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# Science Expo.

## Rebecca Nash and Lana West

Background Information:
Densities of our Liquids:
Water: 1 g/mL
Vinegar: 1.03 g/mL
Orange Juice: 1.2 g/mL
Coke Zero: 1.11 g/mL
Milk: 1.5 g/mL

## • Water Ingredients: water is H2O

• Milk Ingredients: Grade A fat free milk, vitamin A palmitate, Vitamin D3
• Orange Juice Ingredients: Pasteurized orange juice, tricalcium citrate, Vitamin D3
• Vinegar Ingredients: White distilled vinegar (diluted with water)
• Coke Zero: Carbonated water, caramel color, Phosphoric acid, aspartame, potassium,
benzoate, natural flavors, potassium citrate, asesulflame potassium, caffeine

Materials:
• 5 exact copy glasses: data will be accurate if all glasses are the same
• Measuring cup: to make sure we have exact measurements of each liquid
• Freezer: to perform the experiment and freeze the liquids
• Refrigerator: to make sure all liquids are same temp before the freezing process to get accurate
results
• Timer: to record how long each liquid takes to freeze
• Liquids: collect the data from the different times it takes them to freeze
-water
-vinegar
-milk
-orange juice
-diet coke: Coca-Cola Zero
• Spreadsheet: to record the results of all 5 liquids during experiment
• Calculator: to calculate results if needed

Procedure:
1. Gather materials for the experiment.
2. Use the measuring cup to divide 1/3 of a cup of each liquid. Pour into one of the 5
circular containers. Place in the refrigerator to make sure each liquid is the same starting
temperature.
3. Remove each liquid from the refrigerator. Start the timer and place the liquids in the
freezer.
4. Record how long it takes for the liquids to freeze. Write the data on the spreadsheet.
5. Repeat this experiment two more times.
6. Calculate the average time it takes each liquid to freeze with the calculator if needed.

## Intro and Hypothesis:

Our problem is that we need to figure out which liquid would freeze the quickest. Will it be
water, vinegar, diet Coke Zero, orange juice, or milk? We will test all of the liquids by measuring them
into one tablespoon cubes and putting them in the same freezer. We hypothesize that the water would
freeze the fastest because it freezes in mass quantities outside and is the least dense of all of the liquids
we are testing in this experiment. Every other liquid is clearly more than 1 g/mL. The liquid we
hypothesize will take the longest to freeze is the low fat milk. It is the densest of all of our test liquids
and we think this will make the freezing a longer process.

## • Manipulated Variable: In this freezing experiment, we changed the different liquids.

• Dependent Variable: The times it took for each liquid to freeze was the dependent variable in
this experiment.
• Constant Variables: We kept the temperature and measurement of each liquid constant. The
container remained the same as well. Before freezing process, every liquid was an equal
temperature.

Observations:
3:50- start time. We placed the liquids in the freezer.
4:20- no progress all liquids still in liquid state
4:40- water has 1/8 inch layer of ice, others have an immeasurable thin layer frozen
4:50- water has ½ inch layer frozen, milk ¼ inch layer, others still have an immeasurable layer
4:54- water froze completely
5:00- water is frozen into cube; milk and coke are each ½ inch frozen, vinegar and orange juice very
soft texture
5:03- milk frozen completely
5:05- ½ inch frozen on orange juice, 3/8 inch frozen on vinegar
5:10- orange juice and vinegar in the process of hardening
5:12- coke ZERO froze completely
5:20- orange juice almost frozen, vinegar still partially soft
5:33- orange juice frozen completely
5:37- vinegar frozen completely

## • Water: 1 hour 4 minutes freeze time

• Milk: 1 hour 13 minutes freeze time
• Coke Zero: 1 hour 18 minutes freeze time
• Orange Juice: 1 hour 43 minutes freeze time
• Vinegar: 1 hour 47 minutes freeze time

Conclusion:
We performed the experiment and came up with results. We were true in which the water
would freeze the fastest of all the liquids. The vinegar turned out to be the slowest to freeze, having the
longest freeze time of all five liquids. Half of our conclusion was correct, but the reason why the
liquids froze in the order they did was not because of their densities. Each liquid had a different
number of atomic ions, and the more it had the longer it would take to freeze. Water had the least
amount, and vinegar had the most, making it take 43 minutes longer to become a solid. This
experiment tests the reaction times of the liquids to change whole states with the constant applied
temperature. Our experiment was a success and we learned a lot about changing of states.

Bibliography:
http://www.apple-cider-vinegar-benefits.com/properties-of-vinegar.html
• Properties of Vinegar - Density of Vinegar