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Bus/Line Topology:
In the bus or line topology all the nodes and devices are connected to a single linear cable.
T-connectors are used to connect the Nodes and at the end of the network a Terminator will be placed.

The liner cable is also known as the Trunk.


The terminators used at the extreme ends of the network require 50 ohm terminators.
Signal bounce is eliminated by the terminators.
Repeaters are also used in bus topology to regenerate and boost signals.
Barrels are used to lengthen the cable.
Bus topology is popular in Local area networks (LANs), since it is inexpensive and easy to install.

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Advantages
Less number of cables required
Easy to Extend
Good for small networks
Easy to connect peripheral

Disadvantages
High network traffic
Fig1.4cost
bus topology
Management
is too high
If the network cable is damaged the
whole network will be down
Data is sent to each and every computer
In the topology

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Table 1.1 Advantages and disadvantages of bus topology

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Ring/Token ring topology:

In this topology every device has two neighbors for communication.


Transmission takes place with the help of a token or a small packet that is continuously passed around.
No termination takes place since this topology is in the shape of a ring
All the data travels in the ring through the same direction
Data transmission takes place only in the clockwise direction
Ring topology was Originally created for IBM-Compatible

Fig1.5 Ring Topology

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Advantages

Disadvantages

Easy to install

Failure of one node will affect the whole


network
Difficult to troubleshoot
Adding nodes or device will disrupt the
network
At a time Only one machine can use the
network

Low cost
Organized
Low Traffic
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Table 1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of Ring topology

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In this topology each node is connected to other nodes within the network.
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Automatic reconfiguration to select the shorts route to reach the destination device.
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This topology is usually used in Wide Area Network.
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The formula to calculate the amount of cables needed is:


(N x (N 1))/2, where N is the number of systems to be connected.

Fig1.6 Mesh Topology

Advantages
Fault tolerant
Less Traffic
Points to point links make fault
identification easy.
Security

Disadvantages
Expensive
Difficult to Troubleshoot
Difficult to install and configure
Difficult to manage

Table 1.3 Advantages and disadvantages of Mesh topology

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Star topology:

In this topology all the nodes are connected to a central device, usually a hug or switch.
Each device needs a cable to connect to the central device.
Data on a star network passes through, the central device before continuing to its destination.
The central device (hub, switch) is responsible for managing and controlling all functions of the network.
Scalable and reconfigurable than any other topology.
The central device is considered as the server, and the nodes are the clients.

Fig1.7 Star Topology

Advantages
Easy to manage
Easy to troubleshoot
Failure of a single device or cable
does not bring down the entire
network
Centralized management
Less Traffic
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Disadvantages
High cost
High maintenance
Failure of the central device (hub,
switch) will collapse the entire
network

Table 1.4 Advantages and disadvantages of Star topology

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Tree Topology:
This topology is also known as hierarchical topology.
This type of topology is usually groups of star networks arranged in a hierarchy.
This tree has individual peripheral nodes which are required to Transmit to and receive from one other only
and are not required to Act as repeaters or regenerators.
This type of topology is used in large organizations

Fig1.8 Tree Topology

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Advantages
All computers have access to the
entire networks
If one connection fails the others
will continue to work

Disadvantages
If the backbone line breaks, the
entire segment goes down.
difficult to configure and wire than
other topologies
Overall length of each segment is
limited by the type of cabling used

Table 1.5 Advantages and disadvantages of Tree topology

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Hybrid Topology:
Combination of two or more network topologies is known as Hybrid Topology.
In this type of topology a central computer is attached with sub-controllers.
Some of the common hybrid topologies are :
Snowflake topology
Bus-ring topology
Star-bus topology
Torus topology
Clos topology

Fig1.9 Hybrid Topology

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Advantages
combined benefits of several
different types of topologies
extremely flexible
Reliable

Disadvantages
Devices on one topology cannot be
placed into another topology
without some hardware changes
High maintenance cost
Expensive

Table 1.6 Advantages and disadvantages of Hybrid topology