
payoff for the organization. The manager and subordinate usually take four
steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Agreement on key goals or objectives


Action planning to work on the objectives
Self-control and corrective actions to keep on target
Periodic measurements, formal reviews, and performance appraisals

The important factor is for both people to have a shared expectation for
what needs to be done during the next planning cycle. Then it is necessary

to make adjustments in their priority or scope or in the actions taken in


pursuit of them.
MBO works well if there is respect and trust between the subordinate and
manager, and if the subordinate keeps the manager informed of progress
and setbacks.
Goals need to be clear, specific, and challenging, and one way to achieve
this is to write operational objectives. A four-step approach is suggested:
1. Begin with an action very preceded by the word to. Examples: To
build, to complete
2. Identify a relevant key result area that is the performance target.
Example: customer service.
3. State a performance indicator or measurement standard that specifies
the targeted degree of quality and quantity to be achieved. Indicators
can be stated in monetary units, resource units consumed, average
time per task, percentages, or changes.
4. Provide a time frame by or during which the key result will be
produced.
Example: To decrease time lost by equipment failure to no more than 10
minutes per day during the next quarter.

How Does Reinforcement Modify Behavior


Reinforcement is the use of contingent consequences following a behavior
to shape a consistent behavior pattern. Reinforcement is the product of a
behaviorism philosophy, meaning that behavior is believed to be shaped by
environmental consequences.
The objective of reinforcement is to apply consequences (reinforcers)
following a behavior that will shape a patterned response to a given
antecedent condition.
1. Positive reinforcers pleasant, rewarding, or otherwise satisfying
contingent consequences that are used to initiate or increase a desired
behavior. They should increase in frequency as the desired behavior
increases. Praise and tangible rewards or gifts are positive reinforcers
widely used at work. So are more attractive office space, a more
prestigious job title, extra time off, and off-site meetings at resorts.
2. Negative reinforcers the removal or reduction of an aversive
condition following a desired behavior to initiate or increase the desired
behavior. The ontingent consequence of the desired behavior is relief or
escape from something unpleasant, threatening, or dissatisfying.
Negative reinforcement is at work when one person acts to avoid
anothers wrath or ridicule or to prevent personal harm. It keeps us
paying our bills on tiem and obeying the speed limit.

3. Punishment an aversive event or the removal of a positive event


following a behavior, designed to reduce the frequency of the behavior or
to eliminate it altogether. Punishment in the workplace is less severe
than in the criminal justice system and may involve warnings, withdrawal
of privileges, or assignment to unpleasant tasks. The most severe
punishment is probably dismissal.
4. Omission a completely neutral response to a negative behavior to
encourage its diminishment. It is often the ideal response to chronic
complainers and others with annoying habits, such as telling offensive
jokes.

Behavior Modification Follows an ABC Sequence


1. Antecedent (A) represents the antecedent condition or cue that
precedes a set of behavior alternatives the simulus or circumstances
that invites a desired behavior.
2. Behavior (B) is the behavior in response to the antecedent
circumstance.
3. Consequence (C) represents an environmental consequence that is
contingent on an appropriate behavior. The most common consequence
is positive reinforcement of a desired behavior. At times the consequence
is negative reinforcement of a desired behavior, which reduces or avoids
a potential negative outcome. Punishment is used to decrease an
undesired behavior. Omission is a neutral response to either a desired or
undesired behavior also tends to diminish offending behavior.
The law of effect advocates that consequences should immediately follow
behavior to reinforce the link between the two.

Managing Environments with Organizational Behavior Modification


Organizational behavior modification (OB mod) is deliberate management
application of the antecedent behavior consequence sequence to shape
desired employee behaviors. Although simple in concept, it is difficult to
consistently apply in most organizations if the management is left to apply
the contingent reinforcer. Some of the most significant OB mod programs
rely on automatic, computer-generated feedback. In fact, feedback alone
has been found to be a very useful reinforcer. The four key processes that
are typically employed when implementing OB mod:
1. Establish baseline data to provide a point of reference, measure or
chart the frequency with which the undesirable behavior occurs in the
normal, unmodified environment. The objective is to document the
problem behavior in a way that reveals the circumstances under which it
most frequently occurs.
2. Analyze Current Behavioral Contingencies Examine the current
environment to identify any antecedent cues that encourage or

discourage the desired behavior. Interviews, group discussions, or a


survey are likely to reveal the circumstances that affect the behavior.
Further investigation may show that punitive measures already taken
havent worked.
3. Develop a Reinforcement Strategy Those responsible for correcting the
problem evaluate possible reinforcers and select the one(s) thought to be
most conducive to improving behavior. Three factors should be
considered in structuring a reinforcement program:

The reinforcer selected should be meaningful enough to increase the


desired behavior and offset the competing reinforcers.
The reinforcers should follow timely evidence of improved behavior to
cement the law-of-effect relationship.
Criteria for achieving the reinforcer should be realistic, directly
related, attainable by most employees, and less expensive than the
cost.

4. Implement the Reinforcement and Chart Results If results are not as


strong as desired, managers could move to a more substantive
reinforcement plan.
Identify behavioral
performance problems

Chart frequency of target


behavior

Analyze existing
behavioral contingencies

Develop contingency
intervention strategy

Apply contingency
intervention strategy

Chart frequency of
resulting behavior

Evaluate performance
improvement over time
Probl
em
Solve
d?

Yes

Reinforce to maintain
desirable behavior

What Is The Link Between Rewards and Behavior?


Whenever systematic performance objectives, appraisals, and rewards are
lacking in an organization, members usually experience three emotions:

Ambiguity: Exactly what is expected of me as an employee?

Uncertainty: How well am I performing or measuring up to my bosss


standards?
Suspicion: Are promotions and rewards (or layoffs and discharges)
being administered equitably around here?

Performance is behavior that has been evaluated or measured as to its


contribution to organizational goals. The overarching goal is to make as
many behaviors as possible be performance contributors to specific goals.
Performance can be evaluated on the basis of productivity (including
quality), growth, and satisfaction.

Pay for Performance Uniform systems of pay may seem equitable.


But from a motivational perspective, such nonperformance payments do
not necessarily encourage stellar performance. Now, the norm for
systems of rewards incorporate more pay-for-performance factors.
Performance-based compensation schemes are consistent with the
expectancy theory of motivation. Employees compare rewards received
for performance with what they expect to receive. They also compare
what they receive with what others receive (equity factor). Overall
satisfaction is likely a composite of how the employee perceives both the
extrinsic and intrinsic rewards from the job.
o Piecework the classic performance-based reward system, which
is the practice of rewarding performance by paying for the amount
produced consistent with quality standards. The difficulties are
twofold: One is evaluating work methods to arrive at an equitable
standard and rate. The second concern is the quality-quantity
trade-off.

Merit Pay (Base Plus Merit) Rather than tie pay only to output, an
alternative is to provide a base salary or hourly wage and then an
incentive or bonus based on output. The performance-based portion
depends on some measurable level of output over which the employee
has control (quantity, quality, cost savings).
o Bonus and Profit-Sharing Plans Compensation plans that are
based on the overall performance of the enterprise rather than the
individuals contribution. A pool of money is divided among eligible
employees based on some performance evaluation or rating
system. The objective of merit plans such as profit sharing,
bonuses, and stock options is to link everyones fate to overall
performance, reinforcing corporate cultures that emphasize group
results over individual performance.

Gainsharing Plans A pay-for-performance system that


shares financial rewards among all employees based on
performance improvements for the entire business unit.

o Rewards as a Cafeteria of Benefits Allowing people to select


from a portfolio or menu of benefits.
o Consequences of Incentives and Rewards Except in cases
where performance can be easily measured, employees often
believe that the person evaluating them relies too much on
subjective judgment (they question the fairness of the plan). While
goals, incentives, and rewards can energize and focus behavior in
some countries, there are potential pitfalls in using them as
motivational systems: Quality may be traded off for quantity and
vice versa.
o Open Book Management is the practice of sharing key financial
information, often including salaries and compensation, with all
employees.

What Are the Key Factors in Job Design?


Job design is the process of incorporating tasks and responsibilities into
meaningful, productive, satisfying job responsibilities.
Task Depth (responsibility)
Vertical Job Loading

Scientific management is an early twentieth century methodology


advocated by Frederick W. Taylor in which work tasks were structured into
highly simplified, standardized jobs to simplify hiring, training, and
supervision.
In keeping with the principles of scientific management, job design
historically has involved analyzing a complex task, then breaking it down
into subtasks. Increasingly, responsibility for the design of work is shifting
to workers themselves and to self-managed teams, rather than residing with
managers or industrial engineers.

Task Scope and Task Depth


Task scope
degree of
taskgreater
variety built Enriched
into a job, enable
typically
called to
Hig is the
Technician
offers
an individual
opportunities
for independent
feel responsible
for whole
tasks.in
Most
horizontal hjob loading
when
jobs are formally designed.
A job
narrow
thinking and deciding what to do
professional jobs that require analysis
scope has few activities.
when, but provide employees with

and manipulation of symbolic data

job. The work may be valued by the


client, bur research suggests that
people find their jobs become
meaningless
over time because
Routine
Programmed
to be their
job tasks are
there
is
repetitive
andrepetitive
narrow inand
scope
and
little
growth
opportunity.
are often
restricted
by technology.
People in these simplistic and
repetitive jobs are expected not to do
much independent thinking, just pay
attention to detail. Skills are
mastered in a matter of hours or
days; there is no expectation of
career growth unless one becomes a
supervisor over those performing
these routine jobs.

with the incumbent empowered to


solve problems and find innovative
solutions to shifting performance
demands.
Enlarged
Provides an expanded
variety or diversity of tasks. At times
jobs are deliberately expanded, either
by adding on sequential tasks or by
allowing employees to rotate among
different jobs. Decreasing the number
of separate job classifications or titles
in a traditional industry typically
affords employees enlarged variety or
a change of pace.

little variety
in their
dailyvertical
tasks. Theresponsibility,
are enriched toindividual
give the individual
Task depth addresses
how
much
technician may have a university
responsibility for doing whatever is
accountability, and
autonomous
decision authority
is expected
indone.
a job,
education
or need professional
necessary
to get the job
Theoften
thought of as vertical
job
loading
when formally
designed.
training to
learn
how to perform
the
work
presents challenges and novelty,

Low

Task Scope (variety)


Horizontal Job Loading

Hig
h

Horizontal job loading is the process of enlarging jobs by combining


separate work activities into a whole job that provides for greater task
variety (often giving responsibility for more links in the chain or of the
task).
Vertical job loading is the process of structuring a greater range of
responsibility for planning, control, and decision making authority into a
job.

How Does Job Design Affect Work Outcomes?


Integrating Motivational Theory of Job Design includes a threesequence model for enriching jobs:
1. Core Job Dimensions the underlying characteristics of a job (such as
autonomy, task veriety) and how they relate to job involvement,
motivation, performance, and satisfaction. These core dimensions had a
better fit and greater meaning for self-motivating individuals who desire
opportunity, personal growth, challenge, autonomy, and feedback.

Autonomy the degree of control a person has over his or her own
job actions, such as responsibility for self-governing behaviors to
perform the job and the absence of a programmed sequence of
activities (essentially, task depth).
Task variety the degree to which normal job activities require
performing multiple tasks (breadth of task scope).
Task identity the extent to which a person has a whole task to
complete, with visible starting and ending points.
Feedback the frequency and completeness with which the task
provides information about work progress and results of personal
efforts.
Friendship opportunities the extent to which the work setting
provides opportunities for close interpersonal contacts (less impact).

Dealing with others the degree to which task flow or


accomplishment requires interaction with others in contributory or
collegial ways (less impact).
Task significance the significance of the work being performed.
Task interdependence how independent the task is of other tasks
in the work chain.

2. Psychological States three possible job qualities (experienced


meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, knowledge of results) that
shape individual job motivation and satisfaction of growth needs.
Generally people whose jobs enable them to experience the following
three psychological states will have a positive motivating potential
because these conditions satisfy personal-professional growth needs.

Experienced meaningfulness occurs when an individual perceives


his or her work as worthwhile or in tune with personal values
(influenced by skill variety, task identity, and task significance
dimensions).
Experienced responsibility Realized when a person feels
personally accountable for the outcomes of his or her efforts
(influenced by the autonomy dimension).
Knowledge of Results Experienced when an individual can
determine on a fairly regular basis whether the performance
outcomes of his or her work are satisfactory (influenced by the
feedback dimension).

3. Personal/Work Outcomes Job outcomes are measured by job


involvement, motivation, and satisfaction at the personal level and
performance at the work level.

Four Approaches to Job Design


There is no one approach that is best for all types of people and jobs. Job
design involves seeking a balance among approaches to achieve results that
best fit situations realities.

Motivational Approach Aiming to increase the outcomes of job


satisfaction, job involvement, and performance by enabling people to
realize growth needs through experiencing challenging work. In striving
to produce jobs that are stimulating and mentally demanding, the
motivational approach may have the unintended consequence of creating
staffing difficulties, increasing training times, and having higher mental
overload and stress.

Mechanistic Approach The earliest techniques, based on time and


motion studies and work simplification (scientific management and
industrial engineering). Oriented towards efficiency and have lower

mental overload and stress, but creates more boredom and physical
demands.

Biological Approach Ergonomics is a biomechanic approach to


minimize physical strain and stress on a worker based on the healthy
design of work methods and technology (from work physiology and
biomechanics). Involve making jobs physically comfortable and matched
to physical strength and endurance, combined with attention to noise,
climate requirements, and the design of equipment. Workers report less
physical effort and fatigue, fewer aches and pains, and fewer health
complaints, causing favorable attitudes towards their work. This
approach is sometimes more expensive (equipment) and training
requirements increase.

Perceptual/Motor Approach Seeks to match job characteristics to


human mental capabilities (and limitations) with a primary emphasis on
how people concentrate and what helps them pay attention to job
requirements (from human factors engineering, experimental psychology
and human information processing studies). This can create improved
reliability, less errors and accidents, and positive reactions by reduced
stress, fatigue, mental overload, and stress. Staffing and training
requirements are reduced, but boredom increases.

Integrating the Factors of Job Redesign


Implementing
Strategies

Job Core
Characteristics

Psychological States
(Effects)

Personal and Work


Outcomes

Combine tasks
Vertical job
loading
Open feedback
channels
Establish client
relationships
Form natural
work units

Autonomy
Skill variety
Task identity
Work feedback
Friendship
opportunities
Task significance
Initiated task
interdependence

Experienced
meaningfulness
Experienced
responsibility for:
Ones own
work
outcomes
Others work
outcomes
Experienced
knowledge of
results of work

Internal work
motivation
Satisfaction with
work and internal
growth
Quality work
performance
Low absenteeism
and turnover

Employee needs for


growth

How Are People Motivated by Empowerment?


Empowerment describes the conditions that enable people to feel
competent and in control of their work, energized to take initiative and
persist at meaningful tasks. Empowerment is a highly personal motivational
force. Empowerment can come from within the individual, from peers, or
from a manager. It aspires to bring about positive self-perceptions and task-

directed behaviors. Changed self-perceptions are an important


manifestation of empowerment.
Empowerment

By Others

Perceptions

Accepting
Modeling
Mentoring

By Self

By Managers

Predisposition
Competence
Expectations

Job designs
Goal reward
Leadership

Self-concept
Self-esteem
Self-efficacy

Outcomes

Behaviors
Self-initiated
Persistent
Adaptive

Self-concept is how we think about ourselves or see ourselves in a role.


Self-esteem is how we generally feel about our own worthiness our selfacceptance.
Self-efficacy is our self-perceptions about our ability to perform certain
types of tasks.
The empowered person undergoes two types of personal change. One is
motivational enhancement, especially when the source of empowerment is
positive change initiated by a manager. Empowered people usually intensify
their task focus and are energized to become more committed to a cause or
a goal. They experience self-efficacy, which stimulates motivation by
enabling people to see themselves as competent and capable of high
performance.
Empowerment is also active in problem solving behaviors that concentrate
energy on a goal. The empowered person is more flexible in behavior, tries
alternative paths when one is blocked, and eagerly initiates new tasks or
adds complexity to current ones. Behavior becomes self-motivated when the
individual seeks to carve out greater personal autonomy in undertaking
tasks without the managers help, or to draw support from team members.
Ultimately, the individual decides whether to act empowered. Not everyone
responds in the same way to empowerment. Expectancy motivation comes
into play in empowerment.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 8 Communicating for Understanding and Results


Communicating is the one activity that takes up most of a managers time.

What is Communication?
Communication is the process of one person sending a message to another
with the intent of evoking a response. Effective communication occurs when
the receiver interprets the message exactly as the sender intended. Efficient
communication uses less time and fewer resources. The most efficient
communication is not necessarily the most effective. What a manager wants
to achieve is effective communication in the most efficient way.
Communication in organizations serves three major purposes: it allows
members to coordinate actions, share information, and satisfy social needs.

The Communications Process

Sender
Origination idea or
feeling
Encoding translating
information into a message
appropriate for
transmission
Transmission The act of
conveying a communication

No Reply end
communication

Perception process
includes attention/selection,
organization, and
interpretation
Decoding the receiver
function of perceiving
communication stimuli and
interpreting their meaning
Response no response in
one-way communication

Message
Channel the medium
through which a message is
transmitted
Verbal channel words
spoken and transmitted
through sound waves
Nonverbal channel all
ways of communicating
without words, such as tone
of voice, facial expression,

Noise anything that


interferes with the
communication process

Channel the medium


through which a message is
transmitted
Verbal channel words
spoken and transmitted
through sound waves
Nonverbal channel all
ways of communicating
without words, such as tone
of voice, facial expression,

Receiver
Perception process
includes attention/selection,
organization, and
interpretation
Decoding the receiver
function of perceiving
communication stimuli and
interpreting their meaning
Response no response in
one-way communication

No Reply oneway

Replies idea or feeling


Encoding translating
information into a message
appropriate for
transmission
Transmission The act of
conveying a communication

Feedback a message that tells the original sender how clearly the message was understood and

How Are Communication Channels Used in Organizations?


Managers are responsible for establishing and maintaining formal
communication channels in downward, upward, and horizontal directions.

Formal Communication Channels


Formal communication channels are established within the organizations
chain of command in order to accomplish task objectives.

UPWARD COMMUNICATION
Provides managers with info
about:

DOWNWARD
COMMUNICATION
Used by managers to:

Current problems

Assign goals
Progress toward goals

Provide job instructions


Suggestions for

Policies/procedures/practic
improvement
es

Proposals for innovation

Provide performance
feedback

Employee grievances
COMMUNICATION

Point out problems

Feedback about HORIZONTAL


attitudes

Socialize
employees
Communication that takes place among peers that can
cut across
departments &
work groups, resulting in:

Intradepartmental problem solving


Interdepartmental coordination

Employee surveys
Suggestion boxes
Face-to-face encounters
Open-door policies
Required reports

Problem
Solving

Coordinati
on

Speeches
Memos
Newsletters
Bulletin boards
Policy & procedure
manuals

Informal Communication Channels


Informal communication channels exist to serve the interests of those
people who make them up, regardless of their positions in the organization.
They are not formally sanctioned by management and do not follow the
organizations hierarchy; however, informal communications are often
perceived by employees as more believable than communications received
through formal channels.

The Grapevine the informal communication channel for gossip and


rumors. It satisfies social needs, helps clarify orders and decisions, and
serves as a way of getting out information that cant be expressed
adequately through formal channels. About 80 percent of grapevine
communication is work related, and over 80 percent of the time the
grapevine is accurate.

Social Gatherings

Management by Wandering Around (MBWA) Walking around the


organization to informally chat with all levels of employees to learn about
their concerns, ideas, and problems.

Small Group Networks


o Wheel Provides more efficient and accurate problem solving of
simple and routine tasks. Employee in the central position are
much more active, satisfied, and likely to become leaders than
those in the peripheral locations.
o Star More effective for ambiguous and complex problems. Group
satisfaction is higher because group members participate more
evenly.

What Barriers to Communication Exist?


The image and credibility of the sender, stereotyping, past experiences,
overexposure to data, attitudes, mindsets, perceptual filters, trust, and
empathy all impact on what receivers of communication hear and how
they interpret its meaning. Misinterpretation occurs when the receiver
understands the message to his or her own satisfaction but not in the sense
that the sender intended. The barriers to communication that can occur are:

Frames of reference a persons mindset, based on past experience


and current expectations, which determines what is perceived and how it
is interpreted. Within organizations, people with different functions often
have different frames of reference.

Semantics the meaning and use of words that can differ between
people & especially cultures. Many professional and social groups adopt
a specialized technical language called jargon that provides them with a
sense of belonging and simplifies communication within the in-group.

Value judgments a source of noise when a receiver evaluates the


worth of a senders message before the sender has finished transmitting
it. Often such value judgments are based on the receivers previous
experience either with the sender or with similar types of
communications. When listeners form value judgments, speakers are
usually aware of it through verbal and nonverbal feedback. The frequent
result is a highly distorted understanding.

Selective listening receiver behavior of blocking out information or


distorting it to match preconceived notions. This problem occurs
frequently in emotionally charged conversations when receivers listen
only for an opening to speak.

Filtering when the sender conveys only certain parts of the relevant
information to the receiver. Filtering often occurs in upward
communication when subordinates suppress negative information.
Filtering is very common when people are being evaluated for
promotions, salary increases, or performance appraisals. Additionally,
when managers are deluged with more information than they can
process effectively, one response is to screen out and never decode a
large number of messages.

Distrust A lack of trust on the part of either communicator is likely to


evoke one or more of the barriers weve just examined. Distrust itself
may have arisen out of earlier communications barriers. Distrust is
sometimes caused by status differences.

How Can Messages Be Sent More Effectively?


Increase the Clarity of Messages

Use multiple channels the impact of a message can be increased by


using more than one channel or mode of transmission to send it (audio,
non-verbal, visual, etc ).

Be complete and specific when the subject matter is new or


unfamiliar to the receiver, provide sufficient background information and
details.

Claim your own message senders should use personal pronouns such
as I and mine. This indicates to the receiver that the sender takes
responsibility for the ideas and feelings expressed in the message. Its
better too to be up front rather than put the receiver on the defensive.

Be congruent make sure your messages are congruent with your


actions.

Simplify your language effective communicators avoid jargon, slang,


clichs, and colorful metaphors when communicating with people outside
the industry or those who do not speak the language fluently.

Develop Credibility
The credibility of a sender is probably the single most important element in
effective interpersonal communications. Credibility is the senders degree
of trustworthiness, as perceived by the receiver.

Expertise receivers will be more attentive when they perceive that a


sender has expertise in the area about which he or she is
communicating.

Mutual trust receivers prefer to have the senders motives clarified;


owning up to motives at the very beginning eliminates anxiety about a
senders real intentions and does much to establish common trust.

Reliability a senders perceived dependability, predictability, and


consistency in providing all relevant information reinforce the senders
perceived trustworthiness.

Warmth and friendliness a warm, friendly, supportive attitude is


conducive to credibility.

Dynamic appearance a sender who is dynamic, confident, and


positive is more credible.

Personal reputation if other members of the organization have told


the receiver that a sender is credible, the receiver usually will tend to
believe it.

Communicate Ethically
Interpersonal communications are ethical when they facilitate a persons
freedom of choice by presenting accurate, relevant information.
Deception is the conscious alteration of information to significantly
influence anothers perceptions.
An overt lie is a false statement made with the deliberate intent to deceive.
Covert lying occurs when one omits something relevant, leading others to
draw incorrect inferences.
Ethical behavior has very important consequences for a senders credibility.

Obtain Feedback
To ensure that each party understands what the other is trying to
communicate, interpretations of received messages can be fed back for
confirmation.
Criteria for Giving Feedback

1. Make sure your comments are


intended to help the recipient
2. Speak directly and with feeling
based on trust
3. Describe what the person is doing
and the effect the person is
having
4. Dont be threatening or

Criteria for Receiving Feedback


1. Dont be defensive
2. Seek specific examples
3. Be sure you understand
(summarize)
4. Share your feelings about the
comments
5. Ask for definitions
6. Check out underlying

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

judgmental
Be specific, not general (use clear
and recent examples)
Give feedback when the recipient
is open to accepting it
Check to ensure the validity of
your statements
Include only things the receiver
can do something about
Dont overwhelm; make sure your
comments arent more than the
person can handle

assumptions
7. Be sensitive to senders nonverbal
messages
8. Ask questions to clarify

How Can Messages Be More Accurately Received?

Ask questions we need to ask questions to obtain information we need.


Questions motivate communication and open channels of communication,
providing an environment in which employees also feel free to state their
feelings, which helps managers communicate more effectively with a
diverse work force.

Listen listening is an intellectual and emotional process in which the


receiver integrates physical, emotional, and intellectual inputs in search
of meaning. People can think nearly four times as fast as they can speak,
leaving the listener with three times the mental capacity which should be
used to summarize and relate data.

Active listeners put themselves in the other persons shoes. They practice
sensing (recognize silent messages through nonverbal cues), attending
(full attention to the verbal message), and responding (summarize and
give feedback on the content and feelings of the message).

Read nonverbal communication cues if a person says one thing but the
non-verbal communication is not consistent, it results in mixed messages.
The visual component of nonverbal communication is body language or
kinesics. The face is the best communicator of nonverbal messages. Most
gestures are culturally bound and susceptible to misinterpretation. Other
nonverbal channels are tactile, vocal, time, and physical spaces.

Image is also a strong force of communication.

Improving cross-cultural communication global differences require


employees and managers to acknowledge and understand how different
cultures interpret, behave and interact. These differences also include
gender differences.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 9 Creating Productive Interpersonal Relationships


What Influences Interpersonal Relations?

Emotional intelligence (EQ) is a persons ability to be aware of


personal emotions and those of others in order to interact with others in
productive ways. A managers success will largely be dependent upon his
or her interpersonal skills, which is greatly affected by emotional
intelligence. The key factors of emotional intelligence are:
o Self-awareness the basis for all other components; means being
aware of what you are feeling, being conscious of the emotions
within yourself.
o Managing emotions the manager is able to balance his or her
own moods so that worry, anxiety, fear, or anger do not get in the
way of what needs to be done.
o Motivating oneself the ability to be hopeful and optimistic
despite obstacles, setbacks, or even outright failure.
o Empathy being able to put yourself in someone elses shoes, to
recognize what others are feeling without them needing to tell you.
o Social skill the ability to connect to others, build positive
relationships, respond to the emotions of others, and influence
others.

The A-B Model a model that illustrates the chain of rapid events that
occur between to interacting people. The interaction is affected by the
needs, values, assumptions and feelings of each person, leading to
perceptions, evaluations and intentions. All of these factors lead to
consequences of the interaction, which may repeat the loop.

Personality factors several evaluations and reactions affect


interpersonal relations, including:
o Self-concept our perception and evaluation of ourselves. A
persons self-concept includes their value system, which are
internalized beliefs about what behavior, feelings, goals, and
techniques are desirable.
o Personal frame of reference how we see the world based upon
our past experiences and self-concept (also see chapter 5).
o Defensiveness a cognitive distortion that protects the selfconcept against being diminished. It occurs when you protect

yourself by denying, excusing, or rationalizing your actions to


protect your self-concept against the threat of being damaged by
failure, guilt, shame, or fear. Common defense mechanisms are:
rationalization, repression, reaction-formation, projection,
regression, displacement, compensation, denial, withdrawal,
resignation, conversion, counterdependence, and aggression.
o Interpersonal relationship needs, expressed as a desire to give,
and wanted in the desire to receive, which include:

Inclusion the need to establish and maintain relationships


with other people
Control the need to maintain a balance of power and
influence in relationships
Affection the need to form close and personal relationships
with others

o Feelings about themselves and others.

Interaction setting
o Job requirements determine how psychologically close or
distant two people need to be to perform their work. The depth of
interpersonal relationships required by a job depends on how
complex the task is, whether the people involved possess different
kinds of expertise, the frequency of the interaction in the job, and
the degree of certainty with which job outcomes can be predicted.
o Organizational culture influences the general nature of
employee relationships. The more culture fosters competitiveness,
aggressiveness, and hostility, the greater the likelihood that people
will be cautious and on guard with each other. Different interaction
patterns can be distinguished by four primary factors:

Openness the degree to which participants share their


thoughts and feelings
Trust the degree to which you believe someone else is
honest and supportive
Owning taking responsibility for a problem versus blaming
someone else
Risk to experiment degree to which you are punished for
trying something new

o Trust levels trust is the feeling of confidence that someone will


act to benefit rather than harm you. Trust exists whenever you
choose to let yourself be dependent on another person whose
future behavior can affect your well-being. Relationships do not
grow and develop until individuals trust each other. Covey suggests
six major deposits to build up emotional bank accounts (trust):

Understand and honor other peoples needs and priorities

Attend to little things like showing kindness and being


courteous
Keep commitments
Clarify expectations
Show personal integrity by keeping promises, being honest,
fulfilling expectations, and being loyal
Apologize sincerely when you make a withdrawal, without
rationalizing

Why Do People Have Different Styles of Relating?


Interpersonal effectiveness is the degree to which the consequences of your
behavior match your intentions. You can improve interpersonal
effectiveness by disclosing your intentions, receiving feedback on your
behavior, and modifying your behavior until it has the consequences you
intend it to have.

Diferences in Self-Disclosure
Self-disclosure is the process of revealing how you perceive and feel about
the present. Without self-disclosure, you cannot form a meaningful
relationship with another person.

The Johari window is a model of the different degrees of openness between


two people based on their degree of self-disclosure and feedback
solicitation. The model presents four windowpanes of awareness of others
and ourselves.

Known to
others

Feedback
Not known to self

Known area information is


disclosed and known by both
parties; mutually shared
perceptions confirm both parties
frames of reference.

Not
known to
others
Disclosure

Known to self

Hidden area the things that


you are aware of but do not share
because you may be afraid that
others will think less of you, use
the information to their
advantage, or chastise you
because they may hurt others

Blind area encompasses


certain things about you that are
apparent to others but not to
yourself, either because no one
has ever told you or because you
defensively block them out. Blind
spots, however, make you less
Unknown area repressed fears
and needs or potential that
neither you nor the other are
aware of.

Managing openness: guidelines for self-disclosure.


Because openness is risky it can be difficult to decide how open to be and
with whom. Sharing your feelings and needs with others can build strong
relationships in which you feel understood and cared about and have your
needs satisfied. With the wrong parties, however, your openness could be
used against you. Either too much or too little openness can be
dysfunctional in different types of interpersonal relationships.
Managing your openness means choosing when and how to be more open
and authentic in your relationships with others. It means thinking before
acting. Trust is a major determinant.

Diferent Behavioral Styles


A persons behavior style is a persons habitual way of interacting with
other people. It can be determined by examining two dimensions.
Responsiveness is a persons degree of readiness to show emotions and
develop relationships. Assertiveness refers to the amount of control a
person tries to exercise over other people.

Amiable Style

Expressive Style

Amiables are very responsive, but unassertive,


causing them to be supportive and reliable.
Sometimes they appear to be complaining, soft
hearted, and acquiescent. They are slow to take
action and want to know how other people feel
about a decision before they commit themselves.
Amiables dislike interpersonal conflict so much
that they often tell others what they think others
want to hear rather than what is really one their
minds.
Amiables like expressing and receiving tender
feelings of warmth and support, but abhor tough
emotions like anger or hostility. They are good
team players and have no trouble recognizing the
person in charge, unlike drivers, who always act
as if they are the boss. To get along with
amiables, support their feelings and show
personal interest in them. Move along in an
informal manner and show the amiable that you
are actively listening

Expressives are animated, intuitive, and lively,


but they can also be manipulative, impetuous,
and excitable. They are fast paced, make
spontaneous decisions, and are not very
concerned about facts and details. They thrive on
involvement for others. They are very verbal and
good at influencing and persuading. They are the
cheerleaders. They like to be recognized.
Expressives are very emotional and are relatively
comfortable sharing their own feelings and
hearing about the feelings of others. To maintain
productive relationships with them, it helps not to
hurry a discussion and to be entertaining. When
striving for an agreement with an expressive,
make sure that you both fully understand all the
details and summarize everything in writing so it
wont be forgotten.

Slow at taking action and making decisions


Likes close, personal relationships
Dislikes interpersonal conflict
Supports and actively listens to others
Weak at goal setting and self-direction
Has excellent ability to gain support from
others
Works slowly and cohesively with others
Seeks security and belongingness
Good counseling skills

Spontaneous actions and decisions


Likes involvement
Dislikes being alone
Exaggerates and generalizes
Tends to dream and get others caught up in
the dream
Jims from one activity to another
Works quickly and excitingly with others
Seeks esteem and belongingness
Good persuasive skills

Analytical Style

Driver Style

Analyticals are not very assertive or responsive.


They are persistent, systematic problem solvers
who sometimes appear aloof, picky, and critical.
They need to be right, which can lead them to
rely too heavily on data. In their search for
perfection, they avoid being confrontational, and
think before they speak.
Analyticals suppress their feelings because they
are uncomfortable with any type of emotion. To
get along with an analytical, try to be systematic,
organized, and prepared. Analyticals require
solid, tangible, and factual evidence. Do not use

Drivers are highly assertive but not very


responsive. They are firm with others and make
decisions rapidly. They are oriented toward
productivity and concerned with bottom-line
results, so drivers can be stubborn, impatient,
and tough minded. Drivers string to dominate
and control people to achieve their tasks.
Drivers like expressing and reacting to tough
emotions, but are uncomfortable either receiving
or expressing tender feelings. You can maintain a
productive relationship with a driver if you are
precise, efficient, and well organized. You should

High Assertiveness

Low Assertiveness

High Responsiveness

gimmicks or push them for a fast decision. Take


time to explain the alternatives and the
advantages and disadvantages of your
recommendations.

keep the relationship businesslike. To influence a


driver in the direction you desire, provide options
you are comfortable with, but let the driver make
a decision.

Cautious actions and decisions


Likes organization and structure
Dislikes involvement with others
Asks many questions and wants specific
details
Prefers objective, task-oriented, intellectual
work environment
Wants to be right and therefore relies heavily
on data collection
Works slowly and precisely alone
Seeks security and self-actualization
Good problem-solving skills

Firm actions and decisions


Likes control
Dislikes inaction
Prefers maximum freedom to manage self
and others
Cool and independent; competitive with
others
Low tolerance for feelings, attitudes, and
advice of others
Works quickly and impressively alone
Seek esteem and self-actualization
Good administrative skills

Low Responsiveness

Male/Female Diferences
An early emphasis on relatedness and connection causes women to develop,
more highly than men, the qualities of vulnerability, empathy, and an ability
to empower and enable others. Men are socialized to deny feeling
vulnerable and are encouraged to strive for self-reliance, strength, and
independence, while women are expected to attend to their own and others
feelings and connect emotionally with others.
Women are better able to nonjudgmentally address weaknesses in
themselves and others.
Women learn to listen with empathy and to be responsive and sensitive to
others emotions. Men, on the other hand, are encouraged to be rational
and strong and to deny feelings in order to maintain rationality and control.
Finally, women grow up expecting a two-directional pattern of relational
growth, where contributing to the development of others will increase their
feelings of effectiveness and competence and where others will be
motivated to reciprocate. This is opposed to mens early training, which
emphasizes independence and competiveness. Consequently, women are
more naturally adaptable to helping others at work in coaching or
mentoring relationships.
Males and females differ in their reactions to authority figures and how they
prefer to deal with conflict. In terms of supervisor preference, females tend
to have more positive attitudes toward female managers than do males.
They also perceive female managers are more competent than males
perceive them.
With respect to conflict, more female managers than male managers have
been socialized to avoid confrontation altogether or to seek help in
resolving them. More women than men settle for noninfluential roles rather

than become involved in power struggles and conflicts. In contrast, many


men have been taught to overemphasize power and strive for oneupmanship even when it is unnecessary or counter productive.
Effectively managing sexual attraction in relationships involves learning to
communicate directly, setting personal boundaries, and having a sense of
ethics.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 10 Building Groups into Teams


When groups do not act like teams and are nonproductive and dissatisfying,
it is usually because their members lack necessary attitudes, knowledge and
skills to work together effectively. Or, if they have not been provided with
clear objectives, structures, and appropriate environments by management.

What Are Groups and What Functions Do They Perform?


Work groups are the managers main vehicle for accomplishing
organizational tasks. Groups also satisfy personal needs for friendship, selfesteem, and identity.
A group is two or more people who perceive themselves as a distinct entity,
regularly interact and influence one another over a period of time, share
common values, and strive for common objectives.

Formal Groups
A formal group is a group intentionally established by a manager to
accomplish specific organizational objectives.
A standing task group is a permanent group formally specified in the
organizational structure consisting of a supervisor and direct subordinates.
A task group is a temporary formal group created to solve specific
problems.
Contributions to Organizations

Contributions to Individuals

1. Accomplish complex, interdependent


tasks that are beyond the capabilities
of individuals.
2. Create new ideas
3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts
4. Solve complex problems requiring
varied information and perspectives
5. Implement action plans
6. Socialize and train newcomers

1. Satisfy needs for affiliation


2. Confirm identity and enhance selfesteem
3. Test and share perceptions of social
reality
4. Reduce feelings of insecurity and
powerlessness
5. Provide a mechanism for solving
personal and interpersonal problems

Informal Groups
An informal group is a group that emerges through the efforts of
individuals to satisfy personal needs not met by the formal organization.
Membership in informal groups is based on common interests and mutual

attraction versus being assigned, as it is in formal groups. The subtle


influence of informal groups over their members behaviors often turns out
to be more powerful than the vested authority of formal groups. This
influence can be both positive and negative.
An interest group is an informal group consisting of individuals who
affiliate to achieve an objective of mutual interest.
A friendship group is an informal group based on common characteristics
that are not necessarily work related.
A reference group is a group with which an individual identifies to form
opinions and make decisions regardless of whether he or she is an actual
member. Reference groups are the basis for many friendship and interest
groups, but they may also exist outside of the organization and still
influence a persons behavior at work. Reference groups are based on
things like race, gender, politics, religion, social class, education level, and
profession. Reference groups provide values for individuals on which to
base personal decisions and norms that justify social behavior, both of
which may or may not be congruent with organizational preferences.
Contributions to Individuals

Contributions to Organizations

1. Satisfaction of social and affiliation


needs
2. Satisfaction of needs for security and
support
3. Enhanced status for members if the
group is perceived by others as
prestigious
4. Enhanced feelings of self-esteem if a
member is valued by other group
members
5. Feeling more competent by sharing
the power of the group to influence
and achieve

1. Solidify common social values and


expectations congruent with
organizational culture
2. Provide and enforce guidelines for
appropriate behavior
3. Provide social satisfaction unlikely
for anonymous individual workers to
experience
4. Provide a sense of identity that often
includes a certain degree of status
5. Enhance members access to
information
6. Help integrate new employees into
the information expectations of the
organization

How Do Groups Develop?


Groups have life cycles similar to people. A groups effectiveness is
influenced by its stage of development and how well its members have
learned to work together. To become stable, cohesive, and effective, a group
must resolve issues about goals, power, and intimacy as it progresses
through several stages of maturation.

The Five-Stage Model of Group Development


Different groups will remain at various stages of development for different
lengths of time, and some may remain at a given stage permanently, either

by design or because the group is stalled. By being aware of a groups


process, its leader can facilitate members functioning at each stage and the
transition to the next stage of development.
1. Forming in a newly formed group, a lot of uncertainties exist about the
groups purpose, structure, and leadership. Members are concerned
about exploring friendship and task potentials. They dont have a
strategy for addressing the groups task. They dont know yet what
behaviors are acceptable as they try to determine how to satisfy needs
for acceptance and personal goal satisfaction. As awareness increases,
this stage of group development is completed when members accept
themselves as a group and commit to group goals.
2. Storming The next stage involves intragroup conflict about the
clarification of roles and behavioral expectations. Disagreement is
inevitable as members attempt to decide on task procedures, role
assignments, ways of relating, and power allocations. One objective at
this stage is to resolve the conflicts about power and task structure.
Another is to work through the accompanying hostility and replace it
with a sense of acceptance and belonging that is necessary to progress
to the next stage.
3. Norming Cooperation is the theme of the norming stage, which
involves the objectives of promoting open communication and increasing
cohesion as members establish a common set of behavioral expectations.
Members agree on a structure that divides work tasks, provides
leadership, and allocates other roles. Desired outcomes for this stage of
group development are increased member involvement and mutual
support as group harmony emerges. If groups become too contented,
however, they can get stalled at this stage because they do not want to
crease conflict or challenge established ways of doing things.
4. Performing In this stage of development, group members are no
longer conflicted about acceptance and how to relate to each other. Now
members work interdependently to solve problems are committed to the
groups mission. Productivity is at its peak. Desired outcomes are
achievement and provide, and major concerns include preventing loss of
enthusiasm and sustaining momentum. For permanent work groups, this
is hopefully the final and ongoing state of development.
5. Adjourning The adjournment or separation phase occurs when
temporary groups like task forces and committees disband after they
have accomplished their goals. Feelings about disbanding range from
sadness and depression at the loss of friendships to happiness and
fulfillment due to what has been achieved. The leader can facilitate
positive closure at this stage by recognizing and rewarding group
performance. Ceremonial events bring closure to the desired emotional
outcome of a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment.

Moderators to the Five-Stage Sequence of Group Development

Task deadlines Given a deadline for task completion, a group will


develop its own distinctive approach to problem solving until about
halfway through the allotted time. At this midpoint, most groups change
their approach to the task and apply a burst of concentrated energy,
reexamining assumptions and ineffective behaviors and replacing them
with new approaches that usually contribute to dramatic gains in
progress. These more productive behaviors are maintained until close to
the deadline, when a final burst of activity to finish the job occurs.

Group composition Other developmental differences have been found


between culturally diverse and homogeneous groups. Newly formed
homogeneous groups are more effective than heterogeneous ones
through the first part of the task (performing) stage. After settling into
the performing stage, however, heterogeneous groups catch up and
perform comparable to homogeneous ones. More diverse groups actually
become slightly more proficient at identifying problems and generating
solution alternatives if they continue to work together for long periods of
time.

How Are Groups Structured?


After a group has progressed through the stages of development previously
described, certain stable patterns of relationships exist among its members.
Communication networks have been established, bonds of intimacy and
interpersonal attraction have emerged, powerful and influential members
have been identified, agreement regarding appropriate behavior has been
reached, and the relative esteem for each team member has been
established in a hierarchy. These patterns of relationships constitute the
groups structure and directly impact each members behaviors.

Functional Group Roles


A role is an expected set of recurring behaviors that is expected from a
member by others in the group. Some group roles are functional in that
they help the group achieve its goals. Other roles, which are usually
motivated by specific individual needs, are dysfunctional and interfere with
group effectiveness. After a group has matured to the performing stage,
personal behaviors detrimental to the group are mostly eliminated and
members adopt behaviors beneficial to group performance.
Two types of functional roles emerge:

Task roles directly help accomplish group goals.


Maintenance roles help establish and maintain good relationships
among group members.

Personal roles are those that only meet individual needs and are usually
detrimental to the group. Personal roles need to be replaced with
maintenance and task roles before a group can become an effective team.
Task Roles

Maintenance Roles

Personal Roles

Initiating
Giving information
Seeking information
Summarizing
Elaborating
Consensus testing

Encouraging
Harmonizing
Setting group
standards
Gate keeping
Compromising
Providing feedback

Blocking
Recognition seeking
Dominating
Avoiding
Seeking help

Norms are commonly held expectations about appropriate group member


behavior. They are established over time for behaviors that have a
significant impact on a group. Formal norms exist as written rules and
procedures for all employees to obey. Most norms are informal in that they
develop from group members own experiences of what behaviors help and
hinder their performance and satisfaction. The most common norms are
performance-related processes. There are usually norms about appearance.
Informal social arrangements are also dictated y norms. Finally, norms
relegate the allocation of resources.
Status is the measure of relative worth and respect conferred upon an
individual by the group. Higher status is more likely to be awarded to
members who are willing to put in the necessary work to make the group
successful.
Cohesiveness is the degree of attractiveness of a group to its members and
the closeness of the interpersonal bonds between group members. The
more cohesive a group, the more effective it will be in meeting member
needs and the more conformity it can demand from its members.
Eight sources of high cohesiveness are: common goals, success experience,
small size, interpersonal attraction, challenge of a common enemy, high
status, cooperation among group members, and female composition (women
are thought to be more cooperative and less competitive).
Performance Norms
High

Low

High

High productivity

Low productivity

Low

Medium productivity

Medium to low productivity

Cohesiveness

Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Problem Solving


Advantages group have over
individuals

Disadvantages groups have

More knowledge and information


Diversity of viewpoints
Increased understanding
Better implementation

Competing goals
Time consuming
Social pressure to conform
Domination by a few
Ambiguous responsibility

What Are the Threats to Group Effectiveness?

Inappropriate conformity is when individual members go along with


decisions they believe are clearly wrong.

Groupthink is a state in groups where the pressures for conformity are


so great that they dominate members abilities to realistically appraise
alternative decision options. Symptoms of groupthink include: illusions of
group invulnerability, collective rationalization, illusion of group morality,
stereotypes of competitors, pressure to conform, self-censorship,
illusions of unanimity, and mind guarding.

Social loafing is the tendency of individuals to exert less effort when


working in a group than when working individually.

TOPIC: What might be a cause of social loafing?

Group composition affects group effectiveness. Members with


individualistic cultures are more prevalent to social loafing.
Heterogeneous groups can enhance or harm effectiveness. Gender
differences can cause some problems.

How Can Groups Become More Effective?

Leadership facilitation, the leaders ability to facilitate the process can


be enhanced. Group leaders need to ensure that all participants feel free
to contribute. The leaders role is to establish a cooperative environment
in which all opinions are heard and evaluated before a solution is
reached.

Improve meeting facilitation by:


o Preparing and distributing an agenda well in advance of the
meeting
o Consulting with participants before the meeting
o Establishing specific time parameters
o Maintaining focused discussion

o
o
o
o
o

Encouraging and supporting pariticipation by all members


Encouraging the clash of ideas
Discouraging the clash of personalities
Facilitating careful listening
Bringing proper closure

Team building includes all activities aimed at improving the problem


solving ability of group members by resolving task and interpersonal
issues that impede the teams functioning.

Form new groups it is usually easier to form a completely new group


than to deal with the resistance that must be overcome when trying to
change existing groups. When starting a new group, address the
following questions: where are we going, who are we, where are we now,
and how will we get there?

How Do Teams Differ from Groups?


A team is a relatively permanent work group whose members share
common goals, are interdependent, and are accountable as a functioning
unit to the organization as a whole.
Three types of teams:

Teams that recommend things


Teams that make or do things
Teams that run things

How Do Groups Develop Into Teams?

Determine performance goals that can be immediately achieved to create


early success
Make sure that members have the appropriate skills
Establish demanding performance standards and provide direction
Create a sense of urgency in the first meeting
Set clear rules of behavior
The leader should model appropriate behaviors
Members spend lots of time together bonding as a team socially and
while working
Continually give the team and individual members positive feedback and
rewards
Regularly challenge the team with new projects or problems to solve

How Do Teams Maintain and Improve Their Effectiveness?

Role analysis technique clarifies role expectations and obligations of


team members through a structured process of mutually defining and
delineating role requirements.

Role negotiation technique a controlled negotiation process between


team members that results in written agreements to change specific
behaviors by conflicting parties.

Responsibility charting a technique for clarifying who is responsible


for what on various decisions and actions within the team.

Sensitivity training unstructured feedback meetings where members


share observations and feelings about each other to help improve
sensitivity of behavior toward others and the teams ability to function.

Structured feedback procedures are meetings where members share


feedback with each other by using a prepared format.

Self-assessment inventories are paper and pencil tests that reveal


participant characteristics.

Exercises and simulations activities participants engage in to


generate behavior for feedback that can be analyzed and used to develop
improvement plans.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 11 Conflict Management & Negotiation


Conflict is a disagreement between two or more parties who perceive that they have
incompatible concerns. In some cases, conflict can actually stimulate creative problem
solving and improve the situation for all parties involved.

The Conflict Management Process


Stages of Conflict
Stage 1 Latent conflict
antecedent conditions
(sources of conflict):

Interdependence
Different goals

Stage 2 Perceived Conflict


Aware of a problem
Incompatibility is
perceived
Tension begins
Stage 3 Felt conflict
Emotionally involved
Focus on differences
Opposing interests
Stage 4 Manifest Conflict
Conflict behaviors:
disagreeing, verbal
attacks, ultimatums
Stage 5 Conflict Outcome
Functional positive
outcomes, creative
problem solving,
complacency avoidance
Dysfunctional negative
outcomes, aggression
and hostility, inability to
cooperate

Sources of Conflict
Goal Incompatibility
Mutually exclusive
goals win-lose goal
conflict
Lack of resources winlose conflict over
resources
Different time
orientations (urgency)
Structural Design
Interdependence the
degree to which
interactions between
parties must be
coordinated in order for
them to perform
adequately (pooled,
reciprocal, & sequential)
Lack of substitutability
the dependent party
often perceives a lack of
alternatives as a conflict.
Power differentials
Different Role
Expectations
Role A set of tasks and
behaviors that an individual
or group is expected to
perform.
Role ambiguity unclear
expectations
Role conflict different
expectations
Uncertainty reduction
power differences from
groups making rules to

Consequences
Functional Conflict
Conflict between groups that
stimulates innovations and
production.
A conflict-positive
organization is where
participants perceive conflict
as an opportunity for
personal and organizational
growth.
Problem awareness
Increased group
cohesiveness (band
together against a common
enemy)
Increased loyalty
Motivation to improve
Creative change
Dysfunctional Conflict
Conflict between groups in
the same organization that
hinders the achievement of
group and organizational
goals.
Sub optimization
Negative feelings
Distorted perceptions
emphasize negatives of
others and inflate positives
of their own group
Negative stereotypes
Decreased communication

reduce uncertainty
Degenerative Climate
Climate that encourages
dysfunctional conflict.
Win-lose attitudes
People with different
values & expectations
Merged cultural
differences
Personal Differences
Different values
Different preferred way of
behaving
Different views of the
world

How Can Conflict Be Productively Managed?


Conflict Style Orientations

Conflict Management Strategies

Conflict management styles are the


different combinations or assertiveness and
cooperation that people emphasize when in
a conflict situation.

Avoiding Intergroup Conflict

Teams - coordinating team between


groups

C
o
s
t

Competing Assertive and uncooperative


behavior, embodied in the parties pursuit
of their own concerns at others expense
(often used by power-oriented people). Can
be beneficial when quick action is vital.

Integrating departments - fulltime


coordinators

Accommodating the opposite of


competing, unassertive and cooperative
behavior. Appropriate when the issue at
stake is much more important to the other.
Avoiding Unassertive and uncooperative
behavior (sidestep, postpone, or
withdraw). Appropriate when the issue
involved is relatively unimportant to you.
Also when you have little power or are in a
situation that is very difficult to change.
Collaborating The opposite of avoiding;
consists of assertive and cooperative
behavior. It involves working with the
other person to find a solution that fully
satisfies both parties. A necessity when the
concerns of both parties are too important
to be compromised.

Task forces - temp group to resolve


problems
Liaison roles - expedites lateral
communication
Planning - coordinates interacting
groups
Hierarchy - conflict passed up the
hierarchy
Rules and procedures
(recurring/anticipated)

Reducing Dysfunctional Conflict


Superordinate goals determine an
overriding goal that requires cooperative
effort of both conflicting parties. A
derivative strategy is to focus on a
common enemy.
Communication devising means to
increase communication can do much to

Compromising Falls somewhere


between assertive and cooperative
behaviors. The objectives is to find a
mutually acceptable middle ground that
partially satisfies both parties. Appropriate
when goals are moderately important but
not worth the effort of collaboration or the
possible disruption of competition.
Negotiating the practical application of
the collaborating and compromising
approaches. Occurs whenever two or more
parties enter into a discussion in an
attempt to determine a mutually
acceptable resolution.
Participants from different cultures have
different conflict style orientations
consistent with their cultural values.
Women seem to be more concerned about
relationships. This leads them to prefer a
collaborative style, and more willingness to
compromise, or even accommodate. Men, on
the other hand, are usually more
competitive and less concerned about the
relationship.

correct misunderstandings, reduce


negative stereotypes, and develop positive
feelings.
Problem solving identify and solve
conflicts through a mutual airing of
differences, complaints, and negative
feelings.
Expansion of resources if conflict of
limited resources.
Third-party judgment a common boss
or mediator in resolving disputes.
Changing organizational structure
when reasons for conflict are scarce
resources, status differences, or power
imbalances.
Avoidance although avoidance is
ineffective in the long run, certain
controlled conditions can be established
to lessen the short-term consequences of
conflict.

Guidelines for effective negotiating:


Consider the other partys situation
Have a plan and concrete strategy
Begin with a positive overture
Address problems, not personalities
Maintain a rational, goal-oriented
frame of mind
6. Pay little attention to initial offers
7. Emphasize win-win solutions
8. Create a climate of trust
9. Insist on using objective criteria
10. Be open to accepting third-party
assistance
11. Adapt to cultural differences
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 12 Ethical Problem Solving & Decision Making


What Are the Steps for Rational Problem Solving?
Problem solving is the process of eliminating the discrepancy between
actual and desired outcomes.
Decision making is selecting the best solution from among feasible
alternatives.

Problem Awareness
1. Establish trust people need to feel secure enough to acknowledge
that a problem exists.
2. Clarify objectives an objective is a desired outcome that we want
to achieve. This provides a documented statement of what you intend
to accomplish; establishes a basis for measuring performance;
provides positive motivation through knowing what is expected; and
helps to provide a road map.
3. Assess the current situation focus on the what and the how of
the organization and that of the people involved.
4. Identify problems to identify a problem accurately, it must be
understood from all points of view. Many times a flowchart (process
flow diagram) is used to identify process problems.

Problem Definition
1. Analyze problems the goal is to determine the root cause of the
problem. A cause-and-effect diagram (fishbone chart) are
sometimes used to represent the relationship between some effect
and all possible causes influencing it.
2. Agree on problems to be solved you must set priorities regarding
which problem will be worked on first and which follow (and when or
if at all). A Pareto chart is a vertical bar graph that indicates which
problems, or causes of problems, should be solved first.

Decision Making
1. Establish decision-making criteria criteria are statements of
objectives that need to be met for a problem to be solved. Effective
criteria should possess the following characteristics:

Specific, measurable, and attainable


Complementary the achievement of one should not reduce the
likelihood of achieving another.
Ethical Criteria should be legal, fair, and observant of human
rights.
Acceptable criteria must be acceptable to all interested
parties.
2. Develop action alternatives
3. Evaluate benefits and risks of alternatives Important criteria to
consider in evaluating action alternatives are each alternatives
probability of success and the associated degree of risk that negative
consequences will occur. Degree of risk can be given in four
categories:

Certainty exists if the exact results of implementing a problem


solution are known in advance.
Known risk is present when the probably that a given
alternative will produce specific outcomes can be predicted.
Uncertainty exists when decision makers are unable to assign
any probabilities to the consequences associated with an
alternative.
Turbulence occurs when the environment is rapidly changing
and decision makers are not even clear about relevant variables,
available solution options, or potential consequences of
decisions.

4. Decide on a plan the decision-making goal is to select the best


solution alternative for solving the entire problem without creating
any additional negative consequences for anyone else in the
organization. You can use a decision making grid like the one below to
assist:
Alternativ
e

Benefits

Probabilit
y of
success

Costs

Risks

Associate
d
conseque
nces

Timing

Alternative
1
Alternative
2

Action Plan Implementation


1. Assign tasks and responsibilities clarify both verbally and in writing
what each person involved will do to make the new action plan work.

2. Establish an implementation schedule all necessary tasks need a


specified time schedule for completion. You can use a Gantt chart,
which is a graphical planning and control method that breaks down a
project into separate tasks and estimates the time needed for their
completion.
3. Reinforce commitment
4. Activate the plan

Follow Through
1. Establish criteria for success these criteria serve as the benchmarks
for measuring and comparing results.
2. Determine how to measure performance
3. Monitor the results each implementation step may alter the problem
situation.
4. Take corrective action as needed

What Is Ethical Decision Making?


Ethics is the discipline for dealing with what is good and bad and with
moral duty and obligations.
Ethical behavior is behavior that conforms to accepted standards of
conduct.
Ethical reasoning is the process of sorting out the principles that help
determine what is ethical when faced with an ethical dilemma.
An ethical dilemma is a situation or problem facing an individual that
involves complex and often conflicting principles of ethical behavior.

One Ethical Decision Making Model


Ethical Question

Ethical Source (sources from Hosmer, Velasquez,


& Cook)

Economic Analysis
1. What are the best
economic alternatives?

Cost/benefit analysis

Legal & Policy Analysis


2. Is the action legal in all
countries and localities
were it would be taken?
3. Does the action violate
any professional or
organizational codes of
conduct, rules, or
policies?

The legal system of the affected countries and localities

Professional and organizational policies

Ethical Analysis
4. Does the decision result in
greater benefits than
damages for society as a
whole, not just for our
organization?
5. Is the decision selfserving, or would we be
willing to have everyone
else take the same action
when faced with the
same circumstances?
6. We understand the need
for social cooperation;
will our decision
increase or decrease the
willingness of others to
contribute?

7. We recognize the
importance of personal
freedom; will our
decision increase or
decrease the liberty of
others to act?
8. Does the action result in
benefit for the least
advantaged person?
9. Would the benefits and
burdens resulting from
the action be distributed
fairly?

10.
Does the action
infringe on the moral
rights or dignity of
others?
11.
Does the action help
to build one of the moral
virtues in that person?

Utilitarianism acting in such a way that the greatest good is


achieved for the greatest number.

Kants Categorical Imperative - The persons reasons for acting


must be reasons that everyone could act on at least in principle; and
the persons reasons for acting must be reasons that he or she
would be willing to have all others use, even as a basis of how they
treat him or her. An action is morally right for a person if, and only
if, in performing the action, the person does not use others merely
as a means for advancing his or her own interests, but also both
respects and develops their capacity to choose freely for
themselves. (Velasquez, 2002).
Social good positive decision results such as happiness, benefit
or least harm.
An ethic of care emphasizes two moral demands:
We each exist in a web of relationships and should preserve and
nurture those concrete and valuable relationships we have with
specific persons;
We each should exercise special care for those with whom we are
concretely related by attending to their particular needs, values,
desires, and concrete well-being as seen from their own personal
perspective, and by responding positively to these needs, values,
desires, and concrete well-being, particularly of those who are
vulnerable and dependant on our care. (Velasquez, 2002).
Fairness - Rawls: A) Each person has an equal right to the most
extensive basic liberties compatible with similar liberties for all
(these basic liberties include the right to vote, freedom of speech
and conscience and other civil liberties, freedom to hold personal
property, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.), and B) Social and
economic inequalities are arranged so that they are both: 1) To the
greatest benefit of the least advantaged persons and 2) Attached
to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality
of opportunity. (Velasquez, 2002).
Distributive justice fair distribution of benefits and burdens
across a group or society.
Egalitarian justice: every person should be given exactly equal
shares of a societys or a groups benefits and burdens.
(Velasquez, 2002).
Capitalist justice: benefits should be distributed according to
the value of the contribution the individual makes to a society, a
task, a group, or an exchange. (Velasquez, 2002).
Socialist justice: from each according to his ability, to each
according to his need. (Velasquez, 2002).
Libertarian justice: Everyone should act to ensure greater
freedom of choice, for this promotes market exchange, which is
essential for social productivity. (Hosmer, 1996).

Right is a justified claim or entitlement that an individual can

make to behave or to have others behave toward him or her in a


certain way.

Virtue theory argues the aim of the moral life is to develop those
general dispositions we call the moral virtues (courage,
temperance, justice, prudence, faith, hope and charity), and to
exercise and exhibit them in the many situations that human life
sets before us (Velasquez, 2002).

12.
How would I feel if
this action becomes
public knowledge?

The front page of the New York Times test

What Are Individual Differences in Decision Styles?


Decision styles are learned habits for processing decision-making
information.

A satisficer uses just enough information to arrive at a feasible solution


(advantage when time is an important factor).

A maximizer continues to gather information until nothing new can be


learned about the problem (important when problems are complicated
and there is little time pressure).

Solution focus refers to the number of alternatives that a person


develops for dealing with a problem.
o Unifocus people are committed to one dominant criterion and
consequently favor a single solution to a problem (advantage when
efficiency is important, when it is possible to adopt only one solution,
or when rules and regulations narrowly limit the range of choices).
o Multifocus people apply several criteria an generate several solutions
to a problem (advantage when there is a need to find new ways of
doing things or it is important to cover all the bases).

Five Dominant
Decision Styles

Information Use

Solution Focus

The number of
alternatives that a
person develops for
dealing with a
problem.

Satisficer
Uses just enough
information to arrive
at a feasible solution
(advantage when
time is an important
factor

Unifocus
People committed to
one dominant
criterion and
consequently favor a
single solution to a
problem (advantage
when efficiency is
important, when it is
possible to adopt
only one solution, or
when rules and
regulations narrowly

Decisive
People that use just
enough information
to reach one
workable solution.
Fast-thinking, actionoriented people who
place high
importance on
efficiency,
promptness, and
reliability. They
usually stick to one

Maximizer
Continues to gather
information until
nothing new can be
learned about the
problem (important
when problems are
complicated and
there is little time
pressure)
Hierarchic
Analyze a large
amount of
information
thoroughly to
develop a single,
best solution to a
problem. Place great
emphasis on logic
and quality. Tend to
be slow to make
decisions the first
time they encounter

Systemic
This two-stage
decision style
combines both
integrative and
hierarchic patterns.
Initially approaches
a problem in the
integrative way,
viewing it from many
points of view and
exploring multiple
solutions. After

limit the range of


choices)

course of action for


dealing with a
particular problem.

Multifocus
People that apply
several criteria an
generate several
solutions to a
problem (advantage
when there is a need
to find new ways of
doing things or it is
important to cover
all the bases)

Flexible
Use a minimal
amount of
information, but they
are multi-focused
and so produce
several solutions for
a problem. Actionoriented, but they
place greater
importance on
adaptability than on
efficiency. Like to
keep options open.

a problem, but they


speed up after they
develop a method for
handling that type.
Integrative
Utilize a very large
amount of
information to
produce multiple
solutions to
problems. Value
exploration,
experimentation, and
creativity. Look at
problems from many
points of view and
see numerous
options for dealing
with a single
problem. Sometimes
have difficulty
deciding.

examining many
options, the person
becomes more
hierarchic,
subjecting various
alternatives to a
rigorous analysis
that ends with a
clearly prioritized
set of solutions. The
systemic usually
develops a very
broad understanding
of a problem.
Systemics examine
multiple problems
simultaneously to
understand the
broader implications
of situations. Tend to
be slow at decision.

The Degree of Participation in Decision-Making


The specific needs for quality, acceptance, and time provide the impetus for
choosing among the five degrees of participation in any given situation.
Answers to the following seven questions can indicate the most appropriate
degree of participation in any given decision situation:
How important is the technical quality of this decision?
How important is subordinate commitment to the decision?
Do you have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision?
Is the problem well structured?
If you were to make the decision by yourself, is it reasonable certain
that your subordinate(s) would be committed to the decision?
Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained in solving
this problem?
Is conflict among subordinates over preferred solutions likely?
Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high-quality
decision?
The answers to these questions (see page 437) lead to five different decision
approaches:
AI You solve the problem or make the decision yourself, using
information available at the time.

AII You obtain the necessary information from your subordinate(s),


then decide on the solution to the problem yourself. You may or may not
tell your subordinates what the problem is in getting the information
from them. The role played by your subordinates in making the decision
is clearly on of providing the necessary information to you, rather than
generating or evaluating alternative solutions.
CI You share the problem with relevant subordinates individually,
getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a
group. Then you make the decision that may or may not reflect your
subordinates influence.
CII You share the problem with your subordinates as a group,
collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. Then you make the
decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates influence.
GII You share the problem with your subordinates as a group.
Together you generate and evaluate alternatives and attempt to reach
agreement (consensus) on a solution. Your role is much like that of
chairman. You do not try to influence the group to adopt your
solution, and you are willing to accept and implement any solution that
has the support of the entire group.

How Can Problems Be Solves More Effectively?


Encouraging Creativity
Brainstorming a small group approach for achieving high participation
and increasing the number of action alternatives. Rules for effective
brainstorming promote the goal of quantity of ideas no matter how
farfetched, allow no criticism or evaluation of ideas as they are generated,
allow only one idea at a time from each person, and encourage people to
build on each others ideas.
Nominal Group Technique is a highly-structured group problem-solving
format that governs the decision-making process. First participants
independently write down their ideas about a problem. Second, each
presents one idea to the group in a round-robin fashion without discussion.
These ideas are summarized and written on a flip chart or blackboard so all
can see them. After a group discussion to clarify and evaluate the ideas, an
independent ranking of the proposals takes place. These rankings are
pooled to determine the proposal with the highest aggregate ranking, which
is the groups decision.
Delphi Technique is a structured group problem-solving process where
participants do not meet together but interact through a series of written
judgments and suggestions. After each participant has been presented with
the problem, he or she writes down comments and possible solutions and

sends them to a central location for recording and reproduction. Each


participant then receives a copy of all other comments and solutions to use
as a springboard for additional ideas or comments. These also are returned
to the central location for compilation and reproduction, and an
independent vote on solution priority is taken.
Group Decision Support Systems are electronic and computer supported
data processing tools that can facilitate group decision-making in certain
situations.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 13 Power and Politics


What Is Power and How Do We Gain It?
Power is the ability of A (the power holder) to alter circumstances
impacting on B so that B does what A wants done. Managers can be most
influential if they can get colleagues to cooperate without resorting to
formal authority or position power. The intentions of power determine its
positive or negative effect.
Organizational Position Power a form of power that originates from the
rights a person holds by virtue of the organizational hierarchy the
legitimate authority to reward and punish.
Formal authority legitimate power derived directly from a persons
title and position in the organizational hierarchy. The effectiveness of
authority ultimately depends on subordinates acceptance of a managers
right to command.
Control of rewards reward power is demonstrated when a person
offers to reward others for doing something he or she wants (promotion,
pay raises, sought after assignments). Its strength rests on the
desirability and magnitude of the rewards and on the perception of
others that the manager can (and will) provide the rewards if they
comply with directives or requests.
Control of resources power gained by controlling access to resources
others need or want often provokes ethical issues.
Power from Personal Attributes
Expert power originates when a person is perceived to have superior
knowledge, experiences, or judgment that others need and do not
possess themselves. You degree of expert power depends on your
performance record over time, the important of your area of expertise,
and the alternative sources of such knowledge available to others. A
mentor (a person with more expertise who helps those with less) enjoys
expert power.
Referent power comes from being respected, likable, and worthy of
emulation. Charisma is a quality of admiration when others identify with
and are attracted to a leader they look up to.

Reciprocal alliances are when people engage in mutually beneficial


exchanges and build alliances or networks. Reciprocity is the trading of
power or favors for mutual gain.
Power from Situational Forces
Coercive power is the ability to withhold desired resources or make
life unpleasant for those who do not comply with the power holders
requests. Coercive power is based on fear and is likely to arouse anger,
resentment, and even retaliation. Coercion is one of the most commonly
used forms of power.
Information power stems from the ability o control access to critical
information and it distribution.
Association power arises when one person has influence with another
who possesses power.

How Do People Engage in Organizational Politics?


Organizational politics is the deliberate management of influence to achieve
outcomes not approved by the organization, or to obtain sanctioned
outcomes through non-approved methods.
Organizational uncertainty increases conflict and politics. Conflict often
results when performance criteria are ambiguous, goals inconsistent or
dissimilar, rewards uncertain, work flows interdependent,
communication lacking, or organizational participants highly
competitive.
Important, decentralized decisions invite politics. When power is widely
dispersed and decision-making processes are ad hoc, politics comes into
greater play.
Forms of Political Manipulation
o Persuasion the manipulator tries emotion and logic to
influence the way others perceive the situation.
o Inducement is a stronger positive force that relies on the use of
power. The manipulator offers some form of reward in exchange
for compliance.
o Obligation is a negative form of political manipulation that
draws on feelings of owing the manipulator something.
o Coercion is where the manipulator alters the situation so that
the other is worse off unless they comply. Experienced
politicions often delegate coercive tactics to a committee or
subordinate so they dont appear to be the heavy.

Political tactics

o Maintain alliances with powerful people. Forming coalitions and


networking is basic to gaining power in any organization.
o Avoid alienation. Dont injure someone who is or might soon be
in a position to take revenge.
o Use information as currency. That person now owes you a favor
and may perceive you as someone on whom he or she is
dependent for future information.
o Withdraw from petty disputes. Be gracious in yielding on an
issue that is important to another person but not to you. Doing
so builds credibility and an indepbted ness that might be
reciprocated at a later date.
o Avoid decisive engagement. By advancing slowly toward a
political end, it may be possible to progress undetected or at
least remain inconspicuous.
o Avoid preliminary disclosure of preferences. Appearing overly
eager for a certain outcome may leave you in a vulnerable
position.
o Make a quick but successful showing. Make a big, successful
splash early in the game to get the right peoples attention,
especially if you are a newly appointed manager.
o Collect IOUs. Extending favors or support to another is like
depositing in a savings account, as long as you trust the person
to reciprocate later.
o Exploit possible negative outcomes. By focusing on likely
negative outcomes, those who would otherwise resist may
switch to your side.
o Divide and rule. The assumption behind this principle is that
those who are divided will not form coalitions themselves.

How Can Power and Politics Be Moral?


The moral manager strives to develop and adhere to ethical goals,
motives, standards, and general operating strategies. Power is exercised to
pursue fair and just ends. Moral management is essentially unselfish and
not prone to self-serving politics. Moral management is consistent with
innovation and continuous improvement. Moral managers support their
people, recognize their accomplishments, are sensitive to their fears and
needs, and communicate confidence in the organizations purpose and
products.

The immoral manager is not only devoid of ethical principles, but also
actively opposed to what is ethical. Selfishness is paramount for the
immoral manager.
The amoral manager the one who lacks any moral sensibility whatsoever;
one who doesnt think about the moral implications of actions, or who
chooses to keep ethics out of decisions.

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 14 Leadership
What Distinguishes Managers from Leaders?
Managers are persons granted authority to be in charge of an
organizational unit and thus responsible for diagnosing and influencing
systems and people to achieve appropriate goals.
Authority is the right to make decisions and commit organizational
resources based on position within the organization.
Accountability is holding a person with authority answerable for setting
appropriate goals, using resources efficiently, and accomplishing task
responsibilities.
Leadership is the act of providing direction, energizing others, and
obtaining their voluntary commitment to the leaders vision.
A leader is a person who creates a vision and goals, then energizes others
to voluntarily commit to that vision. Leaders can be found at all levels.
Leadership is observable even in the absence of formal managerial
authority.

Management Do Things Right, Leaders Do the Right Things


Managers can be leaders, but leaders dont have to be managers.
To manage means to bring about, to accomplish, to have responsibility for,
to conduct. Leading is influencing, guiding in direction, course, action,
opinion. The distinction is crucial. Managers are people who do things right
and leaders are people who do the right thing. The difference may be
summarized as activities of vision and judgment effectiveness (leading)
versus activities of mastering routines efficiency (managing).
Kotters Distinction between Managers and Leaders
Three Basic Tasks

Leaders (coping with


change)

Managers (coping
with complexity)

Deciding what needs


to be done

Setting a direction
(inductively creating a
vision and strategies to
provide focus for
planning)

Planning and budgeting


(deductively producing
orderly results)

Creating networks

Aligning people to the

Organizing and staffing

and relationships

vision (emphasizing
communication,
credibility, and
empowerment)

(structuring jobs and


reporting relationships
to efficiently implement
plans)

Ensuring people do
the job

Motivating people
(creating involvement,
emphasizing values,
building informal
networks or
relationships)

Controlling and
problem solving
(comparing behavior
with plan; taking action
to correct deviations)

Leader Traits

Credibility refers to being honest, competent, forward-looking, and


inspiring.
Drive has the need for achievement through challenging assignments,
the desire to get ahead, high energy to work long hours with enthusiasm,
tenacity to overcome obstacles, and initiative to make choices and take
action that leads to change.
Leadership motivation exemplifies a strong desire to lead,
willingness to accept responsibility, the desire to influence others, and a
strong socialized desire for power (which means the desire to exercise
power for the good of the organization).
Honesty and integrity demonstrates truthfulness or non-deceitfulness
(honesty) and consistency between word and deed, is predictable, follows
ethical principles, is discreet, and makes competent decisions (integrity).
Self-confidence gains the trust of others by being sure of own actions
(and not being defensive about making mistakes), being assertive and
decisive, maintaining emotional stability (not losing ones cool), and
remaining calm and confident in times of crises.
Cognitive ability has a keen mind and thinks strategically, reasons
analytically, and exercises good judgment in decisions and actions; has
the ability to reason deductively and inductively.
Knowledge of the business beyond formal education, develops
technical expertise to understand the concerns of followers,
comprehends the economics of the industry, and knows the
organizations culture and behavior.
Leader Behaviors

Task oriented behavior is an approach to leadership that focuses on


supervision of group members to obtain consistent work methods and job
accomplishments. It centers on initiating structure intended to

establish well-defined patterns of organization, channels of


communication, and methods of procedure between leader and group.
Employee-oriented behavior is an approach to leadership that aims at
satisfying the social and emotional needs of group members. This focuses
on showing consideration to develop friendship, mutual trust, respect,
and warmth in the relationship between the leader and members of his
staff.
Leader Decision Behaviors

Low Initiating
Structure

High Initiating
Structure

High Showing
Consideration

Human relations

Democratic

Low Showing
Consideration

Laissez-faire

Autocratic

Blake and Moutons Leadership Grid

Concern for People

Concern for Production

Low
High

High

Country Club
Management

Medium
Low

Medium

Team
Management
Middle-of-the-Road
Management

Impoverished
Management

Authority
Compliance

How Do Leaders and Managers Adjust to Situational Contingencies?


Contingency theory is the perspective that a leaders effectiveness is
dependent on how he or she interacts with various situational factors
there is no one best universal approach.

Leader Style
Motives/Concerns
Knowledge/Beliefs
Personality
Perceptions

Restricts choices
about

Leader Behavior
Task Structuring
Showing Consideration
Decision Making
Using Power

Affects perceptions of Creates pressures forInfluence

Situational Variables
Tasks/Strategies
Technology/Time
Organization/Policies
People (Followers)

Influence

Influence

Followers Behavior
Acceptance/Rejection
Productive/Unproductive
Development/Decline
Satisfaction/Dissatisfacti
on

Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Theory

Principle-Centered Leadership Covey


Levels

Key Principles

I. Personal

Self

Trustworthiness

II. Interpersonal

People

Trust

III. Managerial

Style

Empowerment

Skills

Structure

Systems

Strategy

IV. Organizational

Alignment

Book Summary Management and Organizational Behavior

Cook, C. W. & Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and


Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).

Chapter 15 Change
Change is the process of moving from one condition to another. Changes in
organizations are stimulated by multiple external and internal forces, often
interacting to reinforce one another.
Individuals resist change due to: selective perception, lack of information,
fear of the unknown, habit, and resentment toward the initiator.
Organizations resist change for many of the same reasons individuals do.
Additional sources of resistance are: power maintenance, structural
stability, functional sub-optimization, organizational culture, and group
norms.

Methods for Dealing with Resistance to Change


Approach

Commonly Used

Advantages

Drawbacks

Education
and
communica
tion

Where there is a
lack of information
or inaccurate
information and
analysis.

Once persuaded,
people will often
help with the
implementation of
the change.

Can be very time


consuming if lots
of people are
involved.

Participatio
n and
involvemen
t

Where the
initiators do not
have all the
information they
need to design the
change, and where
others have
considerable
power to resist.

People who
participate will be
committed to
implementing
change, and any
relevant
information they
have will be
integrated into the
change plan.

Can be very time


consuming if
participants design
an inappropriate
change.

Facilitation
and
support

Where people are


resisting because
of adjustment
problems.

No other approach
works as well with
adjustment
problems.

Can be time
consuming,
expensive and still
fail.

Sometimes it is a
relatively easy way
to avoid major
resistance.

Can be too
expensive in many
cases if it alerts
others to negotiate

Negotiation Where someone or


some group will
and
clearly lose out in
agreement
a change, and
where that group

has considerable
power to resist.

for compliance.

Manipulati
on and
cooptation

Where other
tactics will not
work or are too
expensive.

It can be a
relatively quick
and inexpensive
solution to
resistance
problems.

Can lead to future


problems if people
feel manipulated.

Explicit
and
implicit
coercion

Where speed is
essential, and the
change initiators
possess
considerable
power.

It is speedy, and
can overcome any
kind of resistance.

Can be risky if it
leaves people mad
at the initiators.

How Do Managers Prepare for Planned Change?


Planned change is the process of preparing and taking actions to move
from one condition to a more desired one. The key questions to be answered
when planning change are:
1. What do we want to achieve? What are our goals?
2. Why? What are our performance gaps?
3. Who will be the change agents responsible for making the change
(change agents are individuals or groups responsible for changing
behavior and systems)?
4. How do we plan to make it happen? What targets do we want to
change and what process will we apply to change them?
5. What organizational consequences do we anticipate from the change?

How Is the Planned Change Process Managed?


Three Phases of Planned Change
1. Unfreezing raising awareness that current conditions are not
satisfactory and reducing resistance to desired change.
2. Moving letting go of old ways of doing things and adopting new
behaviors.
3. Refreezing reinforcing the changes made to stabilize new ways of
behaving.

What Is the Practice of Organizational Development (OD)?


Organizational development (OD) is the system-wide application of
behavioral science knowledge to the planned change process to improve
organizational effectiveness. OD can be differentiated from manager-led
change in the following ways:
Generally, OD focuses on changing an entire system in contrast to only
one or a few components.
OD involves the application of behavioral science knowledge and
techniques in constrast to operations research, industrial engineering, or
other deterministric disciplines.
OD focuses on helping people and organizations learn how to diagnose
and solve their own problems in constrast to relying on others for
solutions.
OD is often more adaptive and less rigid than structural-mechanistic
change approaches.

OD Interventions and Organizational Issues


Area of
Is
s
u
e

Issues

Interventions

Human
Process

Human
Resourc
e

How to attract competent


people
How to set goals and
reward people
How to plan and develop
peoples careers
What functions, products,
services, markets
How to gain competitive
advantage
How to relate to
environment
What values to guide
organizational functioning
How to divide work
How to coordinate
organizational units
How to produce
products/services
How to design work

Strategic

Technolo
gy and
Structur
e

How
How
How
How

to
to
to
to

communicate
solve problems
interact
lead

Sensitivity training
Process consultation
Third-party intervention
Role negotiation
Team building
Survey feedback
Intergroup relations
Goal setting
Reward systems
Career planning and
development
Stress management
Strategic change
Culture change
Trans-organizational
development
Reengineering

Work design
Structural redesign
Collateral structures
Quality of work life

How Do Learning Organizations Promote Change?


A learning organization develops tools and methods to analyze, change,
and reevaluate their organizational systems so that employees respond
more effectively and quicker to the same work-related stimulus than they
did in the past and to novel stimuli almost as quickly. A learning
organization is skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge
and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insight.

The Characteristics of Learning Organizations


Systems Thinking Members perceive their organization as a system
of interrelated processes, activities, functions, and interactions. Any
action taken will have reprocussions on other variables in the system. It
is important to see the entire picture in the short and long run.
Shared Vision Belief and commitment toward a goal deeply desired by
all. Sublimation of competing departmental and personal interests for
the achievement of the shared vision.
Personal Mastery Continual learning and personal growth by all
organizational members. Individuals are willing to give up old ways of
thinking and behaving to try out possible better ones for themselves and
the organization.
Mental Process Models Shared internal images of how individuals,
the organization, and the world work. Willingness to reflect on the
reasoning underlying our actions and to change these assumptions when
necessary to create a more appropriate process for doing things.
Team Learning Organization members openly communicate across
departmental and hierarchical boundaries to help all members solve
problems and learn from each other. Decreasing the need for personal
wins in order to increase the search for the truth for the good of the
entire team.
Single loop learning occurs when a manager shifts responsibility from
employees to himself or herself by asking the simple unidimentional
questions that produce simple impersonal responses.
Double loop learning shifts accountability for actions and learning to
employees by having a manager ask complex questions about the
employees motivation for solving a problem.

How Does an Organization Learn to Innovate?


Innovation is planned change and learning that transforms products,
services, and markets, or dramatically creates an entirely new market and
line of business.
Sustaining innovations are incremental innovations typically introduced
by industry leaders to provide greater customer choice within established
markets.
Disruptive innovations are revolutionary industry changes usually
introduced by smaller, more entrepreneurial organizations to provide
customers new ways of doing things.